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Understanding and Experiencing

The Curriculum
By:
Nagendralingan Ratnavadivel
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
Master Trainers: Curriculum Design, Management and
Development
SESSION 3 OBJECTIVES
To enable US to reflect on the what is:
i. Education
ii. Curriculum:
Why Curriculum?
Defining Curriculum Curriculum Model Tyler
Curriculum Development Process
Contextual Framework of A Curriculum
Curriculum Perspectives
Curriculum Approaches


EDUCATION
Education enhances the freedom of man by
inducting him into the knowledge of his culture
as a thinking system. The most important
characteristic of the knowledge is that one can
think with it. That is the nature of knowledge-
as distinct from information - that it is a structure
to sustain creative thought and provides frameworks
for judgment. Education as induction into
knowledge is successful to the extent that it makes
the behavioral outcomes of the students
unpredictable. (Stenhouse, 1975, ms. 80 &82)


EDUCATION
Training is concerned with the acquisition of
skills, and successful training results in capacity in
performanceInstruction is concerned with
the learning of information and successful
information results in retention.. Initiation is
concerned with familiarization with social values
and norms and successful initiation leads to a capacity
to interpret the social environment and to anticipate
the reaction to ones own actions. Induction
stands for instruction into the thought system -
the knowledge - of the culture and successful
induction results in understanding as evidenced
by the capacity to grasp and make for oneself
relationships and judgments. (Stenhouse,1975 ms. 80)


WHY CURRICULUM
How we conceive of curriculum and curriculum
making is important because our conceptions and
ways of reasoning about curriculum reflect and
shape how we see, think and talk about, study and
act on the education made available to students.

Our curriculum conceptions, ways of reasoning and
practice cannot be value free or neutral. They
necessarily reflect our assumptions about the world,
even if those assumptions remain implicit and
unexamined.

Further, concern with conceptions is not "merely
theoretical". Conceptions emerge from and enter
into practice." Cornbleth (1990).


CURRICULUM
Decision making in curricular matters involves
considering, examining, and formulating the ends
of education.
Questions: What knowledge is most worth? What
knowledge should be introduced to the learner?
What are the criteria for selecting knowledge?
What is valuable for the learner as a person and
as a member of society?


A Definition of Curriculum
(Daniel Tanner, 1980)
The planned and guided
learning experiences and
intended learning outcomes,
formulated through the
systematic reconstruction of
knowledge and experiences,
under the auspices of the
school, for the learners
continuous and willful growth
in personal social
competence.
Definining The Curriculum
A curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential
principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form
that is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation
into practice..A curriculum is the means by which the
experiences of attempting to put an educational proposal into
practice is made publicly available. It involves both content and
method, and in its widest application takes account of the problem
of implementation in the institutions of the educational system.
As a minimum, a curriculum should provide a basis for planning
a course, studying it empirically and considering the grounds of
its justification. (Stenhouse, 1975, ms. 4-5)

Curriculum Models
Are based on a body of
theory about teaching
& learning.
Are targeted to needs
& characteristics of a
particular group of
learners.
Outline approaches,
methods & procedures
for implementation.
THE TYLER MODEL OF
CURRICULUM DESIGN
The nature &
structure of
knowledge
The needs of
the society
The needs of
the learner
TYLERS (1949) FUNDAMENTAL
QUESTIONS IN DEVELOPING
CURRICULUM
1What
educational
purposes
should the
school seek to
attain?
Source: Madeus, G.F., & Stufflebeam, D.L. (1989).
Educational evaluation: The works of Ralph
Tyler.Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Press.
FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS IN
DEVELOPING CURRICULUM
2What
educational
experiences can
be provided
that are likely
to attain these
purposes?
FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS IN
DEVELOPING CURRICULUM
3How can
these
educational
experiences
be effectively
organized?
FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS IN
DEVELOPING CURRICULUM
4How can we
determine
whether and to
what extent
these purposes
are being
attained?
THE NATURE & STRUCTURE
OF KNOWLEDGE
Selection of subject
matter
Organization of
subject matter or
discipline
Theoretical basis of
methods &
approaches
Philosophy of
Education
Goals & Aims
General Instructional
Objectives
Specific Instructional
Objectives &
Outcomes
Task Analysis &
Content Selection
Learning Activities
Curriculum Development Process
SELECTION OF SUBJECT MATTER
Criteria: Relevance,
importance, priority
Scope: Amount, depth of
coverage, concentration
Sequence: Hierarchy &
progression of
complexity or difficulty
ORGANIZATION OF SUBJECT MATTER
# Discrete subjects or
courses
# Broad fields or
disciplines
# Core or interdisciplinary
# Skills or processes
# Projects & activities
APPROACHES TO SUBJECT MATTER
Textual
Experimental
Developmental
Psycho-social
Experiential
NEEDS OF THE LEARNER
* Cognitive
development
* Linguistic
development
* Psycho-social
development
* Moral/affective
development
* Vocational focus
THE NEEDS OF SOCIETY
Literacy
Vocational skills
Social order & morality
Interpersonal skills
Transmission of values &
culture
Creativity & innovation
NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF
EDUCATION
(NPE)

Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort
towards further developing the potential of
individuals in a holistic and integrated manner,
so as to produce individuals who are
intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and
physically balanced and harmonious, based on a
firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort
is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who
are knowledgeable and competent, who possess
high moral standards, who are responsible and
capable of achieving a high level of personal
well-being as well as being able to contribute to
the betterment of the family, society and the
nation at large.
(Ministry of Education, Malaysia, 1996)


NPE
Intellect Spiritual Emotional Physical
Cognitive Affective Psychomotor
Knowledge Values Skills
Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Logic
Holistic
Integrated
Harmonious
POTENTIAL
T&L: Curriculum, Pedagogy, Evaluation
(Knowledgeable) (Good Character) (Expertise )
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A VISION FOR THE 21
ST
CENTURY
Education will nurture skills of
creative problem-solving in the face of
novel situations, and students will learn
to exercise courage in making decisions
and assuming responsibility for them.
Students will learn to process and
manipulate information. They will be
trained to think critically and to reflect
on what they have learned, as well as to
transfer and apply knowledge from one
discipline to another and to daily Life.
(Ratnavadivel, 2001)

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VISION 2020 AND ROLE OF
PRACTITIONERS
Vision 2020 (Mahathir, 1990) emphasizes
the need to move from being a consumer
society to that of a knowledge generating
society. The role of teachers in developing
this society is of prime concern to the
nation. The ability to think critically and
creatively and to reason logically constitute
the template for developing a nation that
will be able to not just adopt or adapt
borrowed knowledge but that which will be
able to create and market its own
knowledge. It is in this context that it is
crucial for practitioners to continuously
improve the quality of their practice.
Inquiry based teaching grounded on
empirical foundations have become an
imperative. (Ratnavadivel, 2001)

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VISION 2020 AND THE ZEAL IN
EDUCATION
Malaysia needs to make the critical
transition from an industrial economy to a
leader in the information age. In order to
make this vision a reality, Malaysians need
to make. a fundamental shift towards a
more technologically literate, thinking
workforce, able to perform in a global work
environment and use the tools available in
the information age. To make this shift, the
education system must undergo a radical
transformation. The schooling culture must
be transformed from one that is memory
based to one that is informed, thinking,
creative and caring, through leading edge
technology. (Ministry of Education
Malaysia, 1997: 1)

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THE FOURTH R
.teaching thinking and reasoning is central
to raising standards even in the most basic
skills of the curriculum. It argues that the
most basic resource any society has are the
intellectual resources of its people. A
successful society will be a thinking society
in which the capacities for lifelong learning
of its citizens are most fully realized.
(Fisher,2003:8)

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CHANGING ROLE OF THE LEARNER


Adopt Adapt Create

(MINDLESS) (LOTS) (HOTS)


CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
OF A CURRICULUM
Ideological Context
Epistemological Context
Psychological Context
Sociological Context
Management Context
Evaluative Context
FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM
Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum
Historical Foundations of Curriculum
Psychological Foundations of Curriculum
Social Foundations of Curriculum


PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF
CURRICULUM
Perennialism. The focus in the curriculum is classical
subjects, literary analysis and considers curriculum as
constant.
Essentialism. The essential skills of the 3 R's and
essential subjects of English, Science, History, Math
and Foreign Language is the focus of the curriculum.
Progressivism. The curriculum is focused on students'
interest, human problems and affairs. The subjects are
interdisciplinary, integrative and interactive.
Reconstructionism.
The focus of the curriculum is on present and future trends
and issues of national and international interests.
HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF
CURRICULUM
The Malaysian education system came about
from various influences, both local and foreign.
This can be traced back to the history of our
nation from pre-colonial, colonial and post
colonial period. The British educational system
has the greatest influence on our educational
system. More recently the American education
system is increasingly impacting on our
education system.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF
CURRICULUM
Psychology provides basis for the teaching and learning
process. It unifies elements of the learning process and
some of the some of questions which can be addressed by
psychological foundations. The following are the three
major groups of learning theories:
1.Behaviorists Psychology - consider that learning
should be organized in order that students can experience
success in the process of mastering the subject matter, and
thus, method of teaching should be introduced in a step by
step manner with proper sequencing of task.
(Edward L. Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov, Skinner and Robert
Gagne )








PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF
CURRICULUM
Cognitive Psychology - focus their attention on how
individuals process information and how the monitor and
manage thinking. For the cognitive theorists, learning
constitutes a logical method for organizing and interpreting
learning. Learning is rooted in the tradition of subject
matter where teachers use a lot of problem and thinking
skills in teaching learning. These are exemplified by
practices like reflective thinking, creative thinking,
intuitive thinking, discovery learning, etc.
(Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Howard Gardner, Felder and
Silverman and Daniel Goleman )

Humanistic Psychology - concerned with how learners
can develop their human potential. Based on Gestalt
psychology where learning can be explained in terms of the
wholeness of the problem and where the environment is
changing and the learner is continuously reorganizing
his/her perceptions. Curriculum is concerned with the
process not the products, personal needs not subject
matter; psychological meaning and environmental
situations.
(Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers)

PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF
CURRICULUM
BEHAVIORISM
Behaviorism is a worldview that operates on a
principle of stimulus-response. All behavior
caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning).
All behavior can be explained without the need to
consider internal mental states or consciousness.
Originators and important contributors: John B.
Watson, Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, E. L. Thorndike
(connectionism), Bandura, Tolman (moving toward
cognitivism)

COGNITIVISM
Cognitivism focuses on the inner mental activities
opening the black box of the human mind is
valuable and necessary for understanding how
people learn. Mental processes such as thinking,
memory, knowing, and problem-solving need to be
explored. Knowledge can be seen as schema or
symbolic mental constructions. Learning is defined
as change in a learners schemata.
CONSTRUCTIVISM
Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits
that learning is an active, constructive process. The
learner is an information constructor. People
actively construct or create their own subjective
representations of objective reality. New information
is linked to to prior knowledge, thus mental
representations are subjective.
Originators and important contributors:
Vygotsky, Piaget, Dewey, Vico, Rorty, Bruner

HUMANISM
Humanism is a paradigm/philosophy/pedagogical
approach that believes learning is viewed as a
personal act to fulfil ones potential.
Key proponents: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers,
Malcolm Knowles

SOCIAL FOUNDATIONS OF
CURRICULUM
Education operates within the social context.
Societal culture affects and shapes education
and curriculum. The relationship of curriculum
and society is mutual and encompassing. Hence,
to be relevant, the curriculum should reflect and
preserve the culture of society and its
aspirations. At the same time, society should also
imbibe the changes brought about by education.

COMPONENTS OF CURRICULUM PLANNING
Macro contexts
and constraints
Nature of
Influence
Dimensions of
the curriculum
Curriculum
Outcome
Political
Power and control of
the curriculum and
educators
Values and beliefs Ideological
Economic
Education and economy,
control and relationship
priorities
Epistemological Nature, content and structure
of knowledge
Cultural
Cultural representation on
the curriculum: cultural
reproduction and production
Sosiological Equality, access to
knowledge, relationship of
education and society
Technological
Effects of technology on the
curriculum
Psychological
Nature of learning and
learning environments
Historical Causes, antecedents and
legacies of the curriculum
Philosophical
Justifications and aims
Micro contexts
and constraints
Institutional
Nature, structure, values and
traditions, ethos of the
institution
Resources Amount and organization
Students Needs, interests, abilities
Educators
Needs, interests, abilities

Aims

Content

Pedagogy

Resources

Evaluation

Change
Areas of
learning and
experience
Elements
of learning
Essential issues
Characteristics
the curriculum
Levels of
planning
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Ideological, epistemological, philosophical,
sociological, psychological analysis to
Determine aims of schooling
Situational analysis of school context-
philosophy, policy, practice organization
Establishing and evaluating goals
Organization of the learning
Selecting appropriate learning experiences
Evaluation and feedback
Modification
Figure: A prescriptive model of curriculum planning
IDEOLOGICAL CONTEXT
Ideology, as the belief system of a group, is a
potent force in shaping social consciousness,
attitudes and values. Although operative within
the total society, ideology has a particular impact
on education and schooling.
It functions in formal educational agencies to
shape social outlooks and expectations,
In schools, ideological factors shape the school
milieu and the hidden curriculum as well as the
formal curriculum (Gutek, 1997)
IDEOLOGICAL CONTEXT
Meighan (1981) contends that an ideology
addresses seven components which concern
curriculum:

A theory of knowledge : its context and
structure what is considered worythwhile
or important, how it is organized and who
will have access to it.
A theory of learning and the learners role
an active or a passive style, doing or
listening, co-operative or competitive
learning, producing or reproducing
know;ledge , problem solving or receiving
facts.
A theory of teaching and the teachers role
formal or informal, authoritarian or
democratic, interest in outcomes or
processes, narrow or wide.

IDEOLOGICAL CONTEXT
- A theory of resources appropriate for learning
primary or secondary
- A theory of organization of learning situations
criteria for grouping pupils.
- A theory of assessment that learning has taken
place diagnostic or attainment testing,written
or observational assessment, defining what is to
be assessed
- A theory of aims, objectives and outcomes
a view of what is desirable for society, the
child and knowledge.

IDEOLOGICAL CONTEXT
- Ideologies Emphasizing The Individual Learner
- Ideologies Emphasizing Knowledge
- Ideologies Emphasizing Society
IDEOLOGIES EMPHASIZING THE
INDIVIDUAL LEARNER
Transmission of knowledge is secondary to discovery and to
following the learners impulses, needs and interests.

Stress is laid on learning by doing, spontaneity, free
expression and developing the learners own nature
spontaneously,

Emphasis is placed on originality and authenticity of the
learners experience and awareness , on diversity of response
and provision, on creativity, enjoyment and the development
of emotional of the learners personality.

The process of learning is as important as the outcomes of
learning. (intrinsic worth of education)



IDEOLOGIES EMPHASIZING
KNOWLEDGE
A strong sympathy with conservative notions of
protecting and perpetuating the best of the past
as experienced in the present.
The curriculum is academic and intellectual, non-
vocational.
Children have to be initiated into the received
wisdoms of their forbears, the initiation rites of
passage often being formal examinations.
Subject loyalty is strong, disci[line oriented and
reliant on instruction rather than experiential
learning (Lawton, 1973).
IDEOLOGIES EMPHASIZING
KNOWLEDGE
Standards are clear, excellence of academic achievement is
emphasized, and stress is laid on the development of
rationality through a curriculum marked by uniformity
rather than diversity (Jenkins, 1975).
This curriculum runs counter to social justice and equity of
opportunity (Lawton, 1983).
For the masses who cannot aspire to this, a folk
curriculum (Bantock, 1975;1976) is offered whose resukt is
to effectively debar them from entering the corridors of
privilege, providing what is often regarded as low status,
practical, vocational and everyday knowledge.
Ideologies in this area, then, emphasize a dual curriculum
(Scrinshaw, 1976).

IDEOLOGIES EMPHASIZING
KNOWLEDGE
Alternative Ideology: A knowledge-based
curriculum whose emphasis is less on a stratified
than on a unified society, with egalitarian
principles at its core. In liberal humanism high
culture is to be accessible to all through a
common curriculum.
For curriculum planners the significance of
debates, about knowledge is to clarify which
knowledge should be in the curriculum, how it
should be organized and who should have access
to it.
IDEOLOGIES EMPHASIZING
SOCIETY
Instrumental Ideologies instrumentalism,
revisionism, and those stressing economic
renewal emphasize the need for education to fit
learners to society, particularly in economic
terms.
Education thus exists to provide a skilled
workforce to expand the nations economic
strength. Weight is laid on the relevance and
utility aspects of education.
The intentions of education are not to alter
radically existing society, rather to improve the
efficiency of existing organizations, isnstitutions
and economic structures.
IDEOLOGIES EMPHASIZING
KNOWLEDGE
Radical society-oriented educational
ideologies aiming at social rebuilding or social
upheaval.
Reconstruction planned change rather than
stability. what society ought to be rather than
what it is.
Theory of knowledge is revolutionary, problem-
solving, active, socially relevant
EPISTEMOLOGICAL CONTEXT
It is concerned with knowledge its form and structure.

What do we mean by knowledge?

What are the sources of knowledge?

How can we achieve knowledge?

What are the means and activities that
we can offer that so that the students can
achieve knowledge ?

How can we ascertain that our students have acquired and
mastered
1. What do we mean by knowing ?

Ryle (1949) : Knowing that and knowing how

Knowing that is concerned with what can be stated in
propositions and facts.

The weakness of knowing that is its lack of utility: we may
know the theory of something but not the why or how of
it.

knowing how: understanding, possessing capacity to
perform in practical situations.

2. Dichotomy: Knowledge reached through reasoning
or senses? While rationality might be one way of
achieving knowledge, there are some types of knowledge
which are not available through rationality alone
sensory knowledge.
EMPIRICIST VIEW OF KNOWLEDGE
Empiricism is premised on the notion that
knowledge is only acquired through the sensory
experience and reflection on perceptions.
For the empiricist knowledge must correspond to
the observed facts of the case.
Implications?
i. Objectivity or universal validity of knowledge is
is replaced by a version of knowledge which sees
it as unique, tied to specific contexts; a far more
tentative, hypothetical and evolutionary version.
Knowledge is subject to constant modification
and obsolesence.

EMPIRICIST VIEW OF KNOWLEDGE
ii. Knowledge becomes equated with experience.

iii. Teaching styles will have to be revised to
reflect the tentative view of knowledge, to resist
the imposition of knowledge in favour of the
creation and discovery of knowledge a more
problem-solving, discovery approach,
iv. Teaching will have to move to a process rather
than a product view of knowledge, concentrating
on skills of acquiring knowledge rather than
outcomes. Knowledge is to be tested rather than
passively accepted (Brumer, 1970)

PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT
Necessary to have a clear understanding of how
learning takes placed and how it can be best
promoted through teaching and learning styles/
The foci of psychological theory comprehend:

1. The nature of the learner

a. cognitive and affective aspects
b. Individual differences
c. Individual needs
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT
2. The nature of the learning process
a. learning theories
- behaviorist theories
- cognitive theories
- constructivist theories
- humanistic theories
b. motivation
c. active learning
d. reinforcement and feedback, etc.
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Computationalism
Information processing,
organizing and managing
well-informed flow of
information.

Culturalism
Hermeneutic meaning
making, how human beings
in cultural communities
create and transform
meanings.
Bruner (1996)
THEORY AUTHOR(S) TYPE OF THEORY CLASSIC
CASE
FUNCTION
Curriculum as systematic
activity, as management
Bobbitt,
Charters
Curriculum theory Scientific To explain,
describe
Curriculum as reflecting the
stages of human development
Dewey Curriculum theory

Scientific To explain,
prescribe
Curriculum as praxis Maccia Curriculum theory

Scientific To guide,
prescribe
Curriculum as unintended
series of learning outcome
Johnson Curriculum theory

Scientific To describe
Curriculum as interacting
system
MacDonald Curriculum theory

Scientific To describe,
explain
Curriculum as metaphor Kliebard,
Freire
Curriculum theory

Humanistic To prescribe
Curriculum as experience for
social purpose
Pinar Curriculum theory

Humanistic To prescribe
Education as process, as
structuring knowledge
Bruner Instructional theory Scientific To explain,
prescribe
Education as implementing
the curriculum
Olivia Instructional theory Scientific To explain
Teaching as transformation Giroux Instructional theory Humanistic
(critical theory)
To prescribe,
describe
Overview of Theories Affecting Curriculum Field
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Learning Theories
Behaviourism
Pavlov,
Thorndike,
Skinner
Humanism
(Carl Rogers)


Constructivism

Cognitive
(Piaget,
Bruner)
Social
(Vygotsky)
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Critical thinking
Creative
thinking
Sumber: Lipman M. (2003). Thinking In Education)
Multi-
Dimensional
thinking
Caring thinking
Sensitivity to
Context
Reliance on
criteria
Self-correction
Imaginative
Holistic
Inventive
Generative
Appreciative
Active
Normative
Effective
Empathic
SITUATING THE CURRICULUM:
FIVE PERSPECTIVES (POSNER,
2004)
Traditional What are the most important
aspects of our cultural heritage that
should be preserved?
Experiential What experiences will lead to the
healthy growth of the individual?
Structure of the discipline What is the structure of the disciplines
of knowledge?
Behavioral At the completion of curriculum , what
should the learners be able to do?
Constructivist How can people learn to make sense of
the world and to think more
productively and creatively?
CURRICULUM AS A SYLLABUS
TO BE TRANSMITTED
This conception is primarily
concerned with the content, which is
a body of knowledge to be
transmitted. In this sense, education
involves transmitting or delivering
the knowledge-content to students by
the most effective methods possible.
The majority of teachers, if not most
of them hold this conception of
curriculum.


CURRICULUM AS A
PRODUCT
Popularised by Ralph Tyler (1949),
this approach sees curriculum as an
attempt to achieve certain ends
specified in behavioural and
measurable terms in students. This
ensures a less open, more structured,
atomic approach to teaching,
learning and assessment.
CURRICULUM AS PROCESS
This approach of which Lawrence
Stenhouse (1975) is its main advocate views
the curriculum as not a physical thing, but
rather the interaction of teachers, students
and knowledge, that is curriculum is what
happens in the classroom. It takes the view
that a curriculum is a set of proposals to be
experimented and tested by teachers and
thus invites the notion of the classroom as
laboratory. Teachers have greater freedom
thus ensuring a more open, less structured
approach to teaching, learning and
assessment.

CURRICULUM AS PRAXIS
This approach incorporates
much of the view of a curriculum
as process, but in addition gives
prominence to making explicit
the interests served by the
curriculum. This approach thus
brings to the centre of the
process the commitment to
emancipation.
DOMAINS OF LEARNING
There is more than one type of learning. A
committee of colleges, led by Benjamin Bloom
(1956), identified three domains of educational
activities:
Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)
Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas
(Attitude)
Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)

COGNITIVE DOMAIN
The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves
knowledge and the development of intellectual
skills.
Simple to Knowledge, Comprehension, Application,
Analysis, Synthesis and Evaluation.
AFFECTIVE DOMAIN
The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia,
1973) includes the manner in which we deal with
things emotionally, such as feelings, values,
appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and
attitudes.
Receiving phenomena, Responding to phenomena,
Valuing, Organization, Internalizing values
PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN
The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) includes
physical movement, coordination, and use of the
motor-skill areas. Development of these skills
requires practice and is measured in terms of
speed, precision, distance, procedures, or
techniques in execution.
Simple to Complex: Perception, Set, Guided
Response, Mechanism, Complex Overt Response,
Adaptation, Origination.
5 MINDS FOR THE FUTURE
The Disciplined Mind
The Synthesizing Mind
The Creating Mind
The Respectful Mind
The Ethical Mind
(Howard Gardner: 2006, 2008)

TAXONOMY OF SIGNIFICANT LEARNING

TAXONOMY OF SIGNIFICANT LEARNING
Caring
Developing new
Feelings
Interests
Values
Learning How to
Learn
Becoming a better
student
Inquiring about a
subject
Self-directing
learners
Human
Dimensions
Learning about:
Oneself
Others
Integration
Connecting:
Ideas
People
Realms of life
Foundational
Knowledge
Understanding and
remembering:
Information
Ideas
Application
Skills
Thinking: Critical,
Creative, & Practical
Managing projects
In a course with significant learning, students will:
1. Understand and remember the key concepts,
terms, relationship, etc.
2. Know how to use the content.
3. Be able to relate this subject to other subjects.
4. Understand the personal and social
implications of knowing about this subject.
5. Value this subject and further learning about it.
6. Know how to keep on learning about this
subject, after the course is over.
S i t u a t i o n a l F a c t o r s
INTERACTIVE COURSE DESIGN:
Key Components
Learning
Goals
Feedback &
Assessment
Teaching &
Learning
Activities
CRITERIA OF GOOD COURSE DESIGN
S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S
In-Depth
Situational
Analysis
Learning
Goals
Significant
Learning
Educative
Assessment
Active
Learning
Teaching
Strategy
Feedback &
Assessment
Teaching and
Learning
Activities
Applied Learning: Making It As Powerful As Possible
THE END!
Higher Education:
Lets make it all that it can be and needs to be!