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How to predict fatigue life

Three methods of calculating total life, crack initiation, and crack growth
Purely static loading is rarely observed in modern engineering components or structures. By far, the
majority of structures involve parts subjected to fluctuating or cyclic loads, often resulting in fatigue-
caused structural failure. In fact, 80% to 95% of all structural failures occur through a fatigue
mechanism. For this reason, design analysts must address the implications of repeated loads,
fluctuating loads, and rapidly applied loads. As a result, fatigue analysis has become an early driver in
the product development processes of a growing number of companies.
What is fatigue? Fatigue is failure under a repeated or varying load, never reaching a high enough
level to cause failure in a single application. The fatigue process embraces two basic domains of
cyclic stressing or straining, differing distinctly in character. In each domain, failure occurs by different
physical mechanisms:

Low-cycle fatigue: where significant plastic straining occurs. Low-cycle fatigue involves large cycles
with significant amounts of plastic deformation and relatively short life. The analytical procedure used
to address strain-controlled fatigue is commonly referred to as the Strain-Life, Crack-Initiation, or
Critical Location approach.

High-cycle fatigue: where stresses and strains are largely confined to the elastic region. High-cycle
fatigue is associated with low loads and long life. The Stress-Life (S-N) or Total Life method is widely
used for high-cycle fatigue applicationshere the applied stress is within the elastic range of the
material and the number of cycles to failure is large. While low-cycle fatigue is typically associated
with fatigue life between 10 to 100,000 cycles, high-cycle fatigue is associated with life greater than
100,000 cycles.

Fatigue analysis refers to one of three methodologies: local strain or strain life, commonly referred to
as the crack initiation method, which is concerned only with crack initiation (E-N, or sigma nominal);
stress life, commonly referred to as total life (S-N, or nominal stress); and crack growth or damage
tolerance analysis, which is concerned with the number of cycles until fracture.

if u want to calculate stress do u want material properties???
Ans: in simple cases like beam problems we don't want material property to calculate the
. the complex problems like other than beam problems,moment m can be calculated from the
relation m=eid^2y/dx^2,we can not able to calculate the moment at any point by the applied
force for complex problems.

what are nonlinear fem methods?
Ans: nonlinear geometry,material,contact. if the stiffness changes by geometry it is the non
linear geometry. if the stiffness changes by material it is the non linear material case. if the
stiffness changes due to the contact it is nonlinear contact case.

what is nonlinear geometry case??
Ans: if the force applied continuously for example wind turbine blades by the application of
wind loads the deformation is high,in that case we must not ignore the higher order terms in
strain-deflection relation strain=dy/dx+d^2y/dx^2+d^3y/dx^3+---- considering higher order
terms are nonlinear geometry case. these higher order terms are called as green's function.

what are the theories of failures??
Ans: 1.max normal stress2.max shear stress3.vonmisses----etc

why u consider vonmisses stress theory only?
Ans:there is a limitations on max normal stress and max shear stress theories---etc. The
vonmisses stress theory is derived from energy formulation so it is suitable for all cases and
the stresses developed in the real time environment is near to the vonmisses stress.
what is the slope of stress strain curve after exceeding proportionality limit??
Ans: tagential modulus is the slope of the curve in the plastic region of stress strain curve

shell,plate are having How many degress of freedom ??/
Ans: shell is having 6 degrees of freedom 3- translational 3 rotational degress of freedom
Plate is having 2 rotational 1- traslation degrees of freedm
solid is having 3 traslational degress pf freedom