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Introduction

14/5/98

Terms:

Asymptote The line were the locus will never touch

Continuous Unbroken locus

Discontinuous Broken locus

Derivative Equal to the gradient E.g. f’(x) = 2.x (Sub ‘x’ to get gradient at x)

Limits:

To find the limit for any thing, except , when the pronumeral is the denominator:

First factorise (If not done, the answer in undefined), cancel out sub the limit in.

To find the limit for : divide by the highest power in each, and:

1

Equation: lim 0

x x

equation so if you need to draw the locus use

the original equation.

E.g. (1) Graph y = 2x

Asymptote

A As x , y 1

As x , y 0

Finding limit

lim 2 x = 2

x

= 0 (i.e. Limit (Aymptote) at

y = 0 when, x )

x 2 5 .x

E.g. (2) lim

x0 x

x 2 5.x x x 5

A lim lim

x0 x x0 x

lim

= x 0 x 5

Sub, x = 0

= 5 (i.e. limit at y = 5 when, x 0)

GIKPKC7 94107 The Tangent and the Derivative Page 2

Continuity:

If discontinuous use limits to find the value that the locus approaches at that point.

If the locus can be draw without taking pen off paper, it’s continuous.

x2 1

E.g. y

x 1

(1, 2)

A Here, x 1

Discontinuous

So, lim

x2 1

lim

x 1 x 1

x1 x 1 x 1 x 1

= lim x 1

x 1

=2

GIKPKC7 94107 The Tangent and the Derivative Page 3

15/5/98

y =x2 y f(x)

A(3, 9) A[x + h, f(x + h)]

x x

Key

Secant

Locus

Tangent (Secant when two points become so close that it becomes

one point)

When using this formula it is called Differentiation

When differentiating a function use f’(x)

d (Vertical Axis )

When differentiating anything else use

d (Horizontal Axis )

f x h f x

Equation: M AB lim

h0 h

E.g. (1) Differentiate from first principles to find the gradient of the tangent to the

curve f(x) = x2 + 3 at any point.

A f’(x) = lim

x h 3 x

2 2

3

h 0 h

h2.x h

= lim

h 0 h

= 2.x

E.g. (2) Differentiate from first principles y = x3 – x, and find the tangent when

x = 2.

A

dy

lim

3

x h x h x 3 x

dx h 0 h

2

= lim 3.x 1

h 0

GIKPKC7 94107 The Tangent and the Derivative Page 4

dy

32 1

2

dx

m = 15

Alternatively

dy

When, y = xn Then, n .x n 1

dx

dy

When, y = f(x) g(x) Then, = f’(x) g’(x)

dx

dy

When, y = C Then, 0

dx

GIKPKC7 94107 The Tangent and the Derivative Page 5

Further Differentiating

15/5/98

Chain Rule:

d d dy

Equation:

dx dy dx

Proof:

Let, y = f(u)

Let, u = g(x)

dy f u f g c

lim …(1)

du u g c u g c

du g x g c

lim …(2)

dx x c x c

So add g(x) g(c): (Note: They cancel so it is still equal)

dy f g x f g c g x g c

lim

dx x c g x g c x c

But since u = g(x):

dy f u f g c g x g c

lim lim …(3)

dx u g c u g c xc x c

Sub (1) & (2) into (3):

d d dy

dx dy dx

Graphically:

y u y

u x x

GIKPKC7 94107 The Tangent and the Derivative Page 6

dy

E.g. Find of x2 + x.y2 = 4

dx

A So,

d 2

dx

x x.y2 4

2.x x.

dx

d 2

y y 2 .1 0 …(1)

d d dy

Since,

dx dy dx

d 2

dx

y 2. y .

dy

dx

…(2)

Sub (2) into (1)

dy

2.x 2.x. y. y 2 0

dx

2

dy y 2.x

dx 2.x .y

dy

When, y = [f(x)]n Then, = n[f(x)]n – 1 f’(x)

dx

Proof:

Using, y = 3(6.x2 + 3)7

Let, u = 6.x2 + 3

y = 3.u7

d d dy

Since,

dx dy dx

dy

= 21.u6

dx

dy

= 12.x

dx

dy

So, = 21(6.x2 + 3)6 12.x

dx

Luke Cole Page 6

GIKPKC7 94107 The Tangent and the Derivative Page 7

= 84.x(6.x2 + 3)6

Product Rule:

dy dv du

When, y = u.v Then, u. v.

dx dx dx

Proof:

Let, u = f(x)

Let, v = g(x)

dy f x .g x f c .g c

lim

dx x c xc

Add f(x).g(c): (Note: They cancel so it is still equal)

dy f x .g x f x .g c f x .g c f c

. c

lim

dx x c xc

dy f x g x g c g c f x f c

lim

dx x c xc

dy f x g x g c g c f x f c

lim lim

dx x c xc x c x c

dy

= f(c).g’(x) + g(c).f’(x) Since x c let c be x

dx

dy

= f(x).g’(x) + g(x).f’(x)

dx

dy dv du

u . v.

dx dx dx

dy

A = x3 5(x + 3)4 1 + (x + 3)5 3.x2

dx

dy

= 5.x3(x + 3)4 + 3.x2(x + 3)5

dx

GIKPKC7 94107 The Tangent and the Derivative Page 8

Quotient Rule:

du dv

u v. u.

When, y Then, dy dx dx

v 2

dx v

x3

E.g. Differentiate y

x3

dy x 3 3.x 2 x 3 1

A

dx x 3 2

dy 2.x 3 9.x 2

dx x 2 6.x 9

If a derivative exists at a point it is said to be differentiable at that point

A derivative will exist at a point, if it is continuous at that point

E.g. y = x(x + 2)

Continuous = Yes

Differentiable = Yes

2

E.g. y x2,x2

Continuous = No

Differentiable = Yes, x 2

GIKPKC7 94107 The Tangent and the Derivative Page 9

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