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Antecedent Focused Interventions:


Activity


Getting Ready to Implement Antecedent Focused Interventions

Read each scenario and hypothesize the function of the behavior and situation likely to
evoke the challenging behavior. Circle the letter and the number in the boxes below.
Provide questions that you would ask or data that you would obtain to clarify the
behaviors function.

Possible Functions:
A. Attention
B. Escape/Avoidance
C. Tangibles

Situations likely to evoke challenging behavior:
1. Desired Object is not available or is removed
2. Difficult Task
3. Diverted Attention
4. Task requires extended duration of engagement


1. Eric is painting a picture when he suddenly throws his paintbrush on the floor. Every
time Eric does this, his teacher tells him he is done painting and he has to leave the table.

If you could ask questions to
get more information, what
would you ask?

Function of the behavior:
A B C
Situations likely to evoke challenging behavior:
1 2 3 4


2. Maria begins to scream during playtime when a peer is playing with a toy that she
wants. The teacher asks the peer to share with Maria and Maria gets a turn.

If you could ask questions to
get more information, what
would you ask?

Function of the behavior:
A B C
Situations likely to evoke challenging behavior:
1 2 3 4


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Antecedent Focused Interventions:
Activity


Getting Ready to Implement Antecedent Focused Interventions
Suggested Answers

Read Each Scenario and hypothesize the function of the behavior and situation likely to
evoke the challenging behavior. Circle the letter and the number in the boxes below.
Add any questions that you would ask to get more information to help you make
decisions.

Possible Functions:
A. Attention
B. Escape/Avoidance
C. Tangibles

Situations likely to evoke challenging behavior:
1. Desired Object is not available or is removed
2. Difficult Task
3. Diverted Attention
4. Task requires extended duration of engagement


1. Eric is painting a picture when he suddenly throws his paintbrush on the floor. Every
time Eric does this, his teacher tells him he is done painting, and he has to leave the
table.

If you could ask questions to
get more information, what
would you ask?
Does Eric not like painting at all, or does he only do this after a
certain amount of time? Does he display this behavior in other
activities, or only painting?
Function of the behavior:
A B C
Situations likely to evoke challenging behavior:
1 2 3 4


2. Maria begins to scream during playtime when a peer is playing with a toy that she
wants. The teacher asks the peer to share with Maria and Maria gets a turn.

If you could ask questions to
get more information, what
would you ask?
Does Maria like just that toy? Does Maria always want
the toy that a particular child has?
Function of the behavior:
A B C
Situations likely to evoke challenging behavior:
1 2 3 4


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Antecedent Focused Interventions:
Activity

Strategies for Antecedent Focused Intervention

Now that we hypothesized possible functions of Eric and Marias problem behavior, and
identified situations likely to evoke that behavior, we need to identify possible strategies
for antecedent intervention.

Before applying these strategies to problems presented by Eric and Maria, identify which
of the procedural descriptions on the right most accurately matches the antecedent
intervention on the left (write the letter of your answer)



Write your answer
here

Scheduling A. Teacher assists child in
completing a difficult task

Presepecify
Reinforcer
B. Child holds onto a favorite
toy during circle time to
encourage staying in-seat
Collaboration C/ The order of activities is
depicted in pictures and posted
on the wall
Provide Choices D. Teacher tells child do 2
more problems then you can
have a break.
Tolerance for Delay
to Reinforcement
E. Before starting an activity,
child selects toy to play with
when hes finished
Preferred item as
Distracter
F. Teacher allows child to select
from list of tasks to complete
first



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Antecedent Focused Interventions:
Activity

Strategies for Antecedent Focused InterventionSuggested Answers

Now that we hypothesized possible functions of Eric and Marias problem behavior, and
identified situations likely to evoke that behavior, we need to identify possible strategies
for antecedent intervention.

Before applying these strategies to problems presented by Eric and Maria, identify which
of the procedural descriptions on the right most accurately matches the antecedent
intervention on the left (write the letter of your answer)



Write your answer
here

Scheduling C A. Teacher assists child in
completing a difficult task

Presepecify
Reinforcer
E B. Child holds onto a favorite
toy during circle time to
encourage staying in-seat
Collaboration A C/ The order of activities is
depicted in pictures and posted
on the wall
Provide Choices F D. Teacher tells child do 2
more problems then you can
have a break.
Tolerance for Delay
to Reinforcement
D E. Before starting an activity,
child selects toy to play with
when hes finished
Preferred item as
Distractor
B F. Teacher allows child to select
from list of tasks to complete
first













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Antecedent Focused Interventions:
Activity


Single Interventions
Scenario #:

Choose either the Eric or Maria scenario to use in this activity.

You are part of a team that serving the students described in the scenario on the previous
page. As a team, you are trying to help the classroom teacher develop a set of strategies
that may be implemented during situations that are most likely to evoke challenging
behavior. Consider each of the following interventions and describe how that
intervention will be implemented during situations that typically result in challenging
behavior.

Intervention package #1: Tolerance for Delay








Intervention package #2: Providing Choices









Intervention package #3: Collaboration








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Antecedent Focused Interventions:
Activity


Single Intervention - Sample Answers

Scenario #: 1
Eric is painting a picture when he suddenly throws his paintbrush on the floor.
His teacher tells him he is done painting and he leaves the table.

You are part of a team that is conducting a problem-solving session related to the
students challenging behavior as it is described in the scenario on the previous page. As
a team, you are trying to help the classroom teacher develop a set of strategies that may
be implemented during situations that are most likely to evoke challenging behavior.
Consider each of the following interventions and describe what the use of that
intervention might look like when implemented during situations that typically result in
challenging behavior.

Intervention package #1: Tolerance for Delay

First, collect data on Erics critical time period for engaging in the painting task. Then
before Eric engages in challenging behavior, deliver a delay cue that says 10 more
seconds and well take a break. Then deliver the break for about a minute and then go
back to the activity.


Intervention package #2: Providing Choices

Give Eric a choice of art activities. Employ as many choices as feasible, like medium,
colors, paintbrushes, paint shirts, paper, etc.



Intervention package #3: Collaboration

Work with Eric on finishing his pictureprovide him ideas of what he could paint, help
him make figures or objects hes having trouble making, assist him in cleaning up his
area.


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Antecedent Focused Interventions:
Activity


Single Intervention - Sample Answers

Scenario # 2: Maria begins to scream during playtime when a peer is playing with
a toy that she wants. The teacher asks the peer to share with Maria.


You are part of a team that is conducting a problem-solving session related to the
students challenging behavior as it is described in the scenario on the previous page. As
a team, you are trying to help the classroom teacher develop a set of strategies that may
be implemented during situations that are most likely to evoke challenging behavior.
Consider each of the following interventions and describe what the use of that
intervention might look like when implemented during situations that typically result in
challenging behavior.

Intervention package #1: Tolerance for Delay

Identify a critical time period within which, you are sure Maria will not scream. At the
end of the critical time period, tell her to wait 1 minute while (peer) plays with the toy,
then she can ask to play with the toy. When the release cue is given, provide Maria with
a way to appropriately request the toy as she needs (words, pictures, sign). Ensure that
the peer is willing to give up the toy.


Intervention package #2: Providing Choices

Within the critical time period, offer Maria a choice of two other toys that she can play
with and include the toy she wants afterwards. Have Maria tell the peer that after the
peer is done, Maria would like to have a turn playing with the toy.



Intervention page #3: Scheduling

Establish centers for play on a schedule. Have symbols represent toys each child could
take turns playing with. Each child could take a turn picking a symbol of the toy they
want to play with when they enter the play center. A bell could ring to signal that the
children should drop their toys and select another. Establish a rule that a child cannot
interrupt anothers play.





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Antecedent Focused Interventions:
Activity


Combining Interventions Planning for an Intervention Package
including Antecedent Focused Strategies

To review, we have worked through several individual steps of intervention
planning so far:
- Determine function of behavior
- Identify situations likely to evoke challenging behavior
- Identify different strategies for antecedent focused intervention
- Describe the use of those strategies one at a time, as they apply to
Eric and Marias problem behavior

Moving forward, teachers often combine 2 or more antecedent strategies into
an intervention package. A working understanding of how each individual strategy works
is necessary to successfully combine interventions, so be sure each member of the team
understands how to use each of the 6 antecedent-focused strategies discussed so far,
which are:

1. _____________________________________________


2. _____________________________________________


3. _____________________________________________


4. _____________________________________________


5. _____________________________________________


6. _____________________________________________








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Antecedent Focused Interventions:
Activity


Combining Interventions Planning for an Intervention Package
including Antecedent Focused Strategies
Using the scenarios for Eric and Maria, formulate a hypothesis statement and design an
intervention package for each child. Use the format provided to help you think through
the steps:

Eric

1. Hypothesis Statement:
(What is the function of the behavior?)



2. Brainstorm Possible Intervention Options:




2a: Settings in which strategies will be implemented (place, time, situations,
etc.):


2b: Proactive Strategies you will use to Prevent Challenging Behavior (circle
your choices):


Scheduling Tolerance for Delay to Reinforcement

Providing Choices Preferred Item as Distracter

Prespecify Reinforcers Collaboration


2c: Describe how the strategies could be combined






The following data collection form was developed by a technical assistance team during
the initial delivery of technical assistance. Forms such as this facilitate monitoring of the
affects of the intervention and troubleshooting the intervention package when necessary.

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Data sheet for Eric

Behavior of Concern _______Throwing paintbrush_________


Where to obtain data _______Classroom___________________

When to obtain data _______During art activity_____________

___________________________________

Who will obtain data ______ Paraprofessional_______________

___________________________________


Week 1 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Antecedent-
focused
Interventions
Used
None None None 1.Collaboration
2. Tolerance for
delay
1.Collaboration
2. Tolerance for
delay
# times
paintbrush
thrown


I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I


Week 2 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Antecedent-
focused
Interventions
Used
1.Collaboration
2. Tolerance for
delay
1.Collaboration
2. Tolerance
for delay
3. Prespecify
reinforcer
1.Collaboration
2. Tolerance
for delay
3. Prespecify
reinforcer
1.Collaboration
2. Tolerance for
delay
3. Prespecify
reinforcer
1.Collaboration
2. Tolerance for
delay
3. Prespecify
reinforcer
# times
paintbrush
thrown


I I 0 I 0 0













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Antecedent Focused Interventions:
Activity

Maria

1. Hypothesis Statement:
(What is the function of the behavior?)



2. Brainstorm Possible Intervention Options:





2a: Settings in which strategies will be implemented (place, time, situations,
etc.):



2b: Proactive Strategies you will use to Prevent Challenging Behavior (circle
your choices):


Scheduling Tolerance for Delay to Reinforcement

Providing Choices Preferred Item as Distracter

Prespecify Reinforcers Collaboration


2c: Describe how the strategies could be combined








The following data collection form was developed by a technical assistance team during
the initial delivery of technical assistance. Forms such as this facilitate monitoring of the
affects of the intervention and troubleshooting the intervention package when necessary.

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Data sheet for Maria

Behavior of Concern ____________Screaming_________________


Where to obtain data ___________Classroom__________________


When to obtain data ___________During play activity__________

_____________________________________

Who will obtain data __________ Paraprofessional_____________

_____________________________________


Week 1 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Antecedent-
focused
Interventions
Used
None None None 1. Scheduling 1. Scheduling
# Screams


I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Week 2 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Antecedent-
focused
Interventions
Used
1. Scheduling 1. Scheduling
2. Preferred
item as
distracter
1. Scheduling
2. Preferred
item as
distracter
1. Scheduling
2. Preferred
item as
distracter
1.Scheduling
2. Preferred item
as distracter
# Screams


I I I I 0 0 0




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Antecedent Focused Interventions:
Activity

Graphing Data

Plot the data for Eric and Maria on the charts below.

Eric:
Throwing Paintbrush
0
2
4
6
8
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Observations
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

o
f

T
h
r
o
w
i
n
g


Maria:
Screaming
0
2
4
6
8
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Observations
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

o
f

S
c
r
e
a
m
s

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Antecedent Focused Interventions:
Activity

Evaluating Response to Intervention

Examine the graphs for Eric and Maria. For each child, consider each of the follow:

1. What happened to the frequency of behavior after antecedent interventions were
implemented?





2. Based on the frequency of behavior once antecedent interventions were first
implemented, was it necessary to add another intervention strategy?





3. When an additional antecedent intervention was added, what was the affect on the
childs behavior?





4. Were the interventions effective?