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PHYSICS 2: HSC COURSE 2nd edition (Andriessen et al)

OPTION MODULE: FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS



Chapter 24 Probing the nucleus (Questions, pages 470-471)

1. It was recognised that there was a large amount of energy associated with the emission
of radioactivity. However, it was not necessary to supply any energy to the radioactive
sources they emitted radioactivity spontaneously and continuously. The large energies
and spontaneous emission were unlike anything observed in chemical reactions.

2.
(i) 13 protons, 14 neutrons
(ii) 82 protons, 126 neutrons
(iii) 86 protons, 134 neutrons
(iv) 84 protons, 134 neutrons
(v) 92 protons 146 neutrons.

3.
(a) Atomic number deceases by 2, mass number decreases by 4.

(b) Atomic number increases by 1, mass number does not change.

(c) Neither atomic number nor mass number change.

4.
(a)

84
214
Po
82
210
Pb +
2
4


(b)

90
210
Th
91
210
Pa +
1
0


5. In beta decay, a neutron changes into a proton with the release of an electron and an
antineutrino.

6.
(a)


82
212
Pb
83
212
Bi +
-1
0
e

(b)

83
212
Bi
84
212
Po +
-1
0
e
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From Quanta to Quarks Chapter 24

(c)

84
212
Po
82
208
Pb +
2
4
He

7.

(a)

13

27
Al +
1
2
H
14
28
Si +
0
1
n
(b)


5
10
B +
2
4
He
6
13
C +
1
1
H

(c)

13

27
Al +
2
4
He
14
30
Si +
1
1
H
(d)


16
32
S +
2
4
He
17
35
Cl +
1
1
H

(e)

4

9
Be +
1
1
H
3
6
Li +
2
4
He
(f)

11

22
Na +
2
4
He
12
25
Mg +
1
1
H

8. The fact that neutrons are neutral enables low energy neutrons to closely approach a
nucleus leading to possible capture by the nucleus. This may cause a nuclear reaction.
(Also slow neutrons have a large de Broglie wavelength which enhances the possibility
of capture as will be seen in the next chapter.)

9. Pauli predicted the existence of the particle we now call an antineutrino as a means of
maintaining the conservation of energy and conservation of momentum in beta-decay. He
was able to determine the properties of his particle and realised that it would have an
incredibly small chance of interacting with matter. This interaction would be so small that
he thought it would be impossible for it to ever be detected.



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From Quanta to Quarks Chapter 24
10.
(a) All the nucleon in a nucleus are held together by the strong nuclear force. On the
scale of the distance between nucleons, this force is many times stronger than the
electrostatic repulsion between protons.

(b) The strong nuclear force is only strong over a very small distance, comparable to the
distance between two adjacent nucleons. In a small nucleus, most nucleons would come
under the influence of the other nucleons. However, in a large nucleus, as each nucleon is
really only under the influence of its nearest neighbours, the overall stability of the
nucleus will be lower. (It will still require very special circumstances to break apart a
heavy nucleus.)

11.

Mass of +neutron = 12.000 000 +1.008 665 u C
12
6
= 13.008 665 u

Mass of = 13.003 354 u C
13
6

Decrease in mass = 0.005 311 u

Energy released = 0.005 311 931.5
= 4.95 MeV


12.

Mass of reactants = 7.016 003 + 1.007 825 u
= 8.023 828 u

Mass of products = 2 4.002 603 u
= 8.005 206 u

Decrease in mass = 0.018 622 u

931.5 Energy released = 0.018 622
= 17.35 MeV

Note: Atomic masses are used, hence there are 4 electrons included in the mass
of both the reactants and the products.






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From Quanta to Quarks Chapter 24

13.

(a)

Mass of reactants = 14.003 074 + 4.002 603 u
= 18.005 677 u

Mass of products = 16.999 131 + 1.007 825 u
= 18.006 956 u

Increase in mass = 0.001279 u


Energy required = 0.001 279 931.5
= 1.19 MeV

(b) The necessary energy (1.19 MeV) must have been supplied by the kinetic energy of
the incident alpha particle. If the alpha particle had an energy less than 1.19 MeV, the
reaction would not occur.

14.

Mass of reactants = 14.003 074 + 2.014 102 u
= 16.017 176 u

Mass of products = 15.000 108 + 1.007 825 u
= 16.007 933 u

Decrease in mass = 0.009 243 u

Energy released = 0.009 243 931.5
= 8.61 MeV

15.

Mass of reactants = 4 1.007 276 u
= 4.029 104 u

Mass of products = 4.002 603 u

(Four protons are converted into a helium nucleus and two positrons, which will have the
same total mass as an atom of helium, hence the atomic mass of helium is used.
However, the positrons will collide with electrons and be annihilated releasing an
additional amount of energy equivalent to the mass of 4 electrons.)

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From Quanta to Quarks Chapter 24
Ignoring the energy released from the annihilation of the positrons:

Decrease in mass = 0.026 501 u

Energy released = 0.026 501 931.5
= 24.69 MeV

Including the energy released from the annihilation of the positrons:

There will be an additional decrease in mass = 4 0.000 549 u
= 4 0.000 549 931.5 MeV
= 2.046 MeV

Total energy released = 24.69 + 2.046
= 26.73 MeV


16. The average binding energy per nucleon is a better indicator of the stability of a
nucleus than the total binding energy. When we are considering the stability of a nucleus,
we are looking at any change in a nucleus rather than splitting the nucleus into all its
constituent protons and neutrons. (It would be expected that as the number of nucleons
increases, the total binding energy would also increase. We have seen the shape of the
graph of average binding energy per nucleon versus mass and used it to explain the
possibility of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion reactions.)



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From Quanta to Quarks Chapter 24