and c are material
constants. The calculated parameters, the material constants (c) for the investigated different steel
grades, the superalloy and the different aluminium alloys are listed in Table 5 (bm = base material,
wm = weld metal).
292 Materials Science, Testing and Informatics I
Table 4 Mechanical properties of the investigated materials
Material grade Yield strength
R
y
[N/mm
2
]
Tensile strength
R
m
[N/mm
2
]
Elongation
A
5
[%]
Reduction of area
Z [%]
Source
37C 269 405 33.5 63.5 own
A106B 317 496 36.0 [9]
A515 Grade70 318 633 [10]
KL7D 392 535 19.0 own
DX52 396 543 25.0 71.0 own
X80TM 540 625 25.1 73.1 own
QStE690TM_FCG 768 854 20.0 own
StE690_LCF 743 885 57 [11]
Waspaloy_LCF 927 (21C) 1310 (21C) [12]
809 (650C) 1127 (650C)
AlMg3 127.7 217.9 27.0 [14]
AlMg5_FCG 185 288 14.5 [14]
AlMg5.1Mn_LCF 235 400 34.6 [15]
AlMg4.5Mn_FCG 230 296 18.0 [14]
AlMg4.5Mn_LCF 226 348 17.0 22.5 [15]
2024T6_FCG 304 476 35.0 [16]
2024T4_LCF 332 432 17.3 [15]
7075T6_FCG 533 594 9.2 [17]
7075T6_LCF 470 580 33.0 [15]
Fatigue crack growth tests. The fatigue crack growth rate measurements were made on
compact tension (CT) and three point bending (TPB) specimens, in air. Steels and aluminium alloys
were tested at room temperature, with a sinusoidal loading function and the superalloy was
investigated at elevated temperature (650C), with trapezoidal wave form. The stress ratio was R =
0 0,1. The crack size was determined by optical method and using the compliance method. From
the collected data and results of the fatigue crack growth measurements the exponent (n) and the
constant (C) of the ParisErdogan equation [19] have been determined:
,
n
da
C K
dN
= D (2)
where da/dN is the fatigue crack growth rate, DK is the stress intensity factor range. In each case
first we have calculated the related part of the kinetic diagram of the fatigue crack growth (da/dN
DK diagram), then we have determined the two material constants (C and n) with linear regression.
From these results we have calculated the average of the data measured on 326 specimens. The
average and standard deviation values of the exponent (n) are also listed in Table 5.
Standard deviation coefficients (standard deviation/average) of fatigue crack growth tests are
generally less than 0.2, which means reliable and reproducible test procedure.
Evaluation of the Results
In our earlier works we showed that there is a correlation between the two parameters of both the
MansonCoffin and the ParisErdogan equation [20]. Fig. 4 shows the correlation between the C
and n parameters of the ParisErdogan law for steels (270 data pairs) and their welded joints (111
data pairs), under mode I and mixed mode I+II loading conditions [21].
Materials Science Forum Vols. 414415 293
Table 5 Parameters of the MansonCoffin and the ParisErdogan equation
Material grade MansonCoffin equation, c ParisErdogan equation (R = 0.1), n
average standard deviation
37C 0.287 3.44 0.311
A106B 0.487 3.52
A515 Grade70_bm 0.553 3.6 (R = 0.03)
A515 Grade70_wm 0.709 3.2 (R = 0.03)
KL7D 0.498 3.36 0.381
DX52 0.784 3.11 0.140
X80TM 0.478 2.49 0.561
QStE690TM_FCG 2.39 0.498
StE690_LCF 0.659
Waspaloy (650C)_FCG 3.66 (R = 0.05) 0.195
Waspaloy (650C)_LCF 0.721
AlMg3 0.787 3.37 0.503
AlMg5_FCG 3.71 0.405
AlMg5.1Mn_LCF 0.655
AlMg4.5Mn_FCG 3.57 0.444
AlMg4.5Mn_LCF 0.755
2024T6_FCG 2.21 (R = 0)
2024T4_LCF 0.649
7075T6_FCG 2.13
7075T6_LCF 0.987
Fig. 4 Connection between the two ParisErdogan constants for steels and their welded joints
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
17 15 13 11 9 7 5
ParisErdogan constant, lgC
P
a
r
i
s

E
r
d
o
g
a
n
e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
,
n
Base materials (mode I and I+II)
Welded joints (mode I)
Linear (Base materials (mode I and I+II))
Linear (Welded joints (mode I))
Mode I:
D DD D
K
Mixed mode I+II:
D DD D
K
eff
da/dN: mm/cycle;
D DD D
K,
D DD D
K
eff
: MPa m
1/2
294 Materials Science, Testing and Informatics I
Based on these results it is sufficient to study the relationship of the two exponents (c and n).
Fig. 5 shows the relation of these material constants.
Fig. 5 Connection between the exponents of MansonCoffin and ParisErdogan equations
Despite of the relatively few measurement data we can establish that there is an admissible
connection between the exponents of the MansonCoffin equation characterising low cycle fatigue
and the ParisErdogan law describing fatigue crack growth.
The connection among the steel groups with different microstructures is different, which is
demonstrated by the example of five microalloyed steels (37C, A106B, A515 Grade70, KL7D,
DX52) and two grades of thermomechanically treated steels (X80TM, QStE690TM/StE690). Both
the results from base materials and from weld metals can be used for the evaluation of the
connections.
The connection between the aluminium alloy groups of different microstructures is different, too,
which is demonstrated by the example of some alloys without hardening (AlMg3,
AlMg5.1Mn/AlMg5, AlMg4.5Mn) and other alloys with hardening (2024T6/2024T4, 7076T6).
It is probable, that there is a third connection for superalloys. There is only one data point for this
material group, therefore the verification of this assumption requires further investigations.
Comparison of the various material grades (e.g. microalloyed steels aluminium alloys, or
microalloyed steels stainless steels, or microalloyed steels superalloys), and comparison of the
results corresponding to the same material group at various temperatures requires further
investigations.
Summary
Based on the theoretical considerations and the experimental results the following establishments
can be made.
In the plastic zone in front of the crack tip the time dependence of the stress is similar in case of
low cycle fatigue and fatigue crack growth.
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2
MansonCoffin exponent, c
P
a
r
i
s

E
r
d
o
g
a
n
e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
,
n
37C, A106B, A515Gr70 bm/wm, KL7D, DX52
X80TM, QStE690TM/StE690
AlMg3, AlMg5/AlMg5.1Mn, AlMg4.5Mn
2024T6/2024T4, 7075T6
Waspaloy
Materials Science Forum Vols. 414415 295
The cyclic plastic deformation results in near the same cell type of dislocation structure in case
of low cycle fatigue and fatigue crack growth.
There is a connection between the exponents of the MansonCoffin equation characterising low
cycle fatigue and the ParisErdogan law describing fatigue crack growth. The connection has been
shown for different groups of steels (microalloyed steels, thermomechanically treated steels) and
aluminium alloys (alloys without hardening and with hardening).
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance given by the National Scientific Research
Foundation (Orszgos Tudomnyos Kutatsi Alapprogramok) for supporting the research (OTKA
F4418, OTKA T025428, OTKA T022020 and OTKA T034503).
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Connection between the Results of the LowCycle Fatigue and the Fatigue Crack Growth Tests
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