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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.


Hardening Soil Model
Parameters
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Parameter Explanation
[kN/m] Unit weight (unsaturated)
r [kN/m]
Unit weight (saturated)
[] Friction angle (Mohr-Coulomb)
c [kPa] Cohesion (Mohr-Coulomb)
[] Angle of dilatancy
ur [-]
Poissons ratio unloading-reloading
E50
ref
[kPa]
Secant modulus for primary triaxial loading
Eoed
ref
[kPa]
Tangent modulus for oedometric loading
Eur
ref
[kPa]
Secant modulus for un- and reloading
m [-] Exponent of the Ohde/Janbu law
p
ref
[kPa]
Reference stress for the stiffness parameters
K0
nc
[-] Coefficient of earth pressure at rest (NC)
Rf [-]
Failure ratio
Tension [kPa] Tensile strength
Rint friction reduction factor

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Parameters
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Fig. 1: Different ways of visualizing the Mohr-Coulomb criterion

Fig. 2: Determination of in a drained, triaxial test
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Parameters
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Stress dependent stiffness (OHDE, 1930)


With:

E
s
ref
= E
oed
ref
= v
e
*
at

at
= p
ref
w
e
= m

extended for the Hardening Soil model to:
Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Parameters
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Parameters
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Parameters
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Parameters
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Fig. 3: Determination of Eur and E50 in a drained triaxial test with a deviatoric failure
stress qf
Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Parameters
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Fig. 4: Definition of E
oed
ref
in Oedometer test result
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Parameters from geotechnical report versus HS parameters
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Parameters
Hardening Soil Model Parameters
surface level = -1,50 m
G.W. level = -3,90 m
Soil Profile
Soil type Top level Bottom level Layer C. L level sat [kN/m]
Fill -1,50 -2,80 -2,15 17
Sandy Silt -2,80 -5,80 -4,30 18
soft clay -5,80 -9,80 -7,80 18
sand 1 -9,80 -18,00 -13,90 18
sand 2 -18,00 -30,00 -24,00 18
Soil Strength
Soil type
(Poisson`s
ratio) c' [kN/m] ' [] []
fill 0,30 0 28,0 0,0
silty sand 0,30 0 32,0 2,0
soft clay 0,35 5 26,0 0,0
sand 1 0,30 0 34,0 4,0
sand 2 0,30 0 36,0 6,0
Soil deformation modulus and constants
Soil type E50% [kN/m] Eur / E50% m (power)
fill 5000 3 0,5
silty sand 9500 3 0,5
soft clay 4500 8 1,0
sand 1 15000 3 0,5
sand 2 23500 3 0,5
Calculated Stresses
Soil type tot [kN/m] u [kN/m]
vertical stress
y [kN/m] Ko at rest
3 Horizontal
pressure [kN/m]
fill -11,1 0,0 -11,1 0,53 -5,86
silty sand -49,1 -4,0 -45,1 0,47 -21,20
soft clay -112,1 -39,0 -73,1 0,56 -41,06
sand 1 -221,9 -100,0 -121,9 0,44 -53,73
sand 2 -403,7 -201,0 -202,7 0,41 -83,56
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Calculating HSM Parameters
Where:
E50
ref
=
p
ref
= 100 stress units
m 0,5 For sand and silts (accordinbg to Janbu 1963)
Where:
E50 =
= Poisson's ratio
Calculated Stiffness Parameters
Soil type E50
ref
[kN/m] Eoed [kN/m] Eoed
ref
[kN/m] Eur
ref
[kN/m]
fill 20651 6731 20248 61952
silty sand 20632 12788 19043 61897
soft clay 9670 7222 9553 77360
sand 1 20463 20192 18289 61388
sand 2 25709 31635 22220 77126
Reference stiffness modulus corresponding to reference
confining pressure pref
Young's modulus
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Parameters
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The interface factor R
int
reduces the the strength of the soil in contact to the
piles/walls.
R
int
= 0,5 for Diaphragmwalls (/2)
R
int
= 0,67 for sheet pile walls and pile walls (2/3)
R
int
= 1,0 for bored piles
Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Correlations - CPT
10 20
qc = 15
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Correlations DIN 4094 - CPT
qc = 15
SE
v = 300
E
oed
ref
= v * 100kN/m = 30000kN/m
Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Correlations - CPT
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Correlations - DPH, DPL
Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Correlations - DPH, DPL
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
Hardening Soil Model
Correlations - DPH, DPL
Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
New Model: HS small
Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model
Same parameters for loading (E
50
ref
, E
oed
ref
) and unloading/reloading (E
ur
ref
) as in HS-model but with
increased stiffness for small strains (E
o
)
lab tests: > 10
-3
(larger strains, triaxial test oedometer test)
small strains: 10
-6
to 10
-3
(investigated in dynamic tests), range for retaining walls
additional model parameters: G
0
("dynamic" shear modulus and
0,7
(value of shear strain, where the G
s
is reduced to 70% of G
o
)
following parameters are recommended:
110
-5
10
2)
rock
>110
-4
4 - 8 clay
110
-4
2 - 3 sand, loose
110
-4
- 210
-4
3 - 4 sand, dense

0,7
G-factor
(=G
o
/G
ur
)
1)
1) G
o
/G
ur
= E
o
/E
ur
2) factor 10 is the limit in the model
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
New Model: HS small
Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model
Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
New Model: HS small
Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
New Model: HS small
Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model
Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
New Model: HS small
Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
New Model: HS small
Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model
Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
New Model: HS small
Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
New Model: HS small
Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model
Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
New Model: HS small
Example for additional parameters
sand, dense:
E
50
ref
= E
oed
ref
= 50.000 kN/m
E
ur
ref
= 3 x E
oed
ref
= 3 x 50.000 kN/m = 150.000 kN/m,
ur
= 0,2
E
ur
= (1 + 2
ur
) x G
ur
G
ur
= E
ur
/ (1 + 2
ur
) = 150.000 / (1 + 2 x 0,2) = 107.000 kN/m
G
o
/ G
ur
= 3 (acc. to last page) G
o
= 3 x G
ur
= 3 x 107.000 = 321.000 kN/m

0,7
= 110
-4
(acc. to last page)
fortune of the model:
location of boundaries gets less important - radius of settlements behind a rataining wall is smaller
heave of excavation bottom has less value
better results for deflection of walls (with HS our expiriences show too high values)
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
New Model: HS small
Example for additional parameters
Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
New Model: HS small
Excavation in Limburg, two anchor layers
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Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.
New Model: HS small
Excavation in Limburg, two anchor layers
Hardening-Soil Model - Non-linear constitutive law
In lots of analyses almost all layers are modeled with the Hardening-Soil Model which
is a double hardening model. By introducing two more yield surfaces next to the
MOHR-COULOMB failure criterion both, irreversible plastic shear strains due to
primary deviatoric loading as well as irreversible volumetric strains due to primary
isotropic loading, can be described by the model. Further model features are stress
dependent stiffness and the distinction between primary loading and unloading or
reloading. In the following the meaning and determination of these parameters from
laboratory tests is explained in more detail.
Meaning of the parameters:
a) Strength parameters & dilatancy angle ( , c,
Tension
, , R
int
)
The parameters und c correspond to the shear strength parameters
according to MOHR-COULOMB (see Figure 1). They can be determined from
triaxial or shear test data. In absence of laboratory test data, they can be
correlated to in-situ test data. Material softening often observed in dense soils is
not accounted for in the Hardening-Soil model.
Tab. 1: Required parameters of the Hardening-Soil model
Parameter Explanation
[kN/m] Unit weight (unsaturated)
r [kN/m]
Unit weight (saturated)
[] Friction angle (Mohr-Coulomb)
c [kPa] Cohesion (Mohr-Coulomb)
[] Angle of dilatancy
ur [-]
Poissons ratio unloading-reloading
E50
ref
[kPa]
Secant modulus for primary triaxial loading
Eoed
ref
[kPa]
Tangent modulus for oedometric loading
Eur
ref
[kPa]
Secant modulus for un- and reloading
m [-] Exponent of the Ohde/Janbu law
p
ref
[kPa]
Reference stress for the stiffness parameters
K0
nc
[-] Coefficient of earth pressure at rest (NC)
R
f
[-]
Failure ratio

Tension
[kPa] Tensile strength
R
int
friction reduction factor

Fig. 1: Different ways of visualizing the Mohr-Coulomb criterion

Fig. 2: Determination of in a drained, triaxial test
The parameter
Tension
describes the maximum tensile strength of the material.
The dilatancy angle describes the volumetric behaviour of the soil under
deviatoric loading. In simple shear corresponds to the angle of the deviation
of the grain movement to the direction of shearing. In a triaxial test the dilatancy
angle can be determined as shown in Figure 2.
The interface factor R
int
reduces the the strength of the soil in contact to the
piles/walls.

b) Stiffness parameters (
ur
, E
ur
ref
, E
50
ref
, E
oed
ref
, m, p
ref
, R
f
)
The elastic stiffness matrix of the Hardening-Soil model is quantified using the
parameters
ur
and E
ur
ref
. If no plastic straining occurs (stresses inside the yield
surfaces) these elastic parameters identify in combination with the parameter m
the stress strain behaviour of the model. The elastic Poissons ratio
ur
and the
elastic stiffness E
ur
ref
can be determined in a triaxial test. The secant stiffness
E
ur
ref
is determined in an un-/reloading loop (see Figure 3).
The index ref indicates, that the elasticity modulus E
ur
ref
as well as the stiffness
parameters E
50
ref
and E
oed
ref
introduced below, relate to a reference stress p
ref
.
According to the assumption of OHDE these parameters are converted to the
present stress as follows:


Fig. 3: Determination of E
ur
and E
50
in a drained triaxial test with a deviatoric failure
stress qf
E50
ref
indicates the secant modulus in primary triaxial loading when reaching half
the ultimate deviatoric stress qf (see Figure 3) and Eoed
ref
the tangent modulus in
an Oedometer test for an axial load of 1 = p
ref
, (refer to Fig. 4).

Fig. 4: Definition of E
oed
ref
in Oedometer test result

The ratio of qf and qa is given by the failure ratio Rf, where the ultimate
deviatoric stress qf is defined by the shear strength parameters and c. When
assuming Rf = 1.0 an asymptotic approach of the stress strain curve to the
ultimate deviatoric stress (qf = qa) is given. Smaller values of Rf yield non-
asymptotic stress strain curves, similar to the one shown in Figure 3. However,
Rf < 1.0 often produces more accurate model predictions, i.a. better agreement
with test data.
c) Miscellaneous ( ,
r
, K
o
nc
)
The unit weights and
r
define the unsaturated and the saturated weight of
the material, respectively. The coefficient of earth pressure at rest K
0
nc
identifies
the horizontal stress for normally consolidated soils. The rate of plastic-
deviatoric strains in a compression test (steepness of the cap) in the Hardening-
Soil model is calculated based on K
0
nc
.