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vein joins the superior vena cava and the hemiazygos vein
joins the left brachiocephalic vein. At the distal end of the
oesophagus some oesophageal veins join the azygos vein
and others, the left gastric vein. A venous plexus is formed
by anastomoses between the veins joining the azygos vein
and those joining the left gastric veins, linking the general
Paired branches

Inferior phrenic arteries supply the diaphragm.

Renal arteries supply the kidneys and give off
branches, the suprarenal arteries, to supply the adrenal
Testicular arteries supply the testes in the male.
Ovarian arteries supply the ovaries in the female.
The testicular and ovarian arteries are much longer

and portal circulations (see ig. !".#$, p. %"!&.

Abdominal aorta
The abdominal aorta
than the other paired branches. This is because the testes
and the ovaries begin their development in the region of
the kidneys. As they grow they descend into the scrotum
and the pelvis respectively and are accompanied by their
blood vessels.
is a continuation of the thoracic
aorta. The name changes when the aorta enters the
abdominal cavity by passing behind the diaphragm at
the level of the !"th thoracic vertebra. It descends in front
of the bodies of the vertebrae to the level of the 'th lum(
bar vertebra, where it divides into the right and left com-
mon iliac arteries (ig. #.''&.
)hen a branch of the abdominal aorta supplies an
organ it is only named here and is described in more
detail in association with the organ. *owever, illustra(
tions showing the distribution of blood from the coeliac,
superior and inferior mesenteric arteries are presented
here (igs #.'# and #.'+&.
Unpaired branches
The coeliac artery (ig. #.''& is a short thick artery about
!."# ern long. It arises immediately below the diaphragm
and divides into three branches,

left gastric artery: supplies the stomach

splenic artery: supplies the pancreas and the spleen
hepatic artery: supplies the liver, gall bladder and parts -any branches arise from the abdominal
of which are paired and some unpaired.
aorta, some
of the stomach, duodenum and pancreas.
~~!----Left inferiorphrenicarter
Righiadrenaal rtery----
~~!!#,IFfi;=~~IHm[ --~oeliac artery
!!lal;;l;i,!"!~t= -~#i-----$%perior me&enteriacrter
Figure 5.44 +he a,dominal aorta and it&