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Pascal’s Triangle

Pascal Triangle shows the coefficients of the binomial expanded

a b 0 1 1

a b 1 a b 1 1

a b 2 a 2 2.a.b b 2 1 2 1

a b 3 a 3 3.a 2 .b 3.b 2 .a b 3 1 3 3 1

a b 5 a 5.a .b 10.b .a 10.b .a 5.b .a b

5 4 3 2 2 3 4 5

1 5 10 10 5 1

Theorems are Formed:

Theorem: Each coefficient in Pascal’s Triangle is the sum of the two closet

numbers in the line above

Theorem: The second and the penultimate (i.e. second last) coefficients are always

the same as the power

Theorem: The powers of the first term decrease as the powers of the second term

increase

Theorem: The sum of the powers of the terms for one coefficient is equal to the ‘n’

for (a + b)n

GITIMH3 94107 The Binomial Theorem Page 2

The general binomial theorem is used when expanding large powers

So for coefficients of xk in the expansion of (1 + x)n is given as nCk; thus Pascal’s

Triangle becomes:

0

C0

1 1

C0 C1

2 2 2

C0 C1 C2

3 3 3 3

C0 C1 C2 C3

4 4 4 4 4

C0 C1 C2 C3 C4

n n n n n n n

C0 C1 C3 Ck C n 2 Cn 1 Cn

1 x n C0 n C1 .x n C 2 .x 2 nC k .x k nC n 1 .x n 1 nC n .x n

n

a b n n C0 .a n nC1 .a n 1 .b n C 2 .a n 2 .b 2 n C k .a nk .b k nC n1 .a.b n1 nC n .b n

Therefore the this expansion can be write in sigma notation:

n

Equation: a b n n C k .a n k .b k

k 0

Equation: Tk 1 n C k .a n k .b k

GITIMH3 94107 The Binomial Theorem Page 3

Important Results

n

Equation: C0 = 1

Proof:

From:

a b n n C0 .a n nC1 .a n 1 .b n C 2 .a n 2 .b 2 n C k .a nk .b k nC n1 .a.b n1 nC n .b n ..[1]

Let a = 1 & b = 0:

So, 1 0 n n C0 .1n 0 0 0

n

C0 = 1

n

Equation: Cn = 1

Proof:

From [1] let a = 0 & b = 1:

So, 0 1n 0 0 0 nC n .1n

n

Cn = 1

0

C0

1

C

Equation:

n

C k n 1 C k 1 n 1C k For, 1kn1

Proof:

n 1

RHS = C k 1 n 1C k

n 1!

n 1!

n 1 k 1! k 1! n 1 k ! k!

n 1! 1

1

k 1! n k 1! n k k

n 1! n

k 1! n k 1! k n k

n!

n k ! k!

nC k

LHS

GITIMH3 94107 The Binomial Theorem Page 4

Proof:

From [1] let a = b = 1:

So, 1 1n n C0 nC1 nC k nC n1 nC n

2n = the sum of the coefficients

Tk 1 n k 1 b

Equation:

Tk k a

Proof:

Here, Tk + 1 = nCk.an - k.bk

Tk = nCk - 1.an – k + 1.bk – 1

Tk 1 n

C k .a n k .b k

Now, n

Tk C k 1 .a n k 1 .b k 1

n!.a n k .b k n k 1! k 1!

n k ! k ! n!.a n k 1 .b k 1

n k 1

a n k n k 1 .b k k 1

k

n k 1 b

k a

Tk 1 n k 1 b

A Since, where, Tk 1 Tk

Tk k a

i.e. 2(7 k + 1) > k

16 2.k > k

k > 5 1/3

So, k=5

Now the coefficient is found by nC5.25

i.e. 672

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