# Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Generators _________________________________________________________________________________

A.C. Generators Aim Understand the principle of operation of a.c. generators. LEARNING OUTCOMES • • • • Explain the principle of operation of an self-excited error-operated brushless alternator. Explain the principle of operation of an self-excited compounded a.c. generator. Describe the procedure for restoring residual magnetism in the field coil. Describe the effects of starting a large induction motor on the terminal voltage and frequency of an a.c. generator. Explain why, upon heavy impact loading, self excited compounded alternators provide the best response in limiting voltage dip and recovery time.

Overview This lesson provides students with an understanding of the principle of operation in two types of a.c. generators. The cause and effect of large load on their terminal voltages are explained. The choice of self-excited compounded alternators for heavy impact load then becomes obvious.

Self-Excited Error Operated A.C. Generator ___________________________________________________________________
PTM / Jul 2002 54 SP / SMA

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Generators _________________________________________________________________________________

Output to Switchboard

AVR

D.C. Field Current

Fixed Poles of a.c. excitor (on Stator)

A.C. Output Current A.C. Excitor Rotor 3-phase Winding

D.C. Field Current to Main Field Rotating Diodes for rectifying a.c. to d.c

Rotor

Alternator Stator Windings

Figure 1

Excitation of self excited brushless a.c generator This type of generator is the most common type used on modern ships. 1. The main rotor has residual magnetism which produces a weak magnetic field. 2. So when the rotor turns, this weak field flux cuts the main stator winding. 3. A low voltage is generated in the main stator. 4. This output is fed back to the AVR which rectifies the a.c. power to d.c. 5. This d.c. is fed to the exciter stator.

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PTM / Jul 2002 55 SP / SMA

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Generators _________________________________________________________________________________

6. A stationary magnetic field is created in the exciter stator by the d.c. fed to it. 7. The exciter rotor, when it rotates, cuts this stationery field. 8. Since the exciter rotor windings are wound to produce 3 phase a.c. power, 3 phase a.c. is generated in it. 9. All of this 3 phase a.c. is led to a bank of rotating diodes mounted on the same shaft. 10. The diodes convert all of this a.c. to d.c. 11. This d.c is the “excitation” of the main generator. 12. This d.c. in the main rotor add to the weak magnetic field already there due to residual magnetism of the main rotor. 13. So the total field flux produced by the generator rotor is now increased: field flux due to current feedback from AVR & field flux due to residual magnetism. 14. Since more flux now cuts the generator stator windings, a higher voltage is generated. 15. This process of voltage build-up continues until the generator rated terminal voltage (usually 440V) is reached. The AVR regulates the voltage to this value. A simple self-excited alternator if shown in Figure 2. Carbon brushes are required.

Automatic Voltage Regulator

Generator Field

Alternator Armature Windings

D.C. Field Current

Voltage Feedback to AVR

Figure 2

The brushless generator describe the above have error operated AVR and excitation system. The voltage has to change for AVR to register the deviation from normal and then adjust the excitation for correction.

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PTM / Jul 2002 56 SP / SMA

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Generators _________________________________________________________________________________

Static Excitation System (or Functional Type)

Main Generator

Bus Bars

Circuit Breaker

STATOR

PRI 1 SEC Rotor Field Winding Rectifier PRI 2

Figure 3

The principle of the static or self-excitation system is that a 3-phase transformer with two primaries, one is shunt and the other in series with alternator output feeds current from its secondary windings through a 3-phase rectifier for excitation of the main alternator rotor. On no-load, the generator excitation is provided by shunt connected primary which is designed to give sufficient main rotor field current for normal alternator voltage at no-load. Reactor coils give an inductive effect so that current in the shunt winding lags main output voltage by 90°. Build-up of voltage at starting is assisted by capacitors which provide a resonance condition with reactors.

On load, the generator current contributes additional excitation current via the series primary coils. Variation in load current directly alter excitation and rotor field strength to keep voltage approximately right. In this generator, the excitation system make use of load current from the alternator to supply that component of excitation current needed to maintain voltage as load ___________________________________________________________________
PTM / Jul 2002 57 SP / SMA

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Generators _________________________________________________________________________________

increases. This component of excitation is a function of the load. Field current is thus forced to adjust rapidly as load changes. Voltage disturbances accompanying application or removal of load are greatly reduced. Statically excited alternator have better recovery from voltage disturbance.

Flashing - Restoring Residual Magnetism in Field Coil Connect the rectifier with DC 24 V circuit as shown in Figure 5, connecting (+) to the J of AVR and (-) to the K of AVR with the generator stationery. Keep the switch closed to supply d.c. to the field coil for 2 minutes. This should restore the residual magnetism.

AVR J K Switch

_ Generator Excitor DC 24 V +

Figure 5

Effects of Starting Large Induction Motor on the Terminal Voltage and Frequency of an A.C. Generator To prevent dimming of lights and malfunctioning of motors and other electrical equipment, the output voltage and frequency of an a.c. generator must be held

relatively constant as electrical loads are switched on and off. Unfortunately when a load is connected to a generator, two undesirable action take place. a) The prime-mover slows down, causing a lowering of frequency and generated voltage as Generated Voltage, E

α

RPM x

FLUX

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PTM / Jul 2002 58 SP / SMA

Module : Electrical Engineering

MT 3011

Topic : A.C. Generators _________________________________________________________________________________

b) The flow of increased current through the impedence of the armature winding causes a further drop in output voltage as Voltage, V = IZ

The reduction in prime-mover speed is caused by the development of a counter torque. When a load is connected to the generator terminals, the current in the armature conductors sets up a magnetic field that interacts with the alternator field. The mechanical forces thus produced by this action act in opposition to the driving torque of the prime-mover. Changes in prime-mover speed caused by the application of a load are corrected by an automatic speed governor of the prime-mover (e.g. woodward governor) which uses electronic or mechanical sensors to detect change in speed and then automatically increases or decreases the energy input (fuel for diesel engine, steam for steam turbine) to the prime-mover. Similarly an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) uses electrical sensors to detect change in voltage and then automatically adjusts the excitation current in the field circuit to raise or lower the voltage.
S u d d e n In c re a s in lo a d

s te a d y lo a d V o lta g e

V o lta g e

T im e

L o a d C u rre n t

Figure 6

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PTM / Jul 2002 59 SP / SMA