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Singapore Mathematical Society

Singapore Mathematical Olympiad (SMO) 2012


Junior Section (First Round)
Tuesday, 29 May 2012 0930-1200 hrs
Instructions to contestants
1. Answer ALL 35 questions.
2. Enter your answers on the answer sheet prvided.
3. For the multiple choice questions, enter your answer on the answer sheet by shading the
bubble containing the letter (A, B, C, D or E) corresponding to the correct answer.
4. For the other short questions, write your answer on the answer sheet and shade the ap
prpriate bubble below your answer.
5. No steps are needed to justify your answers.
6. Each question carries 1 mark.
7. No calculators are allowed.
8. Thrughout this paper, let l x J denote the greatest integer less than or equal to x. For
example, = . ,= .
PLEASE DO NOT TURN OVER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.
1
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Let O and ( be the roots of the quadratic equation x2 + .+ = 1. The smallest possible
value of (O f? is
(A) 0; (B) 1; (C) (D) 3; (E) 4.
It is known that n2
0
12 + n2
0
1
0
is divisible by 10 for some positive integer n. Which of the
following numbers is not a possible value for n?
(A)
(B) 13; (C) 35;
(D) 47; (E) 59.
3. Using the vertices of a cube as vertices, how many triangular pyramid can you form?
(A) 54; (B) 58; (C) 60; (D) 64; (E) 70.
4. AB is a chord of a circle with centre 0. CD is the diameter perpendicular to the chord AB,
with AB closer to C than to D. Given that LAOB = 90, then the quotient
(A) J -1; (B) J;
area of .ABC
area of .AO D
(C) (E)

.
-
5. The diagram below shows that ABCD is a parallelogram and both AE and BE are straight
lines. Let . and G be the intersections of BE with CD and AC respectively. Given that
BG = EF, fnd the quotient DE AE.
E
2
6. Four circles each of radius x and a square are arranged within a circle of radius 8 as shown
in the following fgure.
What is the range of x?
(A) 0 4; (B) 0 < x 8( J + 1); (C) 4- 2J 4;
(D) 4- 2J x 8( J -1); (E) 4- J 4(J 1 ) .
7. Adam has a triangular feld ABC with AB =
5
,
BC = 8 and CA = 11. He intends to
separate the feld into two parts by building a straight fence from A to a point D on side
BC such that AD bisects LBAC. Find the area of the part of the feld ABD.
(A)
4
J
.
11 '
(B)
4
;
(C)
5
J.
11 '
(D)

(E) None of the above.


8. For any real number x, let l x J be the largest integer less than or equal to x and x = x x ,
Let 0 and b be real numbers with b = 0 such that
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
(A) If b is an integer then 0 is an integer;
(B) If 0 is a non-zero integer then b is an integer;
(C) If b is a rational number then 0 is a rational number;
(D) If 0 is a non-zero rational number then b is a rational number;
(E) If b is an even number then 0 is an even number.
3
9. Given that

y=

is an integer. Which of the following is incorrect?


(A) . can admit the value of any non-zero integer;
(B) .can be any positive number;
(C) . can be any negative number;
(D) y can take the value
(E) y can take the value
. Suppose that A, B, C are three teachers working in three diferent schools X, Y, Z and spe
cializing in three diferent subjects: Mathematics, Latin and Music. It is known that
(i) A does not teach Mathematics and B does not work in school Z;
(ii) The teacher in school Z teaches Music;
(iii) The teacher in school X does not teach Latin;
(iv) B does not teach Mathematics.
Which of the following statement is correct?
(A) B works in school X and C works in school Y;
(B) A teaches Latin and works in school Z;
(C) B teaches Latin and works in school Y;
(D) A teaches Music and C teaches Latin;
(E) None of the above.
Short Questions
. . Let 0 and be real numbers such that 0 .

= 75 and

= .

Find the
value of

.F
.
d h f ll
. . .
h h
. ..
.
. m t e sum o a positive mtegers . sue t at
( )( )
I8 an mteger.
. . . .
4
.. Consider the equation
v.

..
J
.

.. = 3.
It i s known that the largest root of the equation i s -k times the smallest root . Find k.
.. Find the four-digit number satisfying
.=
(For example, if = . = = 3 and = 4, then = 1234. )
. Suppose . andy are real numbers satisfying .

. .= Find .
. Let and be positive integers satisfying

= ..
Find the sum of all possible values of
. For any real number . let l .J denote the largest integer less than or equal to . Find the
value of l .J of the smallest . satisfing l .

J l .J

= .
. Suppose , .

are real numbers such that


Find the maximum value of , .

..

. Find the minimum value of


J
.

( )

( . )

( )

(. .
)

Let be a 4-digit integer. When both the frst digit (left-most) and the third digit are
increased by n, and the second digit and the fourth digit are decreased by the new
number is times A. Find the value of A.
. Find the remainder when ..
,

is divided by ..
5
Consider a list of six numbers. When the largest number is removed from the list, the average
is decreased by 1. When the smallest number is removed, the average is increased by 1. When
both the largest and the smallest numbers are removed, the average of the remaining four
numbers is Find the product of the largest and the smallest numbers.
.For each positive integer n 2 1, we defne the recursive relation given by
1
an+l

+an
.
Suppose that a1 a2012. Find the sum of the squares of all possible values of a1.
. A positive integer is called friendly if it is divisible by the sum of its digits. For example,
111 is friendly but 123 is not. Find the number of all two-digit friendly numbers.
In the diagram below, . and . lie on the side .and Flies on the side such that
. .... ....and ...It is given that .. Find x,
where ...
B
F
In the diagram below, and . lie on the x-axis and C(O, .lies on the y-axis such
that . A rectangle ...is inscribed in triangle .Given that the area
of triangle .is 351, calculate the area of the rectangle ...
P
c
A D 0 E B
J
6
27. Let ABCDEF be a regular hexagon. Let G be a point on ED such that EG = 3GD. If the
area of AGEF is 100, fnd the area of the hexagon ABCDEF.
E G D
F
A B
28. Given a packge containing 200 red marbles, 300 blue marbles and 400 green marbles. At each
occasion, you are allowed to withdraw at most one red marble, at most two blue marbles and
a total of at most fve marbles out of the package. Find the minimal number of withdrawals
required to withdraw all the marbles from the package.
29. 3 red marbles, 4 blue marbles and green marbles are distributed to 12 students. Each
student gets one and only one marble. In how many ways can the marbles be distributed so
that Jamy and Jaren get the same colour and Jason gets a green marble?
30. A round cake is cut into n pieces with 3 cuts. Find the product of all possible values of n.
31 . How many triples of non-negative integers (x, y, z) satisfying the equation
xyz + xy + yz + zx + x + y + z = 2012?
32. There are 2012 students in a secondary school. Every student writes a new year card. The
cards are mixed up and randomly distributed to students. Suppose each student gets one
and only one card. Find the expected number of students who get back their own cards.
33. Two players A and B play rock-paper-scissors continuously until player A wins 2 consecutive
games. Suppose each player is equally likely to use each hand-sign in every game. What is
the expected number of games they will play?
7
.. There are .students standing in a circle; they are numbered . .clockwise. The
counting starts fom the frst student number .and proceeds around the circle clockwise.
Alternate students will be eliminated from the circle in the following way: The frst student
stays in the circle while the second student leaves the circle. The third student stays while
the fourth student leaves and so on. When the counting reaches number . it goes back to
number .and the elimination continues until the last student remains. What is the number
of the last student?
. There are people and n chairs in a row, where ,< n. There is a couple among the
people. The number of ways in which all people can be seated such that the couple
is seated together is equal to the number of ways in which the people, without the
couple present, can be seated. Find the smallest value of n.
8
Singapore Mathematical Society
Singapore Mathematical Olympiad (SMO) 2012
Junior Section (First Round)
Multiple Choice Questions
. Answer: (D) .
Since .

+ .+ .= we have a= .and a+ f = Then


(
a
-

=
(
a+

.af =

. .
= .

+ .= . .

+ .. .
The equality holds if and only if = .
Answer: (E) .
Note that

+ .
If = then

+ .and

If = ..or . then .

+ .
If = . then

+ .and

If then

+ .and

. Answer: (B).
There are vertices in a cube. Any . vertices form a triangular pyramid unless they lie on
the same plane.
=
. Answer: (B).
Let the radius of the circle be . Then
sl:AB
c .X .
Sl:AOD Sl:AOD
.X .
=
X .

. .J)
=
J
X .X . . .
9
c
D
Answer: (A) .
.. ..
Let x
.
Then x
..
Note that
.

.. .

.. .

.. .. ..

'
. .

. ..

. ..

..

x
x

. . V
Then x

. and thus x

< x < .
Answer: (D) .
Consider the extreme cases:
.
Then
iL
. and ax

.
7. Answer: (D)
By Heron' s formula,
s6AB
C

,. .
. . . . .
Then
s6ABD
X .X .X sin a .
s6A
C
D
X X .X sin a . .

S6ABD

.
X .

10
.

Answer: (B) .
Note that a = b

= b

+
'

= b

+ b
'


It follows from a = b + b that b = a. Hence, = is an integer.
Obviously, b is not necessary an integer even if a is an integer.
Answer: ( C) .
- x- --
x can take any nonzero real number. If x . then y = = =-=
X X X
.) . .
If x < then y = = = = =
. Answer: ( C) .
X X X X
The assignment is as follows:
in Z, teaches Music; . in Y, teaches Latin; C: in X, teaches Mathematics.
Short Questions
. . Answer: .
. .

= +

Then

=
_
= .+
_
Since a . b, we obtain

= .
. Answer:
N h
x
3
- x + . .
I
.
.
"f d 1
.
f 2 . . ote t at
x

. x + .
= x +
x
2

. t 1s an mteger I an on y I x -
Then x2 .= . .... . ....
Hence, x = ... .and + .+ .+ + ..=
.. Answer:
. .
..

Let y =
v3x2 -
8x + .

Then the equation becomes


y +
y.y2
. . = .

Then y3y2 -
. . = . y. Squaring both sides, we have 3y
2
- . . = 6y + y
2
; that is,
y
2
+ 3y - .=

Then y = or y = (rej ected because y 2

Solve 3x
2
- 8x + . = 2
2
. Then x = . and x = .

Hence, = . .

Answer:

Rewrite the equation as the following:




+ . 0

Since is the last digit of is even; since + . .

So = or = .

If = . then 2 + .= and thus = but then the last digit of would be a


contradiction.
If = then 2 + .= and the last digit of is so =

The equation reduces to




+ .
.
There are cases : either + .= and = .+ which has no integer solution; or
+ .= .+ and + .= .+ which gives =

Answer: . .

Complete the square: (x - ..


2
+ (y - .

Then x = . . and y = .thus xy = ..

Answer: .

Rearranging, we have

.= .
_
=
.

= .

. .
Then ( .

It follows that .= . .

So = . . . . . .. and = . . . respectively.
N t th t
. . . .
h
.
o e a = -1s a positiVe mteger. T en = -= .or = -=

. .
12
. Answer:
Write ..,Then . .,

.,

. < .,.
So ., and .

,.

On the other hand, .v is a solution.


. Answer: .
,

. ,J J

. " .
.
. . .. ..

.X
X ..

.
The equality holds if and only if .

. Answer:
As shown below,

. .

. . . .
.. . ..
A

' =

Answer: ..

_

_.

.
_

"
-
C
%
J
=X C\
V
V
S
V

\
j
.
_
^
,
,
`_
_
_

,
,
.
Let the 4-digit number be Then
.. .
It gives or equivalently, ( .
Note that .and are relatively prime and ..is a prime number. We must have
. -. So or .
If . then .. which is impossible since < So and ` ..
13
. Answer: .
Note that ..

@
. (mod .. Then
..

@
..

X
@
.

X
@
. (mod ..
Answer: 375.
Let and be the smallest and the largest numbers. Then

5
Solving the system, 15 and 25. Then 375.
23. Answer: 3.
. .+ 3
Let

Then


5
--,
. . . . In general,
. .
..

where .

.and .

.+ .

for all n .
.

If


then ..

Since .

. we have

. Let O and ( be the roots of

. Then
24. Answer: .


Smce

. we have

Case . If 3 then and thus We have ..
. .
Case If 3 but then .and .

3. If

. then
. .
we have ...If

then 2b, we have ... If

3, then

we have .
Case 3: If then or . If . then which is impossible.
If then we have friendly numbers .27 ....72 .
Therefore, in total there are 23 2-digit friendly numbers.
25. Answer: .
Since . .... .. Let ......x0 Then ..
.. x0 and ..2x0, . 2x0
. .
B
F
It is given that 3x = 2(9 0 - x) . Then x = 36. So x = 180 - (90 - x) - (90 - 2x) = 3x = 108.
26. Answer: 468.
30
2
.
(20 + 45) X 30
Note that =
20
= 45. Then the area of .IS
2
= 975.
Let the height of .be h. Then
h

351 3
2
h 3
30
=
975
=
_
30 - h
=
2
Note that the rectangle ...has the same base as . Then its area is
2
351 X _ X 2 = 468
27. Answer: 240.
We may assume that ..= 1 and denote A = .= 3 4.
. .+A
.
1. .. 1 +A 1 . + 2A
...
=

4
-
Imp Ies
...

4
-
-
_
8
.... 6 .. 1 + 2A
Note that
...
= _. Then
.... 6
12
If ..= 100, then ....= 100 `

= 240.
28. Answer: 200.
r
r
r
r
r
.
.
r
r
r
r
. A .

.~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.
15
5
12
Since at most one red marble can be withdrawn each time, it requires at least withdrawals.
On the other hand, is possible. For example,
.

. ..

. = . .
Answer: ..
Case 1: Jamy and Jaren both take red marbles. So . red, . blue and . green marbles are
distributed to students:
X ,= .
Case Jamy and Jaren both take blue marbles. So .red, blue and .green marbles are
distributed to students:
X ,
= .
Case . Jamy and Jaren both take green marbles. So .red, .blue and green marbles are
distributed to students. The number is the same as case
.. .= ..
. Answer: .
With three cuts, a round cake can be cut into at least ..= .pieces, and at most
...= pieces. Moreover, n = . are all possible. .` ` ` = .
.. Answer:
(
x . . . = ..= .` ..` .
I f all x, are positive, there are .= solutions.
If exactly one of x, is there are .` = .solutions.
If exactly two of x, are there are .solutions.
. .=
. Answer: .
For each student , the probability that he gets back his card is

.
.
Then the expectation

.
of the whole class I8 .`
.
= .
16
.. Answer: .
Let . be the expectation. If A does not win, the probability i s .and the game restarts.
If A wins and then does not win, the probability i s . . .and the game restarts. The
probability that A wins two consecutive games is . . . . Then
.
._ X .._ X ._ `
Solving the equation, we get ..
.. Answer: .
If there are ..

students, then the ..student is the last one leaving the circle.
Suppose . ..students have lef. Among the remaining ..students, the last
student is ` ...
. Answer: .
. ` `
= ,
`

,
` Then

.
1

"
That is,

. We can solve


.
.
Note that the square of any odd number has the form Choose so that .
i. e. , . . Then = .
17
Singapore Mathematical Society
Singapore Mathematical Olympiad (SMO) 212
(Junior Section, Round 2)
Saturday, 23 June 2012 0930-1230
1. L-t 0 |- t|--ct:-|++:+||-|:+cABCD +c!P |-+cy |ct |ct|-|+c-
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2. U-s t|-:- -x|st +c|ct--:A sa| t|+t -+| |t|-t-c!||ts c,,
+-+:s
-x+t|yc-+s+!||t|c-x+t|yc-|t|-cac|-:sA, A
2
, A
3
.
3. lc LABC, t|--xt-:c+|||s-t:s | LA +c! LB c--t +t + |ct D. l:v- t|+t
t|-|:ac-ct:-|LABD +c!t|-|atsC, D ||- ct|-s+c-st:+||t||c-
4. U-t-:c|c-t|- v+|a-s |t|-s|t|v- |ct--: I |: w|||t|- |||w|c syst-c |
-a+t|cs |+s + s|at|c|cs|t|v- |ct--:s x1, x
2
, e e , Xn. l|c! +|| s|at|cs |:
-+|su|I.
Xl X
2
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=
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Xn
,,
, .,
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, e e , a15 |s+s-t|15 !|st|cts|t|v- |ct--:s|s-c|:c
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:|c-cac|-: ,Nt-`Iws|t|v-|ct--:s! I +:-:|c-||t|-|:c|yccc
|+t:|s ,
18
Singapore Mathematical Society
Singapore Mathematical Olympiad (SMO) 212
(Junior Section, Round 2 solutions)
1. |c-MN II AB
II
CD, w-|+v-MQN" CDQ. H-c-MN - AB/2 - CD/2.
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19
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20
Singapore Mathematical Society
Singapore Mathematical Olympiad (SMO) 2012
Senior Section (First Round)
Tesday, 29 May 2012
Instructions to contestants
1. Answer ALL 35 questions.
2. Enter your answers on the answer sheet prvided.
0930-1200 hrs
3. For the multiple choice questions, enter your answer on the answer sheet by shading
the bubble containing the letter (A, B, C, D or E) corresponding to the correct
answer.
4- For the other short questions, write your answer on the answer sheet and shade the
appropriate bubble below your answer.
5. No steps are needed to justify your answers.
6. Each question carries 1 mark.
7. No calculators are allowed.
8. Throughout this paper, let . denote the greatest integer less than or equal to ..
For example, .. - ., :. + - :.
PLEASE DO NOT TURN OVER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO
21
Multiple Choice Questions
as-O +rc( +:-:-+|raab-:st|+ts+t|sy t|--a+t|r
.
-
.

J .

J - c
l|rct|-v+|a-

(A
)
:

{ )
(C)
:

{ )
(E) Nr-t|-+bv-
. l|rc t|-v+|a-
,u,

{
)
,U,

{ )
.c
-
' .c. .c: .c:
-
' .c1 .c
(A
)
(C)
(E)

.c.
.c1
: : : :
-
.

-
:

-
::

-
:
-

: : : :
-
.

-
:

-
:
-

-
:
,

: : : :
-
.

-
:

-
:
,

-
:

,u,
,U,
: : : :
-
.

-
:

-
::

-
:
-

: : : :
-
.

-
:

-
:
,

-
:

: I|- |r:-+s|rs-a-r-T - . : : c rs|sts+||s|t|v- |rt-


-:s w||| +:-rt-:-tsa+:-s \|+t|st|-.c.t|t-:aT?
(A
)
.c ,u, .c (C) .c: ,U, .c (E) .c
1 L-t0 b-t|--rt-:t|-|rs:||-c|:|-t:|+r|-B:+rcDb-t|-|rtr
:w|t|D1:. lB- c :- B:- , |rc:D.
(A
)
1 ,u, 1 (C) ,U, (E)
22
l|:!t|-v+|a-|
(A)
1
,u,
s:s|:::s|c
-
:s
-
:
s:s|c

:1s|c
-
:s
-
:

(C) ,U, (E) s:s|::


| t|- :ts | t|- -a+t|: x
-
:. = c +:- +|s t|- :ts | t|- -a+t|:
.ax
-
bx = c,|:!t|-v+|a-|a b 1
(A) : , u, : (C) ,U, : (E)
: l|:!t|-saa|t|-digits |+||:aa|-:s|:t|- s-a-c-,.,:,1, ,ccc.
(A) 1c ,u, .+ (C) :c ,U, 1++cc (E) N:-|t|- +|v-
. l|:!t|-:aa|-:|:-+|s|at|:stt|--a+t|:
w|-:-x |sa-+sa:-!|::+!|+cs
(A) :c , u, :. (C) .
J
.
cc
- sr.,
,U, : (E) 1
+ :t|-t:|+:|- ^B:, B= :, .B:= 1c +:!t|-|:t D .s ::sa|
t|+tBD|st|-+:|-||s-t:|.B:.|BD|s-xt-:!-!tt|-|:t Esa|t|+t
DE= D, |:!.E:.

(A) .c ,u, :c (C) 1c (E) c


c -|! +:!! |-s|t|v-|:t--:ssa|t|+t! . I. |t|-|+stt|:--!||ts|.c.
+:1.c.+:-|!-:t|+| , |:!t|-sa+||-stss|||-v+|a-|! I.
(A) + ,u, cc (C) c. ,U, c1 (E) Nc-|t|- +|v-
23
Short Questions
.. L-t

+c!|-|a:!|st|c.ts|t|v-:-+|car|-:st|+ts+t|st|--a+t|cs

_
.c
+c!

_
.c
i|c!t|-v+|a-|

. U-t-:r|c-t|-tt+|car|-:|+|:s||ct--:s. +c! ,t|+ts+t|s|,t|--a+t|c


. . .
Y Y
.
3
' .-
: G|v-c+s-tS
_
. . .,+.||-.t|c .|sa|s-ts|S|ss+|!t|-intersecting
|||: +c,tw sa|s-tsA +c!B.c., w- |+v- A n B, 0. \|+t |st|-r+x|rar
s|z-|.:
. I|- s-t +.ct+|cs+||t|-|ct-:+|v+|a-s| sa.|t|+tt|- |,cr|+|
. . .

., .
|+s-|t|-:c-:--+t-!:tw!|st|c.t|ct-:+|:ts l|c!t|-car|-:|-|-r-cts
| +
. l|c!t|-r|c|rarv+|a-|

.s . s|c .

s|c..s.
.s ..
. l|c!t|-car|-:|w+,st+::+c-t|-|-tt-:sA, A, u, u, C, C, U+c!E |c+||c-,
sa.|t|+tt|-:-+:-c.cs-.at|v-|!-ct|.+||-tt-:s.
.as-.
_
3
V
2
+
Iog
3
x
|s+c|ct--:. U-t-:r|c-t|-v+|a-|.
. L-t .|-t|-|,cr|+|.
.
.

., .w|-:-
.

,
+c!

+:-!|st|c.t|ct--:s. G|v-ct|+t.
_
.c.,-v+|a+t-
.

. as- .

.
+c!A +:-s|t|v-:-+|car|-:ssa.|t|+t
.
_
.
.
_
.
..
_

_
.
i|c!t|-v+|a-..
.

24
.c. l|:! t|- |-+st v+|a-|t|- -x:-ss|c .. , |-ct|+t ..+:- s|t|v-
:-+|:aa|-:ss+t|s|ct|--a+t|c
....- .
.. l:-+.|:-+|caa|-:.|-t.|-t|-a|:|aaa|t|-caa|-:s.,.. +c!
-..1.U-t-:a|:-t|-a+x|aaav+|a-|..c..
... l|:!t|-caa|-:|+|:s(A, B) |!|st|:.tsa|s-ts| ,.,3, 1,., sa.|t|+tA |s
+:-:sa|s-t|B. Nt- t|+t A .+:|-+c-at,s-t.
.:. l|:!t|-saa|+||t|-|:t-:+|v+|a-s| . t|+ts+t|s|,

.3- 1

.- .
.1. G|v-:t|+t
S-
v
...-
v .. .
,
|::-+|v+|a-s|.|c!t|-a+x|aaav+|a-|S
... I|:-- |:t--:s+:-s-|-.t-!|:a t|- s-t S- ,.,3, ...,, .c . l|:! t|- :aa|-:
|s-|-.t|:sw|-:-t|-saa|t|-t|:--|:t--:s|s!|v|s|||-|,3.
.. :t|-!|+:+a|-|w, ABCD |s +.,.||.a+!:||+t-:+| w|t| AB - AC. I|- ||c-
FG |st+c-cttt|-.|:.|-+t t|-|ct C, +c!|s+:+||-|tBD. l|AB - +c!
BC - 1,|:!t|-v+|a-|3AE.
A
25
.:. Iw\-|Q|t-+rs, A +c!B, -+.|.r:|s|c|:r-r|-:s,t+|-c-+.|t|-:|c
+.r-t|t|c. I|-|+,-:sc-+.|t-+r+:- |-|!-!|c+|x-!s-a-c.-. I|-|:st
+r-|s|+,-!|,t|-|:st|+,-:|-+.|t-+r. I|-|s|c|+,-:|s-||r|c+t-!w|||-
t|-w|cc|c|+,-:st+ysct|+,w|t|t|-c-xt|+,-:|t|-s|ct-+r. I||s
.ct|ca-sact||c-t-+r|s.r|-t-|,-||r|c+t-!+c!t|-sa:v|v|ct-ar-r-:-s+s
t|-|c+|w|cc-: t|as,,|-|!|c+ss|||-+r|cat.r-. i|c!t|-tt+|car|-:
|ss|||-+r|cat.r-s.
.. G|v-ct|+tI (.s (s|c ,+c!I ( .- s|c (.s ,

w|-:-+c!,+:-
t|-asa+|ac|tv-.t:s+|ct|-.+x|s+c!t|-,+x|s:-s-.t|v-|,, +c!E ,T .-) .
l|t|-|-ct|:r+c|ta!-|t|-v-.t:II |s|v-c|, II 8
',
|c!t|-
v+|a-|..s ( i) ..
.. G|v-ct|+t t|- :-+|car|-:s., , +c!s+t|s|-st|- .c!|t|c. ,:, |c!
t|-r+x|rarv+|a-|(.,
vz .
:
:,
.

..
:c. L-t(.) |-+|,cr|+||!-:--:1sa.|t|+t ,!, ! ,!) |:+|||ct--:s
!- c . :1. Ev+|a+t-1.1cZ (:.)
:. G|v-ct|+t|s+c+.at-+c|-s+t|s|,|c
v:
:c .s
v.11
1c s|c ..c
|c!t|-v+|a-|1ct+c.
:.. G|v-ct|+t

+:-:-+|car|-:ssa.|t|+t


+c!
,

U-t-:r|c-t|-r+x|rarv+|a-|CJ.
::. L-tL !-ct-t|-r|c|rarv+|a-|t|-at|-ct|+:!||tcar|-:|:r-!|yt|:--
!|st|c.t!||ts!|v|!-!|,t|-sar||ts!||ts. U-t-:r|c- L c
:1. i|c!t|-|+st.!||ts|
:.. L-t |-t|-|ct--:c-+:-sttyi. i|c!t|-v+|a-|
26
Singapore Mathematical Society
Singapore Mathematical Olympiad (SMO) 2012
Senior Section (First Round Solutions)
Multiple Choice Questions
. Acsw-: ,U,
Nt-t|+ta ( -
.

.+c!a( -

.
. Acsw-: ,E,
_

_
-
()
3
- 3a((a ()
a3 (3
,af) 3

.
~
,.

.
-
.
. .
27
: A:sw-: (C)
Nt- t|+t 11
-
= :, 1.
-
= .c.. +:!1
-
= . .,:, ,.c. |+s +t ast
.c. 11t-:as l:t|-.c.t|t-:a,w-:--!t+!!t|-11:aa|-:s|:a.c:t
.c. uat |:!|:s, w- +:-.a:t|:1.
-
= .c.., st|- .c.t|t-:a s|a|1 |-
.c.+ 11+ = .c.:
1 A:sw-: ( C)
B
AC |s t+:-:t t t|- .|:.|- +t D, |y .:st:a.t|: E +:! F +s s|w:, w- |+v-
CD= CF, AD= AE +:! BE= BF. |v|:|:t|-a:|:w:s|v-CD= .
. A:sw-: ,U,
.s

.+ s|:

.1s|:
-
..s
-
.
= ,.s
-
.+ s|:
-
.) (s|:

.+ .s

. s|:
-
..s
-
.) 1s|:
-
..s
-
.
= (s|:..s.+ :s|:
-
..s
-
J) .
A:sw-: (u)
\- |+v-t|-|+.t:|z+t|:
( .
-
+ :. ) ( .
-
+ . ) = .

+ ax
2
+ -.+
Ca+:|:.-m.|-:ts|v-:+ = c, + : = a +:!: = - \-.+:
s|v-t|-s--a+t|:st|t+|:a+ -+ 1 = :
: A:sw-: ( C)
Aa:+||:aa|-:sw|t|::|-ss!||ts,-+.|i, i = c,,., ,,+-+:s-x+.t|y:cc
t|a-s I|ast|-saa|t|-!||ts|+||t|-:aa|-:s|:t|-s-a-:.-,.,:,1, ,
|s
:cc(+ .+
. . .
+ ) = :.cc,
+:!st|- +:sw-:|s:.c
28
A:sw-:: ,U,
|:.- _s|: ._, w-|+v- cc_._cc. \- +|s|s-:v-t|+|:-<cc<
:.-.
l: -+.| |:t--:! w|t| _!_ ,
:

= s|:. |+s -x+.t|, tw s|at|:s |:


.,!~,- ,.! ,-, |at|t|+s:s|at|:s|:, , .! ,- .!-,. I|ast||s-a+t|:
|+s-x+.t|, :.:::-+t|v-:-+|s|a||:s, | - .= c+:!-x+.t|,:s|t|v- :-+|
s|at|:s I|-:|t+|s|+s-x+.t|,::-+t|v-:-+|s|at|:s,|v|:+tt+||:.
. A:sw-:: (C)
C:st:a.t+|:t F :EC sa.|t|+tEF =EA. |:.-LAED LFED, 6AED
|s.::a-:t | 6F ED.
I|as DF = DA = DE +:! LFDE = LADE = c. \- +|s |+v- LEDC =
LADE= c,w||.||r||-st|+tLFDC = c+:!6CFD |s.::a-:tt6CED.
:.:.|as|:, LEG D = LFC D = 1c.
A
E
c. A:sw-:: ,U,
\- w+:tts|v-.c.

.c. (r!ccc,w||.||s-a|v+|-:tt
|:.- ,. , |s!!, w-ras||+v- .sI _ .. t:-r+|:st.|-.|t|+t
. . | - . (r!., . L-t , |- Ea|-: s || |a:.t|: As
,,.,= . . = cc,|,Ea|-: st|-:-r,w-|:wt|+t||-sr+||-st I rast
|- +|+.|:|cc. u,.|-.||:+||ss|||-|+.t:s, w- .+:.:.|a!- I= cc
+:!s||-sr+||-stss|||-v+|a-|: I |sc1s|:.-I _ ..
29
Short Questions
. A:sw-:: !c
-tA =
-
:
-
,B =-
-
:
-
,C =
-
:
-
+:!D=1
-
:
-
. I|-:A +:!B +:-!st:t:ts
|t|--a+t:,. C, ,. D,=!c. I|ast|-:!at| :ts, AB =CD!c
+:!CD AB =!c.
!. A:sw-::
Nt-t|+t .+:! ,rasts+ts(
!
:
:=,,,~!,.
\-|:st +ssar- . _ c, w|| r-+:s |t|, +:! ,~! +:- -v-: :t--:s. Et|-:
: , : : ,~!. : t|- |:st +s-, +ssar: , . c, w- |+v- , = :!' +:!
,~!=!,:

!''~, =!
:
'. I|-:|y w+y|:t|s -a+t: t||! s!=
+:!.=:. ,., ,, ,~!, = ,:, ,,.
:t|-+s-: ,~!, +ssar:,. c,w-|+v-,~!=: !'+:! , = !,: !'
:
,=
!
:
'. Nwt|- :|y ss|||ty s!=+:!.=!, s,., ,, ,~!,= ,!, 1,,
:t|-tw:-vas+s-s,w-a|!+|s|+v-|t|,+:!y ~!t|-:-+tv-,v:
,., ,, ,~ =, :, ,, : , ., , 1,.
l:+||y, w-:s!-: . < c s : = !',,,~!,. :t|s +s-w-+: :|y |+v-
.=+
t
! ,., ,, , ~!, = , , , :,:, , :, ,.
H-:-ss||-,., ,,+:s+:-,:, , , , :, , , ,!, 1, , ,!, , , ,, , +:!,, :,.
:. A:sw-:: .!
|A E 7t|-:t|- r|-r-:t S nA f 7 +t rst |+|||+||t|-sa|s-ts|S
+:|-|:t7 t|+ts
!
:
7 2 =.!.
Ea+|ty ||!s|-+as-w-+:t+|-7t|- +||sa|s-ts|S :t+::.
1. A:sw-:: 1
|=, t|-|y:r+|:-!a-st !.+ =cw|||+s::t-:+|:ts.
l: ,t|-|y:r+||+t:z-s+s , ,!. , , , , . , ,wt|:ts.=r
+:!. =

'
.
l::t-:+|:ts, rast |- -v-: +:! rast !v!- . I|-
:|y ss|||-v+|a-s+:-=!, c, !+:!1. +|+s1-|-r-:ts.
.. A:sw-:: !
Nt-t|+t s!.=s
-
. s:
-
..

s:.~s.~
s. s:.

s|:.~s.~
.


es !. sn.~s .
-tw =s.:.~ s.+:!r:rz- lw ~I

uy A:G: :-a+|ty, |w s stv- t|-: t|- r:rar |w ~ s !: |w s


:-+tv-,t|-:t|-r+xrar|w + s!. I|-:-|:-,t|-r:rar|lw ~I s
!.
30
. Acsw-: ...c
\-s|+||as-t|-l:|c.||-|c.|as|c+c!Ex.|as|c. I|-:-+:-

w+,st+::+c-
||- |-tt-:sw|t|at:-st:|.t|c. I|-:-+:-

w+,st+::+c-t|- |-tt-:ssa.|t|+t
|t|t|-As..a:.cs-.at|v-|,. ,Nt-t|+tt||s|st|-s+a-caa|-:||w-as-u:
C|cst-+!|A.,
I|-:- +:- w+,st +::+c- t|- |-tt-:ssa.|t|+t|t|As+c!us+:-.cs-.at|v-.
,A+|ct||scaa|-: |s t|-s+a-|: t|-:ss|||-+|:s., l|c+||,t|-:-+:-. w+,s
t+::+c-t|-|-tt-:ssa.|t|+tAs, us+c!Cs..a:.cs-.at|v-|,.
l:t|-:-||-:.cs-.at|v-|!-ct|.+||-tt-:s,tt+|:aa|-:|w+,s|s
:. Acsw-:

-
_

.!.!.!
:

.!.!
:

.!
. ...c
I+||c|+:|t|a, w- -t |
,
.
.
|
,
.L-t .|
,
.I|-c|,ss|||-
s|at|c|:.
.
.|s.. I|-:-|:-..


. Acsw-: :
I|-:|a-|+.t:|z+t|c|.c.| s.

c:. L-t b c1. |a, +:- !|st|c.t, s+:-


b- a,, |.-. (b- a, ) ,

(b- a

) , (b- a,) +c! (b- a


,
) aas| |- -x+.t|,t|-
|ct--:s - .
-
2 c: . aaa|ca,w-|+v-
,c1, (a,

a

a, a,
) . .c:
Acsw-: 1
:a|t||,|ct|- |:st t|:---a+t|cs|, ..+c!:-s-.t|v-|,,w-|+v-
...

|c.-c+c!.

,w-!-!a.-t|+t.

, .. .
}
!

@ xyz @ x
3
@
,
+c

6
x
2

- 6V"
H-c.-
.c. A:sw-: .
O|s-:v-t|+t

.. .

...

..... ._ .
.
w|-:-t|- -a+||t, ||!s ||+c!c|,||.. L-t.+c! . .- , t|-c
w-|+v-t|-a|:|aaav+|a-.|:.. .
31
. Acsw-: .c.
L-t I,,I

,I, :-:-s-ct t|- t|:-- ||c-s y .+ ,y .+ . +c!y .+


:-s-.t|v-|,.
O|s-:v-t|+t I
,
+c!I
-
|ct-:s-.ts+t
G,
D
,
I, +c! I, |ct-:s-.ts+t (, :,, +c! I
-
+c!I,|ct-:s-.ts+t I|as
.
1.~,
7
3'
. + .,
b
3'
..+
.1.
.r
,

1 .
, ,

.3

I|as t|- r+x|rarv+|a- |.|s +c! t|- r+x|rar v+|a- |.+ .c. |s
.c..
.. Acsw-::
|c.- B .+cct |- -rt,, t|- car|-: -|-r-cts |c B |s |-tw--c t A|-:
|.||cB w|t|!-|-r-cts, t|-:-+:-.' ss|||-sa|s-ts|B w||.|a+|||-s|:
A, +sA +c!B rast |- !|st|c.t. I|as t|-tt+|car|-:|ss|||||t|-s|s
.:. Acsw-:
t

,.'

,
t
,.'

t
.

t
+ ,

,+ ,


I|--a+t|c.+c|-:-w:|tt-c+s

( ., -+ C- :, .
| - _ :, |t :-!a.-st - + - - : |.-. - :||c
. c.
|- _ ., |t :-!a.-s t . - + : - |.-. - . |v|c
.
|.- :,|.-. . c,|t:-!a.-st, .+ : ,w||.|
|st:a-|:+||v+|a-s|.|-tw--c +c!c.
H-c.-t|-sar |+|| |ct-:+|s|at|cs|s+ + :+ + + c
.1. Acsw-:
S ,.
+ ., -
+ ,c ,
,. + ,
-
+ ,c ., .
32
L-t = .c, , = .+cc B = . tl-c S :-:-s-cts tl- c|a-:-c-
|-tw--ctl-|-ctls+ccB. S|sr+x|rarwl-ctl-|cts, +ccB+:-
|||c-+:+cctl+ta:swl-c= .c,.
Ilastl-r+x|rarv+|a-|S
4
=
Acsw-:: .
l+:t|t|c S|rttl:--sa|s-ts+:c|cttl-|::-s|ca-srca|.S

= . .,
81 = . . +cc 82 = . c :c-: |: tl- sar|tl:--|ct--:s
t|-c|v|s|||-|y.-|tl-:+||tl:--rast|-|ct-x+t|yc-Si :+||tl:--rast
|-|ctc|a-:-ct si.
H-c-tt+|car|-r|sall|-s|s () _,Z .Z .=.
Acsw-:: c
|c-BD
II
Ec+ccEc|st+r-ctttl-|:|-+t :, w-l+v-
B:E= cBE = D:c=BD:=B:.
:tl-:r:-
BE:=B:BE= cBEBE=B:= :.
\- +c t|-c c|ac- tl+t BE = B: = D: = A|s, ^BE |s s|r||+: t
^D:E. |w-|-tE=.
DE E
D:
=
B
- DE =
,
.
uytl-ct-:s-t|cCl:cIl-:-r, EE:= BEED, |. -. ..= .
wl|l|v-s. =
1
3
, s:E=..=.
. Acsw-:: ..
\-as-a1, a2, , a7 +ccb1, b2, , b7 tc-ct-tl-|+y-:s|I-+r+rcI-+rB,
:-s-t|v-|y. Ass|||-+r|catr-+c|-:-:-s-rt-c|y+||c-+:s-a-c-|
tl- -|v- .t-:rs. l: |cst+c-, w-r+yl+v-a1a2b1b2a3b3b
4
b5a
4
b5b7a5a6a7 wl|l
|cc|+t-s|+y-: .|||w-c|y|+y-: |:rI-+rw-:--||r|c+t-c|:st , +cct|-
tl|:c|+y-: -||r|c+t-cw+s|+y-: .:rt-+rB. Hw-v-: I-+r -r-:-ct|-
|c+| w|cc-: +s +|| s-v-c |+y-:s | I-+r B -ts -||r|c+t-c w|tla5, a6 +cc a7
:-r+|c|c ac-||r|c+t-c. (Nt-a6 +rc a7 c-v-r +ta+||y|+y-c. ) Ilas, ++r|c
atr-+c|-|:r-c|yls|c.at|.ss|||-s|t|cs|:I-+r,w|tl
tl- :-r+|c|c |||-c |y I-+rB |+y-:s. Il-:-|:-, tl- tt+| car|-: |+r|c
atr-s|s|v-c|y C
7
4
) =
c2
=..
33
. Acsw-:: 1

II

.Js .Js|c
.

1 s

(
+

.J

|c-T <
(
< .-, w- |+v- 7 < i < 7. I|as, s ( i) < I||s |r||-s
t|+ts ( i) - +c!|-c-
s

1
. Acsw-::
Us|ct|-AM-GM |c-a+||ty,w-|+v-
f(x
v.
x


:
.

.
x
_

{. {

.

2x
+
13

3y
+
5
..
8
z
+
1
2
...
< 4

.
1 .
4(x )
4

I|--aa||ty|s+||-v-!+t
x
, 1 +c!.
:c Acsw-::
L-to :1 +c! Q(x) (x 1)
P
(x)-x
I|-c Q(x) |s +|yca|+| !-:--o1 +c! Q(k) : +||!1 . o
I|ast|-:-|s+cst+ct C sa|t|+t
Q
(x) (x
1
)
P(x)-x

Cx(x-1)(x-.)
(x
-o)
L-tt|c
x
-1 |v-s
1 C( -1)( .)
( o 1) C( -1)n
+
l (n 1)!
I|asC ( -1)n
+
l
(o1)! +c!

_
1
_
_

1
_

( -1)n
+
lx(x-1)(x-.)
(x
-o)
P(x)
-
1
(x+Q(x))
-
1
x+
( 1)
1 . . o
1 (-1)n
+
1
(n+1)
1
1 o
..(o

..

o . (o) o . o .
34

s|c-I :1|s-v-c. H-c-
.

...

:. Acsw-:: :c
L-t
v:
:csO +c!.
.
s|cO. O|s-:v-t|+t

. .sO
.

. sO
+c!.

sw- +ccst:at+:||t+c|-!t:|+c|-BD
+ss|wc.

c
.
y

B~
D
c+:t|a|+: B: O +c! :BD O. \-+c|-|t|+t ^:B|s|c
+ts|a||+:t^B D. DB O +c!
:!. A:sw-:: .
.


.
\-s|+|| +|yt|-||w|c|c-a+||ty:

|:- +c!

w-|+v-
.

|. -. .I|as :::: .
..
.. .H-c- .
.. A:sw-:: .
At|:--!||tcaa|-:+c|--x:-ss-!+s . . +c!sw-+:-a|c|a|z|c
.
..

35
O|s-:v-t|+t w|t|!|st|ct!||ts.|+st|-a|c|aaav+|a-w|-c
I|asw-+ssaa-t|+t
Net-t|+t
.
..
.


\-e|s-:v-cewt|+t.|sa|c|aaaw|-c
..

.
.
.
.

New.|sa|c|aaaw|-c
..
.
.
.. ...
.

...
.. .. ..
w||| |+s t|- a|c|aaa v+|a- w|-c
...
.+c! se . ...+c!
. Acsw-::
L-t ..

+c!f .

|c-.. |se!!. f .,ae!. New|-t


c |- Ea|-: s||act|ec, .+c!c
(
.uyEa|-: st|-e:-a,
..

..

.. ,ae!
w|-:- t|-|+st ec:a-c-+c |- +|a|+t-!|yt|- -xt-c!-!Ea||!-+c+|e:|t|a.
I|as|y:--+t-!sa+:|c,w-|+v-
. .

@
,ae! .
:. Acsw-::
Net-t|+t ,o ,
-
o
-

se,o
-
o|at,o
-
..e-+|
e t|- s-a-c-s ,o ,o, ,_
:
.. , +c! ,o,o, ,_
:
. ,
|c:-+s-s|y.e:-v-:y|c:-a-cteo|y.-x-tw|-co

lo

w- |+v- o ,o,
-
+c! ,o.,o.

set|- e:a-: s-a-c-|+s


-v-:y -:-t sa+:- :--+t-!ec-. Oc t|-et|-: |+c!, |o

w- |+v-
o,o,

|at ,o.,o.

set|-|+tt-:s-a-c-
ea|ts-v-:y-:-tsa+:-. I|as
`
G)
)()

(
)

)()

)() `

)()
(r
.

.
@
`

_
,
_
,
_
,

_
,

,
,

,

36
Singapore Mathematical Society
Singapore Mathematical Olympiad (SMO) 212
(Senior Section, Round 2)
Saturday, 23 June 2012 0900-1300
1. A |:|- . t|:a| t|- |c-ct:- I |+ t:|+c|- B: +c! t+c-ct t B +t ,
|ct-:s-tst|-s-a-ctB:+t.+c!t|--xt-cs|c|B:+t.l:v-t|+tt|-||c-
I:|ct-:s-ts. +t +|ct M sa|t|+t. .
2. U-t-:a|c- +|| s|t|v-|ct--:s sa|t|+t -a+|s t|- sa+:-|t|-saa|t|-
!||ts|
3. l| sa+:-s+:-|:-!:-!|c+Z |+:!, s|wt|+tt|-:-|s+2 Z 2 |||c
t|-|+:!|cw|||+t|-+st:|t|-sa+:-s+:-|:-!:-!.
an an+l |-+|c|t-s-a-c-|:-+|caa|-:ss+t|s|y|c
ao an+l
+c! ak
-
1 -2ak ak+l _ . : .2
l:v-t|+t. . .
< .
ak
2
5. l:v-t|+t|:+cy:-+|caa|-:sa C _ w|t|a C- 2,
37
Singapore Mathematical Society
Singapore Mathematical Olympiad (SMO) 212
(Senior Section, Round 2 solutions)
1. 1|cAD, ID, IA ac!AE. L-tIE |ct-:s-tAC atN. We |av-LIAN = LIAB =
LIEA st|att|-t:|ac|-sNIA ac!AlE a:-s|c||a: 1|asLAN!= LEAl= LIDB.
A|s LDCI =LNG!. I|-:-|:-, t|-t:|ac|-sDC! ac!NCI a:- c:a-ct H-c-
LDIC = LNIC |c|y|cMD= ME.

2. L-t s (o) !-ct- t|- sac | a|| t|- !||ts | I. as- o |s a s|t|v- |ct--:
sa| t|at s (o)

= o L-t s(o) = ! s t|at o= !

I|-c s(!

) = s (o) = ! L-t
c

,
! < lOr, w|-:-f |sas|t|v- |ct--: I|at |s! |as -xat|yf !||ts. lc
c

,
!, w-|av-f | !+ lc!< c, w-|av-!

< c

st|at!

|asat
cst . !||ts I|-r-|:-, s(!

) Z . = | !+ w||||s|-sst|ac!||
!_ c I|ast|--aat|cs (!

) = !|ascs|at|c|c!|| !_ c
L-t!< cac!s(!

) = ! Ia||cc! w--t!

! (c! I|as! c,
(c! I|a| |s!= , c, ,+, .:, ., :, ::, 1,1 Oc|yw|-c!= acc!=
w-|av-s (!

) = ! I|-::-sc!|cs|at|cs|:oa:-o = :
3. as-t|at at cst . saa:-s a:- |:-!:-!|cacy . Z . saa:- I|-c |cacy
Z . |||, t|-:- a:- at cstc:-!saa:-s ::-v-:, ||t|-:- a:- c:-!saa:-s,
t|-ct|-:-uast |- |c-a|:w
38
Nw|-tt|-cac|-:|:-!saa:-s|c:wi |t|-+Z +|a:!|-ri. I|-cri +ri+1 :
10, 1 :i : as-t|at sc-ri .w|t|i !! I|-c
(r1 + r
2
) + + (ri
-
2
+ ri
-
1) + ri + + (rs + rg) :1Z .+ 5 - 1
Oct|-t|-:|ac!,sas-t|atr1, r
3
, r5, r7, rg _6. I|-ct|-sac|acy2 cs-at|v-
, s|s:+
(r1 + r
2
) + + (r7 + rs) + rg 1Z + + +- 1..
4. L-t bk -
k
(
n
-
1
-
k
)
.
I|-c bo -bn+l - ac! bk
-
1 -2bk + bk+l - -1 |:! -
1, 2 .. I. as-t|-:--x|stsac |c!-x i sa|t|at ai > bi, t|-ct|- s-a-c-a0 -
b0, ... , an+1 -bn+1 |asas|t|v-t-:c L-t,|-t|-|c!-xsa|t|ata
j-
1 -bj
-
1 < aj -bj
ac!a
j
-b
j
|ast|-|a:-stva|a- I|-c
(a
j-
1-b
j-
1) + (a
j
+l-b
j+1) < 2(a
j
-b
j
)

Us|c
ak
-
1 -2ak + ak+1 _-1 ac! bk
-
1 -2bk + bk+1 --1 |:a||!
w-|ta|c
(a
j-
1-bj
-
1) + (a
j
+1-b
j+1) _ 2(aj-b
j
)
act:a!|t|c I|asak :bk |:a||! |c||a:|y,w-acs|wt|atak _-bk |:a||!
ac!t|-:-|:- ak :bk as:-a|:-!
5. l|:st ct- t|at (ae + bd)(ad +be) _ (ab- ed)
2
. I s-- t||s, we cay assac-
a _ e _ d _ b s|c-a+ b - e +d. I|-ced-ab _ A|sw- |av- t|-tw|v|as
|c-aa||t|-sae + bd _ ed-ab ac!ad+ be _ed-ab. :a|t||y|ct|-ct-t|-:w--t
(ae + bd)(ad +be) _ (ab-cd)
2
. N-xt
(a
2
+ e
2
)(a
2
+ d
2
)(b
2
+ e
2
)(b
2
+ d
2
)
-{ (ae + bd)(ad +be)-(ab-ed)
2
)
2
+ (ab-ed)
2
+
(
(a + b )
2
( e + d)
2
-1
) ( ab -ed)2
-{ (ae + bd)(ad +be)-(ab-ed)
2
)
2
+ 16(ab-ed)
2
_

ac
+
bd
ad+ b
e
)
'
-
(
oh-
cd)
2 r
+ 16(ab-cd)
2
|yA:G:
-

a
+
b)
'
c
+d)
'
-(ab-cd)
2 r
+ 16(ab-
cd)
'
-{1 (ab-ed)
2
)
2
+ 16(ab-ed)
2
.
I||s|ca|-x:-ss|c|sac|c:-as|c|act|c|( ab -cd)
2
. I|- |a:-stva|a-|( ab -
ed)
2
|s 1 w|-c (a, b, e, d) - (1, 1,

2), (1, 1, 2,
2, 1, 1), (2, 1, 1). Ccs-a-ct|y,
{1 (ab-cd)
2
)
2
+ 16(ab-ed)
2
:.., :v|ct|-|c-aa||ty.
39
Singapore Mathematical Society
Singapore Mathematical Olympiad (SMO) 212
(Open Section, First Round)
Wednesday, 30 May 2012 0930-1200 hrs
Instructions to contestants
1. Answer ALL 25 questions.
2. Write your answers in the answer sheet prvided and shade the appropriate bubbles below
your answers.
3. No steps are needed to justify your answers.
4. Each question carries 1 mark.
5. No calculators are allowed.
PLEASE DO NOT TURN OVER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO
40
Throughout this paper, let L x denote the greatest integer less than or equal to x. For example,
2. 1,= 2, 3. 9,= 3 This notation is used in Questions 2, 10, 16, 17, 18 and 22
_
.
1 . The sum of the squares of 50 consecutive odd integers is 300850. Find the largest odd
integer whose square is the last term of this sum.
1000
2. Find the value of
L
log
2
k

/

. 2
3. Given that fx
_
is a polynomial of degree 2012, and that f k= _ for k = 1 , 2, 3, , 2013,
fnd the value of 2014 ` f 2014 .
4. Find the total number of sets of positive integers x, y, z , where x, y and z are positive
integers, with x < y < z such that
x + y + z = 203.
5. There are a few integers n such that n
2
+ n + 1 divides n
2
013
+ 61 . Find the sum of the
squares of these integers.
6. It is given that the sequence
_
c

,
, with a
1
= c
= 2, is given by the recurrence relation
2
01 1
for all n = 2, 3, 4, . Find the integer that i s closest t o the value of
L
c
/,

/

c
/
7. Determine the largest even positive integer which cannot be expressed as the sum of two
composite odd positive integers.
8. The lengths of the sides of a triangle are successive terms of a geometric progression. Let
A and C be the smallest and largest interior angles of the triangle respectively. If the
shortest side has length 16 em and
sin A - 2 sin B + 3 sin C 19
sin G - 2 sin B + 3 sin A
fnd the perimeter of the triangle in centimetres.
9. Find the least positive integral value of n for which the equation
x
+ X+ + X
=
2002
2
00
2
has integer solutions x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, , Xn

41
10. Let an be a real root of the cubic equation nx
3
+ 2x - n 0, where n is a positive integer.
1
2
013
If fn n + 1)anJ for n 2 3 4


, fnd the value of
1006
L

k=
2
1 1 . In the diagram below, the point D lies inside the triangle .such that ...
and .. 90 . Given that . 5 and .6, and the point M is the midpoint of
fnd the value of 8 ` DM
2
.
12. Suppose the real numbers x and y satisfy the equations
x
3
- 3x
2
+ 5x 1 and y
3
- 3y
2
+ 5y 5
Find x + y.
13. The product of two of the four roots of the quartic equation x
4
-18x
3
+kx
2
+200x-1984 0
is -32. Determine the value of k.
14. Determine the smallest integer n with n ? 2 such that
is an integer.
15. Given that f is a real-valued function on the set of all real numbers such that for any real
numbers a and b,
fafb ab
Find the value of f 201 1 .
16. The solutions to the equation x
3
- 4 x,5, where x is a real number, are denoted by
k
XI X
2
X
3
. . .
X
k
for some positive integer k. Find
L
x .
i=l
17. Determine the maximum integer solution of the equation

+
. . .
+

1001
1 ! 2 ! 3 ! 10!
42
. Let B, be the three angles of a triangle. Let .be the maximum value of
sin .+ sin ..+ sin .
Determine .. ,
. Determine the number of sets of solutions
_
r, p, .) , where r, p and . are integers, of the
the equation r

+ p

+ .


We can fnd sets of ..distinct positive integers that add up to .. Find the largest
possible greatest common divisor of these ..distinct positive integers.
. Determine the maximum number of diferent sets consisting of three terms which form an
arithmetic progressions that can be chosen fom a sequence of real numbers c, , c
, , c,

, ,
where
Find the value of the series
. . +

/,

/
. The sequence
_
r

,
is defned recursively by
~
+
J
)
~,

. ~
J
)

with r,

. Determine the value of ~,

, ~,

. Determine the maximum value of the following expression


- _
, ~
-
~

-~,
-
~

,
where r, , r , , r

,, are distinct numbers in the set . . . , ..


.
,


/ /
.

Evaluate

,, L
_
. .

/
43
Singapore Mathematical Society
Singapore Mathematical Olympiad (SMO) 212
(Open Section, First Round Solutions)
. .....
Solution. ...,.X + X + . X + . ...
(X + 2) 2 + (X +
4
) 2 + + (X + .

= .
.y = X + ...,.,.,.....
[
(y
- 49
) 2 + (y +
49
) 2
] + [ (y -
.

+ (y + .

+ . . . + [
(y
- 1) 2
+ (y + .

= .
.....,..
50y2 + 2( 12 + 32 + 52 + 72 + . . . + .

= .

. .

..,...

+ .

. 2 =
,
n
3

,
..y = .
X = . ...........
.
...
Solution. .

...

:: t <

1
...,

t =
............
S
) ...
s =
. ....
J 1
0
2
3
2 2
llog
2
t
j + ,

.
L
,

t
j

2
k 9<
2
k+l t=l00l
( J ) 1
0
2
3
_

+ .
tl

.+ . . =
'
Solution. .,.= .. ..,..,...,.. ., =
, = ,.= = , .. = ....
,.= . . . . . . . ..

...,= = .. .....=
..
..
,..=
.
.. = ..

..
....,... ..= .
44
.
4. .......

.

Solution. .....

..,...,..
(x, y, ......,... ................
......x y, .... .....,. . , .
.............(x, x, .........
.(x, y, x) ..(x, y, y) . .x < y < .......
.
...
Solution. .n

. . . ........n

.
...n

.(n

. .........n

. .
n


.n

*
.
...... ....n


. .......
. ... .. .
. .. ....,...
. .... ..
. . . . . ..,...
......,.. . ...... ......

.....
Solution. .........

c,,

'
.

...., ..
....,.
c_, .

. .
-;- 2 -

....,..., . . ..

c
/
_

.
-

.

...
.

c
/
.

.
....,...,..
,
...
45
.
'
....
Solution. ...,..,.......,,....
........,. . . .. .
.. . .........,. ....
.,..........,........ . .....
......,..........,...,..,. D
8. ...
Solution. ...,........,..... . ...

. .

. .
... . ...

..

...,..
3
., .

.,.
D
... .
Solution. . ... . . ....` .. ...

... ..,..,.. .,......


.... . .......,
X X X X
XX
......... ........ ..
.


.
.

.
.
.




............,

..... .....,
... D
. ....
. ..
. . .... .....,..
.. o ..

.

2 . . . 0. ..........

.
2 .....

., ....

.-

. < .
.
.. . ,2 ....

-1 k

.
...
.

. .

46
D
I I

Answer: 22
Solution. Extend CD to E such that CD = DE.

It is clear that DCDB and DEDB are congruent . Hence EB = CB = and LBED
LBCD. Thus, LBED = LBCD = LBAD implies that the points B, D, A are E are
concyclic. Given that LBDC = goo , hence LEDB = goo . BDAE is a cyclic quadrilateral
with EB as a diameter. Thus, LEAB = goo . In the right-angled triangle EAB, we have
Since D and M are the midpoints of EC and AC respectively, DM = AE =

Thus,
8 x DM
2
= 22. D
I

Answer: 2
Solution. From r

_
.

5r = I , we have
(
. I
_

(
. I
_
= -2,
and from p

_
p

5p 5, we have
Thus
_
p I
_

_
p I
_
= 2.
0
(
. I
_

(
. I
_

_
p I
_

_
p I
_
=
(
.p
) ( (
. I
_
(
.

_ _
p I
_

_
p
_ _

(.p 2
)
=
(.p
2
) (
2 (.

_
(
. I
_ _
p I
_

_
p
I
_ _

For any real numbers . and p, we always have
(
. I
_
(
. I
_ _
p I
_
+
_
p I
_
0
and thus .p 2 = 0, implying that .p = 2.
47
D
.. Answer:
Solution. Let be the four roots of .

...

. . .such that
. Then
{ .


..
Since .and . . we have Then, from
we have
. .+ .
Solving this equation together with the equation . gives that
. ..
Fom we have
.
.. Answer: ..
Solution. Assume that
and so
+ . .

Thus . . implying that .or 5(mod


Case 1: n 5 .
'
Then

. .. . Since . and .. . are relatively prime, both must


be squares. So there are positive integers and such that .

and .. .

Thus .

+ . But, as .

O(mod .and

. .or 2 (mod . there are no


integers and such that .

. Hence Case .cannot happen.


Case 2: .
Then

.. .. Since ..and .+ .are relatively prime, both must be


squares. So there are positive integers and such that ..

and ..

Then .

. . Observe that in the left-hand side, every prime factor except


. has an even power. So neither .nor .can be a prime other than .
Now we consider positive integers such that neither .nor .can be a prime
other than .If . then .and . So we consider 2: The next smallest
suitable value for is .. When .. we have
.

25 X
and . 15, implying that and so R ... '
48
15. Answer: 2011
Fom the recurrence relation, . = f( 1) b and f(f(b) f( 1) ) = 1. Hence, =
f( 1) b. By letting = /( 1 ) , we obtain f(f( 1 ) ) = (f( 1 ) )
2
. Also, from the given functional
equation, we have f(f( 1 ) ) = 1, hence (!( 1) )
2
= 1 , following that /( 1) is either 1 or -1 .
Hence f(201 1 ) = 201 1 . D
16. Answer: 19
Solution. Note that . 1 < . .

Note that i f .2: . there will be no solution as


.

. .,2 .
..= ..

.2: . = 15.
Also, i f . -2, there will be no solution as . ..,< . . .- 1) = . .

.. .

Hence the solution must be in the interval ( -2, .

..= -2, then .= . giving .= N, which is a solution.


..= -1 , then .= 1, giving .= 1 which contradicts with .= -1 .
If .,= 0, then .= hence there is no solution.
..,= 1 , then .= 9. Since 2 < W < . there is no solution.
..,= 2, then .= 13. Since 2 < m < .X = m is a solution.
Thus, the required answer is .13 = 10.
17. Answer: .
Solution. It is clear that

D
is a monotone increasing function of . and when .= 6! , the above expression has a value
larger than 1001 . Thus each solution of the equation

+
,

!
= 1001
is less than 6! and so if . is a solution, then

,
As . < 6! , it has a unique expression of the form
X = a X 5! X 4! C X 3! X 2!

where 0,

are non-negative integer with a . . 2,

1 . Note that
if
X = a X 5! X 4! C X 3! X 2!

then

= 206a ..10c .

Since ..10c .

201 , we have 800 206a 1001 and so a = .

Thus
.. .

= 1 77,
49
which implies that = 4 and so on, giving that C = = 1 and

= 0. Thus
X = 4 X 5! + 4 X 4! + 1 X 3! + 1 X 2! + 0 = 584.
As 584 is the only integer solution, the answer is 584.
D
18. Answer: 25
Solution. We shall show that -2 : sin 3A + sin 3B + sin 3C : 3v/2.
Assume that A : B : C. Then A : 60 . Thus sin 3A 2 0. It i s clear that sin 3B 2 -1 and
sin 3C 2: -1 . Thus sin 3A + sin 3B + sin 3C 2: -2. Let B = C. Then B = C = goo - A/2.
If A i s very small, B and C are close to goo , and thus sin 3A + sin 3B + sin 3C is close to
-2.
Now we show that sin 3A +sin 3B +sin 3C : 3v/2. First the upper bound can be reached
when A = B = 20 and C = 140 .
Let X = 3A, Y = 3B and Z = 3( C - 120 ) . Then X + Y + Z = 180 and
sin 3A + sin 3B + sin 3C = sin X + sin Y + sin Z.
Suppose that X, Y, Z satisf the condition that X+ Y +Z = 1 80 such that sin X +sin Y +
sin Z has the maximum value. We can then show that X = Y = Z.
Assume that X :: Y :: Z. If X < Z, then
implying that
. . .
X + Z X - Z
.
X + Z
sm X + sm Z = 2 sm
2
cos
2
< 2 sm
2
,
.
X
.
y
.
z
.
X + Z
.
y
.
X + Z
+ + <
2
+ +
2
which contradicts the assumption that sin X +sin Y +sin Z has the maximum value. Hence
X = Y = Z = 60 , implying that A = 20 , B = 20 and C = 140 and
sin 3A + sin 3B + sin 3C = 3v/2.
Since y 1 . 732, the answer i s then obtained. D
1 g. Answer: 1
Solution. Note that x = 0, y = 0 and z = 0 is a solution of this equation. We shall show
that this is its only integer solution by proving that if x, y, z is a solution of this equation
and whenever x, y, z are divisible by 2k , they are also divisible by 2k
+
1
for any k 2: 0.
Let x =
2k
x
'
, y = 2ky' and z = 2k z
'
. Then x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= x
2
y
2
i s changed to
It i s easy to verif that only when x
'
, y
'
, z
'
are all even, x
'2
+ y
'2
+ z
1
2
and
2
2
k
x
1
2
y
'2
have
the same remainder when divided by 4. Thus x, y, z are divisible by 2
k+
1
.
D
50
Answer: .
Solution. Let d be the greatest common divisor (gcd) of these 13 distinct positive integers.
Then these ..integers can be represented as da1 , da2 , , da13 , where gcd(a1 , a2 , , a13 ) =
. Let S denote a1 + a2 + + a13 Then Sd = ..In order for d to be the largest pos
sible, S must be the smallest . Since S ;: .+ + 3 + + .3 = . and that S divides ..
and that ..= ` 3 ` 7 ` . the smallest possible value of S can be ` . = . and
the largest value of d is thus . By choosing (a1 , a2 , a3 , , a12 , a13 ) = . 2, 3, , . .
we conclude that d = . is possible. D
. Answer:
Solution. First , for the following particular sequence, there are really diferent
three-term arithmetic progressions which can be chosen from this sequence:
. 3,

..
They are 8, 8 for all integers 8, with . 8 < . and t, t for all integers
and t with < t ..
Now we show that for any given sequence of real numbers a1 < a2 < < aw1 , there are
at most diferent three-term arithmetic progressions which can be chosen from this
sequence.
Let as , a
i
, at represent a three-term arithmetic progression. It is clear that i .
If 2 . then the frst term as has at most .choices, as 8 must be an index in
. 2, , .If . then the third term at has at most .. choices, as t
must be an index in + . + , ..
So the number of diferent three-term arithmetic progressions which can be chosen from
this sequence is at most
5
1 1
00
_ . + _ .. = .+ 2 +
. . .
+ 5o + .+ 2 +
. . .
+ .= 25oo.
i=
2
i=5
2
Answer: . .
Solution. Write x : = x L x Then
Thus, we have
Applying the above result for x =
; ,
if

<
1
2 2
otherwise
` , , '
k=O
.
n.
In particular, when n = . . the infnite series converges to . .
.
D
D
23. Answer: 0
Solution. Let ~
= tan o


Since 2 - = tan (
{)
, it follows that
tan o

+ tan ( ) 7
~
i
= tan an
+
I =
(

)
= tan o

+
12 1 - tan o

tan
i

So, ~,
= tan
_
o

+ 7) = tan o

~
, implying that this sequence has a period of 12.
Observe that 1001 5(mod 12) and 401 5(mod 12) . Consequently,
~,
ai ~,


= ~, ~, = 0
D
24. Answer: 2013
Solution. First i t i s clear that the answer i s an integer between 0 and 2014. But i t cannot
be 2014, as ~
i ~

~

~, ~

j, and
~
i
+ ~
+ + ~

j, = 1
+
2 + + 2014 = 1007 X 2015
have the same parity.
Now we j ust need to show that 2013 can be achieved. For any integer k,
Thus
25. Answer: 1
( 4k + 2) - ( 4k + 4) - ( 4k + 5) - ( 4k + 3) = 0
2 - 4 5 3

. . .
( 4k + 2) - ( 4k + 4) - ( 4k + 5) ( 4k + 3)
-2010 - 2012 - 2013 - 201 1 - 2014 - 1
0 - 2014 - 1 2013
D
Solution. Consider the complex number J = cos J + i sin J . On one hand, using the
binomial theorem one has
T T

Re cos _ + i sin _
( V)

Re

+ i _

o
2
12

i
_
_

_
+
20
4
12

+

+

1
1 -
2012 2012
.
_i

2012

i

_
2 +
_
4
+ +
2012
52
On the other hand, using the De Moivre' s theorem one has
Thus ,
Re(
w2
01
2
) = Re

cos
.

+
i
sin
.

,= cos
.

= cos

=
-

3 3 3 3

3
.
, 3
2

,

- 3
1004

.
, 3
1006

.
, = -

22
01
2

+ .
+
.
+
.
so that

3
.
, 3
2

.
,

- 3
100
4

.
, 3
1006

.
, =
22
01 1

+ . +
.
+
.
.
53
D
Singapore Mathematical Society
Singapore Mathematical Olympiad (SMO) 212
(Open Section, Round 2)
Saturday, 30 June 2012 0900-1300
1. I|-|c|:|-w|t|-ct:-.|t|-t:|ac|-B:ta|-st|-s|!-sB:, :ac!B
at ..ac! .:-s-t|v-|y I|- ||c- ..|ct-:s-tst|-s-c-ct. . at K l:v-
t|at, Ka.!: a:-|||c-a:w|-:- :|st|-c|!|ct|B:.
2. l|c!a|||a.t|cs . I I st|at
.+ . . . - .. .+ .
|:a||..E J
3. l: -a| i - , ., . ,N, |-t ai, bi , ci |- |ct--:s sa| t|at at |-ast c- |t|-c|s
!! |wt|atc-ac|c!|ct--:s. . z sa|t|atxai + ybi + zci |s!!|:at
|-ast1N .!|a-:-ctva|a-s|i .
4. L-tp |-ac!!:|c- :v-t|at

.

. .

+ .
.
+ :
.

+
. . .
+

p
(c!p
)
.
5. I|-:-a:- .c. !|st|.t |cts|ct|- |ac- -a| |w||||s t |- |a:-!as|c
c-|I |a:sst|att|-cac|-:||cts|-a||a:a:-!|st|ct As-t |
I |cts|ssa|!t|-ca|t||a:-!||t|-|:|a:sa:-!|st|ct U-t-:c|c-I t|at
cax|c|z-st|-cac|-:|ca|t||a:-!s-ts
54
1.
Singapore Mathematical Society
Singapore Mathematical Olympiad (SMO) 212
(Open Section, Round 2 solutions)
.
! C
L-t t|- ||c- K|ct-:s-t :+t : \-s|+|| :v- t|+t : |st|-c.!|ct |:
|c-.EIK=.+c!.EIK=.:, w-|+v-
A|s
I|-:-|:-,
Cc-a-ct|y,
EK
EK s|c .EIK s|c B
EK s|c .EIK s|c :

E E EK
s|c.E K s|c.K E s|c.KE s|c.K E

s|c .EAK
s|c .KAE
EK s|c
EK s|c :

+ : : s|c .EK s|c :


:+
=
:

::
=
s|c s|c .KE
=
l ,
st|+t : =::
55
2. as-t|+t |s+s|at|c L-t
.

. .
.
=

.
+c!,= I|-c
. , ,. = . , .
+c!,.=,.=c L-tt|c,=.+c! , = .+|v-|v-
I|as
. ,= . ,.
,.= ,
. ,= . ,.= . ,
|:+|| ,=c|:+||H-c-= \-+c |-|!|:-t|yt|+t+cy
|act|c|t|.s|:c|:sc- J) s+t|s|-st|- |v-c-a+t|c
3. Ccs|!-:+||t|- :t:.|-s . w|-:-.Z +:--|t|-:c:.|atct +||c l:
-+| +t|-+stc-|t|-cac|-:s |s!! I|as+cct|-:sacs
:+:--vcc+c!1+:-!! H-c-t|-:-+:-+|t-t|-:1N!!sacs I|ast|-:-|s||-
| .|:w|||+t|-+st1N:|t|-::-sc!|csacs+:-!! Ya+ct||c|
|+t+||-w|-:-t|-:ws+:-cac|-:-!. ,N +c!t|-|accs::-sc!tt|-
:||-s|t|-t:||-s . I|-:-ct:|-s|c:w+:-t|-:sacs .
I|ast|-:-+:-1!!cac|-:s|c-+|:w,c+||c+tt+||1N!!sacs|ct|-t+||-
|c-t|-:-+:-:|accs ,c-|t|-|accscastct+|c+t|-+st1N :!!sacs
4. l|:st , |: -+| =.

,
P
;
1
,
,
=
(,.,

, . .

.

. c!,
, . .
H-c-
(
p-
1
)
/
2 (
p-
1
)
/
2


(
p-
1
)
/
2

L
p-
2
L
p-
2
' P
p-
1 P
'
=

' -
L. '
, ,
i
=
1 i
=
1 i
=
1 .

(
p-1
)
/
2
,
=


c!, |yl-:c+t sL|tt|-I|-:-c
,
L..

i
=
1
I|-|+stsacc+t|cactst|--v-cs|z-!cc-ctysa|s-ts|+,-|-c-cts-t ,|w|||
t|-:-+:-
P
-1
.
56
5. L-t m1 < m
2
< < mn |- t|- cac|-: | |cts | -+| |a: \- +||
m1, m
2
, . . . , mn t|- |a: !|st:||at|c I|-c m1 + + mn - .+c! t|- cac
|-:|ca|t||a:-!s-ts |s:- m1m
2
. . . mn. \-|+v-t|-|||w|c|s-:v+t|cs
,|, m1 > 1 . l: ||m1 - .t|-c m1m
2
. . . mn < m
2
m
3
. . . mn
-1(1 + mn,

I||s
c-+cs||w-as-n-.|a:sw|t||a:!|st:||at|cm
2
, m
3
, . . . , mn_1, .+ mn), w-
|t+|c+|+:-::
,||, mi+1 -mi : |: +||i . l:| |t|-:--x|sts!w|t|mk+1 -mk _ .t|-ct|-
|a:!|st:||at|cw|t|mk, mk+1 :-|+-!|ymk + .mk+1 -.y|-|!s+|+:-::
,|||, mi+1 -mi - |: +t cst c-i . l:| |t|-:--x|st i < , w|t|mi+1 -mi -
m
j+1 -m
j
- t|-|a: !|st:||at|c w|t| mi, m
j+1 :-|+-! |y mi + .m
j+1 - .
y|-|!s+|a:-::
,|v, mi+1 -mi - |: -x+t|yc- i. l:| |mi+1 -mi - .|: +||i , t|-cm1 +
+ mn - nm1 +
n
(
n
2
-
1
)
- .- .I|asn(2m1 .+ n) - .|c-.
|s :|a-, t|- +:|ty|n +c! m1 .+ n +:- s|t-+c! m1 .+ n > n, w-|+v-
n - +c!m1 - I|-|a:!|st:||at|cw|t|m1 :-|+-!|ytwcac|-:s
,as|cn + .|a:s,y|-|!s+|+:-::
,v, m1 - l|mn - mn
-
1 - t|-c |:c ,|v, , w- |+v- m1 + + mn -
nm1
n
(
n
2
-
1
)
+ .- .I|asn(2m1 .+ I) - ..|c-..|s:|c-,w--t
n - +c!m1 - .w|||w||||-+!t+ct:+!|t|c+s|c,|v, I|asmn -mn_1 - .
mi+1 -mi - |: sc- .: i : n as-m1 _ .L-t m' - mi+
2
- I|-c
mi < m' < mi+1 w|t|:-|+|cmi+
2
|ym' y|-|!s+|+:-:: I|asm1 -
lct|-+|v- +c+|ys|s, w|t|n |a:s, w- s--t|+t t|-|a:!|st:||at|c.
. . . , i- .i + .i + . . . , n + .n + w|t|: : i : n, y|-|!st|-c+x|cac: Nw
w-|+v-_mi - (n + ., ,n + ) i - .I|asn
2
5n-- i, .:: i : n, | - ,
n
2
+ _ +c! n
2
+ . I|as n - .+c!i - .I|ast|-c+x|cac |s
+||-v-!w|-cn - .w|t|t|- |a:!|st:||at|c .
57