To understand the operation, use and/or adjustments of the following: • • Electric arc welding machines. Gas welding: Various sized nozzles & its purposes, gas cutting torch, gas welding torch and various accessories. • Various electrodes and brazing rods and their right applications depending on material types.

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INTRODUCTION: The technique of Welding is considered to be comparatively new and superior in many ways over the old methods such as Forging, Riveting, Bolting, Mechanic Joining, etc. Considerable stimulus has been, given to this technique. This has resulted in remarkable development in the welding process The application of welding is so wide spread that there is no metal industries or branch of engineering where welding is not used in one form or the other. Even the joining together of several metals and alloys which was considered impossible by forging etc. has been successfully done by modern Welding Technique among the metal joining process. Welding is a quicker method by speeding up and simplifying construction techniques. Welding tremendously increases the rate of production in engineering field. DESCRIPTION OF WELDING Welding is a metal joining process by which two similar or dissimilar metals can be joined together by heating the area to be joined up to molten condition with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metals. CLASSIFICATIONS OF WELDING Welding process has been divided into two major groups as per the system of joining of metals together. They are: 1. Pressure welding. 2. Fusion welding.

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ELECTRICAL ARC WELDING Introduction Electric Arc Welding is a method of fusion welding in which heat being obtained from an electric Arc is formed in between electrode tip and base metal. An Arc formed with the help of electricity is known as ‘Electric Arc’.

Principle of Electric Arc Welding When high current passes through an air gap in between one conductor (base metal) to another conductor (electrode) produces very intense and concentrated heat due to ‘IONIZATION’ of air in the form of an Arc. The temperature of this Arc is approximately 3600°c which can melt and fuse the metal quickly to produce a homogeneous weld.

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Types of Electrical Arc Welding 1. Metallic Arc Welding This is an Arc Welding process in which the welding heat is obtained from an Arc, formed between a metallic electrode (consumable) and welding job. The metal electrode itself melts and acts as a filler metal. Arc formed with metal electrode is known as ‘Metallic Arc’. 2. Carbon Arc Welding In this process Arc is formed between a carbon electrode (non-consumable) and the welding job. A separate filler rod is used since the carbon electrode is a nonmetal and will not melt. Arc formed with carbon electrode is known as ‘Carbon Arc’. 3chdroenArcWeldin In this process the arc is formed between two tungsten electrodes in an atmosphere of hydrogen gas. The welding job remains out of the welding circuit. A separate filler rod is used to add the filler metal. 4. Tungsten inert gas Arc Welding (TIC) In this case the Arc is formed between the tungsten electrodes (non- consumable) and the welding job in an atmosphere of an inert gas (Argon or helium). A separate filler rod is used to add the filler metal. This process is also called Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process. 5. Metal Inert gas Arc Welding (MIG) In this process the arc is formed between a continuous automatically fed metallic consumable electrode and the welding job in an atmosphere of inert gas. Hence this process is called metal inert gas Arc Welding (MIG) process. In this process carbon dioxide gas (C02) is used as inert gas. SO this process is other wise called Metal Active gas Arc Welding (MAG). The common name for this process is Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) 6. Submerged Arc Welding In this process Arc is formed between a continuous, automatically fed, metallic consumable electrode and the welding job under a heap of granulated flux. The Arc totally submerged in the flux so that Arc is invisible. This process is other wise called Automatic metal Arc welding.

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INTRODUCTION: The electricity which is getting from the main line cannot be used as it is for welding purpose because of the high voltage supply. For welding we want higher current and lower voltage. This is possible only by using a machine called Arc \Welding machine’. The machines which are used for welding purpose receives high voltage from the main and supplies low voltage to outside and thereby we will be getting higher current as required for different gauges of electrodes. There are two kinds of electricity in general. One is Alternating Current (A. C.) and the other one is Direct Current (D.C.). According to the kinds of electrical supply Arc Welding machines are classified into two groups. Classification of A Welding machines: 1. A. C. Welding Machines. 2. D. C. Welding Machines. 1. A. C. WELDING MACHINE: The welding machine from which alternating current (AC.) is getting outside for welding purpose is known as A. C. Welding Machine’. Only one type of A. C. Welding machine is available which is called Transformer’

The Transformer which is used for welding purpose is step down type, i.e., high voltage supply (220v or 440v) receives from the main and gives out reduced voltage (40v – 100v) as required for welding purpose. It is a static type welding machine in which no rotating part is available.

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Welding Transformer consists of three main parts. They are: a) Transformer Core b) Primary Windings c) Secondary Windings TRANSFORMER CORE: It is made out of a number of highly magnetisable iron sheets as stampings. Two coils of which are wound over the iron core without any inter connection. PRIMARY WINDINGS: On one side of the transformer core, primary windings are provided. The gauge of copper wire used for winding purpose is having lesser diameter and number of turns in the windings is more. The main supply which is in high voltage is received by the primary windings. SECONDARY WINDINGS: The copper wire windings that are placed on the other side of the transformer core known as Secondary Windings. The diameter of the copper wire used in windings will be having slightly larger diameter comparatively with primary winding wire. The number of turns of windings will be lesser than primary windings PRINCIPLE OF TRANSFORMER: Basic principle of Transformer is Mutual Induction. WORKING PRINCIPLE: The A. C. main supply (220v - 440v) is connected to the primary winding which produces magnetic flux in the iron core. The magnetic flux affects the secondary winding and induces high ampere and low voltage supply in it. The voltage at the primary coil is reduced in the secondary coil depending on the ratio of the number of turns in the primary to that of the secondary. Transformation Ratio = Voltage in the primary coil / Voltage in the secondary coil = No. of turns in the primary / No. of turns in the secondary 2. D. C. WELDING MACHINE: The welding machine which generate the electrical current and supplies outside Direct Current (D.C.) for welding purpose is known as D. C. Welding machine. There are different types of D. C. Welding machines available for welding purpose.They are: 7 of 68

a) Engine Driven Generator Set b) Motor Generator set c) Rectifier set ENGINE DRIVEN GENERATOR: In this system, Generator or Dynamo is being coupled with Petrol or Diesel Engine. When the engine works, Generator (Dynamo) coupled with the engine shaft also will work and direct current (D, C.) supply is being given outside for welding purpose. Where main supply is not available, we can use Engine Driven Generator set for welding purpose MOTOR GENERATOR SET: In this system Generator is being coupled with a motor which will be usually a 3 phase type. The main supply is being given to motor and when the motor works, generator side will also work and as a result, direct current will be generated and supplied outside for welding purpose. Motor Generator sets are available with different current capacity. Since Direct Current flows steadily and constantly in one direction, output terminals are having ‘+ve’ marking and ‘-ye’ marking and which will help for changing the polarity according to the kind of metal to be welded. RECTIFIER SET: This is a static type D. C. Welding Machine. In this system, a step down type Transformer output supply is being connected with a rectifier unit; this is a machine by which A. C. Supply is being converted into D. C. Supply. Just as in Motor Generator set, polarity can be changed in this machine also. ELECTRODES INTRODUCTION: The strength of a welded joint depends on the quality of the deposited metal. In arc welding the metal to be filled is getting from the electrode itself which is used for creating the arc at the time of welding. The electrode carries the current from the electrode holder to welding spot on the job to be welded. So the electrode is the filler metal applied at the joint during the arc welding process. DEFINITION: An electrode is a rod either metal or nonmetal which carries electrical current from electrode holder to welding spot and used to complete the welding circuit by an arc formed between its tip and the work. 8 of 68

KINDS OF ELECTRODE: According to the material by which electrode is being made, there 1. Metallic electrode 2. Non-metallic electrode METALLIC ELECTRODES: Electrodes which are made out of different metals are known as metallic electrodes. eg: Ferrous and non-ferrous. NON METALLIC ELECTRODES: Electrodes which are made out of nonmetal is known as Non-metallic electrode&. eg: Carbon CLASSIFICATION OF MANUAL METALLIC ELECTRODES: Metallic electrodes are being used in manual metal arc welding process. So the ordinary electrodes are called MMAW electrode&. These electrodes are classified on the basis of the following factors: • Method of coating • Coating factor • Type of flux coating • Purpose of flux coating METHOD OF FLUX COATING: Flux is a chemical compound which contains gas forming, slag forming and arc stabilizing materials. The processes of coating the flux on the core wire are in the following methods: • Dipping • Extrusion

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DIPPING METHOD: Flux will be prepared like paste in a container. Then the core wire is being dipped into the flux. The coating obtained by this method on the core wire is not uniform resulting in non-uniform melting, hence this method is not popular. EXTRUSION METHOD: This is being done automatically from a machine called Extrusion pres&. In this method the straightened wire is fed into the extrusion press where the coating is applied on the core wire under pressure. The coating thus obtained on the core wire is uniform and concentric resulting in uniform melting of the electrode. This method is used by all the electrode manufacturers. COATING FACTOR: The ratio of the coating diameter to the core wire diameter is called the coating factor. Coating factor = Coating of electrode / Core wire dia. Of electrode TYPES OF COATING: There are 3 types of coating. 1. LIGHT COATING: Flux compound is coated very lightly on the core wire by dipping method. Coating factor is 1.25 to 1.3. 2. MEDIUM COATING: General purpose electrodes are being medium coated type. It is not thin or heavy but medium. Coating factor will be 1.4 to 1.5. 3. HEAVY COATING: In this type, coating will be thicker than medium and coating factor will be 1.6 to 2.2. ELECTRODES - TYPES OF FLUX COATING INTRODUCTION: It is very important that flux should be coated on core wire so as to make the weld with an improved mechanical and physical property. TYPES OF FLUX COATING: • Cellulosic • Rutile • Iron oxide • Basic coated

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CELLULOSE COATING: These electrodes are having a thin coating which contains mostly cellulose. These give deep penetration because of the flux coating produces more gases. Very little slag formed on the weld. These electrodes can be used for all position welding. RUTILE COATED ELECTRODES: These electrodes are having medium coating. The coating contains mostly silicates and little % of cellulose. These electrodes are used for welding in: • Wider gap filling • Improperly prepared joints • Structural works • Ship building • Storage tanks • Gas containers • Medium and high pressure pipe lines IRON OXIDE COATED ELECTRODES: These electrodes have heavy coating. The coating contains mainly iron oxide and silicates. Welding in vertical and overhead position is difficult with these electrodes. The weld quantity depends on slag formation either acid or basic, Recommended for flat position welding only. BASIC COATED ELECTRODES: Low hydrogen type electrodes are called basic coated electrodes. These electrodes have super heavy coating of flux. The coating contains lime compounds (fluoride and calcium carbonate) and is free from organic and water bearing compounds. These electrodes form a large molten pool and large quantity of fluid slag. They require very short arc but require a special skill in vertical and overhead positions. They are connected with the positive side in D.C. welding. Basic coated electrodes are mainly used for the welding of pressure vessels. COMPOSITION OF FLUXES: The coating of the welding electrodes consists of a mixture of the following substances: • Oxidizing substances: The oxidizing substances make the weld metal flow freely. The oxidizing substances are • Iron oxide • Lamitite • Magnetite

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• Reducing substances: These substances compensate for the burning of manganese and ferrosilicon. The reducing substances are • Ferromanganese • Ferrosilicon • Ferrotitanium • Ionizing substances: These are carbonates known as chalk and marble. These are used for the stabilisation of the arc. • Organic substances: These substances form gases which aid the transfer of metal. They also shield the welding arc and weld pool. The substances are wood, flour dixtorine and cellulose. • Binding substances: These substances help the applied coating to grip firmly around the core wire of electrode. These are sodium and potassium silicates FUNCTION OF FLUX COATING During welding, with the heat of the arc, the electrode coating melts and performs the following functions. 1. It stabilize the arc by ionizing the air 2. It helps to produce a protective gaseous shield around the arc by forming carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. 3. It helps to produce a slag over the deposited metal which protects the weld metal from the attack of atmospheric contaminations such as nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen etc. and allows for slow cooling. 4. It helps to deoxidize and refine the weld metal 5. It helps to modify and control the strength of weld metal 6. It helps to form a sleeve at the burning end of the electrode and to concentrate welding heat, 7. It helps to make horizontal, vertical and overhead welding easy for the welder. This is controlled by making the slag quick freezing i.e. it will re-solidify immediately and prevent the liquid metal from falling. 8. It helps to insulate the electrode so that it may be used at higher current as compared to bare wire without getting red hot. 9. It helps to prevent spatters and gives a smooth and rounded appearance to the weld metal.

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ELECTRODES -SIZES & TYPES INTRODUCTION: Manual metal arc welding (MMAW) electrodes are manufacturing in different sizes. The selection of the sizes of electrodes always depends upon the thickness of the job to be welded. Current also should be adjusted according the size of electrode. For welding different types of jobs different types electrodes are available which are being made by ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Special type electrodes are being coated with special type flux compounds SIZES OF ELECTRODES The size of the electrode refers to the diameter of the core wire of the electrode. Each electrode has a certain current range to be adjusted. Welding current increases when the electrode size increases. The standard lengths of electrodes are manufactured in 2 sizes i.e. 350 mm and 450 mm.

TYPES OF ELECTRODES FOR FERROUS AND ALLOY METALS MILD STEEL ELECTRODE Mild steel is characterized by carbon content not exceeding 0.3%. Mild steel electrode core wire contains various alloying elements • Carbon -0.1 to 0.3 % - strengthening agent • Silicon - above 0.5% - deoxidizes, prevent weld material porosity • Manganese - 1 65 % - increases strength and hardness • Nickel, chromium, molybdenum are the alloying elements in varying percentage so as to increase the strength, hardness etc.

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STAINLESS STEEL ELECTRODES • Chromium + nickel electrodes in varying percentage. Lime coated or titanium coated electrodes are used, Lime coated with D.C reverse polarity and titanium coated electrodes with A. C and D.C reverse polarity. SPECIAL PURPOSE ELECTRODES • Deep penetration electrodes • Contact electrodes or iron powder electrodes • Cutting and gouging electrodes • Under water welding and cutting electrodes • Low hydrogen electrodes DEEP PENETRATION ELECTRODES • These electrodes are used to get deep penetration in the joints. Deep penetration occurs because of the very strong stream of gas produced by burning of the cellulosic materials in the flux coating. • Butt joint on heavy sections are welded without edge preparations • The depth of penetration will be equal to the core wire diameter of the electrode CONTACT ELECTRODES (IRON POWDER) These electrodes contain a large amount of iron powder in their coatings. The iron ignites very easily. These electrodes are also called Touch Type Electrode&. While using this type of electrodes a large amount of weld metal is deposited. CUTTING AND GOUGING ELECTRODES • The cutting electrodes are of tubular type and solid type. While cutting with tubular type electrodes air is sent through the tube at high pressure to cut ferrous material. • The gouging electrodes can make 1U grooves on the ferrous metals. UNDER WATER WELDING AND CUTTING ELECTRODES • These electrodes are used to cut and weld metal under the water. The coating having an external coating of varnish by Lacquer polishing or ‘celluloid helps to insulate and protect the electrodes when immersed in water for welding or cutting process. LOW HYDROGEN ELECTRODES Hydrogen controlled electrodes shall be such that the diffusible hydrogen content of the deposited metal will be low. This electrode is used with D.C reverse polarity and can use in all welding positions. CODING OF ELECTRODES INTRODUCTION: The weld metal must be having the quality equal to the base metal in all respect. This can be maintained if the electrodes are standardized in their quality of core wire as well as flux coating. This is being done by standard institutes from where the quality of products is predetermined and the concerned specifications are given to manufacturers. Like other 14 of 68

products electrodes are also specified in their required quality and given CODING by which consumers can select the required quality of weld metal. NECESSITY OF CODING: Electrodes with different flux covering give different properties to the weld metal. Also electrodes are manufactured suitable for welding with A.C or D.C machines and in different positions. These conditions and properties of weld metal can be interpreted by the coding of electrodes as per Indian standard classification of electrodes shall be indicated by the IS: 814 1991. Coding system of letters and numerals to indicate the specified properties or characteristics of the electrode. MAINCODING: It consists of the following letters and numerals and shall be followed in the order stated: (a). A prefix letter ‘E’ shall indicate a covered electrode for manual metal Arc welding. (b). A letter indicating the type of covering. (c). First digit indicating the tensile strength in combination with the yield stress of the weld metal deposit. (d). Second digit indicating the percentage elongation in combination with the impact values of the weld metal deposited. (e). Third digit indicating welding position(s) in which the electrode may be used and (1). Fourth digit indicating the current condition in which the electrode is to be used. ADDITIONAL CODING: The following letters indicating the additional properties of the electrodes may be used if required. (a). Letters H1, H2, H3 indicating hydrogen controlled electrode. (b). Letters J, K and L indicating increased metal recovery as ‘effective electrode— efficiency’ as per specification in the following range: J= 110- 129% K= 130 - 149% L = 150% and above (c). Letter ‘x’ indicating the radiographic quality. DIFFERENT STANDARDS USED IN CODING OF ELECTRODES. 1. IS(814-1991) 2. AWS. 3. B.S.

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INDIAN SYSTEM OF CODING OF ELECTRODES AS PER: IS: 814- 1991 PREFIX LETTERS: FIRST LETTER ‘E’ indicates covered electrode for manual metal arc welding manufactured by extrusion process. SECOND LETTER indicates the type of covering such as, A -Acid B - Basic C - Cellulose R - Rutile RR - Rutile, heavy coated S - Any other type not mentioned above FIRSTDIGIT: It indicates the ultimate tensile strength in combination with the yield stress of the weld metal deposit i.e. designation of strength characteristics.

SECOND DIGIT: It indicates the percentage of elongation in combination with the impact values of the weld metal deposited.

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THIRD DIGIT: It indicates the welding position(s) in which the electrode may be used as recommended by the manufacturer, The appropriate designating digits are as follows: 1. All positions. 2. All positions except vertical down. 3. Flat butt weld, flat fillet weld and horizontal/vertical fillet weld. 4. Flat butt weld and flat fillet weld. 5. Vertical down, flat butt, flat fillet and horizontal and vertical fillet weld. 6. Any other position or combination of positions not classified above. FOURTH DIGIT: It indicates the welding current and voltage conditions as follows:

SUFFIX LETTERS: The letters H1, H2, H3 shall be included in the classification as suffix letters for those electrodes which will have diffusible hydrogen 100gm. When determined in accordance with reference method given in IS: 1806:1986 as given below: H1- up to 15ml. Diffusible hydrogen. H2- up to 10ml. Diffusible hydrogen. H3- up to 5 ml. Diffusible hydrogen ADDITIONAL SUFFIX LETTERS: It indicates increased metal recovery as follows: J= 110-129% K=130-149%and L = 150% and above, Letter ‘X’ indicates the radiographic quality deposit metal.

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EXAMPLE: IS : 814 - 1991 : ER 4211 X -In this coding, PREFIX LETTER -1ST E = Covered electrode for manual metal arc welding manufactured by Extrusion Process. PREFIX LETTER 2nd R = Rutile covering 1 DIGIT - 4 = Ultimate tensile strength 410-510 N/mm2 and yield strength 330 N/mm2 2 DIGIT -2 = Elongation = 22% min and impact value = 47J min at 00C 3rd DIGIT -1 = All positions 4th DIGIT -1 = D ± and A 50 SUFFIX LETTER X = Radiographic quality weld, CODING OF ELECTRODES - AS PER AWS & B S AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY CODING: (AWS Coding) As per American welding society specification of coding of carbon steel and low alloy steel coated electrodes indicates as follows: A prefix letter followed by 4 digits stands for Electrode. The first Two digits - They designate the minimum tensile strength of the weld metal that the electrode will produce. The Third digit - Indicates the Welding positions. The Fourth digit - Indicates the kind of flux coating used.

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BRITISH STANDARD CODING OF ELECTRODES: (B.S. coding) British standard coding of carbon steel and low alloy steel covered electrodes as per B.S.639 consists of: A Prefix Letter – ‘E’ indicate the covered manual metal Arc electrode (MMA electrode). The next two digits - Indicates the Tensile strength and yield stress. The next two digits - Indicates the elongation and impact strength. The letter after the fourth digits - Indicates the Type of covering. The first 3 digits after the letter - Indicates the Type of covering with electrode efficiency. The fourth digit after the letter - Indicates the Type of covering suitable for the welding positions. The fifth digit after the letter - Indicates the type of covering suitable for different current and voltage conditions.

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INTRODUCTION: Though the term ‘welding’ denotes the method of joining metal pieces, the heat obtained in each method of welding is different. In most of the methods heat is being obtained by the conversion of electrical energy into heat energy but in gas welding the heat is being obtained by the conversion of chemical energy into heat energy. DESCRIPTION: The welding with the help of a flame which is being produced by using different ‘Gas combinations’ is known as ‘gas welding’. The heat obtained in the flame is the result by the conversion of chemical energy into heat energy GAS COMBINATIONS: Gas combination is the condition in which one combustible gas and another supporter of combustion gas are mixed and when a flame produces a high temperature is being obtained. The temperature obtained from each gas combination will depends upon the combustible gas used in it. Ex:- 1. Oxy -Acetylene - 3200 - 33000 C 2. Oxy - Coal gas - 1800-2200° C 3. Oxy - Hydrogen - 2400 - 2700° C 4. Air - Acetylene - 1825 - 1875° C 5. Oxy-LPG-2700-2800°C OXY -ACETYLENE WELDING:This is the most commonly used gas combination for welding purpose. In this combination Acetylene gas (C2H2) is used as combustible gas and oxygen (02) is used as supporter of combustion. Since Acetylene gas is a hydrocarbon gas which contains 92.3% carbon and 7.7% hydrogen a highest temperature in the flame is obtained. i.e. 3200° C to 3300° C. when the Acetylene gas is burning in presence of oxygen the entire carbon % is fully under combustion state and as a result a highest temperature is being obtained when compare to all other gas combinations.

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There are two systems used in Oxy -Acetylene welding. 1. High Pressure Oxy -Acetylene welding - HP. System 2. Low Pressure Oxy -Acetylene - LP. System H.P. SYSTEM: If high pressure oxygen from a compressed oxygen cylinder and Acetylene from a dissolved Acetylene cylinder (D.A. Cylinder) is being used for welding, then this system is known as ‘H.P. System’ L.P. SYSTEM:If the Acetylene from a low pressure generator and the oxygen from a compressed oxygen cylinder is being used for welding then the system is known as ‘L.P. System.’ Application: 1. High Pressure Oxy -Acetylene welding system is being used for welding thin and thick sheets and heavy thick section cutting. 2. Low pressure Oxy -Acetylene welding system is being used to weld thin sheets and cutting. ACETYLENE GAS INTRODUCTION: The gas welding is being done by the different gas combinations. Oxy-Acetylene gas combination is used very widely for welding in industries because Oxy-Acetylene flame gives a very high temperature when compare to any other gas combinations. This is because of the use of Acetylene as fuel gas. DESCRIPTION: Acetylene is a fuel gas which produces a very high temperature flame with the help of oxygen. This gas has got a highest % of carbon than any other fuel gas. The temperature of OxyAcetylene flame is about 3200 - 33000 C. COMPOSITION: Acetylene is composed of: Carbon - 92.3% Hydrogen - 7.7% 23 of 68

Its Chemical symbol is C2H2 which shows that two atoms of carbon are combined with two atoms of Hydrogen. PROPERTIES OF ACETYLENE: It is a colour less gas lighter than air. It has a specific gravity of 0.9056 as compared with air. It is highly inflammable and burns with a brilliant flame. It is slightly soluble in water and alcohol. Impure Acetylene has a garlic odor. It can be easily detected by its peculiar smell. CHARACTERISTICS: Impure Acetylene reacts with copper and forms an explosive compound called ‘copper acetylide’. Therefore copper should not be used for acetylene pipe line. Acetylene gas causes suffocation if mixed 40% or more in air. It is unstable and unsafe when compressed to high pressure. Its safe storage pressure in Free State is fixed as 1 Kg / cm2 at normal temperature of 200 C. It can be dissolved in liquid acetone at high pressure. One volume liquid acetone can dissolve 25 volume of acetylene under normal temperature. In a cylinder it is dissolved at 15 Kg / cm2. So the total volume is 25 x 15 = 375 volume of acetylene gas. This is the reason why the gas kept in the cylinder is called Dissolved Acetylene’ (DA). For the full combustion of 1 volume Acetylene 21/2 volume Oxygen is required. GENERATON OF ACETYLENE GAS: Acetylene gas is not got from atmosphere. It is the product of chemical reaction between calcium carbide and water. Calcium carbide is composed of calcium and carbon. Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. When calcium carbide (CaC2) is allowed to react with water (H2O) the carbon of the calcium carbide combines with the hydrogen of water and forming acetylene gas. Calcium combines with oxygen and hydrogen in water and forms slaked lime (Calcium Hydroxide) = CaC2 + 2 H20 = Ca (OH)2 + C2H2 (Calcium Carbide + Water = Calcium Hydroxide + Acetylene) DISSOLVED ACETYLENE GAS CYLINDER INTRODUCTION: Gases always stored in cylinders because of the easy handling and transportation. But the cylinder in which Acetylene gas is filled up and stored is different from other cylinders. Since Acetylene gas is a highly inflammable gas the filling and storing systems are different,

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DEFINITION: It is a seamless steel drawn cylinder or container used to store high pressure Acetylene gas safely in dissolved condition for gas welding and cutting purpose. CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES:

Acetylene gas cylinder is made from seamless steel tube or welded steel container and tested with a water pressure of 100kg / cm2. The cylinder top is fitted with a valve socket made from high quality forged bronze. The valve socket is having standard left hand thread to which Acetylene regulator is fitted. The cylinder valve is opened and closed by a spindle key (cylinder key). The body of the D.A. cylinder is painted maroon colour. If the cylinder is not in use then a steel cap will be screwed on it so as to protect the valve socket and cylinder valve from damage during transportation. The capacity of the D.A. cylinder will be 3.5 – 8.5 m3. The base of the D.A. cylinder is made in concave shape and is fitted with a fuse plug in which low melting point alloy is filled up. This low melting alloy will melt at a temperature of 1000 C. In case the cylinder is subjected to high temperature, the fuse plug will melt and allow the gas to escape. METHOD OF CHARGING D.A GAS CYLINDER: The storage of Acetylene gas in Its gaseous form under pressure above 1 kg / cm2 is not safe. A special method used to store Acetylene safely in the cylinder is in dissolved condition. For this purpose 80% total volume of the cylinder is filled with porous substances such as infusorial earth, lime silica, specially prepared charcoal, and fibre asbestos. Then 40% of the total weight of porous mass acetone liquid (A hydro carbon liquid) is charged in the cylinder.

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This acetone will be absorbed in the pores of the porous mass. Then Acetylene gas is charged in the cylinder under a pressure of about 15 kgs/cm2. The liquid Acetone dissolves the Acetylene gas in large quantity at a rate of 1 volume acetone dissolves 25 volumes of Acetylene gas under normal atmospheric pressure and temperature. During the gas charging operation one volume of liquid acetone dissolves 25 x 15= 375 volumes of Acetylene gas under 15 kg/cm2 pressure at normal temperature. OXYGEN GAS DEFINITION: Oxygen is one of the chief constituents of the atmosphere and a good supporter of combustion. Its chemical symbol is 02. CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Oxygen gas is a colorless non-poisonous, odorless and tasteless gas. 2. Its specific gravity at 32°F and at normal (atm) pressure is 1.1053 as compared with air. 3. It is slightly soluble in water 4. It does not burn itself, but readily supports combustion of fuels 5. Oxygen becomes liquefied at a temperature of -182.962°C at normal atmospheric pressure. 6. Liquid oxygen has a faint blue colour 7. It solidifies at -218.4°C at normal atmosphere 8. It combines readily with most of the metals and forms their oxide. AVAILABILITY: 1. Oxygen is found nearly every where in nature either in free state or in combination with other elements, it is one of the chief constituents of atmospheric air i.e. 21 % oxygen, 78% Nitrogen and 1 % other gases 2. Oxygen is available in water i.e. water is a chemical compound of oxygen and hydrogen in which approximately 89% oxygen by weight and 1/3 by volume. 3. Oxygen is found in combined state with most of the metals as its oxide. i.e. Iron + oxygen = Iron oxide Aluminium + Oxygen = Alumina Liquid oxygen can be stored in liquid form into containers specially made for it. One volume of liquid oxygen produces 860 volumes of oxygen gas. 1 kg of liquid oxygen produces 750 litres of gas.

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OXYGEN GAS CYLINDER DEFINITION: It is a seamless steel container used to store oxygen gas safely and in large quantity under a maximum pressure of 150 kg / cm2 for use in gas welding and cutting. IDENTIFICATION: Oxygen cylinder is painted black colour. The valve socket of oxygen cylinder is having right hand thread. The diameter of oxygen cylinder is less (0.229m) than D.A. cylinder. The height is more (1.295m) than DA cylinder. The weight is also less compare to DA cylinder. Bottom of C02 cylinder will be in convex shape. CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES: It is made from seamless drawn steel and tested with a water pressure of 225 kg / cm2. The cylinder top is fitted a high pressure valve made from high quality forged bronze. The cylinder valve incorporates a pressure safety device which consists of a pressure disc which will burst before the inside cylinder pressure becomes high enough to rupture the cylinder body. The cylinder valve outlet socket fitting has standard right hand threads, to which pressure regulator may be attached. The cylinder valve is also fitted with a steel spindle to co-operate the valve for opening and closing. A steel cap is screwed over the valve to protect it from damage during transportation. The capacity of the cylinder may be 7m3 85m3. Oxygen cylinders of 7m3 capacity are commonly used. CHARGING OF GAS IN OXYGEN CYLINDER: The oxygen cylinders are filled with oxygen gas under a pressure of 120 - 150 kg / cm2. The cylinders are tested regularly and periodically. They are annealed to relieve stresses caused during ‘on the job’ handling. The cylinders are periodically cleaned using caustic soda solution.

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OXY - ACETYLENE WELDING - SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 1. Acetylene is a highly inflammable gas, naked lights should not be brought near to the cylinder valve or regulator and hose pipe connections. 2. Check for leaks in all gas connections by using soap water for D.A and fresh water for oxygen. 3. Acetylene cylinder should be stored and used in upright position since the acetone liquid is filled inside the cylinder. 4. In case of fire immediately close the cylinder valve. Cylinder keys should be kept on the cylinder valve so as to use in emergency situations, 5. Never use any excess pressure to open the cylinder valve or to tighten the regulator connections by hammering. 6. Acetylene connections have left hand threads and oxygen ‘connections have right hand threads, 7. Do not use oil or grease for fixing the regulator or hoses. 8. ‘Crack’ the cylinder (quickly opening and closing the cylinder valve) before fixing the regulator. 9. Never attempt to transfer dissolved Acetylene from one cylinder to another cylinder. 10. Ensure the pressure adjusting screws of both regulators are fully released before opening the cylinder valves. 11. Acetylene cylinder is painted maroon and the oxygen cylinder is painted black.

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12. Do not roll the cylinders horizontally on the floor. 13. Ensure full cylinders are kept separately from the empty cylinders. 14. Never keep the cylinder with gas in the hot sun or near the steam boilers. 15. When returning the empty cylinders make sure that the valves are closed especially Acetylene cylinder to avoid leaking of Acetone. 16. Always use goggles while welding with oxy-acetylene flame to avoid the intense brightness of the flame. 17. Use protective appliances like gloves, apron etc. during gas welding. 18. When the cylinder is not in use or it is to be transported its cap should be tightened on it so as to avoid the damaging of cylinder valve.

The size of the nozzle varies according to the thickness of the plates to be welded. Plate thickness Nozzle size mm Number Litres/hr

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SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN HANDLING OXY-ACETYLENE GAS WELDING PLANT To be accident free one must observe safety rules in day to-day working. ‘Accident starts when safety ends’, so the saying goes. In gas welding, the welder must follow certain safety precautions while handling gas welding plants in order to prevent accidents to others and him. Observing the following precautions will help the gas welder to avoid accidents to a great extent. • • • General safety precautions Never use oil or grease in any part or assembly of a gas welding plant as it may cause an explosion. All inflammable materials should be kept away from the welding area. (Fig 1)

• •

Always wear goggles with filter lens during welding. Wear fire-resistant clothes, asbestos gloves and an apron while welding. (Fig 2)

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Single stage regulators may be used with pipelines and cylinders. Two stage regulators are used with cylinders and manifolds. Sequence of steps Slowly open the cylinder valve. Open the shut-off valve or pressure reducing valve. Open the valve on torch. Slowly screw in the adjusting screw. (The locking bolt opens.) Watch the working pressure gauge. Turn the adjusting screw until the desired pressure is reached. There is an equilibrium between the bottom adjusting spring and the pressure of the gas on the membrane, which is amplified by the spring of the locking pin. Care and maintenance of regulators Check the cylinder connection and crack the cylinder before fixing the regulator. (Fig 4)

Open the cylinder valve slowly and allow the gas to pass to the regulator (cylinder) content gauge. Loosen the pressure screw. Do not use oil in regulator connections. (Fig 5)

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Do not fix the oxygen and acetylene regulators do together. (Fig 6)

Do not wind the hose on the regulators. (Fig 7)

Use hose—clips before connecting to the regulator. Use soap water to check the leakage in the regulator connections. (Fig 8)

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Always keep fire extinguishing devices handy and in working order. (Fig 1) While leaving the work area, make sure the place is free from any form of fire. Safety concerning gas cylinders Do not roll gas cylinders for shifting; always use a trolley to carry cylinders. Do not drop the gas cylinders. Close the cylinder valves when not in use or empty. Keep the empty cylinders and full cylinders separately. Always open the cylinder valves slowly and not more than one and a half turns. Use always the correct size cylinder keys. (Fig 3)

Stand aside when (Fig 4)

opening the cylinders.

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Do not remove the cylinder keys from the cylinders during welding. It will help to close the cylinders quickly in case of an emergency. Always keep the cylinders in an upright position keeping in view safety and ease in handling (Fig.5)

Always crack the cylinder valves to clean the valve socket before attaching the regulators. Safety of rubber hose-pipes Use only the type of hose recommended for use in gas welding. Use only black colored hoses for oxygen and maroon colored ones for acetylene gas. Avoid damage to the hose-pipes caused by rubbing against hard or sharp edges. (Fig 6)

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Ensure that the hoses do not cross the gangways. Do not add bits of hose together to make up the length. Blow out the hos2-pipes before connecting to the blowpipe to remove dirt or dust. Protect the regulators from water, dust, oil etc. Never attempt to interchange oxygen and acetylene regulators while fitting as it can damage the threads.

Always remember the oxygen connection is right- hand threaded and the acetylene connections have left hand threads.
In the event of backfire shut both the blowpipe valves (oxygen first) quickly and dip the blowpipe in water. While igniting the flame, point the blowpipe nozzle in a safe direction. (Fig 7)

While extinguishing the flame, shut off the acetylene valve first and then the oxygen to avoid backfire. (Fig 8)

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Check for leakage before using oxy-acetylene welding equipment. (Fig 9)

Use the spark lighter to ignite the flame to avoid fire hazards. 37 of 68

Toxic and poisonous fumes given out during welding of some materials should be collected and cleared so as to be prevented from inhaling. Containers used for the storage of flammable materials should not be welded without thorough cleaning as otherwise the containers may explode. HIGH PRESSURE OXY-ACETYLENE WELDING EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES: Oxy-acetylene welding is a method of joining metals by heating them to the melting point using a mixture of oxygen and acetylene gases. (Fig 1)

Oxygen gas cylinders The oxygen gas required for gas welding is stored in bottle-shaped cylinders. These cylinders are painted in black colour: (Fig 2) Oxygen cylinders can store gas to a capacity of 7 m3 with the pressure ranging between 120 to 150 Kg/cm2. Oxygen gas cylinder valves are right hand threaded. Dissolved acetylene cylinders 38 of 68

The acetylene gas used in gas welding is stored in steel bottles (cylinders) painted in maroon colour. The normal storing capacity of storing acetylene in dissolved state is 6m 3 with the pressure ranging between 15-16 kg/cm2. Oxygen pressure regulator This is used to reduce the oxygen cylinder gas pressure according to the required working pressure and to control the flow of oxygen at a constant rate to the blowpipe. The threaded connections are right hand threaded. (Fig 3) Acetylene regulator As with the case of oxygen regulator this also is used to reduce the cylinder gas pressure to the required working pressure and to control the flow of acetylene gas at a constant rate to the blowpipe. The threaded connections are left handed. For quickly identifying the acetylene regulator, a groove is cut at the corners of the nut. (Fig 4) Rubber hose-pipes and connections These are used to carry gas from the regulator to the blowpipe. These are made of strong canvas rubber having good flexibility. Hose-pipes which carry oxygen are black in colour and the acetylene hoses are of maroon colour. (Fig 5) Rubber hoses are connected to regulators with the help of unions. These unions are right hand threaded for oxygen and left hand threaded for acetylene. Acetylene hose unions have a groove cut on the corners. (Fig 6) At the blowpipe end of the rubber hoses hose-protectors are fitted. The hose protectors are in the shape of a connecting union and have a non-return disc fitted inside to protect from flashback and backfire during welding. (Fig 7) 39 of 68

Blowpipe and nozzle Blowpipes are used to control and mix the oxygen and acetylene gases to the required proportion. (Fig 8)

A set of interchangeable nozzles of different sizes is available to produce smaller or bigger flames. (Fig 9)

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Backfire: At certain times during flame ignition in gas welding, a small explosion of the flame occurs at the torch tip. The flame may or may not go off. This is backfiring. Causes: A backfire is caused when: • The gas pressure setting is low • The nozzle is overheated • The nozzle orifice is blocked by carbon or spark deposits • The nozzle touches the molten pool • There is leakage near the nozzle. Eliminate the causes before proceeding further to avoid backfire Flashback: Sometimes during backfire, the flame goes off and the burning acetylene gas travels backward in the blowpipe, towards the regulator or cylinders. This is known as Indications of flashback: A sharp squealing sound inside the blowpipe may be heard. Heavy black smoke and sparks come out of the nozzle. The blowpipe handles starts heating. Immediate steps: Close the blowpipe valves (oxygen first). Immerse the blowpipe in water and close the cylinder valves.

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SAFETY IN GAS CUTTING PROCESS Equipment safety Safety precautions for gas cutting equipment are the same as those adopted in the case of gas welding equipment.

Always use safety apparel for the: - protection of your eyes - protection from burns - protection of clothing prevention of inhaling burnt gases. Goggles, gloves and other protective clothing must be worn, Safety during operation Keep the work area free from flammable materials. Ensure that the combustible material is at least 3 meters away from the cutting operation area. In case the flammable material is difficult to remove, suitable tire resisting guards/partitions must be provided. Protect yourself and others from the flying sparks. Ensure that the metal, being: cut is properly supported and balanced so that it will not fall on the feet of the operator or on the hoses. Keep the space clear underneath the cutting job so as to allow the slag to run freely, and, the cutting parts to fall safely. 42 of 68

Be careful about flying hot metal and sparks while starting a cut. Containers which hold combustible substances should not be taken directly for cutting or welding. (Fig 2) Wash the containers with carbon tetrachioride and caustic soda before welding or cutting and fill them with argon gas or water before repairing.

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TYPES OF OXY-ACETYLENE FLAMES The oxy-acetylene gas flame is used for gas welding because - it has a well controlled flame with high temperature - the flame can be easily manipulated for proper melting of the base metal - it does not change the chemical composition of the base metal/weld. Three different types of oxy-acetylene flames as given below can be set. • Neutral flame • Oxidizing flame • Carburising flame CHARACTERISTICS AND USES

Oxygen and acetylene are mixed in equal proportion in the blowpipe. Complete combustion takes place in this flame. This flame does not have a bad effect on the base metal/ weld i.e. the metal is not oxidized and no carbon is available for reacting with the metal. Uses It is used to weld most of the common metals, i.e. mild steel, cast iron, stainless steel, copper and aluminium. Oxidizing flame (Fig 2) It contains an excess of oxygen over acetylene as the gases come out of the nozzle. The flame has an oxidizing effect on metals which prevents evaporation of zinc/tin in brass welding/brazing. Uses Useful for welding of brass and for brazing of ferrous metals.

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Carburising flame (Fig 3) It receives an excess of acetylene over oxygen from the blowpipe. The flame has a Carburising effect on steel, causing hard, brittle and weak weld. Uses Useful for stelliting (hard facing), ‘Linde’ welding of steel pipes, and flame cleaning. The selection of the flame is based on the metal to be welded. ACETYLENE GAS Acetylene is a fuel gas, which produces a very high temperature flame with the help of oxygen, because it has more amount of carbon (92.3%) than any other fuel gas. The temperature of oxy-acetylene flame is 31 00°C - 3300°C Composition of acetylene gas Acetylene is composed of: - Carbon 92.3% (24 parts) hydrogen 7.7% (2 parts) Its chemical symbol is C2H2 which shows that two atoms of carbon are combined with two atoms of hydrogen. Properties of acetylene gas It is a colorless gas, lighter than air. It has a specific gravity of 0.9056 as compared with air. It is highly inflammable and burns with a brilliant flame. It is slightly soluble in water and alcohol. Impure acetylene has pungent (garlic like) odor. It can be easily detected by its peculiar smell. Characteristics of acetylene gas Impure acetylene reacts with copper and forms an explosive compound called copper acetylide. Therefore, pure copper should not be used for acetylene pipeline. Acetylene gas can cause suffocation if mixed 40% or more in air. Any percentage between 3 to 80 in air becomes explosive on ignition. It is unstable and unsafe when compressed to high pressure i.e. its safe storage pressure in free state is fixed as 1 kg/cm2. Its specific weight at normal temperature pressure (N.T.P.) is 1 .091 kg/cm2. The normal temperature is 20° C and the normal pressure 760 mm of mercury or 1 kg/cm2. It can be dissolved in liquid acetone, at high pressure. One volume of liquid acetone can dissolve 25 volumes of acetylene under N.T.P. It can dissolve 25 x 15 = 375 volume of acetylene gas at 20°C and 15 kg./cm2 pressure. In an acetylene cylinder it is dissolved with a pressure of 1 5 kg./cm2, and is called dissolved acetylene. Under normal pressure, it can be liquefied at a temperature of — 82.4°C to — 83.6°C. It solidifies when

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cooled down to — 85°C or below. For complete combustion one volume unit of acetylene requires two and a half volume units of oxygen.

RELATED WELDING TERMS: Fusion The terms relate to fusion welding i.e. the joining edges or surface of similar metals are heated to the melting point, they become fluid, flow together and make a homogeneous bond when cooled. Fusion may be formed between base metal (job) and filler rod during welding (Fig 1) or between base metals only. If the fusion is not proper it is called lack of fusion (poor weld).

Molten pool During fusion welding, a small pool of molten metal is formed on the job. It is also called molten weld pool or puddle. (Fig 2) The size of the molten pool controls the size of the weld (width of bead).

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LEFTWARD TECHNIQUE OF OXY-ACETYLENE GAS WELDING It is the most widely used oxy-acetylene gas welding technique in which the welding commences at the right and edge of the welding job and proceeds towards the left. It is also called forward or forehand technique. (Fig 1)

In this case welding is started at the right hand edge of the job and proceeds towards the left. The blowpipe is held at an angle of 600-700 with the welding line. The filler rod is held at an angle of 30°-40° with the welding line. The welding blowpipe follows the welding rod. The welding flame is directed away from the deposited weld metal. 48 of 68

The blowpipe is given a circular or side-to-side motion to obtain even fusion on each side of the weld. The filler rod is added in the (weld) molten pool by a piston like motion and not melted off by the flame itself. If the flame is used to melt the welding rod itself into the pool, the temperature of the molten pool, will reduced consequently and a good fusion, cannot be obtained.

For butt joints the edges are prepared as follows, up to: - 1 .5 mm, flange butt joint without gap - 1.5mm to 2.0 mm, flange butt joint with a 1.5mm gap - 2.0 mm to 3.0 mm, square butt joints with a 1 .5 mm gap - 3.0 mm to 5.0 mm single Vee 80° butt joint with a 1.5 mm to 2.00 mm gap. Above 5.0 mm thickness, the rightward technique should be used. Application This technique is used for the welding of: - mild steel up to 5mm thick - all metals both ferrous and non-ferrous.

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RIGHTWARD TECHNIQUE OF OXY-ACETYLENE GAS WELDING It is an oxy-acetylene gas welding technique, in which the welding is begun at the left hand edge of the welding job and it proceeds towards the right This technique was developed (later than the leftward technique) to assist the production work on thick steel plates (above 5mm) so as to produce economic welds of good quality. It is also called backward or backhand technique. The following are its features. (Fig 1)

Welding is commenced at the left hand edge of the job and it proceeds to the right. The blowpipe is held at an angle of 40° - 50° with the welding line. The filler rod is held at an angle of 30° - 40° with the welding line. The filler rod follows the welding blowpipe. The welding flame is directed towards the deposited weld metal.

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The filler rod is given a rotational or circular loop motion in the forward direction. The blowpipe moves back in a straight line steadily towards the right. This technique generates more heat for fusion, which makes it economical for thick steel plate welding. Edge preparation for rightward technique (Fig 2)

For butt joints the edges are prepared as follows:5 mm to 8 mm, square butt joint with a gap of 3 mm to 4 mm. 8 mm to 16 mm - single Vee 600 butt joint with a gap of 3 to 4 mm 16mm and above - double Vee 60° butt joint with a gap of 3 to 4 mm. Application This technique is used for the welding of steel above 5 mm thickness and ‘LINDE’ WELDING PROCESS of steel pipes. Advantages Less cost per length run of the weld due to less bevel angle, less filler rod being used, and increased speed. Welds are made much faster. It is easy to contro1the distortion due to less expansion and contraction of a smaller volume of molten metal. The flame being directed towards the deposited metal, it is allowed to cool slowly and uniformly. Greater annealing action of the flame on the weld metal as it is always directed towards the deposited metal during welding. 51 of 68

We can have a better view of the molten pool giving a better control of the weld which results in more penetration. The oxidation effect on the molten metal is minimized as the reducing zone of the flame provides continuous coverage. BASIC WELDING JOINTS AND POSITIONS

The various basic welding joints are shown in Fig 1. The above types mean the shape of the joint, that is; how the joining edges of the parts are placed together. (Joint design is very important in fabrication work, especially where cost is important.) Basic • • • • welding positions Flat or down hand position (Fig 2) Horizontal position (Fig 3) Vertical position (Fig 4) Overhead position (Fig 5)

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All welding action takes place in the molten pool, formed in the welding joint/welding line. The position of the welding joint line in respect of ground axis indicates the welding position. All joints may be welded in all positions. EDGE PREPARATION DESCRIPTION :The preparation of edges of the plates to be welded before the welding is termed as edge preparation. This always depends on the kind of metai1thiekness of the Job/Plate, position in which welding to be done and the strength of the welded joint required. NECESSITY OF EDGE PREPARATION: To deposit the required deposit metal at the joint, To facilitate the electrode end to reach up to the root of the joint, To reduce the distortion, To increase the strength of the joint, To control the economy of weld, METHODS OF EDGE PREPARATION: The joining edges may be prepared before welding by any one of the following methods: Flame cutting, Machine tool cutting. Machine grinding or hand grinding. Filing, chipping etc. 53 of 68

TYPES OF WELD: Mainly there are two types of weld. 1. Butt weld. 2. Fillet weld. 1. BUTT WELD: - If two plates are placed in the same plane by keeping its abutting edges together and welding is called “Butt weld”.

TYPES OF BUTT WELD: 1. Square Butt 2. Single ‘V’ Butt 3. Double ‘V’ Butt 4. Single ‘J’ Butt 5. Double ‘J’ Butt 6. Single ‘U’ Butt 7. Double ‘U’ Butt 8. Single Bevel Butt 9. Double Bevel Butt

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If a triangular weld deposit is being obtained either by keeping the plates in the same plane or in different plane is called “Fillet weld”.

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Root gap: it is the distance between the parts to be joined. Heat affected zone: it is the adjacent area on either sides of the weld in which metallurgical properties have been changed by the welding heat. Penetration: it is the depth of fusion taken place from the surface of the Plate / Job by the welding heat. Parent metal: The metal or Job to be welded is called parent metal. Weld zone: The area covered by the weld metal. Reinforcement: The excess metal deposited from the surface of the Job or Parent metal is termed as ‘Reinforcement. Root Run: The first run deposited at the root of a joint is called ‘Root Run’. Root face: The unbevelled edge of the fusion face at the root of the plate is termed as ‘Root face’ or ‘shoulder’. NOMEN CLATURE OFFILLET WELDS:

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Toe: The junction where the parent metal and deposited metal is being joined is termed as ‘Toe’ Leg length: The distance between the Root and Toe in a fillet weld is termed as ‘Leg length’ Actual Throat thickness: The shortest distance between the root and the reinforcement surface (weld face) is termed as ‘Throat thickness’ in a fillet weld. Fusion face: The portion of a surface on the parent metal to be fused so as to make the joint by welding is termed as ‘fusion face’.

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BRAZING INTRODUCTION: Metals can be joined by fusion Technique and non fusion Technique. In the Non-fusion Technique ‘Brazing’ is the popular method employed in joining similar and dissimilar metal pieces especially in thin sheet Fabrication works, DESCRIPTION It is a non-fusion method of joining similar or dissimilar metal pieces. In this process the base metal will never comes to molten condition but up to red hot condition and then the low melting alloy filler metal melts and flows between two closely adjacent surfaces by ‘Capillary attraction’. NECESSITY OF BRAZING: 1. Brazing is employed where a ductile joint is required. 2. Where dissimilar metal to be joined there brazing is required. 3. Thin sheets to be joined there brazing is required. 4. Where different thick metal pieces are to be joined there brazing can be used. FILLER ROD: Filler rod of different sizes which contains copper + Zinc + Silicon is used for usual brazing. Copper + Zinc f manganese filler rods are used for joining broken cast iron jobs. Melting point of a filler rod varies from 860oc to 9500c. FLUXES: 1. Fused borax is the general purpose flux used for most of the metals. it is applied at the joint in the form of Paste’ by mixing in water. 2. Sodium, potassium and lithium borate compound also used. FUNCTION OF FLUX: Dissolve the oxide and remove it to the surface of the molten filler metal. Spread ahead of the filler metal and so protect the metal surface from oxidation. Promote capillarity of the filler metal. REMOVAL OF FLUX Complete flux removal is essential after brazing because many fluxes especially those containing fluorides may cause corrosion in the joint. Flux may be removed by: Washing the brazed part in hot water. Rapid immersion of the warm brazed part in cold water. Dipping the part in chemicals. Mechanical means of cleaning such as wire brushing, chipping, steam jet cleaning etc.

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METHODS OF BRAZING: Various methods are being used according to the joint and the condition of the job. The following methods are being used. 1. TORCH BRAZING: Brazing which is being done by blow pipe with oxy-Acetylene flame. Oxidizing flame should be used for brazing to avoid volatilization of zinc and there by reducing the % of zinc at the joined place,

2. FURNACE BRAZING: Brazing which is being done from a furnace is called Furnace brazing. In this method the parts to be brazed are aligned with the brazing material (copper zinc + silicon) mixed in brazing flux in the joint. The assembly is being kept in the furnace. The temperature is controlled to provide uniform heating of the job. When the molten temperature of brazing material comes it will melt and flows through the joint. This method is used in Production field. 3. DIP BRAZING: This process is being applied to braze certain jobs in a particular manner. The parts to be brazed all around or a particular section should be dipped or submerged in a molten brazing material and take it out for finishing. This process is also used in production field where number of parts to be brazed in a similar fashion. 4. INDUCTION BRAZING: This process is also being used in production field where number of jobs to be brazed in the similar fashion. In this process the parts to be brazed are heated up to the melting point of the brazing material by means of a high frequency electric current. The molten brazing material will flow through the joint and the joint will be brazed uniformly.(— FILLER METAL RING)

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SOLDERING Soldering it also a process of joining two similar or dissimilar metals. It is similar to brazing but differs only in the sense that involves the use of lower temperature filler metals (Called solders) like lead and tin. The melting point of solders is usually below 320 degree centigrade. Soldering is used for electrical junctions, radiators, sheet metal work, automobile plumbing work etc. HARD SOLDRNG-SILVER BRAZING INTRODUCTION: Common soldering method has got the limitation of application since the joint weakness doesn’t allow to with stand higher strength or load. So if the joint require to with stand some more load than the usual application then ‘Hard Soldering’ or Silver Brazing is applied instead of ‘Soft Soldering’. DESCRIPTION: It is a process of brazing similar or dissimilar metal pieces by applying silver alloy filler rod instead of soft solder. The original use of silver alloy was confined to arts and in jewelry manufacturing but at recent there are but few industries which do not have some industrial application for this method of brazing. FILLER ROD: Silver Brazing alloy filler rod is used which vary the silver content and melting temperature. One type filler rod contains 40-50% silver and zinc - 15-25% melting point will be 6O7°C.

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Another type filler rod contains silver 45%, copper 15%,16% zinc and 24% cadmium. The melting point will be 6180c. FLUX: Borax based flux is used. This will be available in powder form but can be made into paste form by adding the water.. The flux may be applied in the area to be joined (on the Job) like varnish coating and the filler rod end should be dipped into the flux. JOINT CLEARANCE: Diameteral joint clearness for silver brazing alloys range form 0.050 to 0.125mm. lap joints are generally used. METHOD OF SILVERBRAZING: Though different methods can be used for silver brazing, torch method and furnace methods are more commonly used. The procedure of silver brazing using an oxy-acetylene torch is described as follows. I. Clean the joint mechanically using fine file & steel wool or emery cloth until bright metal is exposed. 2. Fit the joint closely and accurately and support the joint. 3. Apply the proper flux. 4. Adjust a soft neutral flame or a slight feather (reducing flame) on the inner cone is used. 5. Heat to the correct temperature and evenly both the pieces to be silver brazed. 6. Apply the silver brazing rod by dipping the end into the flux. 7. The blow pipe is kept moving in circles with the inner cone a couple of inches above the surface of the job so that a spreading rather than a localized heat is applied to the join as the joint reaches the melting point of filler alloy, it is touched the filler rod end which quickly melts and flows (due to capillary attraction) to all places which have been cleaned and fluxed. 8. Cool the brazed joint. 9. Clean the flux residue thoroughly from the brazed joint. APPLICATION I. For joining carbide tips to the steel tool shanks. 2. Making condensers and evaporators of air conditioners. 3. Making tractor fuel tanks. 4. Making brass and steel bellows housing assembly etc. 5. Used for joining most ferrous and non-ferrous metals except aluminum & magnesium etc, and where other brazing alloys might cause excessive grain growth or damage to base metals and strong ductile joints are required, 1. Being extremely fluid, the silver brazing filler alloy penetrates quickly into narrow openings. 2. Silver brazed joints are leak proof and very strong if properly made. 3. Many operations difficult if not impossible to perform by welding are readily and economically carried out with silver brazing. 61 of 68

DISTORTION IN WELDING AND ITS CONTROL Distortion in welding Any permanent change in the shape and size of joining pieces from the original caused during welding is called distortion (Fig 1)

Longitudinal distortion Distortion in the weld direction or longitudinal. (Fig 2)

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Transverse distortion (Fig 3) Distortion opposite to the weld direction, or in width.

Local distortion, a shown here (Fig 4b), is caused by heating or welding a beam of a rigid part. Residual stress has been created by the heating.

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Causes Metal expands when heated and contracts when cooled. Due to localized, uneven heating and cooling, the shapes and sizes of the joining pieces are changed. (Fig 5)

DFECTS IN GAS WELDING Definition A fault is an imperfection in the weld which may result in failure of the welded joint while in service. The following faults occur commonly in gas welding. Undercut A groove or channel formed along the toe of the weld on one side or on both sides. (Fig 1)

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Excessive reinforcement : Metal deposited more than 3 mm above the surface of the base metal. (Fig 2)

Overlap : An undesirable weld profile. (Fig 3)

Excessive penetration: Depth of fusion is more than the required amount. (Fig 4)

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Incomplete penetration: Required amount of penetration is not achieved, i.e. fusion does not take place up to the root of the weld. (Fig 5)

Lack of fusion: Base metal does not melt to the correct profile. (Fig 6)

Porosity: Number of pinholes formed on the surface of the deposited metal. (Fig 7)

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Bow-holes: There are similar to pinholes but have a greater diameter. (Fig 8)

Cracks: A discontinuity in the base metal or weld metal or both. (Fig 9)

Crater: A depression formed at the end of the weld. (Fig 10)

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