If the Reporting verb is in the present or future Tense, the tense of the reported speech does not change at all. Leela says, “Sheela is very honest” Leeela says that Sheela is very honest. Vinod says ,” Shashi will write a letter.” Vinod says that Shashi will write a letter. If the reporting verb is in the Past Tense, the Present Tense of the Reported speech change into their corresponding past tense: Present indefinite changes into past Indefinite Present continuous changes into past continuous Present perfect changes into past perfect Past perfect continuous changes into past perfect continuous Can and may change into could and might Does not change if it express a universal truth and habitual action. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ranjit said, Meeera can solve this sum” He said, Rano may come in the afternoon” Vinod said, Santi sings sweet song” Shankar said , Hari is my younger brother” She said , Hari knows Jyoti by face only” If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the past tense of the reported speech change under : Simple past changes into past perfect Past continuous changes into past perfect continuous Past perfect and past perfect continuous tense do not change at all The teacher said Bruce hid in a cave” The teacher said that Bruce had hidden in a cave. Ram said. The lion was limping” Ram said that the lion had been limping 1. 2. 3. 4. 6. They said, The police arrested the burglar” Mohan said, Girls were not singing a song Kamala said, Thee train had steamed off in time” He said, Meera had been weeping bitterly for an hour” Mohan said .Krishna was a graceful lass” Lali Mathew Sheeshmahal Apartments 27492907 9810312549

If the reporting verb is in the past tense , the future tense change their shall and will into would. Vinod said , Saroop will write a letter” Vinod said that Saroop would write a letter. CHANGE IN PERSONAL PRONOUNS Pronouns of the first person are changed after the person of the subject of the reporting verb The farmer said, I have lost my buffalo” The farmer said that he had lost his buffalo You said , I am against the plan” You said that you were against the plan. we said, we did our duty well” We said that we had done our duty well Pronouns of the second person are changed after the persons of the object of the reporting verb. He said to me , You are late” He told me that I was late He said to you , You were late” He told you that you had been late. He said to her, You had been late” He told her that she had been late. Pronouns of the third person remain unchanged. I said, “He is tall and slim.” I said that he was tall and slim. They said, “She will recover by and by.” They said that she would recover by and by. He said, “They are fond of milk.” He said that they were fond of milk.

The pronoun we remains unchanged whenIt stands for mankind; asShe said, “We are all mortals.” She said that we are all mortals. It includes the person spoken to; asHe said’ “We should never tell lies.” He said that we should never tell lies.

Change each sentence to indirect form of speech :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Ram said to me, “I am suffering from fever.” Atul said to me, “You did not return my pen.” I said to you, “He misbehaved me there.” Krishna said, “I have been ill for three days.” We said, “We are quite well here.” You said to her, “I am awfully thirsty.” He said to me, “You are in the wrong.” I said to him, “You are an idiot indeed.” He said to you, “You have failed in the test.” Sham said to Heera, “I do not know where you live.” The teacher said, “God is our Father and we are His children.” The preacher said, “We must be bold enough to face injustice.” She said, “We must serve our motherland.” He said, “It is we who are to blame.” “We are mere actors on the world stage,” said Shakespeare. The minister said, “We are a great nation.” The shopkeeper said to the customer, “You will have less to carry.” The customer said to the shopkeeper, “You will have less to count.” The hare said to the lion, “Another lion detained me on the way.” She said to me, “She will recover soon.” Ram said to Iqbal. “This is the finest picture I have seen. CONVERSION OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE B. 1. 2. 3. 4. A. Beginning with AuxiliaryVerbs The visitor said to me, “Is your father at home?” Netaji said to his men, “Are you ready to die for your country?” The host said to the guest, “Would you like to have a cup of tea?” Sohan said, “May I use your pen, Mohan?” The clerk said to his officer, “Shall I type this letter again, sir?”

5. The crow said, “Are the grapes sour, Mr.Fox?” 6. The lady said to the shopkeeper, “Did you see my brother here in the bazaar?” 7. Sarla said, “Have you finished your home-work, Tom?” 8. “Do you think you are wiser than your father?” said the angry mother to her son. 9. Teju said to his mother, “Is the dinner ready for all?” 10. The policeman said to the stranger, “Are you Lakha, the notorious dacoit?” 11. The teacher said, “Have you done all the sums, Geeta?” 12. The doctor said to the patient, “Are you not feeling well now?” 13. Rama said to Sita, “Will you accompany me to the forest?” 14. The boys said to the teacher, “Have you marked our papers, sir? Is the result good on the whole?” 15. Leela said to me, “Will you tell me what it means?” 16. “Will you dine with us toady?” said my friend to me. 17. I said to my cousin, “Should I pay you a visit tomorrow?” 18. The old nurse said, “Is there nobody to look after you, my dear boy?” 19. Draupadi said, “Do I see here men or mere statues B. Beginning with Interrogative Words 1. She asked me what my name was. 2. Ram asked her where she lived. 3. The lady asked Suresh when he had met her brother. 4. The student said to the bookseller, “What is the price of this book?” 5. Mohan said to me, “When will your school re-open after summer vacation?” 6. The teacher said to his students, “Why are you making a noise?” 7. The officer said to the clerk, “Why did you absent yourself yesterday?” 8. The father said, “How many marks have you secured in English, my son?” 9. The teacher said to the student, “What makes you laugh? Why can’t you sit at ease?” 10. The old farmer said, “Why can’t you work together, my sons?” 11. The policeman said to the stranger, “Who are you and where do you come from?” 12. The teacher said to the new-comer, “Which school did you attend last?” 13. My friend said to me, “What did you buy this shirt and what did it cost you?” 14. The master said to his servant, “Why do you disturb me?” 15. Rakesh said to Raman, “What is your brother?” 16. The patient said, “What is my temperature, doctor?” 17. The father said to his son, “How often shall I have to tell you that I cannot feed you any longer?” 18. “What do you want me to do, daddy?’ asked Shambhu. Lali Mathew M.A. M.Ed Sheeshmahal Apartments Shalimar Bagh Delhi 27492907 9810312549

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