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UNIT I

CRYSTAL PHYSICS
PART A QUESTIONS
1. What is a space lattice?
Space lattice is an infinite arrangement of points in three dimensions in which every
point has an identical surrounding.
2. What is a !it cell?
It is the smallest geometrical structure of a solid from which the entire crystal structure
can be constructed by repetition in three dimension.
". What is #asis?
It is either a single atom or a group of atoms which when attached to every lattice point
with identical orientation of identical group of atoms forms the crystal structure
$. Na%e the se&e! c'(stal s(ste%s.
Cubic ,Tetragonal ,Orthorhombic,Monoclinic,Triclinic,Rhombohedral and e!agonal
). What is a p'i%iti&e cell?
" primitive cell is the simplest type of unit cell which contains one lattice point per unit
cell.
*. What a'e lattice pa'a%ete's?
The intercepts along the three crystallographic a!es and the inter facial angles are
#nown as lattice parameters.
+. What a'e ,'a&ais lattices?
There are only $% possible ways of arranging points in space lattice called as &ravais
lattices.
-. .e/i!e C00'1i!ati0! !%#e'.
It is the number of nearest neighbouring atoms in a given crystal structure.
2. .e/i!e at0%ic 'a1is.
The half of the distance between nearest neighbouring atoms in a crystal is #nown as
atomic radius.
13. .e/i!e Pac4i!5 /act0'.
It is the ratio of the volume of atoms in the unit cell to the volume of the unit cell.
11. What a'e 6ille' I!1ices?
" set of three numbers to designatef a plane in a crystal is #nown as Miller Indices.
12. 6e!ti0! the &a'i0s C'(stal 5'07i!5 tech!i8es.
Melt growth,'ow temperature solution growth ,igh temperature solution growth and
(pita!ial growth
1". What is %elt 5'07th?
Melt growth is the process of Crystallisation by fusion and resolidification of the
starting materials.
1$. What is the p'i!ciple 0/ C90ch'als4i Tech!i8e?
The C)ochrals#i Techni*ue is a crystal pulling techni*ue from the melt . The +rocess is
based on a 'i*uid ,solid phase transition driven by a seed crystal in contact with the melt.
1). What is the p'i!ciple 0/ ,'i15%a! Tech!i8e?
In this techni*ue the melt in a sealed crucible is progressively fro)en from one end to
form a single crystal.
1*. What is Epita:ial 5'07th?
The process of growing an oriented single crystal layer on a substrate wafer is called
(pita!ial growth.
1). What a'e the 1i//e'e!t t(pes 0/ Epita:ial 5'07th?
-apour phase (pita!y ,'i*uid +hase (pita!y and Molecular &eam (pita!y.
1+. ;i&e the e:p'essi0! /0' I!te'pla!a' spaci!5 i! te'%s 0/ lattice c0!sta!t a!1 6ille'
i!1ices
Interplanar spacing d . a/01h
2
3#
2
3l
2
4
1-. What is the p'i!ciple 0/ sl07 e&ap0'ati0! %eth01?
In this method, the saturated solution is #ept at a particular temperature and provision is
made for evaporation.
12. Na%e the c'(stal st'ct'e 0/ the /0ll07i!5 a.;0l1 #.;e'%a!i% c. ,a'i% 1. <i!c
a. 5old , 6CC b. 5ermanium , 7iamond cubic c. &arium 8 &CC d .9inc , C+
23. What is the C'(stal st'ct'e 0/ ,is%th?
The crystal structure of &ismuth is Trigonal or Rhombohedral
21. S4etch =113>? =131> a!1 =111> pla!e i! a c#ic s(ste%

22. What is !cleati0!?
:ucleation is the process in which a very small group of atoms or molecules come
together forming sites in the solvents where additional atoms and molecules get deposited and
the crystal starts to grow.

PART ,
ANNA UNI@ERSITY QUESTIONS
$. Calculate the "tomic radius and +ac#ing factor for SC,&CC and 6CC structures.
2. 7etermine the number of atoms per unit cell coordination number and pac#ing factor for
6CC and &CC structures
;. <hat is pac#ing factor= +rove that the pac#ing factor of C+ is >.?%
%. 7escribe the structure of a C+ crystal. 5iven details about its atomic radius, atomic
pac#ing factor and a!ial ratio.
@. <hat are Miller Indices= 7erive an e!pression for the relation connecting Interplanar
spacing and the cubic edge.
A. Show that the atomic pac#ing factor for 6CC and C+ are the same
?. (!plain the crystal structure of 7iamond and 5raphite
B. 7escribe C)ochrals#i method of growing crystal.
C. 7escribe &ridgman techni*ue of growing crystal.
$>. (!plain slow evaporation method of growing crystal.
$$. 7escribe -apour phase epita!y method of growing crystal
UNIT II
PROPERTIES OA 6ATTERS AN. THER6AL PHYSICS
PART A QUESTIONS
1. E:plai! !et'al a:is
The middle layer 1or4 filament of a beam which remains unaltered even with the presence of
load on the beam is called neutral a!is. 6ilaments which are lying above it are elongated
and those are lying below it are compressed.
2. 6e!ti0! the /act0's a//ecti!5 the elasticit( 0/ a %ate'ial?
i. Temperature
ii. Impurities
iii. ammering, Rolling and "nnealing
iv. Stress.
". What a'e the e//ects 0/ ha%%e'i!5 a!1 a!!eali!5 0! elasticit( 0/ a %ate'ial?
<hile being hammered or rolled, crystal grains brea# into smaller units resulting in increase
of their elastic properties. <hile annealing 1that is, heating and then cooling gradually4
constituent crystals are uniformly oriented and form larger crystal grams, which results in
decrease in their elastic properties.
$. .e/i!e elasticit(?
(lasticity is the property of the body by virtue of which it tends to regain its original shape
1or4 si)e after the removal of deforming e!ternal forces.
). State H004eBs La7?
"ccording to this law, DStress is directly proportional to the strain produced, within
the elastic limitE. i.e., Stress ! Strain
Stress . ( ! Strain
( . Stress / Strain FnitG :m
82
<here ( is a constant called modulus of elasticity.
*. E:plai! #e!1i!5 %0%e!t 0/ #ea%?
The moment of the couple due to the elastic reactions 1restoring couple4 which balances the
e!ternal couple due to the applied load is called the bending moment.
+. .e/i!e st'ess a!1 st'ai! a!1 7'ite 107! thei' !its?
St'essG Stress is defined as the restoring force per unit area which brings bac# the body to
its original state from the deformed state. Fnit for stressG :/m
2
.
St'ai!G Strain is defined as the change in dimension produced by the e!ternal force on the
body. It can also be defined as the ratio of the change in dimension to the original
dimension. :o unit. 1i.e4 Strain . Change in dimension / Original dimension
-. What 10 (0 i!/e' /'0% St'essCSt'ai! 1ia5'a%?
i. The Stress is directly proportional to the strain, within elastic limit.
ii. It distinguishes the elastic and plastic limit of a material,
iii. It determines the ultimate strength of the material.
2. E:plai! the a1&a!ta5es 0/ ICShape 5i'1e'?
I8Shape girders are made by the reducing the area of the neutral a!is. ence it has the
following advantages.
More stability
More strength and
igh durability
13. .e/i!e (iel1 p0i!t?
It the e!ternal stress applied is very large, and then the body will lose its elastic property,
even after the removal of the stress. The point at which the body loses its elasticity 1elastic
nature4 is called as yield point.
11. .e/i!e (0!5Bs 601ls?
It is defined as the ratio between the longitudinal stress to the longitudinal strain, within the
elastic limit. H . 16'/"I'4 1:m
82
4
12..e/i!e #l4 %01ls. What is the 'elati0!ship #et7ee! #l4 %01ls a!1
c0%p'essi#ilit(?
&ul# modulus is defined as the ratio between the volume stress to volume strain within the
elastic limit. J. +- / I- 1:m
82
4 1+ . 6/"4
The reciprocal of bul# modulus of a material is #nown as compressibility of that material.
1". .e/i!e1 'i5i1it( %01ls?
It is defined as the ratio between the tangential stress to the shearing strain within the elastic
limit. n . 6 / "K 1:m
82
4
1$. .e/i!e P0iss0!Bs 'ati0?
It is defines as the ratio between the lateral strain per unit stress 1L4 to the longitudinal strain
per unit stress 1M4 within elastic limit.
+oisons ratio . N . 1L/ M4
1). .e/i!e a #ea%?
" beam is defined as a rod or bar 1rectangular4 of uniform cross section whose length is
very much greater than its other dimensions such as breadth and thic#ness.
1*. .e/i!e C0e//icie!t 0/ the'%al c0!1cti&it(?
The Coefficient of thermal conductivity is defined as the amount of heat conducted per
second normally across the unit area of cross section, maintained at unit temperature
gradient.
J . O / "1P$8 P 24t
1+. What is %ea!t #( te%pe'at'e 5'a1ie!t?
The rate of fall of temperature with respect to the distance is called temperature gradient. In
general it is denoted as 18 dP/d!4. The negative sign indicates the fall of temperature with
increase in distance.
1-. .e/i!e the'%al 1i//si&it(?
It is defines as the ratio of thermal conductivity to the thermal capacity per unit volume of
the material. Thermal diffusivity . 1Thermal conductivityD Thermal capacity4.
12. .e/i!e Ne7t0!Bs La7 0/ c00li!5
The rate of loss of heat of a body is directly proportional to the temperature difference
between the body and its surrounding, of same nature
23. What is the #asic p'i!ciple e%pl0(e1 i! LeeBs 1isc %eth01 /0' #a1 c0!1ct0's?
The given bad conductor is ta#en in the form of disc and is placed in between the disc and
in steam chamber. The steam is passed through bad conductor, heat conducted through the
bad conductor per second is calculated. "mount of heat lost per second by the disc is
calculated.
21. .e/i!e heat c0!1cti0!?
conduction is the process of transmission of heat from one point to the another through
substance without the actual motion of the particles.
22. E:plai! 'a1ial /l07 0/ heat.
In this method, heat flow from inner sphere towards the outer sphere along the radius and
hence the heat is radiated radially across all layers.
PART ,
$. 7erive an e!pression for the elevation at the centre of a beam which is loaded at both ends.
7escribe an e!periment to determine HoumgQs modulus of a beam by uniform bending=
2. 7erive an e!pression for the internal bending moment of a beam in terms of radius of
curvature=
;. <hat is cantilever= Obtain an e!pression for the depression at the loaded end of a cantilever
whose other end is fi!ed assuming that its own weight is not effective in bending=
%. 5ive an account of I8shape girders=
@. <hat are factors affecting elasticity=
A. 7escribe with relevant theory the method of determining the coefficient of thermal
conductivity of a bad conductor by 'eeQs disc=
?. 7erive the e*uation for one dimensional flow of heat and solve it, under steady state
condition=
B. 7escribe methods of determining thermal conductivity of a rubber=
C. (!plain :ewtonQs law of cooling=
$>. (!plain how heat is conducted through a compound media=
UNITC"
QUANTU6 PHYSICS
PART A QUESTIONS
1. State Pla!c4Es h(p0thesis.
The atomic oscillators can absorb or emit energy in the multiples of small unit called *uantum.
The *uantum of radiation is called photon. The energy of the photon 1(. hv4
Is proportional to the fre*uency of radiation 1v4
2. State Pla!c4Es la7 0/ 'a1iati0!.
The energy density of radiation in an enclosure at temperature T in the wavelength range R and
R3dR is (
R .
BShc / R
@
1e
hv/#t
8$4
h 8 +lanc#Ts constant, c 8 speed of light, # 8&olt)mannTs constant,
T8 Temperature of the enclosure.
3. State C0%pt0! e//ect.
<hen a beam of high fre*uency radiation 1U8Ray4 Is scattered by a substance of low atomic
number, the scattered radiation consist of two components, one has the same wavelength R as the
original incident ray and the other has a slightly longer wave length RT. This is #nown as
Compton effect.
4. What is C0%pt0! 7a&ele!5th?
The change in wavelength corresponding to scattering angle of C> obtained in Compton effect
is called Compton wavelength. dR . h 1$ 8 cosP4 / m
o
c
5. What a'e %atte' 7a&es ?
The waves associated with the particles of matter 1e.g., (lectrons, photons, etc4 are #nown as
matter waves or de8 &roglie waves.
6. H07 .eC,'05lie Fsti/ie1 his c0!cept ?
Our universe is fully composed of light and matter. :ature loves symmetry. If radiation li#e light
can act li#e wave some time and li#e a particle at other time, then material particals 1e.g. electron,
neutruon etc .4 should act as particle at some time and wave in some other times. (very moving
particle has always associated with a wave.
7. W'ite a! e:p'essi0! /0' the 7a&ele!5th 0/ %atte' 7a&es.
1or4 What is 1eC,'05lieEs 7a&e e8ati0!?
7e , &roglie wave length associated with the electrons
R . h / 012me-4 <here h- +lanc#Ts constant, e- charge of the
electron, m

8 rest mass of the electron, - 8 accelerating voltage.
8. State the p'0pe'ties 0/ the %atte' 7a&es.
'ighter is the particle, greater is the wavelength associated with it smaller is the velocity of the
particle, greater is wavelength associated with it. These waves are not electromagnetic waves but
they are a new #ind of waves. The wave and pariticle aspects of moving bodies can never appear
together in the same e!periment.
9. W'ite 107! Sch'0e1i!5e' ti%e i!1epe!1e!t a!1 1epe!1e!t 7a&e e8ati0!s.
Schroedinger time independent wave e*uation is

2
V 31 2m / W
2
(E - V) V = 0
Schroedinger time dependent wave e*uation

18 1W
2
/ 2m4
2
3 - 4 V . I W X V / Xt
<here
2
. 2 3 2 3 2 and 'aplacian operator. , <ave function
,m Mass of the particle .( 88 Total energy of the particle. - , +otential energy.
W . h/2S
10. 6e!ti0! s0%e 0/ the ph(sical si5!i/ica!ces 0/ the 7a&e /!cti0!.
The wave function relates the particle and wave nature of matter statistically .
It is a comple! *uantity and hence we cannot measure it accurately.
If the particle is certainly to be found somewhere in space,then the probability value is e*ual to
one.
i.e ., + . I
2
dx dy dz =1
11. What a'e ei5e! &ales a!1 ei5e! /!cti0! ?
(nergy of a particle moving in one dimensional bo! of width a is given by
(
n
. n
2
h
2
/ B ma
2
6or each value of n , there is an energy level. (ach value of (n is called an eigen value.
6or every *uantum state 1 i.e., for different TnQ values 4,There is a corresponding wave function
n . This corresponding wave function is called eigen function.(igen function associated with
an electron in a one dimensional bo!. n . sin n /a
12. What is elect'0! %ic'0sc0pe?

It is a microscope in which the obYect is illuminated by highly accelerated fast8 moving electron
beam. It has very high magnification of about $>>,>>> times and very high resolving power.
Pa't , =1* 6ARGS>
$. 1a4 (!plain +lanc#Ts Ouantum hypothesis.
1b4 7erive +lanc#Ts radiation law.
2. 7erive +lanc#Ts law for blac# body radiation and hence deduce wienTs law and Rayleigh
ZeanTs law.
;. 1a4 7efine Compton effect.
1b4 7erive an e!pression for the wavelength of the scattered photon 1Compton shift4.
%. 7erive Schrodinger time independent and time dependent wave e*uations.
@. 7erive the time independent Schroedigner e*uation for a one dimensional case. Fse it to prove
that a particle enclosed in a one dimensional bo! has *uanti)ed energy values .
A. (!plain 5.+. Thomson e!periment to prove the wave nature of the electron.
?. (!plain the principle, construction and wor#ing of Scanning electron microscope1S(M4.
B. (!plain the principle, construction and wor#ing of Transmission electron microscope1T(M4.
UNIT I@
ULTRASONICS AN. ACOUSTICS
PART A QUESTIONS
1. 6e!ti0! a!( /0' p'0pe'ties 0/ Ult'as0!ic 7a&es.
1a4 They are highly energetic.
1b4 They travel through longer distances.
1c4 They are reflected, refracted and absorbed similar to ordinary sound waves.
1d4 <hen ultrasonic waves are passed through the li*uid, it behaves as an acoustical
grating element.
1e4 It produces heating effect.
2. State 6a5!et0st'icti0! P'i!ciple.
Magnetostriction effect is the principle of producing ultrasonic waves by the
Magnetostriction oscillator. <hen an alternating magnetic field is applied to a
ferromagnetic rod such as iron, nic#el, the rod is thrown into longitudinal vibrations.
<hen the fre*uency of the rod is e*ual to the natural fre*uency of vibration, resonance
occurs. Thus ultrasonic waves are produced.
". What is ca&itati0!? 6e!ti0! its se =0'> ,'ie/l( 0tli!e the e%lsi/icati0! si!5
lt'as0!ic 7a&es.
Cavitation is the process of creation and collapse of bubbles due to the principle
of negative local pressure created inside the bubble. Thus it produces enormous amount
of heat and pressure.
Use sH 1i4 It is used to produce shoc# waves.
1ii4 It is used to produce the temperature in li*uids.
$. What is Pie90Celect'ic e//ect? =0'> What is 1i'ect Pie90Celect'ic e//ect?
<hen pressure or mechanical force is applied along one pair of opposite faces of
a *uart) crystal, then e*ual and opposite charges are produced along the another pair of
opposite faces of the crystal. This is called +ie)o8electric effect.
). What is i!&e'se Pie90Celect'ic e//ect?
If an electric field is applied to one pair of opposite faces of a *uart) crystal,
alternative mechanical e!pansions and contractions are produced across the another pair
of opposite faces of the crystal. This is called inverse +ie)o8electric effect.
*. What is s0!05'a%? 6e!ti0! its applicati0!.
Sonogram is a techni*ue which is used to record the sounds produced due to the
pumping action of the heart using ultrasonics. It also provides the information on heart
ratio, rhythmicity, blood pumping, valve action etc.
+. H07 is ac0stic 5'ati!5 is /0'%e1?
<hen ultrasonic waves are passed through the li*uid li#e #erosene, due to
variation in pressure, the li*uid act as acoustical grating. :ow monochromatic light is
passed through this acoustical grating, it produces different orders of spectrum due to
diffraction. Fsing diffraction condition we can find the velocity of ultrasonics.
-. What is the p'i!ciple 0/ SONAR i! lt'as0!ics? 6e!ti0! t70 applicati0!s 0/ it.
SO:"R is a device which stands for SOund NAvigation and Ranging. It is based
on the principle of ECHOCSOUN.IN; of ultrasonic waves. It is acoustical techni*ue
for locating the obYects li#e submarine or icebergs in sea by transmitting a high fre*uency
sound pulse and receiving it from the obYect.
Applicati0!sH 1i4 It is used to locate the obYects at the bottom of the sea.
1ii4 It is used to find the depth of the sea.
1iii4 It is used for seismic 1earth *ua#e4 survey.
2. H07 a'e lt'as0!ic 7a&es se1 t0 %eas'e the 1epth 0/ sea?
Ech0Cs0!1i!5 is the principle used to find the depth of the sea. " beam of
ultrasonic waves is transmitted towards the bottom of the sea and the reflected signal is
received.The time interval between transmitted and received signal is noted and let it be
[tQ.If [vQ is the velocity of the ultrasonics,
13. H07 a'e lt'as0!ic 7a&es 1etecte1 #( the'%al %eth01?
<hen the ultrasonic waves are passed through the platinum wire connected to a
<heatstoneQs bridge, the temperature of wire changes which in turn changes the
resistance of the platinum wire. ence <heatstoneQs &ridge goes to unbalanced position.
<ith respect to the balancing position of the <heatstoneQs bridge, ultrasonic waves are
detected.
11. 6e!ti0! the ses 0/ lt'as0!1 i! cli!ical %e1ici!e =0'> 6e!ti0! the %e1ical
applicati0!s 0/ lt'as0!ics.
1i4 Fltrasonic waves are used for detecting tumours and other defects in human body.
1ii4 Fltrasonic waves are used to remove #idney stones and brain tumours without any
loss of blood.
1iii4 Fltrasonic therapy is used to treat disease li#e neuralgic and rheumatic pains etc.
12. Wh( lt'as0!ic /'e8e!cies 5'eate' tha! " 6H9 ca!!0t #e p'01ce1 #(
%a5!et0st'icti0! %eth01?
In Magnetostriction method, the fre*uency is inversely proportional to the length
of the rod. The fre*uency can be increased only by decreasing the length of the rod to a
greater instant. It is practically impossible. "lso, it has to be noted that the ambient
temperature alters the magneti)ation of the rod and in turn will affect the elastic
properties. ence ultrasonic fre*uencies greater than ; M) cannot be produced by
magnetostriction method.
1". .e/i!e A-Sca! 1ispla( i! lt'as0!ics.
A scan is an amplitude mode display. It gives one dimensional information about
the specimen. It is used to detect the position and si)e of the flaws with the help of
change in its amplitude.
1$. List 0t the applicati0!s 0/ lt'as0!ic 7a&es.
1i4 Measurement of depth of the sea.
1ii4 7etection of flaws in materials.
1iii4 Cutting, drilling, welding and grinding.
1iv4 Speed up the chemical reaction 1Coagulation4
1v4 Relieving the body pains
1vi4 Cleaning and drying the clothes.
1). List 0t the e!5i!ee'i!5D i!1st'ial applicati0!s 0/ lt'as0!ics.
1i4 &y oscillating the glass rod with ultrasonic fre*uency, holes can be drilled in the
hard steel plates.
1ii4 They are used in welding and cutting.
1iii4 They are used in cleaning cloths and tiny parts of watch.
1iv4 They are used to form alloys of uniform compositions.
1*. Ca! 7e se a c0ppe' '01 i! a 6a5!et0st'icti0! 5e!e'at0'? Wh(?
:o, copper rod cannot used to produce ultrasonic waves in Magnetostriction
generator. &ecause it is not a 6erromagnetic material.
1+. ;i&e the p'i!ciple se1 i! %eas'e%e!t 0/ &el0cit( 0/ #l001 /l07.
<hen ultrasonic wave stri#es the blood vessel, the beam is reflected by particles
of blood. 7epending upon the velocity of blood, the reflected beam is 7oppler shift.
Therefore by the principle of double 7oppler effect, the velocity of blood flow can be
calculated.
1-. A! lt'as0!1 plse se!t #( a s0'ce i! sea is 'e/lecte1 #( a s#%e'5e1 ta'5et at a
1ista!ce )2+.)3 c% a!1 'eaches the s0'ce a/te' 3.-" sec0!1s. Ai!1 the &el0cit( 0/
s0!1 i! sea 7ate'.
;i&e!H
7istance 1d4 . @C?.@> cm
Time ta#en 1t4 . >.B; sec.
A0'%laH
Velocity 14 =
2d
t
Velocity 14 =
2 @C?.@>
>.B;
Velocity 14 =
$$C@.>>
>.B;
Velocity 14 = $%;C.?@ m / s
12. A 8a't9 c'(stal 7ith a thic4!ess 0/ 3.) %% a!1 a 1e!sit( 0/ 2*)3 45D%
"
&i#'ates
l0!5it1i!all( p'01ci!5 lt'as0!ic 7a&es. Ai!1 the /!1a%e!tal /'e8e!c( 0/
&i#'ati0!? i/ the Y0!5Bs %01ls 0/ 8a't9 is +.2 : 13
13
N%
C2
.
;i&e!H Thic#ness 1t4 . >.@ ! $>8; m
7ensity 1\4 . 2A@> #g/m
;
HoungQs modulus 1(4 . ?.C ! $>
$>
:m
82
A0'%laH
!re"#ency 1 f 4 =
$ E
2t
6or fundamental mode + . $
!re"#ency 1 f 4 =
$ E
2t
!re"#ency 1 f 4 =
$
2 >.@
$>
;
?.C $>
$>
2A@>
!re"#ency 1 f 4 =
$ @%@C.C?
$ $>
;
!#ndamental fre"#ency 1 f 4 = @.%@CC? M%z
PART ,
$. 7erive an e!pression for the reverberation period of an auditorium and e!plain how this can be
used for determining the absorbing power of surface involved.
2. <rite in detail about the factors affecting architectural acoustics and their remedies.
;. 7iscuss the salient points associated with acoustics of auditorium.
%. <hat is reverberation time= Fsing SabineQs formula e!plains how the sound absorption coefficient of a
material is determined.
@. 7erive the e!pression for growth and decay of sound energy.
A. i4 7efine reverberation time and absorption coefficient.
ii4 7erive SabineQs formula for the reverberation time of a all.
?. 7erive e!pressions for growth and decay of energy density inside a hall and hence deduce SabineQs
formula for the reverberation time of a hall.
B. <rite short notes on
i4 'oudness ii4 +itch iii4 Ouality of sound
C. <rite an essay on acoustics of buildings with necessary theory.
$>. 7iscuss the factors affecting the acoustics of buildings and e!plain the factors to be followed to
overcome it.
$$. <hat is ultrasonics= 5ive its properties and applications.
$2. 7escribe the production of ultrasonic waves by Magnetostriction oscillator method. 5ive the merits
and demerits of this method.
$;. 7escribe the production of ultrasonic waves by pie)o electric oscillator method. 5ive the merits and
demerits of this method.
$%. (!plain the various techni*ues adopted in detecting the ultrasonic waves.
$@. (!plain the determination of velocity of ultrasonic using an acoustical grating.
$A. 7escribe the applications of ultrasonic in medical and engineering field.
$?. a4 (!plain ultrasonic welding ]cutting. b4 (!plain cavitation in detail
$B. a4 what are its advantages= b4 (!plain in detail the ultrasonic cleaning.
$C. <hat is meant by SO:"R= (!plain in detail how SO:"R is employed to locate the obYects. <hat are
the applications of SO:"R=
2>. 7raw a bloc# diagram of ultrasonic flaw detector for :7T. Mention its advantages and disadvantages.
2$. 7escribe the principle, construction and wor#ing of ultrasonic pulse echo :7T.
22. a4 <ith necessary diagram e!plain echocardiography. b4 5ive the diagnostic usage of echocardiogram.
2;. a4 <hat is +C5= (!plain in detail the +C5 techni*ue. b4 5ive the diagnostic usage of +C5.
2%. (!plain the ultrasonic imaging system with a neat bloc# diagram.
2@. a4 (!plain the different types of heart sound in detail. b4 &riefly e!plain the characteristics of heart
murmur.
2A. (!plain the three different scan displays used for data presentation.
2?. 7escribe the methods to generate ultrasonics=
2B. <hat is :7T= (!plain the types, advantages and disadvantages.
2C. 5ive the applications of ultrasonics in engineering.
;>. 5ive the applications of ultrasonics in medicine
UNIT @
PHOTONICS AN. AI,RE OPTICS
PART A QUESTIONS
1. State the p'0pe'ties 0/ lase' #ea% =0'> /!1a%e!tal cha'acte'istics 0/ lase's =0'> Na%e the
p'0pe'ties 0/ lase' 7hich a'e %a4i!5 it sita#le /0' i!1st'ial applicati0!s.
1i4 The laser beam is highly directional.
1ii4 It has high intensity.
1iii4 It has purely monochromatic.
1iv4 It has coherence.
2. What 10 (0 %ea! #( p0plati0! i!&e'si0!?
In general, the number of atoms in the ground state will be more than that of the atoms in the
e!cited state. This is called usual population.
The state of achieving more number of atoms in the e!cited state than that of the atoms in the
ground state is called population inversion.
". .e/i!e %etasta#le state.
It is the state for which the life time is more than the e!cited state, i.e., it is the more
stable state which lies between the e!cited state and the lower state.
$. Wh( is p0plati0! i!&e'si0! !ecessa'( /0' lase' acti0!? =0'> E:plai! the !ee1 0/ p0plati0!
i!&e'si0! i! the p'01cti0! 0/ lase's.
<hen population inversion is achieved, the maYority of atoms are in the e!cited state. So
the absorption coefficient will be negative. The negative absorption coefficient causes the
amplification of the incident beam by stimulated emission. Thus the laser beam is produced. ence,
population inversion is a must for the production of laser beam.
). What a'e Ei!stei!Bs c0e//icie!ts?
The (insteinQs coefficients " and & accounts for spontaneous and stimulated emission /
absorption probabilities of light by a system of particles. It also e!plains the importance of
metasatble states.
*. .e/i!e Acti&e %e1i% a!1 Acti&e ce!te'.
The medium in which the population inversion ta#es place is called as active medium.
The material in which the atoms are raised to e!cited state to achieve population
inversion is called as active center.
+. What is %ea!t #( 0ptical 'es0!at0'? =0'> 'es0!a!ce ca&it(
"n optical resonator is a feedbac# system which consists of an active medium #ept in between a
$>>^ mirror and a partial mirror. ere the intensity of light produced in the active medium is
increased by ma#ing the light to bounce bac# and forth between the mirrors. 6inallythe laser beam
comes through the partial mirror.
-. Ca! a t70 le&el s(ste% #e se1 /0' the p'01cti0! 0/ lase'? Wh(?
:o, two level system cannot be used for the production of laser. &ecause for population
inversion to be achieved at least three levels are re*uired.
2. List 0t the 1i//e'e!ces #et7ee! a h0l05'a% a!1 a ph0t05'aph =0'> H07 10es
H0l05'aph( 1i//e' /'0% Ph0t05'aph(?
Ph0t05'aph H0l05'a%
$. Ordinary light is used.
2. The variation of amplitude
alone is recorded.
;. It gives 27 picture.
%. 'ens is used.
$. 'aser light is used.
2. The distribution of amplitude
and phase is recorded.
;. It gives ;7 picture.
%. :o lens is used.
13. What a'e the t70 t(pes 0/ t'a!siti0!s that a'e p0ssi#le i! a CO
2
5as lase'?
1i4 Transition from asymmetric mode _>>
>
$` to bending mode _>2
>
>` will emit laser
of wavelength C.A am.
1ii4 Transition from asymmetric mode _>>
>
$` to symmetric mode _$>
>
>` will emit
laser of wavelength $>.A am.
11. What a'e the '0les pla(e1 #( N2
a!1 He i! CO2
lase'? =0'> What a'e the /!cti0!s 0/
N2
a!1 He i! CO2
lase'?
In CO2 laser
, the nitrogen 1:24 helps to increase the population of atoms in the upper
level of CO2.
elium 1e4 helps to depopulate the atoms in the lower level of CO2
and to cool the
discharge tube.
12. What is the '0le pla(e1 #( He i! HeCNe lase'? =0'> What is the /!cti0! 0/ He i! HeC Ne lase'?
In e8:e laser, elium helps to increase the population of atoms from lower level
to upper level, thereby produces population inversion.
1". What is sti%late1 e%issi0! 0/ 'a1iati0!?
"n atom in the e!cited state is induced to return to ground state thereby resulting in two in
photons of same fre*uency and energy is called as stimulated emission.
1$. List 0t the c0!1iti0!s t0 achie&e lase' acti0!.
1i4 +opulation inversion should be achieved.
1ii4 Stimulated emission should be predominant over spontaneous emission.
1). 6e!ti0! the 1i//e'e!t t(pes 0/ p%pi!5 %eth01s i! Lase's =0'> 7hat a'e the
1i//e'e!t %eth01s 0/ achie&i!5 p0plati0! i!&e'si0!?
1i4 Optical pumping
1ii4 7irect electron e!citation
1iii4 Inelastic atom8atom collision
1iv4 7irect conversion
1v4 Chemical process
1*. .e/i!e h0l05'aph(.
olography deals with image construction by means of interference techni*ues without
using lenses. ere the distribution of amplitude and phase is recorded in ;7 manner so as to get
complete information of the obYect to be photographed.
1+. .isti!5ish #et7ee! sp0!ta!e0s e%issi0! a!1 sti%late1 e%issi0!.
Sp0!ta!e0s e%issi0! Sti%late1 e%issi0!
$. The atom in the e!cited state
returns to ground state without any
e!ternal triggering.
2. (mitted photon travels in random
direction.
;. The radiation is less intense and
incoherent.
%. The photons are not in phase.
@. This process is a #ey factor for
ordinary light emission.
$. The atom in the e!cited state returns
to ground state by e!ternal
triggering.
2. (mitted photon travels in a
particular direction.
;. The radiation is highly intense,
monochromatic and coherent.
%. The photons are in phase.
@. This process is a #ey factor for laser
operation.
1-. List 0t the applicati0!s 0/ lase's i! E!5i!ee'i!5.
1i4 igh power lasers are useful to blast holes in diamonds and hard steel.
1ii4 They are used to test the presence of pores, crac#s, blow holes etc. in the materials
1iii4 They are used for welding and cutting.
12. What is the p'i!ciple 0/ se%ic0!1ct0' lase'?
The electrons in the conduction band combines with a hole in the valence band and
hence the recombination of electron and hole produces energy in the form of light. This photon, in
turn may induce another electron in the conduction band to valence band and thereby stimulate the
emission of another photon.
23. What a'e the a1&a!ta5es 0/ N1HYA; lase'?
1i4 It has lower e!citation threshold.
1ii4 Since it has a higher thermal conductivity than Ruby and other solid state lasers, it
lends itself for generation of laser pulses at a higher pulse repetition rate or a
*uasi continuous wave operation.
1iii4 Its efficiency is relatively higher.
21. .isti!5ish #et7ee! h0%0F!cti0! a!1 hete'0F!cti0! se%ic0!1ct0' lase's =0'> What
a'e the a1&a!ta5es 0/ hete'0F!cti0! se%ic0!1ct0' lase' t0 h0%0F!cti0! se%ic0!1ct0'
lase'?
H0%0F!cti0! lase' Hete'0F!cti0! lase'
$. omoYunction laser is made by a
single crystalline material.
2. +ower output is low.
;. +ulsed output 1Sometimes continuous4
%. It has high threshold current density.
@. Cost is less.
A. 'ife time is less.
$. eteroYunction laser is made by
different crystalline material.
2. +ower output is high.
;. Continuous output.
%. It has low threshold current density.
@. Cost is more.
A. 'ife time is more.
22. What is %ea!t #( p%pi!5?
:aturally, the population inversion is achieved only at negative temperature
which is impossible. ence the process by which population inversion is achieved by
artificial means is called pumping.
2". What is splici!5? 6e!ti0! t70 t(pes 0/ splici!5.
Splicing is the techni*ue used to connect the fibers permanently. In this techni*ue,
two fibers can be Yoined with the help of elastometer or four rod splices using an adhesive or
matching gel.
T(pesG 1i4 Mechanical Splices
1ii4 6usion Splices
2$. What is the #asic p'i!ciple 0/ /i#e' 0ptic c0%%!icati0!?
Total internal reflection is the basic principle of fiber optic communication system.
P'i!cipleH <hen light travels from a denser to a rarer medium, at a particular angle of
incidence called critical angle, the ray emerges along the surface of separation. <hen angle of
incidence e!ceeds the critical angle, the incident ray is reflected in the same medium and this
phenomenon is called total internal reflection.
2*. What a'e acti&e a!1 passi&e se!s0's?
In active sensors 1or4 intrinsic sensors, the physical parameter to be sensed directly acts on
the fiber itself to produce the changes in the transmission characteristics.
In passive sensors 1or4 e!trinsic sensors, separate sensing element will be used and the
fiber will act as a guiding media to the sensors.
2+. What is calle1 %01e 0/ p'0pa5ati0! i! 0ptical /i#e's?
Mode of propagation represents the number of possible directions or path of propagation of
light through the optical fibers. <hen single ray of light propagate through a path, then it is called
single mode and when many rays propagate through different directions, it is called multimode.
2-. What is the '0le 0/ cla11i!5 i! 0ptical /i#e'?
"n optical fiber consists of core which is surrounded by cladding. ere the role of
Cladding is to ma#e the light to suffer total internal reflection inside the fiber, satisfying the
condition that the light should travel from denser medium to rarer medium.
22. 6e!ti0! the p'0pe'ties 0/ 1etect0's se1 i! the /i#e' 0ptic c0%%!icati0!.
1i4 "bility to convert optical signal into electrical signal
1ii4 6ast response time
1iii4 9ero dar# current
1iv4 Cost effective
"3. What a'e the 7a(s i! 7hich a! 0ptical /i#e' is cate50'i9e1? =0'> H07 a'e /i#e's
classi/ie1?
Optical fibers are categori)ed based on 1i4 material 1ii4 :umber of Modes 1iii4 Refractive
inde! profile
,ase1 0! %ate'ial 1a4 5lass 6iber
1b4 +lastic 6iber
,ase1 0! N%#e' 0/ 601es 1a4 Single mode fiber
1b4 Multi mode fiber
,ase1 0! Re/'acti&e i!1e: p'0/ile 1a4 Step inde! fiber
1b4 5raded inde! fiber
"1. .e/i!e N%e'ical Ape't'e.
:umerical "perture 1:"4 is defined as the sine of the acceptance angle. If n
$ and
n
2 are the refractive inde! of the core and cladding respectively,
&A = 0 1n
$
2
8n
2
2
4
"2. W'ite a!( t70 %aF0' a1&a!ta5es 0/ 0ptical /i#e' c0%%!icati0! 0&e' 0the'
c0!&e!ti0!al c0%%!icati0! s(ste%s.
1i4 Optical communication can be made even in the absence of electricity.
1ii4 The optical signals are not affected by any electrical signals or lightning.
1iii4 Optical fiber communication is free from (lectromagnetic interference 1(MI4.
1iv4 This is suitable to any environmental conditions.
1v4 (asy maintenance,longer life, economical and high *uality optical signal transmission.
"". 6e!ti0! a!( /0' a1&a!ta5es 0/ 0ptical /i#e' =0'> /eat'es 0/ 0ptical /i#e'.
1i4 It is light in weight.
1ii4 It is smaller in si)e.
1iii4 It is fle!ible and it can bend to any position.
1iv4 It is non8conductive, non8radiative and non8inductive.
1v4 There is no short circuiting.
1vi4 There is no internal noise / cross tal#s.
1vii4 It can withstand any range of temperature.
1viii4 :o need to ground and no voltage problem occur.
"$. What is step i!1e: /i#e'?
The difference in refractive indices between the core and cladding is obtained in a
single step and hence called as step inde! fiber.
"). What is 5'a1e1 i!1e: /i#e'?
The difference in refractive indices between the core and cladding gradually
increases from centre to interface and hence called graded inde! fiber.
"*. List the c0!1iti0!s t0 #e satis/ie1 /0' t0tal i!te'!al 'e/lecti0!.
1i4 'ight should travel from denser medium to rarer medium.
1ii4 The angle of incidence 1K4 on core should be greater than the critical angle 1K
c
4.
i.e. K b K
c.
1iii4 The refractive inde! of the core 1n
$
4 should be greater than the refractive inde! of the cladding
1n
2
4. i.e. n
$
b n
2
"+. ;i&e applicati0! 0/ /i#e' e!10sc0pe.
1i4 6iber optic endoscopes are used in medical diagnosis.
1ii4 It is used to visuali)e the inner organs of the body.
1iii4 6iber optic endoscopes are used in various medical fields such as cardioscopy,
'aproscopy, Cytoscopy etc.
"-. List 0t the /act0's that case l0ss i! 0ptical /i#e'.
1i4 7uring the transmission of light through optical fiber, three maYor losses will
occur, vi)., attenuation, distortion and dispersion.
1ii4 "ttenuation is mainly caused due to the absorption, scattering and radiation of light
inside the fibers.
1iii4 7istortion and dispersion occurs due to spreading of light and due to
manufacturing defects.
"2. 6e!ti0! a!( /0' a1&a!ta5es 0/ /i#e' 0ptic se!s0's.
1i4 It has no e!ternal interference
1ii4 It is used in remote sensing.
1iii4 Safety of data transfer.
1iv4 It is small in si)e.
$3. What a'e the 'e8i'e%e!ts 0/ li5ht s0'ces se1 i! /i#e' 0ptic c0%%!icati0!?
1i4 The light produced must be as nearly monochromatic as possible.
1ii4 It must modulate the source at high speeds.
1iii4 The light source should have compact si)e and high efficiency.
1iv4 It should be reliable, durable and ine!pensive.
1v4 It must re*uire very small power for its operation.
1vi4 Spectral line width of the source should be as small as possible.
1vii4 Can operate continuously at room temperature for many years.
1viii4 It should be modulated over a wide range of fre*uencies.
PART ,
$. <hat is laser= (!plain the laser action with the neat s#etch.
2. (!plain with neat diagram the process of absorption of light, spontaneous emission and stimulated
emission of light. <hat are the necessary conditions for their occurrence= <hy does spontaneous emission
dominate over stimulated emission at normal temperatures=
;. 7istinguish between spontaneous emission and stimulated emission.
%. (!plain with neat diagram absorption, spontaneous emission and stimulated emission.
@. (!plain the principle spontaneous and stimulated emission and derive the e*uation for (insteinQs
coefficients.
A. (!plain in brief the characteristics of laser beam.
?. 7efine +umping= (!plain the various methods of pumping.
B. (!plain the wor#ing of solid state laser.
C. 7escribe the principle, construction and wor#ing of :dG H"5 'aser.
$>. (!plain the principle, construction and wor#ing of e8:e 'aser.
$$. (!plain the principle, construction and the wor#ing of CO2 'aser.
$2. (!plain the principle, construction and wor#ing of Semi8Conducting homo8Yunction laser
$;. (!plain the principle, construction and wor#ing of hetero8Yunction lasers.
$%. 7iscuss the applications of 'aser in a4 Industry b4 Medical c4 Communication
$@. <rite notes on a4 laser welding b4 laser heat treatment c4 laser cutting.
$A. (!plain the application of '"S(R in industries.
$?. (!plain the application of '"S(R in medicine.
$B. (!plain the application of '"S(R in communication
$C. 7iscuss in detail the basic principle and advantages of optical fibers.
2>. 5ive the theory of propagationQ of light through a fiber.
2$. (!plain, in detail, the different types optical fibers and compare their performance.
22. <hat is meant by acceptance angle for an optical fiber= Show how it is related to numerical aperture.
2;. 7erive e!pressions for the acceptance angle and numerical aperture.
2%. 7escribe the crucible , crucible techni*ue for manufacturing an optical fiber
2@. 7efine the relative refractive inde! difference of an optical fiber. Show how it is related to numerical
aperture.
2A. (!plain how optical fibers are classified. 7iscuss their characteristics features.
2?. a4 7istinguish between step inde! and graded inde! fiber
b4 7istinguish between single mode and multimode optical fiber
2B. 7escribe the losses that occur in fiber optic communication and give the remedies for it.
2C. 7ifferent types of light sources in fiber optic communication system.
;>. (!plain with neat s#etch different types of detector used for optics.
;$. 7iscuss the wor#ing of fiber optical communication system with a bloc# diagram.
;2. <hat are the applications of fiber optic sensor= 7escribe any one of the application in detail
;;. 7escribe in detail any one of the intrinsic and e!trinsic sensors.
;%. 7escribe a method of sensing the temperature and magnetic field using fiber optic sensors.
;@. 7iscuss the application of optical fibers as optical wave 8 guides.
;A. (!plain the application of optical fibers as sensors, with e!amples
;?. 7escribe the construction and wor#ing of medical endoscope
;B. 'ist out the advantages and disadvantages of fiber optic communication system