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Sabah’s Human

Development
Progress and Challenges
Richard Leete
UN Resident Coordinator for Malaysia
UNDP Resident Representative for Malaysia, Singapore and
Brunei Darussalam

January 7, 2008
Kuala Lumpur

United Nations Development Programme


Figure 1 Sabah’s population size and composition, 1970 and 2005

Others
2.2%

Chinese
21.3%

Bumiputera
76.5%

Population 1970: 653.6 thousand

Malays
12.2%
non-citizens
24.8%

Kadazan Dusun
Others 17.5%
4.8%
Bajau
Chinese 13.0%
Other Bumiputera
9.7%
Bumiputera 60.7%
14.6%
Murut
3.2%

Population 2005: 3015.2 thousand

Sources of data: Malaysia, Department of Statistics, State/District Data Bank 2005;


General Report of the Population Census, Volume 1, 1980
Figure 2 Percentage of population urban, Malaysia, 1970 and 2005

Perlis
Selangor Progress
Kedah 1970 2005
Kelantan
Sarawak
Sabah
Pahang
N. Sembilan
Melaka
Johor
Terengganu
Perak
Pulau Pinang
Kuala Lumpur

MALAYSIA

0 20 40 60 80 100 (%)
Percentage of population in urban area

Sources of data: Department of Statistics, General Report of the Population, Volume 1, 1980;
Ninth Malaysia Plan, 2006-2010.

Figure 3 Population in Urban and Rural area, 2005

P e rlis 3 4 .9 %

M e la ka 7 0 .0 %

N . S e m b ila n 5 6 .1 %

T e re ng g a n u 4 9 .8 %

P a h a ng 4 3 .2 %

K e la nta n 3 3 .4 %

P ula u P ina ng 7 9 .8 % R u ra l
K ua la L um p ur 1 0 0 .0 % U rb a n

Kedah 3 9 .7 %

P e ra k 5 9 .2 %

S a ra w a k 4 9 .2 %

Sabah 4 9 .5 %

Jo ho r 6 6 .2 %

S e la ng o r 8 8 .3 %

0 .0 0 .5 1 .0 1 .5 2 .0 2 .5 3 .0 3 .5 4 .0 4 .5 5 .0
P o p u la tio n in m illio ns

Source of data: Malaysia, Department of Statistics.


Figure 4 Contribution to GDP by kind of economic activity, Sabah, Sarawak,
Selangor and Malaysia, 2004
Per capita GDP Per capita GDP Per capita GDP Per capita GDP
(%) RM4,868* RM9,286* RM11,978* RM9,746*
100 2.1
0.7 8.5
14.8
7.0
31.6
80
Agriculture
30.2 51.3
31.6
Mining
10.3
60
Manufacturing
12.1 2.9
3.6 21.2 3.5 Construction
40
3.0 Services
50.1
20 42.4 42.3
30.7

0
Sabah Sarawak Selangor Malaysia

Sources of data: http://www.ids.org.my/indicators/ecoindicators2.htm


http://www.spu.sarawak.gov.my/publications.php?lang=eng
http://ssic.com.my/
Department of Statistics, Yearbook of Statistics 2006
Note: *Constant 1987 prices
Figure 5 Employed population by age group, Sabah, 2000

citizens non-citizens

M ales 6 0 -6 4 Females M ales 6 0 -6 4 Females

5 5 -5 9 5 5 -5 9

5 0 -5 4 5 0 -5 4

4 5 -4 9 4 5 -4 9

4 0 -4 4 4 0 -4 4

3 5 -3 9 3 5 -3 9

3 0 -3 4 3 0 -3 4

2 5 -2 9 2 5 -2 9

2 0 -2 4 2 0 -2 4

1 5 -1 9 1 5 -1 9

100 50 0 0 50 100 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50
Population in thousands Population in thousands
Population

E mployed

Figure 6 Employed population distribution by industry category, Sabah,


1980 to 2004
(%)
100 Agriculture, hunting, forestry
and fishing
90
Mining and quarrying
34.0 31.8
80 41.9
Manufacturing
70 56.1
0.5
0.3 Construction
60 11.4 12.6
0.6
9.1 5.9 7.5 Wholesale and retail trade,
50 hotels and restaurants
0.3 6.2
40 4.8 17.5 Transport, storage and
3.2 12.6 19.9 communications
30 7.8
4.2 4.6 Finance, insurance, real estate,
2.8 3.2 4.7 renting and business activities
0.9 2.2
20 3.3
Community, social and
19.0 21.2 personal services
21.3
10 19.7
Others and unknown
0
1980 1991 2000 2004

Sources of data: Department of statistics, Population Report for Administrative District, Occupation and Industry, Census 1980, 1991;
Economic Characteristics of the Population, Census 2000; State/District Data Bank 2005
Figure 7 Employed population distribution by industry category and by ethnic group,
Sabah, 2000
(%)
100 A griculture, hunting, forestry
7.8 and fishing
13.5 0.3
24.2 8.1 M ining and quarrying
0.3
80 39.5 36.8 9.7 6.4
0.1 M anufacturing
3.6
10.4
0.3 16.2 Construction
60 0.3 7.1
5.9 9.6 39.2
2.7 4.3 7.8 Wholesale and retail trade,
20.1 4.2 H otels and restaurants
13.6
40 15.6 T ransport, storage and
3.8 6.2 6.3 communications
3.1 4.5
2.5
2.8 9.0 Finance, insurance, real
42.8 estate, renting and business
20
29.1 activities
27.0 24.5 Community, social and
18.8
personal services

0 O thers and unknown

K adazan Bajau O thers M alays C hinese


Dusun Indigenous

Figure 8 Employed population distribution by industry category, Sabah, Sarawak,


Selangor and Malaysia, 2000

(% )
100 3.9
0.2 Agriculture, hunting, forestry
15.2 and fishing

31.2 0.3 Mining and quarrying


34.0 25.6
80
21.7 Manufacturing
0.7 7.2
0.3
13.7 Construction
60 11.4 7.1
17.0
5.9 8.9 W holesale and retail trade,
17.8 Hotels and restaurants
8.1
40 17.5 Transport, storage and
16.5 communications
5.8
13.7
4.6 6.4 Finance, insurance, real estate,
4.4
3.2 3.6 renting and business activities
20
22.3 Community, social and
20.6 23.4 personal services
20.8
Others and unknown
0
Sabah Sarawak Selangor MALAYSIA

Source of data: Department of Statistics, Economic Characteristics of the Population, Census 2000
Figure 9 Reduction in poverty in all states
1990 Households living below poverty line (%) 2004
> 20
15-20
10-14.9
5-9.9
17 6.3 7 <5
30
30 31 10.6 15.4
9 0.3 4.9

19
10 4
8 1

9 1.4
4 1.5
10 2
12 1.8

1990 2004

30 23

21 7.5

Sources of data: Ninth Malaysia Plan and Seventh Malaysia Plan


Figure 10 Incidence of poverty by state, 1970 to 2004
(%)
80

70

60
Households below poverty line

Sabah

50 Malaysia

40
Malaysia

Sabah
Sabah

30

Sabah Sabah
Malaysia
20
Malaysia
Terengganu

Kelantan
10 Malaysia
Sarawak
Kedah
Perlis
Malaysia Perak
Johor Pahang
K. Lumpur Melaka
Selangor N.S
0 Pulau Pinang
1970 '76 '84 '90 '95 2004

Johor Melaka Negeri Sembilan Selangor Perak


Pulau Pinang Perlis Kedah Kelantan Terengganu
Pahang Sabah Sarawak Kuala Lumpur MALAYSIA

Sources of data: EPU, Malaysia Five Year Plans, Various Years; 2nd and 3rd Outline Perspective Plan.
Figure 11 Educational attainment of persons aged 6 and over by level, 2000

Malaysia
Ever attended Primary 38%
school
90%
Never attended
school Secondary 53%
10%
Tertiary 9%

19,206.2 thousands

Sabah
Primary 45%
Ever attended
school
79%
Never attended Secondary 50%
school
21% Tertiary 5%

2,142.3 thousands

Sarawak
Primary 44%
Ever attended
school
Never attended 83%
school Secondary 51%
17%
Tertiary 5%

1,707.0 thousands

Selangor
Primary 31%
Ever attended
school
Never attended 95%
school Secondary 54%
5%
Tertiary 15%

3,438.5 thousands

Source of data: Computed from Department of Statistics, Education and Social Characteristics of the Population, 2000,
Figure 12 Educational attainment aged 6 and over by ethnic group, Sabah,
2000

Kadazan/Dusun
Ever attended Primary 41%
Never attended school
school 8 5%
1 5% Secondary 54 %

T ertiary 5%
3 8 9, 9 8 8

Bajau
Ever attended Primary 46%
Never attended
school school
2 1% 7 9%
Secondary 51 %

T ertiary 3%
2 7 5, 2 2 1

O ther Indigenous

Ever attended Primary 47%


Never attended
school
school
8 0%
2 0%
Secondary 50 %
T ertiary 3%
3 8 2, 2 7 5

Malays
Ever attended Primary 37%
Never attended school
school 9 2%
8% Secondary 55 %

T ertiary 8%
2 4 4, 7 0 3

C hinese
Ever attended Primary 30%
Never attended school
school 9 3%
Secondary 62 %
7%
T ertiary 8%
2 2 9, 4 0 2

Source of data: Computed from Department of Statistics, Education and Social Characteristics of the Population, Census 2000
Figure 13 Literacy rate of Malaysian citizens, 1991 and 2000

Sabah
Sarawak Progress
Kelantan 1991 2000
Terengganu
Kedah
Perlis
Perak
Johor
Melaka
Pahang
Negeri Sembilan
Pulau Pinang
Selangor
Federal Territory
Kuala Lumpur

MALAYSIA

70 80 90 100 (%)
Literacy rate of persons aged 10 and over

Sabah
Sarawak Progress
Pahang 1991 2000
Kelantan
Johor
Perak
Terengganu
Selangor
Melaka
Negeri Sembilan
Kedah
Federal Territory
Kuala Lumpur
Pulau Pinang
Perlis

MALAYSIA

85 90 95 100 (%)
Literacy rate of 15 to 24 year olds

Sources of data: Computed from, Department of Statistics; Education and Social Characteristics of the Population, Census 2000;
Report of the Population Census, various states, Census 1991.
Figure 14 Age and community group associated with lack of education in 2000

(%)
100

C hinese

80
Ever been to school

M alays
K adazan Dusun
60
O ther Indigenous

Bajau
40

20

0
1 5 -1 9 2 0 -2 4 2 5 -2 9 3 0 -3 4 3 5 -3 9 4 0 -4 4 4 5 -4 9 5 0 -5 4 5 5 -5 9 6 0 -6 4

Source of data: Computed from Department of Statistics, Education and Social Characteristics of the Population, Census 2000
Figure 15 Child mortality by state, 1990 and 2004
1990 2004 Under age 5 deaths
Per 1000 births
20 >20
18 9.4 10.0
15-20
10-15
18 21 12.7 11.5 <10
12 8.5
17 9.8

21 11.0
15 7.4

16 10.0
12 7.1

13 17 10.7 9.1

1990 2004

21 3.3

13 7.6

Sources of data: (1) Vital Statistics, Time series, 1963-1998, (2) Vital Statistics, 1990 and 2006, Department of Statistics Malaysia
Figure 16 Proportion of infant immunized against measles, 1990 and 2001

Kuala Lumpur
Perak Progress
1990 2001
Pulau Pinang
Sabah
Selangor
Kelantan
Terengannu
Melaka
Perlis
Kedah
Pahang
N. Sembilan
Sarawak
Johor

MALAYSIA

40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (%)
Measles immunization coverage of infant

Source of data: Ministry of Health; Health in Malaysia – Achievements and Challenges 2000
Note: Government hospital data.
Figure 17 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel, 1989 and
2002
Sabah
Sarawak Progress
Kelantan 1989 2002

Terengannu
Kedah
Pahang
Perak
Perlis
Selangor
N. Sembilan
Johor
Pulau Pinang
Melaka
Kuala Lumpur

MALAYSIA

70 80 90 100 (%)
Deliveries by trained personnel

Sources of data: Ministry of Health; Health in Malaysia – Achievements and Challenges, 2000;
Information and Documentation System Unit 2004

Figure 18 Progress in maternal mortality, 1980 and 2004

Sabah
Sarawak 1980
Pahang
Terengganu Reversal Progress
Kedah 2004 2004
Kelantan
Perak
Perlis
Melaka
Pulau Pinang
Johor
Selangor
Kuala Lumpur
N. Sembilan

a
Malaysia

150 100 50 0
Maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births

Sources of data: Department of Statistics, Vital Statistics, 1980 and 2006.


Note: Data not available for Sabah and Sarawak in 1980
a
Data is for Peninsular Malaysia
Figure 19 Rural water supply coverage, 1993 and 2004

Kelantan
Terengganu Progress
Kedah 1993 2004
Perlis
Pahang
Sabah
Sarawak
Johor
Perak
Pulau Pinang
N. Sembilan
Melaka
Selangor

MALAYSIA

50 60 70 80 90 100 (%)
Houses covered with safe water supply

Sources of data: Ministry of Health, Annual Report, 1993; Information and Documentation System Unit, Health Indicator 2004

Figure 20 Rural sanitary latrines coverage, 1993 and 2004


Sabah
Sarawak Progress
Kedah 1993 2004
Terengganu
Kelantan
Perak
Pahang
Selangor
N. Sembilan
Perlis
Johor
Pulau Pinang
Melaka

MALAYSIA

70 75 80 85 90 95 100 (%)
Houses covered with sanitary latrines

Sources of data: Ministry of Health, Annual Report, 1993; Information and Documentation System Unit, Health Indicator 2004

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