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Computer-aided engineering

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Nonlinear static analysis of a 3D structure subjected to plastic deformations
Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is the broad usage of computer software to aid
in engineering analysis tasks. It includesFinite Element Analysis (FEA), Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD), Multibody dynamics (MBD), and optimization.
computer-aided engineering (CAE), in industry, the integration of design and manufacturing into a system
under the direct control of digital computers. CAE combines the use of computers in industrial-
design work, computer-aided design (CAD), with their use in manufacturing operations,computer-aided
manufacturing (CAM). This integrated process is commonly called CAD/CAM. CAD systems generally consist
of a computer with one or more terminals featuring video monitors and interactive graphics-input devices; they
can be used to design such things as machine parts, patterns for clothing, or integrated circuits. CAM Systems
involve the use of numerically controlled machine tools and high-performance, programmable industrial robots.
In a CAE system, drawings developed and revised during the design process are converted directly into
instructions for the production machines that will manufacture the desired object. CAE systems reduce the time
needed to develop new products and increase productivity by optimizing production flow and scheduling and by
providing greater flexibility in altering machine operations.

Overview[edit]
Software tools that have been developed to support these activities are considered CAE tools. CAE tools are
being used, for example, to analyze the robustness and performance of components and assemblies. The term
encompasses simulation, validation, and optimization of products and manufacturing tools. In the future, CAE
systems will be major providers of information to help support design teams in decision making.
In regard to information networks, CAE systems are individually considered a single node on a total information
network and each node may interact with other nodes on the network.
CAE systems can provide support to businesses. This is achieved by the use of reference architectures and
their ability to place information views on the business process. Reference architecture is the basis from which
information model, especially product and manufacturing models.
The term CAE has also been used by some in the past to describe the use of computer technology within
engineering in a broader sense than just engineering analysis. It was in this context that the term was coined
by Jason Lemon, founder of SDRC in the late 1970s. This definition is however better known today by the
terms CAx and PLM.
[citation needed]

CAE fields and phases[edit]
CAE areas covered include:
Stress analysis on components and assemblies using FEA (Finite Element Analysis);
Thermal and fluid flow analysis Computational fluid dynamics (CFD);
Multibody dynamics (MBD) & Kinematics;
Analysis tools for process simulation for operations such as casting, molding, and die press forming.
Optimization of the product or process.
Safety analysis of postulate loss-of-coolant accident in nuclear reactor using realistic thermal-hydraulics
code.
In general, there are three phases in any computer-aided engineering task:
Pre-processing defining the model and environmental factors to be applied to it. (typically a finite element
model, but facet, voxel and thin sheet methods are also used)
Analysis solver (usually performed on high powered computers)
Post-processing of results (using visualization tools)
This cycle is iterated, often many times, either manually or with the use of commercial optimization software.
Benefits of CAE
The benefits of CAE include reduced product development cost and time, with improved product quality and
durability.
Design decisions can be made based on their impact on performance.
Designs can be evaluated and refined using computer simulations rather than physical prototype testing,
saving money and time.
CAE can provide performance insights earlier in the development process, when design changes are less
expensive to make.
CAE helps engineering teams manage risk and understand the performance implications of their designs.
Integrated CAE data and process management extends the ability to effectively leverage performance insights
and improve designs to a broader community.
Warranty exposure is reduced by identifying and eliminating potential problems. When properly integrated into
product and manufacturing development, CAE can enable earlier problem resolution, which can dramatically
reduce the costs associated with the product lifecycle.


CAE Software
Here are examples of CAE software applications:
NX CAE is a fully integrated, modern engineering environment for modeling and simulation of real-world
problems. NX simulation applications include dynamic motion simulation, linear and nonlinear stress analysis,
system-level performance simulation, dynamic response simulation, vibration analysis, fluid flow and thermal
analyses, durability analysis, multi-physics engineering analysis, and analysis to physical test correlation.
NX Nastran is a finite element solver that analyzes stress, vibration, structural failure/durability, heat transfer,
noise/acoustics and flutter/aeroelasticity.
Femap is a CAD-independent, Windows-native pre- and post-processor for advanced engineering FEA. It
provides engineers and analysts with an FEA modeling solution to handle even the most complex tasks easily,
accurately and affordably.
Solid Edge Simulation is a built-in FEA tool for design engineers to validate part and assembly designs digitally
within the Solid Edge environment. Based on proven Femap finite element modeling technology, Solid Edge
Simulation significantly reduces the need for physical prototypes, thereby reducing material and testing costs,
while saving design time.
The following software components are used by CAE software developers as the foundation for their
applications:
Parasolid is 3D geometric modeling component software, enabling users of Parasolid-based products to model
complex parts and assemblies. It is used as the geometry engine in hundreds of different CAD, CAM and CAE
applications.
D-Cubed Components are six software libraries that can be licensed by software developers for integration into
their products. The capabilities they provide include parametric sketching, part and assembly design, motion
simulation, collision detection, clearance measurement and hidden line visualization.



















Compression Testing
Compression is a fundamental type of test used to characterize metals, composites, rock,
concrete, wood, foam, plastic and many other common materials. Static compression tests
apply an escalating compressive load until failure, or apply a specific load and hold it for a
certain period. Dynamic compression tests involve cycling between two (or more) load
conditions. Depending on the nature of the specimen, compression tests can help determine the
materials ultimate yield strength, service life or other critical performance characteristics.
What is Compression Testing
Compression tests are used to determine how a product or material reacts when it is compressed,
squashed, crushed or flattened by measuring fundamental parameters that determine the specimen
behavior under a compressive load. These include the elastic limit, which for "Hookean" materials is
approximately equal to the proportional limit, and also known as yield point or yield strength, Young's
Modulus (these, although mostly associated with tensile testing, may have compressive analogs) and
compressive strength.
Compression tests can be undertaken as part of the design process, in the production environment or
in the quality control laboratory, and can be used to:
Assess the strength of components e.g. automotive and aeronautical control switches,
compression springs, bellows, keypads, package seals, PET containers, PVC / ABS pipes,
solenoids etc.
Characterizes the compressive properties of materials e.g. foam, metal, PET and other plastics
and rubber
Assess the performance of products e.g. the expression force of a syringe or the load-
displacement characteristics of a tennis ball
Types of Compression Testing
Types of compression testing include:
Flexure/Bend
Spring Testing
Top-load/Crush
Typical Materials
The following materials are typically subjected to a compression test.
Concrete
Metals
Plastics
Ceramics
Composites
Corrugated Cardboard






A universal testing machine (UTM), also known as a universal tester,
[1]
materials testing
machine or materials test frame, is used to test the tensile stress and compressive strength of materials. It is
named after the fact that it can perform many standard tensile and compression tests on materials,
components, and structures.
Components[edit]
Load frame - usually consisting of two strong supports for the machine. Some small machines have a
single support.
Load cell - A force transducer or other means of measuring the load is required. Periodic calibration is
usually required by governing regulations or quality system.
Cross head - A movable cross head (crosshead) is controlled to move up or down. Usually this is at a
constant speed: sometimes called aconstant rate of extension (CRE) machine. Some machines can
program the crosshead speed or conduct cyclical testing, testing at constant force, testing at constant
deformation, etc. Electromechanical, servo-hydraulic, linear drive, and resonance drive are used.
Means of measuring extension or deformation- Many tests require a measure of the response of the
test specimen to the movement of the cross head. Extensometers are sometimes used.
Output device - A means of providing the test result is needed. Some older machines have dial or digital
displays and chart recorders. Many newer machines have a computer interface for analysis and printing.
Conditioning - Many tests require controlled conditioning (temperature, humidity, pressure, etc.). The
machine can be in a controlled room or a special environmental chamber can be placed around the test
specimen for the test.
Test fixtures, specimen holding jaws, and related sample making equipment are called for in many test
methods.
Use[edit]
The set-up and usage are detailed in a test method, often published by a standards organization. This specifies
the sample preparation, fixturing, gauge length (the length which is under study or observation), analysis, etc.
The specimen is placed in the machine between the grips and an extensometer if required can automatically
record the change in gauge length during the test. If an extensometer is not fitted, the machine itself can record
the displacement between its cross heads on which the specimen is held. However, this method not only
records the change in length of the specimen but also all other extending / elastic components of the testing
machine and its drive systems including any slipping of the specimen in the grips.
Once the machine is started it begins to apply an increasing load on specimen. Throughout the tests the control
system and its associated software record the load and extension or compression of the specimen.




Test Procedures[edit]
A common method of conducting the test, as described in several published standard test methods, is to
compress a box at a constant rate of 1/2 inch (12.5 mm) per minute between two rigid platens. The platens can
be fixed so that they remain parallel or one can be pivoted or "floating". The test can be conducted on empty or
filled boxes, with or without a box closure. Conditioning to standard temperature and humidity is important.
The results of the constant rate of compression test can be:
The peak load
The deformation at peak load
The load at a critical deformation (head space, etc.)
The ability of a container to protect the contents from compression damage
etc.
The dynamic loads have some relationship with expected field loads.:
[3]
often factors of 4 or 5 are used to
estimate the allowable working load on boxes.
A test can also be conducted with platens that are not mechanically driven but are free to move with a fixed
mass (or fixed force) loaded upon them. The results of static load testing can be:
The time to failure
The time to a critical deformation
The ability of a container to protect the contents from compression damage
etc.
As with any laboratory testing field validation is necessary to determine suitability.
StandardTestMethodsof
CompressionTestingofMetallicMaterialsatRoomTemperature1
ThisstandardisissuedunderthexeddesignationE9;thenumberimmediatelyfollowing
thedesignationindicatestheyearoforiginaladoptionor,inthecaseofrevision,theyearoflastr
evision.Anumberinparenthesesindicatestheyearoflastreapproval.Asuperscriptepsilon(e
)indicatesaneditorialchangesincethelastrevisionorreapproval.Thisstandardhasbeenappr
ovedforusebyagenciesoftheDepartmentofDefense.
1.Scope
1.1Thesetestmethodscovertheapparatus,specimens,andprocedureforaxial-
loadcompressiontestingofmetallicmate-
rialsatroomtemperature(Note1).Foradditionalrequirementspertainingtocementedcarbid
es,seeAnnexA1.
NOTE1Forcompressiontestsatelevatedtemperatures,seePracticeE209.
E209PracticeforCompressionTestsofMetallicMaterialsatElevatedTemperatureswit
hConventionalorRapidHeatingRatesandStrainRates3
E251TestMethodsforPerformanceCharacteristicsofMetallicBondedResistanceStrai
nGages3
3.Terminology
3.1Denitions:Thedenitionsoftermsrelatingtocom-
pressiontestingandroomtemperatureinTerminologyE6andSpecicationE171,respective
ly,shallapplytothesetestmethods.
3.2DenitionsofTermsSpecictoThisStandard:
3.2.1buckling
Inadditiontocompressivefailurebycrushingofthematerial,compressivefailuremayoccurb
y(1)elasticinstabilityoverthelengthofacolumnspecimenduetononaxialityofloading,(2)in
elasticinstabilityoverthelengthofacolumnspecimen,(3)alocalinstability,eitherelasticorin
elastic,overasmallportionofthegagelength,or(4)atwistingortorsionalfailureinwhichcross
sectionsrotateovereachotheraboutthelongitudinalspecimenaxis.Thesetypesoffailuresare
alltermedbuckling.
3.2.2columnacompressionmemberthatisaxiallyloadedandthatmayfailbybuckling.
3.2.3radiusofgyration
thesquarerootoftheratioofthemomentofinertiaofthecrosssectionaboutthecentroidalaxist
othecross-sectionalarea:
r5~I/A!1/2
(1)
1.2Thevaluesstatedininch-
poundunitsaretoberegardedasthestandard.Themetricequivalentvaluescitedinthestandar
dmaybeapproximate.
1.3Thisstandarddoesnotpurporttoaddressallofthesafetyconcerns,ifany,associatedwi
thitsuse.Itistheresponsibilityoftheuserofthisstandardtoestablishappro-
priatesafetyandhealthpracticesanddeterminetheapplica-
bilityofregulatorylimitationspriortouse.
2.ReferencedDocuments2.1ASTMStandards:
B557TestMethodsforTensionTestingWroughtandCastAluminum-andMagnesium-
AlloyProducts2
E4PracticesforForceVericationofTestingMachines3E6TerminologyRelatingtoMe
thodsofMechanicalTest-ing3
E83PracticeforVericationandClassicationofExten-someter3
E111TestMethodforYoungsModulus,TangentModulus,andChordModulus3
E171SpecicationforStandardAtmospheresforCondi-
tioningandTestingFlexibleBarrierMaterials4
E177PracticeforUseoftheTermsPrecisionandBiasinASTMTestMethods5
ThesetestmethodsareunderthejurisdictionofASTMCommitteeE28onMechanicalTe
stingandarethedirectresponsibilityofSubcommitteeE28.04onUniaxialTesting.
CurrenteditionapprovedMarch31,1989.PublishedMay1989.Originallypublishedas
E924T.LastpreviouseditionE989.2
AnnualBookofASTMStandards,Vol02.02.3
AnnualBookofASTMStandards,Vol03.01.4
AnnualBookofASTMStandards,Vol15.09.5
AnnualBookofASTMStandards,Vol14.02.
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where:
r=radius of gyration,
I=moment of inertia of the cross section about centroidal
axis(forspecimenswithoutlateralsupport,thesmallervalueofIisthecriticalvalue),and
A=cross-sectionalarea.
3.2.4criticalstress
theaxialuniformstressthatcausesacolumntobeonthevergeofbuckling.Thecriticalloadisca
lculatedbymultiplyingthecriticalstressbythecross-sectionarea.
3.2.5bucklingequations
Ifthebucklingstressislessthanorequaltotheproportionallimitofthematerialitsvaluemaybe
calculatedusingtheEulerequation:
CopyrightASTMInternational,100BarrHarborDrive,POBoxC700,WestConshoho
cken,PA19428-2959,UnitedStates.
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