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PROBABILITY

AFTERSCHO☻ OL
– DEVELOPING CHANGE MAKERS
CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
PGPSE PROGRAMME –
World’ Most Comprehensive programme in social
entrepreneurship & spiritual entrepreneurship
OPEN FOR ALL FREE FOR ALL

www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's
AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL
MATERIAL 1
FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
PROBABILITY

Dr. T.K. Jain.

AFTERSCHO☺OL
Centre for social entrepreneurship
Bikaner M: 9414430763
tkjainbkn@yahoo.co.in
www.afterschool.tk, www.afterschoool.tk

www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's
AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL
MATERIAL 2
FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
WE DRAW THREE CARDS FROM A PACK OF
CARDS WITHOUT REPLACEMENT, WHAT IS
THE PROBABILITY THAT THEY ARE OF
BLACK COLOUR?

• There are 26 cards which are black and 26 red


cards in a pack of cards. Thus probability of the
first card being black is : 26/52. Similarly, the
probabilty of the second card is : 25/51 (as card
is not replaced), similarly, the probability for the
third card : 24/50.
• Probability of first 3 cards being black:
• 26/52*25/51*24/50= .117 answer.

www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 3


FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
WE DRAW THREE CARDS FROM A PACK OF
CARDS WITH REPLACEMENT, WHAT IS THE
PROBABILITY THAT THEY ARE OF BLACK
COLOUR?
• There are 26 cards which are black and 26 red
cards in a pack of cards. Thus probability of the
first card being black is : 26/52. Similarly, the
probabilty of the second card is : 26/52 (as the
card which has been drawn, has been replaced).
The probability for the third card is also: 26/52
(as we again replace the card being drawn).
• Thus probability of the first 3 cards being black :
• = 26/52*26/52*26/52 = .125 answer.
www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 4
FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
P(a) =1/2, P(b) = 1/3, P(a∩b)=1/4, what is
P (aUb)?
• As we can see the
union of a + b =
1/3

1/2
• ½ + 1/3 – ¼
1/4 • = .583 answer.

www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 5


FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
P(a) =1/2, P(b) = 1/3, P(a∩b)=1/4, what is
P (a/b)?
• It means the probability of a, when b has
already taken place. It is calculated by
dividing P(a∩b) by P(b)
• Therefore, the probability will be
calculated as : ¼ divided by 1/3
• Thus we have .25/ .33 = .75 answer.

www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 6


FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
P(a) =1/2, P(e) = 1/3, P(a∩e)=1/4, what is P
(ā∩ē)
• Here we have to identify ā and ē. It is the
area, which neither belongs to a nor to b.
ā is equal to 1- ½ = ½. ē is equal to 1-
1/3 , which is 2/3. there intersection is :
• 1 – P (aUb)
• =1 - .583
• =.417 answer.

www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 7


FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
About AFTERSCHO☺OL

• PGPSE - World’s most comprehensive


programme on social entrepreneurship –
after class 12th
• Flexible – fast changing to meet the
requirements
• Admission open throughout the year
• Complete support from beginning to the
end – from idea generation to making the
project viable.
www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 8
FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
Branches of AFTERSCHO☺OL

• PGPSE programme is open all over the


world as free online programme.
• Those who complete PSPSE have the
freedom to start branches of
AFTERSCHO☺OL
• A few branches have already started -
one such branch is at KOTA (Rajasthan).

www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 9


FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
Workshop on social entrepreneurship

• We conduct workshop on social


entrepreneurship – all over India and out
of India also - in school, college, club,
association or any such place - just send
us a call and we will come to conduct the
workshop on social entrepreeurship.
• These workshops are great moments of
learning, sharing, and commitments.

www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 10


FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
FREE ONLINE PROGRAMME

• AFTERSCHO☺OL is absolutely free


programme available online – any person can
join it. The programme has four components :
• 1. case studies – writing and analysing – using
latest tools of management
• 2. articles / reports writing & presentation of
them in conferences / seminars
• 3. Study material / books / ebooks / audio / audio
visual material to support the study
• 4. business plan preparation and presentations
of those plans in conferences / seminars

www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 11


FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
100% placement / entrepreneurship

• AFTERSCHO☺OL has the record of


100% placement / entrepreneurship till
date
• Be assured of a bright career – if you join
AFTERSCHO☺OL

www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 12


FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
Pursue professional courses along with
PGPSE

• AFTERSCHO☺OL permits you to pursue


distance education based professional /
vocational courses and gives you support
for that also. Many students are doing
CA / CS/ ICWA / CMA / FRM / CFP / CFA
and other courses along with PGPSE.
• Come and join AFTERSCHO☺OL

www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 13


FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS