Sabah’s Human Development Progress and Challenges

Richard Leete UN Resident Coordinator for Malaysia UNDP Resident Representative for Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam
January 7, 2008 Kuala Lumpur

United Nations Development Programme

Figure 1

Sabah’s population size and composition, 1970 and 2005
Others 2.2%

Chinese 21.3% Bumiputera 76.5%

Population 1970: 653.6 thousand

Malays 12.2% non-citizens 24.8% Kadazan Dusun 17.5% Bajau 13.0% Bumiputera 60.7% Murut 3.2%

Others 4.8%

Chinese 9.7%

Other Bumiputera 14.6%

Population 2005: 3015.2 thousand
Sources of data: Malaysia, Department of Statistics, State/District Data Bank 2005; General Report of the Population Census, Volume 1, 1980

Figure 2
Perlis Selangor Kedah Kelantan Sarawak Sabah Pahang N. Sembilan Melaka Johor Terengganu Perak Pulau Pinang Kuala Lumpur

Percentage of population urban, Malaysia, 1970 and 2005

1970

Progress 2005

MALAYSIA 0 20 40 60 80 100

(%)

Percentage of population in urban area

Sources of data: Department of Statistics, General Report of the Population, Volume 1, 1980; Ninth Malaysia Plan, 2006-2010.

Figure 3
P e rlis M e la ka N . S e m b ila n T e re ng g a n u P a h a ng K e la nta n P ula u P ina ng K ua la L um p ur Kedah P e ra k S a ra w a k Sabah Jo ho r S e la ng o r

Population in Urban and Rural area, 2005
3 4 .9 % 7 0 .0 % 5 6 .1 % 4 9 .8 % 4 3 .2 % 3 3 .4 % 7 9 .8 % 1 0 0 .0 % 3 9 .7 % 5 9 .2 % 4 9 .2 % 4 9 .5 % 6 6 .2 % 8 8 .3 %

R u ra l U rb a n

0 .0

0 .5

1 .0

1 .5

2 .0

2 .5

3 .0

3 .5

4 .0

4 .5

5 .0

P o p u la tio n in m illio ns

Source of data: Malaysia, Department of Statistics.

Figure 4 Contribution to GDP by kind of economic activity, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor and Malaysia, 2004
(%) 100
Per capita GDP RM4,868* Per capita GDP RM9,286* Per capita GDP RM11,978* Per capita GDP RM9,746*

14.8 80 31.6 30.2 60 10.3 12.1 40 3.6 21.2 3.0 20 42.4 30.7 0 Sabah Sarawak Selangor 42.3 51.3

2.1 0.7

8.5 7.0 Agriculture 31.6 Mining 2.9 Manufacturing Construction Services 50.1

3.5

Malaysia

Sources of data: http://www.ids.org.my/indicators/ecoindicators2.htm http://www.spu.sarawak.gov.my/publications.php?lang=eng http://ssic.com.my/ Department of Statistics, Yearbook of Statistics 2006 Note: *Constant 1987 prices

Figure 5

Employed population by age group, Sabah, 2000
citizens non-citizens Females M ales
6 0 -6 4 5 5 -5 9 5 0 -5 4 4 5 -4 9 4 0 -4 4 3 5 -3 9 3 0 -3 4 2 5 -2 9 2 0 -2 4 1 5 -1 9 0 50 100 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50

M ales

6 0 -6 4 5 5 -5 9 5 0 -5 4 4 5 -4 9 4 0 -4 4 3 5 -3 9 3 0 -3 4 2 5 -2 9 2 0 -2 4 1 5 -1 9

Females

100

50

0

Population in thousands

Population

Population in thousands

E mployed

Figure 6
(%) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 4.8 3.2 7.8 2.8

Employed population distribution by industry category, Sabah, 1980 to 2004
Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing

41.9 56.1

34.0

31.8

Mining and quarrying Manufacturing

0.3 0.6 9.1 0.3 6.2 12.6 0.9 4.2 21.2 2.2 17.5 4.6 3.2 21.3 19.9 4.7 3.3 19.7 11.4 5.9 12.6 7.5

0.5
Construction Wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restaurants Transport, storage and communications Finance, insurance, real estate, renting and business activities Community, social and personal services Others and unknown

19.0 10 0 1980

1991

2000

2004

Sources of data: Department of statistics, Population Report for Administrative District, Occupation and Industry, Census 1980, 1991; Economic Characteristics of the Population, Census 2000; State/District Data Bank 2005

Figure 7
(%) 100

Employed population distribution by industry category and by ethnic group, Sabah, 2000
A griculture, hunting, forestry and fishing 0.3 0.3 36.8 0.1 10.4 0.3 9.6 20.1 6.2 2.5 4.5 2.8 42.8 4.3 15.6 6.3 9.0 7.8 4.2 9.7 3.6 16.2 39.2 Wholesale and retail trade, H otels and restaurants T ransport, storage and communications Finance, insurance, real estate, renting and business activities Community, social and personal services O thers and unknown 8.1 6.4 M anufacturing Construction M ining and quarrying

13.5 24.2

7.8

80

39.5

60

5.9 2.7 13.6

0.3

7.1

40
3.8 3.1

20

29.1

27.0

24.5

18.8

0 K adazan Dusun Bajau O thers Indigenous M alays C hinese

Figure 8

Employed population distribution by industry category, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor and Malaysia, 2000

(% ) 100

3.9

0.2 15.2 0.3 21.7

Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing Mining and quarrying Manufacturing Construction

80

34.0

31.2

25.6

0.3

0.7 13.7

7.2 7.1 17.0 17.8 8.1 5.8 13.7 6.4 W holesale and retail trade, Hotels and restaurants Transport, storage and communications Finance, insurance, real estate, renting and business activities Community, social and personal services Others and unknown

60

11.4 5.9

8.9 16.5 4.4 3.6 20.8 23.4

40

17.5 4.6 3.2

20
20.6

22.3

0 Sabah Sarawak Selangor MALAYSIA

Source of data: Department of Statistics, Economic Characteristics of the Population, Census 2000

Figure 9

Reduction in poverty in all states
1990 Households living below poverty line (%) 2004 > 20 15-20 10-14.9 5-9.9 <5 4.9 10.6 15.4

17 30 9 19 10 8 4 12 9 10 30 31

6.3 0.3

7

1 1.5 1.4 1.8

4

2

1990

2004

30

23

21

7.5

Sources of data: Ninth Malaysia Plan and Seventh Malaysia Plan

Figure 10
(%) 80

Incidence of poverty by state, 1970 to 2004

70

Households below poverty line

60

Sabah

50

Malaysia

40
Malaysia Sabah Sabah

30

Sabah

Sabah

20

Malaysia Malaysia

Terengganu

10

Kelantan Malaysia Sarawak Perlis Malaysia Johor K. Lumpur Selangor Pulau Pinang Kedah Perak Pahang Melaka N.S

0 1970 Johor Pulau Pinang Pahang '76 Melaka Perlis Sabah '84 '90 Selangor Kelantan Kuala Lumpur '95

2004 Perak Terengganu MALAYSIA

Negeri Sembilan Kedah Sarawak

Sources of data: EPU, Malaysia Five Year Plans, Various Years; 2nd and 3rd Outline Perspective Plan.

Figure 11

Educational attainment of persons aged 6 and over by level, 2000

Malaysia
Ever attended school 90% Primary 38%

Never attended school 10%

Secondary 53% Tertiary 9%

19,206.2 thousands

Sabah
Ever attended school 79% Never attended school 21% Primary 45%

Secondary 50% Tertiary 5%

2,142.3 thousands

Sarawak
Ever attended school 83% Primary 44%

Never attended school 17%

Secondary 51% Tertiary 5%

1,707.0 thousands

Selangor
Primary 31% Ever attended school 95% Secondary 54% Tertiary 15%

Never attended school 5%

3,438.5 thousands
Source of data: Computed from Department of Statistics, Education and Social Characteristics of the Population, 2000,

Figure 12

Educational attainment aged 6 and over by ethnic group, Sabah, 2000
Kadazan/Dusun
Never attended school 1 5% Ever attended school 8 5% Primary 41%

Secondary 54 % T ertiary 5%

3 8 9, 9 8 8

Bajau
Never attended school 2 1% Ever attended school 7 9% Primary 46%

Secondary 51 % T ertiary 3%

2 7 5, 2 2 1

O ther Indigenous
Never attended school 2 0% Ever attended school 8 0% Primary 47% Secondary 50 % T ertiary 3%

3 8 2, 2 7 5

Malays
Never attended school 8% Ever attended school 9 2% Primary 37%

Secondary 55 % T ertiary 8%

2 4 4, 7 0 3

C hinese
Never attended school 7% Ever attended school 9 3% Primary 30%

Secondary 62 % T ertiary 8%

2 2 9, 4 0 2

Source of data: Computed from Department of Statistics, Education and Social Characteristics of the Population, Census 2000

Figure 13
Sabah Sarawak Kelantan Terengganu Kedah Perlis Perak Johor Melaka Pahang Negeri Sembilan Pulau Pinang Selangor
Federal Territory Kuala Lumpur

Literacy rate of Malaysian citizens, 1991 and 2000

1991

Progress 2000

MALAYSIA 70 80 90 100 (%)

Literacy rate of persons aged 10 and over

Sabah Sarawak Pahang Kelantan Johor Perak Terengganu Selangor Melaka Negeri Sembilan Kedah
Federal Territory Kuala Lumpur

1991

Progress 2000

Pulau Pinang Perlis MALAYSIA 85 90 95 100 (%)

Literacy rate of 15 to 24 year olds
Sources of data: Computed from, Department of Statistics; Education and Social Characteristics of the Population, Census 2000; Report of the Population Census, various states, Census 1991.

Figure 14
(%) 100

Age and community group associated with lack of education in 2000

C hinese

Ever been to school

80 K adazan Dusun 60 O ther Indigenous Bajau 40 M alays

20

0 1 5 -1 9 2 0 -2 4 2 5 -2 9 3 0 -3 4 3 5 -3 9 4 0 -4 4 4 5 -4 9 5 0 -5 4 5 5 -5 9 6 0 -6 4

Source of data: Computed from Department of Statistics, Education and Social Characteristics of the Population, Census 2000

Figure 15

Child mortality by state, 1990 and 2004
1990 2004
9.4 18 10.0 12.7 9.8 Under age 5 deaths Per 1000 births
>20 15-20 10-15 <10

20

18

12 17

21

8.5

11.5

21 15 16 12 13 17 7.1 10.7 7.4

11.0

10.0 9.1

1990

2004

21

3.3

13

7.6

Sources of data: (1) Vital Statistics, Time series, 1963-1998, (2) Vital Statistics, 1990 and 2006, Department of Statistics Malaysia

Figure 16 Proportion of infant immunized against measles, 1990 and 2001
Kuala Lumpur Perak Pulau Pinang Sabah Selangor Kelantan Terengannu Melaka Perlis Kedah Pahang N. Sembilan Sarawak Johor MALAYSIA 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (%)

1990

Progress 2001

Measles immunization coverage of infant
Source of data: Ministry of Health; Health in Malaysia – Achievements and Challenges 2000 Note: Government hospital data.

Figure 17
Sabah Sarawak Kelantan Terengannu Kedah Pahang Perak Perlis Selangor N. Sembilan Johor Pulau Pinang Melaka Kuala Lumpur MALAYSIA

Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel, 1989 and 2002
Progress 2002

1989

70

80

90

100 (%)

Deliveries by trained personnel
Sources of data: Ministry of Health; Health in Malaysia – Achievements and Challenges, 2000; Information and Documentation System Unit 2004

Figure 18
Sabah Sarawak Pahang Terengganu Kedah Kelantan Perak Perlis Melaka Pulau Pinang Johor Selangor Kuala Lumpur N. Sembilan Malaysia

Progress in maternal mortality, 1980 and 2004

1980 Reversal 2004 Progress 2004

a
150 100 50 0

Maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births
Sources of data: Department of Statistics, Vital Statistics, 1980 and 2006. Note: Data not available for Sabah and Sarawak in 1980 a Data is for Peninsular Malaysia

Figure 19 Rural water supply coverage, 1993 and 2004
Kelantan Terengganu Kedah Perlis Pahang Sabah Sarawak Johor Perak Pulau Pinang N. Sembilan Melaka Selangor

1993

Progress 2004

MALAYSIA 50 60 70 80 90 100 (%)

Houses covered with safe water supply
Sources of data: Ministry of Health, Annual Report, 1993; Information and Documentation System Unit, Health Indicator 2004

Figure 20 Rural sanitary latrines coverage, 1993 and 2004
Sabah Sarawak Kedah Terengganu Kelantan Perak Pahang Selangor N. Sembilan Perlis Johor Pulau Pinang Melaka

1993

Progress 2004

MALAYSIA 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 (%)

Houses covered with sanitary latrines

Sources of data: Ministry of Health, Annual Report, 1993; Information and Documentation System Unit, Health Indicator 2004

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