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Hardening Soil Model

Parameters

1

Parameter Explanation

[kN/m] Unit weight (unsaturated)

r [kN/m]

Unit weight (saturated)

[] Friction angle (Mohr-Coulomb)

c [kPa] Cohesion (Mohr-Coulomb)

[] Angle of dilatancy

ur [-]

Poissons ratio unloading-reloading

E50

ref

[kPa]

Secant modulus for primary triaxial loading

Eoed

ref

[kPa]

Tangent modulus for oedometric loading

Eur

ref

[kPa]

Secant modulus for un- and reloading

m [-] Exponent of the Ohde/Janbu law

p

ref

[kPa]

Reference stress for the stiffness parameters

K0

nc

[-] Coefficient of earth pressure at rest (NC)

Rf [-]

Failure ratio

Tension [kPa] Tensile strength

Rint friction reduction factor

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Parameters

2

Fig. 1: Different ways of visualizing the Mohr-Coulomb criterion

Fig. 2: Determination of in a drained, triaxial test

2

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Parameters

3

Stress dependent stiffness (OHDE, 1930)

With:

E

s

ref

= E

oed

ref

= v

e

*

at

at

= p

ref

w

e

= m

extended for the Hardening Soil model to:

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Parameters

4

3

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Parameters

5

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Parameters

6

4

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Parameters

7

Fig. 3: Determination of Eur and E50 in a drained triaxial test with a deviatoric failure

stress qf

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Parameters

8

Fig. 4: Definition of E

oed

ref

in Oedometer test result

5

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Parameters from geotechnical report versus HS parameters

9

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Parameters

Hardening Soil Model Parameters

surface level = -1,50 m

G.W. level = -3,90 m

Soil Profile

Soil type Top level Bottom level Layer C. L level sat [kN/m]

Fill -1,50 -2,80 -2,15 17

Sandy Silt -2,80 -5,80 -4,30 18

soft clay -5,80 -9,80 -7,80 18

sand 1 -9,80 -18,00 -13,90 18

sand 2 -18,00 -30,00 -24,00 18

Soil Strength

Soil type

(Poisson`s

ratio) c' [kN/m] ' [] []

fill 0,30 0 28,0 0,0

silty sand 0,30 0 32,0 2,0

soft clay 0,35 5 26,0 0,0

sand 1 0,30 0 34,0 4,0

sand 2 0,30 0 36,0 6,0

Soil deformation modulus and constants

Soil type E50% [kN/m] Eur / E50% m (power)

fill 5000 3 0,5

silty sand 9500 3 0,5

soft clay 4500 8 1,0

sand 1 15000 3 0,5

sand 2 23500 3 0,5

Calculated Stresses

Soil type tot [kN/m] u [kN/m]

vertical stress

y [kN/m] Ko at rest

3 Horizontal

pressure [kN/m]

fill -11,1 0,0 -11,1 0,53 -5,86

silty sand -49,1 -4,0 -45,1 0,47 -21,20

soft clay -112,1 -39,0 -73,1 0,56 -41,06

sand 1 -221,9 -100,0 -121,9 0,44 -53,73

sand 2 -403,7 -201,0 -202,7 0,41 -83,56

10

Calculating HSM Parameters

Where:

E50

ref

=

p

ref

= 100 stress units

m 0,5 For sand and silts (accordinbg to Janbu 1963)

Where:

E50 =

= Poisson's ratio

Calculated Stiffness Parameters

Soil type E50

ref

[kN/m] Eoed [kN/m] Eoed

ref

[kN/m] Eur

ref

[kN/m]

fill 20651 6731 20248 61952

silty sand 20632 12788 19043 61897

soft clay 9670 7222 9553 77360

sand 1 20463 20192 18289 61388

sand 2 25709 31635 22220 77126

Reference stiffness modulus corresponding to reference

confining pressure pref

Young's modulus

6

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Parameters

11

The interface factor R

int

reduces the the strength of the soil in contact to the

piles/walls.

R

int

= 0,5 for Diaphragmwalls (/2)

R

int

= 0,67 for sheet pile walls and pile walls (2/3)

R

int

= 1,0 for bored piles

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Correlations - CPT

10 20

qc = 15

7

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Correlations DIN 4094 - CPT

qc = 15

SE

v = 300

E

oed

ref

= v * 100kN/m = 30000kN/m

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Correlations - CPT

8

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Correlations - DPH, DPL

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Correlations - DPH, DPL

9

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

Hardening Soil Model

Correlations - DPH, DPL

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

New Model: HS small

Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model

Same parameters for loading (E

50

ref

, E

oed

ref

) and unloading/reloading (E

ur

ref

) as in HS-model but with

increased stiffness for small strains (E

o

)

lab tests: > 10

-3

(larger strains, triaxial test oedometer test)

small strains: 10

-6

to 10

-3

(investigated in dynamic tests), range for retaining walls

additional model parameters: G

0

("dynamic" shear modulus and

0,7

(value of shear strain, where the G

s

is reduced to 70% of G

o

)

following parameters are recommended:

110

-5

10

2)

rock

>110

-4

4 - 8 clay

110

-4

2 - 3 sand, loose

110

-4

- 210

-4

3 - 4 sand, dense

0,7

G-factor

(=G

o

/G

ur

)

1)

1) G

o

/G

ur

= E

o

/E

ur

2) factor 10 is the limit in the model

10

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

New Model: HS small

Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

New Model: HS small

Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model

11

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

New Model: HS small

Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

New Model: HS small

Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model

12

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

New Model: HS small

Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

New Model: HS small

Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model

13

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

New Model: HS small

Hardening Soil with small strain overlay model

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

New Model: HS small

Example for additional parameters

sand, dense:

E

50

ref

= E

oed

ref

= 50.000 kN/m

E

ur

ref

= 3 x E

oed

ref

= 3 x 50.000 kN/m = 150.000 kN/m,

ur

= 0,2

E

ur

= (1 + 2

ur

) x G

ur

G

ur

= E

ur

/ (1 + 2

ur

) = 150.000 / (1 + 2 x 0,2) = 107.000 kN/m

G

o

/ G

ur

= 3 (acc. to last page) G

o

= 3 x G

ur

= 3 x 107.000 = 321.000 kN/m

0,7

= 110

-4

(acc. to last page)

fortune of the model:

location of boundaries gets less important - radius of settlements behind a rataining wall is smaller

heave of excavation bottom has less value

better results for deflection of walls (with HS our expiriences show too high values)

14

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

New Model: HS small

Example for additional parameters

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

New Model: HS small

Excavation in Limburg, two anchor layers

15

Plaxis Workshop for POPP & ASOCIATII Inginerie Geotehnic S.R.L.

New Model: HS small

Excavation in Limburg, two anchor layers

Hardening-Soil Model - Non-linear constitutive law

In lots of analyses almost all layers are modeled with the Hardening-Soil Model which

is a double hardening model. By introducing two more yield surfaces next to the

MOHR-COULOMB failure criterion both, irreversible plastic shear strains due to

primary deviatoric loading as well as irreversible volumetric strains due to primary

isotropic loading, can be described by the model. Further model features are stress

dependent stiffness and the distinction between primary loading and unloading or

reloading. In the following the meaning and determination of these parameters from

laboratory tests is explained in more detail.

Meaning of the parameters:

a) Strength parameters & dilatancy angle ( , c,

Tension

, , R

int

)

The parameters und c correspond to the shear strength parameters

according to MOHR-COULOMB (see Figure 1). They can be determined from

triaxial or shear test data. In absence of laboratory test data, they can be

correlated to in-situ test data. Material softening often observed in dense soils is

not accounted for in the Hardening-Soil model.

Tab. 1: Required parameters of the Hardening-Soil model

Parameter Explanation

[kN/m] Unit weight (unsaturated)

r [kN/m]

Unit weight (saturated)

[] Friction angle (Mohr-Coulomb)

c [kPa] Cohesion (Mohr-Coulomb)

[] Angle of dilatancy

ur [-]

Poissons ratio unloading-reloading

E50

ref

[kPa]

Secant modulus for primary triaxial loading

Eoed

ref

[kPa]

Tangent modulus for oedometric loading

Eur

ref

[kPa]

Secant modulus for un- and reloading

m [-] Exponent of the Ohde/Janbu law

p

ref

[kPa]

Reference stress for the stiffness parameters

K0

nc

[-] Coefficient of earth pressure at rest (NC)

R

f

[-]

Failure ratio

Tension

[kPa] Tensile strength

R

int

friction reduction factor

Fig. 1: Different ways of visualizing the Mohr-Coulomb criterion

Fig. 2: Determination of in a drained, triaxial test

The parameter

Tension

describes the maximum tensile strength of the material.

The dilatancy angle describes the volumetric behaviour of the soil under

deviatoric loading. In simple shear corresponds to the angle of the deviation

of the grain movement to the direction of shearing. In a triaxial test the dilatancy

angle can be determined as shown in Figure 2.

The interface factor R

int

reduces the the strength of the soil in contact to the

piles/walls.

b) Stiffness parameters (

ur

, E

ur

ref

, E

50

ref

, E

oed

ref

, m, p

ref

, R

f

)

The elastic stiffness matrix of the Hardening-Soil model is quantified using the

parameters

ur

and E

ur

ref

. If no plastic straining occurs (stresses inside the yield

surfaces) these elastic parameters identify in combination with the parameter m

the stress strain behaviour of the model. The elastic Poissons ratio

ur

and the

elastic stiffness E

ur

ref

can be determined in a triaxial test. The secant stiffness

E

ur

ref

is determined in an un-/reloading loop (see Figure 3).

The index ref indicates, that the elasticity modulus E

ur

ref

as well as the stiffness

parameters E

50

ref

and E

oed

ref

introduced below, relate to a reference stress p

ref

.

According to the assumption of OHDE these parameters are converted to the

present stress as follows:

Fig. 3: Determination of E

ur

and E

50

in a drained triaxial test with a deviatoric failure

stress qf

E50

ref

indicates the secant modulus in primary triaxial loading when reaching half

the ultimate deviatoric stress qf (see Figure 3) and Eoed

ref

the tangent modulus in

an Oedometer test for an axial load of 1 = p

ref

, (refer to Fig. 4).

Fig. 4: Definition of E

oed

ref

in Oedometer test result

The ratio of qf and qa is given by the failure ratio Rf, where the ultimate

deviatoric stress qf is defined by the shear strength parameters and c. When

assuming Rf = 1.0 an asymptotic approach of the stress strain curve to the

ultimate deviatoric stress (qf = qa) is given. Smaller values of Rf yield non-

asymptotic stress strain curves, similar to the one shown in Figure 3. However,

Rf < 1.0 often produces more accurate model predictions, i.a. better agreement

with test data.

c) Miscellaneous ( ,

r

, K

o

nc

)

The unit weights and

r

define the unsaturated and the saturated weight of

the material, respectively. The coefficient of earth pressure at rest K

0

nc

identifies

the horizontal stress for normally consolidated soils. The rate of plastic-

deviatoric strains in a compression test (steepness of the cap) in the Hardening-

Soil model is calculated based on K

0

nc

.

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