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WHAT TO EXPECT
Focus: Foundation of Music and Philippine Music
1. Define the different parameters of elements of music.
2. Analyze the folksongs from different regions of the Philippines
3. Reflect on the totality of human experiences in formulating a human
perspective that integrates all areas of knowledge.
4. Integrate the areas of humanities in different human experiences
Prepared by: Prof. Minerva Atanacio
PART I – CONTENT UPDATE
A. RHYTHM – is the flow of music through time.
Beat – is a regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time.
Meter – the organization of beats into regular groups.
1. Simple Meter – is division of time where the fundamental pulses subdivide into
groups of two, four, etc.
2. Compound Meter – is a division in which the fundamental pulses subdivide into
groups of three, six, twelve, etc.
3. Polymeter – is double meter to indicate that two meters are combined or there is
constant change from one meter to the other back and both.
Time Signatures – consist of two numbers that the upper number indicates the number
of beats for every measure and the lower number indicates what kind of note receive
Rhythmic Pattern – is the division of beats into patterns of sound. A combination of notes
and rests found in one measure of a given time signatures.
Syncopation - is a musical process that involves adding an unexpected element to the
basic beat of a musical composition. A dislocation of the strong accents within a
Accent – stress or added emphasis given to a note.
B. MELODY – is a series of single notes that add up to a recognizable whole. It is also defined
as a succession of related single tones expressing an idea. Melodic directions of movement
are going up, going down and repeated.
Pitch – the highness or lowness of a sound.
Key signatures – consists of sharps and flats.
Scale - is a group of musical notes collected in ascending and descending order.
St. Louis Review Center, Inc-Davao Tel. no. (082) 224-2515 or 222-8732
The vertical relationship between a melody and its accompanying chords or between melodies simultaneously played or sung. TEXTURE – is the relationship of melodies (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) elements in music. Fortissimo (ff) – very loud Pianissimo (pp) – very soft Mezzo Piano (mp) – half soft Mezzo Forte (mf) – half loud Crescendo – gradually becoming louder Decrescendo – gradually becoming softer D. The color of sound produced by the voice and different instruments.consist of two or more melodic lines. Soprano Alto Tenor Bass Orchestral Instruments Rondalla Instruments F. Triad – consists of three notes: the root. TIMBRE – is the qualifying difference between one tone and another. DYNAMICS – the loudness and softness in music. Andante – moderately slow Allegro – fast Moderato – moderately Lento – slow Vivace – lively Presto – very fast Accelerando – gradually becoming faster Ritardando – gradually becoming slower C. HARMONY – is the simultaneous sounding of a group of tones. Monophonic – single unaccompanied melodic line. Tone – smallest unit of a composition Figure – smallest characteristic group of a tone Motive – is a tone group that may be identified with a particular composition Phrase – is a succession of tones arranged in such a way as to give a musical thought Period – a complete musical thought consisting of two phrases in Question and Answer Section – a combination of periods Unitary – consist of one part Binary – consist of two parts Ternary – consist of three parts Rondo – consist of more than three parts E. no. Inc-Davao Tel.TEMPO – rate or speed in music. FORM – the structure or framework of a composition. thickness or thinness. (082) 224-2515 or 222-8732 2 . Louis Review Center. 3rd and 5th Chord – a musical sonority consisting of three or more tones sounded simultaneously II. Polyphonic . Homophonic – one main melody accompanied by chords. PHILIPPINE MUSIC St. Produce qualities of lightness or heaviness. G.
In the urban areas. Indigenous music may be instrumental or vocal. it has absorbed considerable cultural influences from West due primarily to 333 years of Spanish rule and 45 years of American domination. Among the common music and practices are: a) Pabasa – lenten season b) Pasyon – chanting c) Flores de mayo – procession in honor of the Blessed Virgin d) Panunuluyan – sung dialogue on the streets e) Sinulog – dance ritual Numerous instrumental groups performed actively. totally unknown to Asia at that time. Palawan and Mindoro in Southern and Western Philippines. Spanish and American influences are highly evident in the social. the accidental discovery of the Philippines by Ferdinand Magellan brought about Spanish colonization and Christianization that also planted seeds of European harmonic music. the Philippines belongs to the East. Among the indigenous common musical instruments are the following: a) Saggeypo – small pipes of different pitches (kalinga) b) Kollitong – poly chordal zither (kalinga) c) Patatag – xylophone blades (isneg) d) Tongatong – stamping tube (kalinga) e) Bangibang – yoke beam (ifugao) f) Bungkaka – bamboo buzzers (isneg) g) Lantoy – bamboo flute (manobo) h) Gangsa Pattung – with stick (kalinga) i) Gangsa Toppaya – bare palms (kalinga) j) Kubing – jaws harp (tiruray) k) Palendag – long flute (tiruray) l) Suling – short ring flute (tiruray) m) Gandingan – set of four narrow rimmed gongs (maguindanao) n) Dabakan – drum (maguindanao) o) Babandil – narrow rimmed gong with shallow boss (maguindanao) p) Kutyapi – stringed lute (maguindanao) q) Kulintang – a set of graduated gongs (mindanao) Agong Gangsa Diwdiwas Dabakan Gandingan Kulintang Spanish Tradition In 1521. These included orchestras.Geographically. Shaped by cross-cultural contacts with Western and Non-Western traditions. no. Ethnic Traditions The indigenous and Islamic influenced traditions are practiced by about 10% of the entire population. folksongs and music of string and brass ensemble. Spanish influenced and American influenced. Philippine music of today consists of several streams: Indigenous. Inc-Davao Tel. particularly in the second half of the 19 th century. Its oriental background still remains in highland and lowland barrios were indigenous cultures thrive with little Western influence. economic and political aspects of life. Eight percent of this minority is represented by more than 100 language groups living in the mountains of Northern Luzon and in the island of Mindanao. St. In 300 years. these seeds took shape and produced religious music both connected to and outside the liturgy of the Catholic Church. (082) 224-2515 or 222-8732 3 . Louis Review Center. secular music from Europe and European type of music adapted by Filipinos. bands and rondalla.
The Dignity of Labor St. Bituing Marikit. sung to make babies go to sleep. Mutya ng Pasig. harmonic. Lucio San Pedro – 1991 National Artist (Sa Ugoy ng Duyan. the semiclassical music – which encompasses stylized folk songs. Through the new system of public education. a song with dance. Hila-hila – a dramatic song. 2. Non-strophic Song – a non-strophic song is one in which the melody changes according to the thought of each verse. 4. National Song – is one that belongs to the nation. Francisco Santiago – Composer of Pilipinas Kong Mahal. Louis Review Center. Folk Song – is a song of the people and consists of simple melodic. 6. Sa Lupang Sarili) 6. Classification of Songs 1. 7. 2. Composers 1. the classical music – which includes both Western classical music and the art music composed by Filipinos in the Western classical or modern idiom. Ballad – is a class of song particularly common in England and is derived from ballata. The three types of music: 1. no. hymns and marches. Tagumpay – a victory song to commemorate a battle won or to honor the victors. Himutok. each of them set to an identical tune. it was later adapted into a love song and still later into a song of repose.American and Contemporary Traditions The three centuries of Spanish musical influence gave way to changing more introduced by the American regime from 1901 to 1946. (082) 224-2515 or 222-8732 4 . usually written by laymen for popular mass appeal. 3. Sa Mahal Kong Bayan. It is a song of the people. Kundiman (Ako’y Anak ng Dalita). 5. 8. Art Song – is one that meets the requirements of the musical and poetic arts. Balitaw – is song and dance common among Tagalogs and Visayans. Popular Song – is a song of trivial musical and poetic value. Pakiusap. sung when paddling a banca. Kumintang – an ancient native dance and melody of the Christian Pilipinos is an authentic example of pre-Spanish music in the Tagalog areas. Dolores Paterno – Composer of La Flor De Manila 1897 (Sampaguita) 5. Plain Song – is a piece of unisonous vocal music popularly used in Christian church rituals. 3. Nicanor Abelardo – Father of Kundiman (Nasaan Ka Irog. the popular music – which includes music created by Filipinos using Western pop forms and/or local music traditions. The national anthem or hymn. Madaling Araw. Traditional Melodies of the Filipinos 1. is a national song. Tagulaylay – a monotonous melody portraying grief over someone’s death. American teachers introduced the singing of Philippine songs in Western style as other hymns and simple tunes from Europe and America. Inc-Davao Tel. band and rondalla music. 2. with a martial theme. and metric fundamentals. Oyayi – a kind of cradle song. Julian Felipe – Composer of National Anthem (Jose Palma – lyricist) 3. Kundiman – a passionate lyrical song with a theme professing true love. A strophic song falls under the mood song category. Ano Kaya ang Kapalaran. Strophic Song – is a folk or art song consisting of two or more stanzas. 3. 7. Kung Hindi Man) 2. 4. sarswela music. 6. 5. Antonio Molina – Hatinggabi – violin solo – impressionistic style 4. Originally a war song.
Agong C. Dolores Paterno B. Who are the Creative Nationalist Filipino Composers and the National Artist of 1991? A. Folksong C. Bicol St. Sylvia La Torre C. La Flor de Manila or Sampaguita is the composition of _________? A. Jose Palma D. Ethnic period C. Visaya B. This is the period of the pabasa. pasyon and flores de mayo in the Philippines. The Impressionistic composer of Hatinggabi is __________. Jose Palma is the lyricist of the National Anthem. Spanish period D. It is played by the rondalla as part of the repertoire or house music in slow danza habanera tempo and fast tempo. Babandil D. Inc-Davao Tel. Gandingan B. Atang dela Rama 8. Lucio San Pedro D. Sylvia La Torre C. Dolores Paterno B. George Canseco 3. no. A. Louis Review Center. Atang dela Rama The correct answer is C. Option D. Julian Felipe is the composer of National Anthem. At first it was written in Spanish then English and later in tagalog language. American period B. The “reyna” of Zarzuela is ___________. Japanese period 6. Dolores Paterno B. A. From what province is the song Sarungbanggi? A. Conching Rosal D. Gangsa 9. It consists of 3 to 4 pieces of gongs with shallow bossed. Nicanor Abelardo C. (082) 224-2515 or 222-8732 5 . Option B. Conching Rosal D. Lucio San Pedro D. Antonio Molina B. La Flor de Manila or Sampaguita is a song for our country in the period of Spanish by Dolores Paterno. Tagalog C. Levi Celerio B. 2. A. Option A. A. Francisco Santiago 4. The “reyna” of Kundiman is __________. Balitaw D.PART II – ANALYZING TEST ITEMS 1. Ilocano D. Atang dela Rama 7. Julian Felipe C. Kumintang B. Restie Umali C. A. Kundiman 5. Kung Hindi Man is an example of ___________? A. Atang dela Rama is the reyna of Zarzuela.
Augmented B. Balitaw B. Nicanor Abelardo C. Julian Felipe C. Habanera 11. Jose Palma D. Lucio San Pedro D. Francisco Santiago 13. Jose Palma D. (082) 224-2515 or 222-8732 6 .Levi Celerio B. Tagalog C. Lucio San Pedro D. 7 D. Danza D. Flat 19. Diminished B.Augmented D. Register D. Lucio San Pedro B. What do you call this numerical effect? A. Who is the Creative Nationalist Filipino Composer and the national Artist of 1991? A. Is a song and dance common among the Tagalogs and Visayans. Minor C. Francisco Santiago 14. 3 C. Dolores Paterno B. Ilocano D. Rhythm B. 5 B. La FLor de Manila or Sampaguita is the composition of ___________? A. Major 22. Timbre D. Sonority C. 8 20. Levi Celerio 18.George Canseco 17. Pulse D. Who is the composer of National Anthem of the Philippines? A. Atang de la Rosa 15. Antonio Molina C. Nicanor Abelardo D. Visaya B. From what province is the song Dandansoy? A. What chord is fa la do in the key of F? A. Meter St. Nicanor Abelardo D. Which of the following elements is applied when a musical sign that indicates the speed of a song composition has to be sung or played? a. Louis Review Center. Monophonic b. Duration 23. “Sa Ugoy ng Duyan” is a composition by _______? A. Dynamics C. Diminished D. A. Lucio San Pedro B. Restie Umali C. How many notes are needed to form a diatonic scale? A. Tempo 21. The composer of “Pilipinas Kong Mahal” is _________? A. Antonio Molina B. no. Kumintang C. What becomes of the tone when a perfect interval is lowered half step? A. What do you call the grouping of beats in a measure? A. Bicol 12. The impressionistic composer of Hatinggabi is____________ A. Inc-Davao Tel. Dolores Paterno B. Julian Felipe C. The relative loudness or softness of tonal effect is determined by the size of vibrations of the sound waves. Minor C. Atang de la Rama 16.10. Antonio Molina C. Intensity B. Tempo C.
It refers to the element of music which consists of two or more notes played or sung together A. A 23. dabakan.24. A 8. – 11. C 14. – 18. drinking of bubud or fermented rice. It consists of two numbers that tells the number of beats in every measure and the kind of notes that received one beat. Canao 4. Pulse D. Triad D. D 10. Pagpag B. Canao 25. C 15. – 17. a set of eight small gongs of graduated sizes. A. The song and courtship dance of Jolo. Key 2. B 19. Key Signature C. The Ifugao ceremonious occasion with dancing. Harmony B. C 12. D 21. Inc-Davao Tel. Papag D. D 22. A 16. Sua-sua D. D PART III – ENHANCING TEST TAKING SKILLS 1. D 13. C 2.Syncopation 1. A. C 9. no. D 25. (082) 224-2515 or 222-8732 7 . B 6. Rhythm C. Trio C. Ayoweng B. C 24. gandingan and babandil? St. Scale D. C 20. C 4. B 3.Seventh Chord 3. What do you call this ensemble consists of kulintang. Ayoweng C. A. D 5. Sua-sua C. Time Signature B. Louis Review Center. It refers to the dislocation of the strong accents within the measure A. butchering of pigs and speeches is called __________.Tempo B. – 7.
From what province is the folksong Sarong Banggi? A. Major D. Gangsa B. Palabunyibunyan D. Augmented 19. Bass D. Inc-Davao Tel. Where is the location of Do in the staff in the key of E flat? A. Ethnic period C. Motive 15. Pentatonic Scale B. Major 12. Meter D. no. The complete musical thought consisting of two phrases in Question and Answer A. Harmony B.A.Augmented B. Beat C. The highest female voice A. It is a tone group that may be identified with a particular composition. 5th line st B. B. Diatonic Scale C. Progression 21. Tone D. Spanish Period D. It is a group of tones of different pitches which are vertically arranged. Minor C. Period C. Tenor B. Soprano 8. Gangsa B. Texture D. Produce qualities of lightness or heaviness. Tenor B. Melody C. Two notes of the same pitch but different pitch names A. What chord is do mi so in the key of C? A. The instrument played by the Kalinga. Texture D. Whole scale Tone Scale D. Timbre C. A. It is a succession of eight consecutive tones arranged in whole and half step A. What do you call the scale composed of all the twelve tones progressing by half step consistently? A. Melody 17. Bicol 7. Timbre C. Diminished C. A. Chromatic scale D. Saggong C. 1 line D. Tagalog C. Palabunyibunyan D. Saggong C. “Kung Hindi Man” is an example of ______? A.Phrase B. Alto C. B. Rhythm B. Kundiman B. A. 3rd line 13. Period C. Motive 16. Major scale C. Sol-fa Syllable D. What is the scale composed of seven tones-each is whole tone from its nearest neighbor? A. Minor D. 2nd line C. VIsaya B. Organization of beats into groups of three or larger units A. Balitaw D. Minor scale 6. Louis Review Center. Luntang 9. Kumintang 11. Pentatonic Scale B. Octave 10. Section B. (082) 224-2515 or 222-8732 8 . Soprano 22. 2 4 4 B. Melody 20. A. Enharmonic Tones B. Tone D. Section B. Minor scale 18. Japanese Period 14. Luntang 5. American Period B. thickness or thinness A. pasyon and flores de Mayo in the Philippines. Scale D. Ilocano D. The time signature of the song Kundansoy is_____? A. This is the period of the pabasa. 3 6 4 8 St. Folksong C. Movable do C. Chord B. The simultaneous sounding of a group of tones A. 4 C.
Ballad C. – 15. – 17.23. – 21. National Song 1. – 20. It is composed of soprano. – 8. Inc-Davao Tel. TTB D. – 16. B 10. no. Children’s Choir B. - St. Kumintang D. Mixed Choir C. – 19. – 24. – 5. C 6. A 25. – 9. – 13. Plainsong B. C 2. – 23. A. – 14. alto. C 3. Louis Review Center. (082) 224-2515 or 222-8732 9 . – 11. Soprano 24. The color of sound produced by the voice and different instruments A. It is a song that belongs to a nation. – 7. – 22. – 12. tenor and bass A. Texture D. – 18. Tenor B. Atang de la Rosa 25. Timbre C. B 4.
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