You are on page 1of 422

Transportation Energy Data Book

32

Transportation
Energy Data Book
Edition 32

Stacy C. Davis Susan W. Diegel

Robert G. Boundy

Transportation Energy Data Book


Quick Facts
Petroleum

The U.S. produces 8.9 million barrels of petroleum per day (M bpd), or 11% of the worlds
84.42 M bpd.
The U.S. consumes 18.6 M bpd, or 21% of the worlds 88.3 M bpd.
U.S. transportation petroleum use is 67% of total U.S. petroleum use.
U.S. transportation petroleum use is 141% of total U.S. petroleum production.
Petroleum comprises 93% of U.S. transportation energy use.
Cars and light trucks account for 63% of U.S. transportation petroleum use.
Medium trucks (Class 3-6) account for 4% of U.S. transportation petroleum use.
Heavy trucks (Class 7-8) account for 17% of U.S. transportation petroleum use.

Energy

U.S. transportation energy use accounts for 28% of total U.S. energy use.
98% of ethanol consumed in the U.S. is consumed as ethanol in gasohol (or E10).
Cars and light trucks account for 59% of U.S. transportation energy use.
Medium trucks account for 5% of U.S. transportation energy use.
Heavy trucks account for 17% of U.S. transportation energy use.

Light Vehicle Characteristics

There are 125,657,000 cars and 105,571,000 light trucks in the U.S. (232,228,000 total light
vehicles).
U.S. cars:
o 7,242,000 cars were sold in 2012.
o The average age of a U.S. car is 11.1 years; the average car lifetime is 16.9 years.
o The average fuel economy for the U.S. car fleet (all cars on the road today) is 23.6 mpg.
o Cars comprise 50% of new light vehicle sales.
U.S. light trucks:
o 6,975,000 light trucks were sold in 2012.
o The average age of a U.S. light truck is 10.4 years; the average light truck lifetime is
15.5 years.
o The average fuel economy for the U.S. light truck fleet (all light trucks on the road today)
is 17.5 mpg.
o Light trucks comprise 49% of new light vehicle sales.
There were 8,604,100 fleet vehicles in 2012: 4,376,300 cars and 4,227,800 trucks.
U.S. car registrations account for 17% of total world car registrations.
U.S. truck and bus registrations account for 38% of total world truck and bus registrations.
The average U.S. household vehicle travels 11,300 miles per year.

Heavy Truck Characteristics

10,271,000 heavy trucks were registered in the U.S. in 2011.


In 2002 (the last time a survey was conducted), heavy trucks accounted for 80% of medium
and heavy truck fuel use.

Note: Data are for calendar year 2011 or 2012 unless otherwise noted.

ORNL-6989
(Edition 32 of ORNL-5198)
Center for Transportation Analysis
Energy and Transportation Science Division

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK:


EDITION 32
Stacy C. Davis
Susan W. Diegel
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Robert G. Boundy
Roltek, Inc.
July 2013

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32


can be found online at:
cta.ornl.gov/data

Prepared for the


Vehicle Technologies Office
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
U.S. Department of Energy

Prepared by the
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6073
Managed by
UT-BATTELLE, LLC
for the
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725

DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY
Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy
(DOE) Information Bridge:
Website: http://www.osti.gov/bridge
Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following
source:
National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
Telephone: 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847)
TDD: 703-487-4639
Fax: 703-605-6900
E-mail: info@ntis.fedworld.gov
Website: http://www.ntis.gov/support/ordernowabout.htm
Reports are available to DOE employees, DOE contractors, Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE)
representatives, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS) representatives from the following
source:
Office of Scientific and Technical Information
P.O. Box 62
Oak Ridge, TN 37831
Telephone: 865-576-8401
Fax: 865-576-5728
E-mail: reports@adonis.osti.gov
Website: http://www.osti.gov/contact.html

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United
States Government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof,
nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any
legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any
information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would
not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial
product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise,
does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or
favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and
opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the
United States Government or any agency thereof.

Users of the Transportation Energy Data Book are encouraged to comment on errors,
omissions, emphases, and organization of this report to one of the persons listed below.
Requests for additional complementary copies of this report, additional data, or information on
an existing table should be referred to Ms. Stacy Davis, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Stacy C. Davis
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
National Transportation Research Center
2360 Cherahala Boulevard
Knoxville, Tennessee 37932
Telephone: (865) 946-1256
FAX: (865) 946-1314
E-mail: DAVISSC@ornl.gov
Website Location: cta.ornl.gov/data
Jacob W. Ward
Vehicle Technologies Office
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Department of Energy, EE-2G
Forrestal Building
1000 Independence Avenue, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20585
Telephone: (202) 586-7606
FAX: (202) 586-1600
E-mail: JACOB.WARD@ee.doe.gov
Website Location: vehicles.energy.gov

Spreadsheets of the tables in the


Transportation Energy Data Book
can be found on the web at:

cta.ornl.gov/data

Find useful data and information in other U.S. Department


of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Data Books.
Vehicle Technologies Market Report:
cta.ornl.gov/vtmarketreport
Biomass Energy Data Book:
cta.ornl.gov/bedb
Buildings Energy Data Book:
www.btscoredatabook.net
Hydrogen Data Book:
hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen/article/103
Power Technologies Energy Data Book:
www.nrel.gov/analysis/power_databook

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... xix
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ......................................................................................................... xxi
ABSTRACT

......................................................................................................................... xxiii

INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................xxv
CHAPTER 1

PETROLEUM ................................................................................................11

Table 1.1

Proved Reserves of Crude Oil and Natural Gas, 19802011............................12

Table 1.2

World Crude Oil Production, 19602012 .........................................................13

Table 1.3

World Petroleum Production, 19732012 ........................................................14

Table 1.4

World Petroleum Consumption, 19602012 ....................................................15

Figure 1.1

World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2011 ................................16

Table 1.5

World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2011 ................................16

Figure 1.2

World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2011 .................17

Table 1.6

World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2011 ..................17

Table 1.7

U.S. Petroleum Imports, 19602012.................................................................18

Table 1.8

Imported Crude Oil by Country of Origin, 1973-2012 .....................................19

Table 1.9

Crude Oil Supplies, 1973-2012.......................................................................110

Figure 1.3

Oil Price and Economic Growth, 19702012.................................................111

Figure 1.4

Costs of Oil Dependence to the U.S. Economy, 19702010 ...........................112

Figure 1.5

Refinery Gross Output by World Region, 2002 and 2012 ..............................113

Table 1.10

U.S. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 19872011.........114

Table 1.11

Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil,


19782012.......................................................................................................115

Table 1.12

United States Petroleum Production, Imports and Exports, 19502012 ........116

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

vi

Table 1.13

Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in


Context, 19502012 ........................................................................................117

Figure 1.6

United States Petroleum Production and Consumption All Sectors,


19732040.......................................................................................................118

Figure 1.7

United States Petroleum Production, and Transportation Consumption,


19702040.......................................................................................................119

Table 1.14

Consumption of Petroleum by End-Use Sector, 19732012 ..........................120

Table 1.15

Highway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 19702011 ......121

Table 1.16

Nonhighway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode,


19702011.......................................................................................................122

Table 1.17

Transportation Petroleum Use by Mode, 20092011 .....................................123

CHAPTER 2

ENERGY .........................................................................................................21

Figure 2.1

World Consumption of Primary Energy, 2010 .................................................22

Table 2.1

U. S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-Use Sector, 19732012 ..............23

Table 2.2

Distribution of Energy Consumption by Source, 1973 and 2012 .....................24

Table 2.3

Alternative Fuel and Oxygenate Consumption, 20052011 .............................25

Table 2.4

Ethanol Consumption, 19952011....................................................................26

Table 2.5

Domestic Consumption of Transportation Energy by Mode and


Fuel Type, 2011 ................................................................................................27

Table 2.6

Transportation Energy Use by Mode, 20102011 ............................................28

Table 2.7

Highway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 19702011 .............29

Table 2.8

Nonhighway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 19702011 .....210

Table 2.9

Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Consumption


from the Nonroad Model, 2011 ......................................................................211

Table 2.10

Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment, 2011 ........................212

Table 2.11

Highway Usage of Gasoline and Diesel, 19732011 .....................................213

Table 2.12

Passenger Travel and Energy Use, 2011.........................................................214

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

vii

Table 2.13

Energy Intensities of Highway Passenger Modes, 19702011.......................215

Table 2.14

Energy Intensities of Nonhighway Passenger Modes, 19702011 .................216

Figure 2.2

Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems, 2011 .....................................217

Figure 2.3

Energy Intensity of Heavy Rail Systems, 2011................................................218

Figure 2.4

Energy Intensity of Commuter Rail Systems, 2011 .........................................218

Table 2.15

Energy Intensities of Freight Modes, 19702011 ...........................................219

CHAPTER 3

ALL HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS .....................31

Table 3.1

World Production of Cars and Trucks, 2000-2011 ...........................................32

Table 3.2

Car Registrations for Selected Countries, 19602011 ......................................33

Table 3.3

Truck and Bus Registrations for Selected Countries, 19602011 ....................34

Table 3.4

U.S. Cars and Trucks in Use, 19702011 .........................................................36

Figure 3.1

Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other


Countries (in 2001 and 2011) ...........................................................................37

Table 3.5

Vehicles per Thousand People in Other Countries, 2001 and 2011 .................39

Table 3.6

Vehicles per Thousand People in the United States, 19902011 ...................310

Table 3.7

Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type,


19702011.......................................................................................................311

Table 3.8

Cars in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 ......................312

Table 3.9

Trucks in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 ..................313

Table 3.10

U.S. Average Vehicle Age, 19952011 ..........................................................314

Table 3.11

New Retail Vehicle Sales, 19702012............................................................315

Table 3.12

Car Scrappage and Survival Rates, 1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years ........316

Table 3.13

Light Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates ....................................................317

Table 3.14

Heavy Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates ...................................................318

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

viii

CHAPTER 4

LIGHT VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS ......................................41

Table 4.1

Summary Statistics for Cars, 19702011..........................................................42

Table 4.2

Summary Statistics for Two-Axle, Four-Tire Trucks, 19702011 ...................43

Table 4.3

Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks ..............44

Table 4.4

Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks,


19891999.........................................................................................................44

Table 4.5

New Retail Car Sales in the United States, 19702012 ....................................45

Table 4.6

New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the
United States, 19702012 .................................................................................46

Table 4.7

Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New


Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 19752012 ........................47

Table 4.8

Definition of Wagons in Model Year 2012 ......................................................48

Table 4.9

Definition of Non-Truck Sport Utility Vehicles in Model Year 2012..............49

Table 4.10

Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of


New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 19752012 ..............410

Table 4.11

Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 19752012 ..........411

Figure 4.1

Light Vehicle Market Shares, Model Years 19752012 .................................412

Table 4.12

Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars


by Size Class, Model Years 19752012 .........................................................413

Table 4.13

Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks


by Size Class, Model Years 19752012 .........................................................414

Table 4.14

Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars


by Size Class, Model Years 19752012 .........................................................415

Table 4.15

Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars


by Size Class, Model Years 19772012 .........................................................416

Table 4.16

Average Material Consumption for a Light Vehicle, Model Years 1995,


2000, and 2011 ................................................................................................417

Table 4.17

New Light Vehicle Dealerships and Sales, 19702011 ..................................418

Table 4.18

Conventional Refueling Stations, 19932011 ................................................419

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

ix

Table 4.19

Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards,


MY 20122025 ...............................................................................................420

Table 4.20

Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year 2025 ................421

Table 4.21

Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus


Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 19782012 ..................................422

Table 4.22

Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards


versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 19782012 .......................423

Table 4.23

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 19832011 ......424

Table 4.24

The Gas Guzzler Tax on New Cars ................................................................425

Table 4.25

List of Model Year 2012 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes .................................426

Table 4.26

Tax Receipts from the Sale of Gas Guzzlers, 19802011 ..............................428

Table 4.27

Fuel Economy by Speed, PSAT Model Results .............................................429

Table 4.28

Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, 1997, and 2012 Studies ......................430

Figure 4.2

Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, 1997, and 2012 Studies ......................431

Table 4.29

Driving Cycle Attributes .................................................................................432

Figure 4.3

City Driving Cycle ..........................................................................................433

Figure 4.4

Highway Driving Cycle...................................................................................433

Figure 4.5

Air Conditioning (SC03) Driving Cycle .........................................................434

Figure 4.6

Cold Temperature (Cold FTP) Driving Cycle ................................................434

Figure 4.7

High Speed (US06) Driving Cycle ..................................................................435

Figure 4.8

New York City Driving Cycle ..........................................................................436

Figure 4.9

Representative Number Five Driving Cycle ...................................................436

Table 4.30

Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese


Driving Cycles ................................................................................................437

Table 4.31

Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles Attributes ......438

Table 4.32

Example of Differing Results Using the U.S., European, and


Japanese Driving Cycles .................................................................................438

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

Table 4.33

Summary Statistics on Demand Response Vehicles, 19942011...................439

CHAPTER 5

HEAVY VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS .....................................51

Table 5.1

Summary Statistics for Class 3-8 Single-Unit Trucks, 19702011 ..................52

Table 5.2

Summary Statistics for Class 7-8 Combination Trucks, 19702011 ................53

Table 5.3

New Retail Truck Sales by Gross Vehicle Weight, 19702012 .......................54

Table 5.4

Truck Statistics by Gross Vehicle Weight Class, 2002 ....................................56

Table 5.5

Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997,


and 2002 ............................................................................................................56

Table 5.6

Truck Statistics by Size, 2002 ...........................................................................57

Table 5.7

Percentage of Trucks by Size Ranked by Major Use, 2002 .............................58

Table 5.8

Percentage of Trucks by Fleet Size and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002..........59

Table 5.9

Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002 ...............510

Figure 5.1

Distribution of Trucks over 26,000 lbs. Less than Two Years Old by
Vehicle-Miles Traveled ...................................................................................511

Figure 5.2

Share of Heavy Trucks with Selected Electronic Features, 2002 ..................512

Table 5.10

Effect of Terrain on Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy .........................................514

Table 5.11

Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and


Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ...................................................................515

Figure 5.3

Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer


Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a
Function of Speed ...........................................................................................516

Figure 5.4

Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed


and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ...........................................................517

Table 5.12

Class 8 Truck Weight by Component .............................................................518

Table 5.13

Gross Vehicle Weight vs. Empty Vehicle Weight..........................................519

Figure 5.5

Distribution of Class 8 Trucks by On-Road Vehicle Weight, 2008 ................520

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xi

Table 5.14

Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002


and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys...............................................................522

Table 5.15

Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997,


2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys .....................................................523

Table 5.16

Summary Statistics on Transit Buses and Trolleybuses, 19942011 .............524

CHAPTER 6

ALTERNATIVE FUEL AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY


VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS ....................................................61

Table 6.1

Estimates of Alternative Fuel Highway Vehicles in Use, 19952011..............63

Table 6.2

Alternative Fuel Transit Vehicles, 2011 ...........................................................64

Table 6.3

Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2013 .......65

Table 6.4

Hybrid and Plug-In Vehicle Sales, 1999-2012 .................................................67

Table 6.5

Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2013 ..........68

Table 6.6

Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2013................610

Figure 6.1

Clean Cities Coalitions ...................................................................................611

Table 6.7

Properties of Conventional and Alternative Fuels ..........................................612

CHAPTER 7 FLEET VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS........................................71


Figure 7.1

Fleet Vehicles in Service as of January 1, 2012 ...............................................72

Table 7.1

New Light Fleet Vehicle Registrations by Vehicle Type, Model


Year 2011 ..........................................................................................................73

Table 7.2

Average Length of Time Commercial Fleet Vehicles are in Service, 2011 .....73

Table 7.3

Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles,


2011...................................................................................................................73

Figure 7.2

Average Miles per Domestic Federal Vehicle by Vehicle Type, 2011 ..............74

Table 7.4

Federal Government Vehicles, 20012011.......................................................75

Table 7.5

Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions by Fuel Type, FY 2002 2011 .................76

Table 7.6

Fuel Consumed by Federal Government Fleets, FY 20002011......................76

Table 7.7

Federal Government Vehicles by Agency, FY 2011 ........................................77


TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xii

CHAPTER 8

HOUSEHOLD VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS..........................81

Table 8.1

Population and Vehicle Profile, 19502011 .....................................................82

Table 8.2

Vehicles and Vehicle-Miles per Capita, 19502011 ........................................83

Table 8.3

Average Annual Expenditures of Households by Income, 2011 ......................84

Table 8.4

Annual Household Expenditures for Transportation, 1985-2011 .....................85

Table 8.5

Household Vehicle Ownership, 19602011 Census.........................................86

Table 8.6

Demographic Statistics from the 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS
and 2001, 2009 NHTS ......................................................................................87

Table 8.7

Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per


Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ........88

Table 8.8

Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household,


1990 NPTS and 2001 and 2009 NHTS .............................................................89

Table 8.9

Trip Statistics by Trip Purpose, 2001 and 2009 NHTS ..................................810

Figure 8.1

Average Vehicle Occupancy by Vehicle Type, 1995 NPTS and


2009 NHTS ......................................................................................................811

Figure 8.2

Average Vehicle Occupancy by Trip Purpose, 1977 NPTS and


2009 NHTS ......................................................................................................812

Table 8.10

Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age ....................813

Table 8.11

Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and


2001 NHTS .....................................................................................................814

Figure 8.3

Share of Vehicle Trips by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS ....................................815

Figure 8.4

Share of Vehicle Trips to Work by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS ......................815

Table 8.12

Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age,


2009 NHTS .....................................................................................................816

Table 8.13

Household Vehicle Trips, 2009 NHTS ...........................................................817

Figure 8.5

Average Daily Miles Driven (per Driver), 2009 NHTS ..................................817

Table 8.14

Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles in


the Household, 2009 NHTS ............................................................................818

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xiii

Table 8.15

Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each
Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS .............................................................818

Figure 8.6

Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household,


2009 NHTS ......................................................................................................819

Figure 8.7

Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household,


2009 NHTS ......................................................................................................819

Table 8.16

Means of Transportation to Work, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2011 .....................820

Table 8.17

Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit


Type and Density ............................................................................................821

Table 8.18

Housing Unit Characteristics, 2010 ................................................................821

Table 8.19

Workers by Commute Time, 1990, 2000, and 2011 .......................................822

Table 8.20

Bicycle Sales, 1981-2011................................................................................823

Figure 8.8

Walk and Bike Trips by Trip Purpose, 2009 NHTS ........................................824

Table 8.21

Long-Distance Trip Characteristics, 2001 NHTS ...........................................826

CHAPTER 9

NONHIGHWAY MODES .............................................................................91

Table 9.1

Nonhighway Energy Use Shares, 19702011 ..................................................92

Table 9.2

Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated


Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 19702012 .........................................93

Table 9.3

Summary Statistics for General Aviation, 19702011 .....................................94

Table 9.4

Tonnage Statistics for Domestic and International Waterborne


Commerce, 19702011 .....................................................................................95

Table 9.5

Summary Statistics for Domestic Waterborne Commerce, 19702011 ...........96

Table 9.6

Recreational Boat Energy Use, 19702011 ......................................................97

Table 9.7

Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by


Revenue TonMiles, 2011 ................................................................................98

Table 9.8

Summary Statistics for Class I Freight Railroads, 19702011 .........................99

Table 9.9

Intermodal Rail Traffic, 19652011 ...............................................................910

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xiv

Table 9.10

Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation


(Amtrak), 19712011 ......................................................................................911

Table 9.11

Summary Statistics for Commuter Rail Operations, 19842011....................912

Table 9.12

Summary Statistics for Rail Transit Operations, 19702011 .........................913

CHAPTER 10 TRANSPORTATION AND THE ECONOMY .........................................101


Figure 10.1

Transportation Services Index, January 1990January 2013 ........................102

Table 10.1

Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 19902012 .......................................103

Table 10.2

Diesel Fuel Prices for Selected Countries, 19982012...................................104

Figure 10.2

Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2012 ................................105

Figure 10.3

Diesel Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2012 ....................................106

Table 10.3

Prices for a Barrel of Crude Oil and a Gallon of Gasoline, 19782012 .........107

Table 10.4

Retail Prices for Motor Fuel, 19782012 .......................................................108

Table 10.5

Refiner Sales Prices for Propane and No. 2 Diesel, 19782012.....................109

Table 10.6

Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, 19782012 ..........1010

Table 10.7

Federal Excise Taxes on Motor Fuels, 2011 .................................................1011

Table 10.8

Federal and State Alternative Fuel Incentives, 2013 ....................................1012

Table 10.9

Federal and State Advanced Technology Incentives, 2013 ..........................1013

Table 10.10

Average Price of a New Car, 19132011 .....................................................1014

Table 10.11

Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), 19702011 ................1015

Table 10.12

Car Operating Cost per Mile, 19852012 .....................................................1016

Table 10.13

Fixed Car Operating Costs per Year, 19752012 .........................................1017

Table 10.14

Personal Consumption Expenditures, 19702012 ........................................1018

Table 10.15

Consumer Price Indices, 19702012 ............................................................1018

Table 10.16

Transportation-Related Employment, 2000 and 2012 ..................................1019

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xv

Table 10.17

U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts


Manufacturing, 19902012 ...........................................................................1020

CHAPTER 11 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ............................................................111


Table 11.1

World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990 and 2012 ........................................112

Table 11.2

Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared


with Carbon Dioxide .......................................................................................113

Table 11.3

U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming


Potential, 19902011 ......................................................................................114

Table 11.4

Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by End-Use Sector, 2011 ..................115

Table 11.5

U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by


End-Use Sector, 19902011 ...........................................................................116

Table 11.6

U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in the


Transportation End-Use Sector .......................................................................117

Table 11.7

Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Mode, 1990 and 2011 ...........118

Figure 11.1

GREET Model .................................................................................................119

Figure 11.2

GREET Model Feedstocks and Fuels ...........................................................1110

Figure 11.3

Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies .......1111

Table 11.8

Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import


Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2012................................................1113

Table 11.9

Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import


Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2012 ..................................1114

Table 11.10

Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975


and 2012 ........................................................................................................1115

Table 11.11

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Gallon of Fuel........................................1116

CHAPTER 12 CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS ................................................................121


Table 12.1

Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, 2012 .......122

Table 12.2

Total National Emissions of Carbon Monoxide, 19702012 .........................123

Table 12.3

Emissions of Carbon Monoxide from Highway Vehicles, 19702005 ..........124

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xvi

Table 12.4

Total National Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides, 19702012 ............................125

Table 12.5

Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Highway Vehicles, 19702005 .............126

Table 12.6

Total National Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, 19702012 .......127

Table 12.7

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Highway Vehicles,


19702005.......................................................................................................128

Table 12.8

Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM10), 19702012 ..........129

Table 12.9

Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM10) from Highway Vehicles,


19702005.....................................................................................................1210

Table 12.10

Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5), 19902012 ........1211

Table 12.11

Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5) from Highway Vehicles,


19902005.....................................................................................................1212

Table 12.12

Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger


Vehicle Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards ..............................................1214

Table 12.13

Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger


Vehicle Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards .......................................1215

Table 12.14

Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses


Exhaust Emission Standards .........................................................................1216

Table 12.15

Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines Exhaust Emission


Standards .......................................................................................................1218

Table 12.16

Heavy-Duty Highway Compression Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines


Evaporative Emission Standards...................................................................1220

Table 12.17

California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification


Standards .......................................................................................................1221

Table 12.18

Aircraft Exhaust Emission Standards ........................................................1222

Table 12.19

Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines Exhaust Emission Standards .....1223

Table 12.20

Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines Exhaust and Evaporative


Emission Standards .......................................................................................1225

Table 12.21

Locomotives Exhaust Emission Standards ................................................1226

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xvii

Table 12.22

Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines Exhaust Emission


Standards .......................................................................................................1228

Table 12.23

Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels Exhaust Emission


Standards .......................................................................................................1232

Table 12.24

Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles Exhaust Emission


Standards .......................................................................................................1234

Table 12.25

Gasoline Sulfur Standards.............................................................................1236

Table 12.26

Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) Diesel Fuel


Sulfur Standards ............................................................................................1237

APPENDIX A. SOURCES & METHODOLOGIES ............................................................ A1


APPENDIX B. CONVERSIONS ............................................................................................ B1
APPENDIX C. MAPS ..............................................................................................................C1
GLOSSARY.............................................................................................................................. G1
INDEX......................................................................................................................................... I1

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xviii

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xix

FOREWORD
Welcome to this 32nd edition of the Transportation Energy Data Book. Twenty-three editions of this
Data Book have been produced by Stacy Davis; DOE is grateful for the dedication, consistency, and skill
she has brought to this effort.
I would like to bring to your attention some of the data that are new in this edition:

Table 1.1. Proved Reserves of Crude Oil and Natural Gas, 19802011 a new table from the
Energy Information Administration data, replacing the Fossil Fuel Potential from the year 2000.

Table 4.1 Summary Statistics for Passenger Cars, 1970-2011 and Table 4.2 Summary
Statistics for Two-Axle, Four-Tire Trucks, 1970-2011 these tables have a new methodology
used to separate light vehicles into car and truck categories for 2009 through 2011. See Appendix
A for Car/Light Truck Shares for details on the methodology.

Table 4.28. Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, 1997, and 2012 Studies a new column was
added to this table as a result of a new study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the effect of
speed on fuel economy. Results from that study can be found at:
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2013/01/thomas-20130117.html#more

Table 4.31. Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles Attributes an
updated table on the differences among the different driving cycles.

Table 4.32. Example of Differing Results Using the U.S., European, and Japanese Driving
Cycles a new table illustrating the different fuel economies obtained using an identical car on
the each of the cycles.

I hope you find value in this data book. Stacy and I welcome suggestions on how to improve it.

Jacob W. Ward
Analysis Manager, Vehicle Technologies Office
U.S. Department of Energy

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xx

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xxi

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors would like to express their gratitude to the many individuals who assisted in
the preparation of this document. First, we would like to thank Jacob Ward and the Vehicle
Technologies Office staff for their continued support of the Transportation Energy Data Book
project. We would also like to thank Mark Robbins for the cover. This book would not have
been possible without the dedication of Debbie Bain, who has masterfully prepared the
manuscript since 1998.
This book would not be possible without the leadership, guidance, and vision of Phil
Patterson, who began this book in the 1970s. We hope to continue this report into the future
with the same level of excellence. The authors and the transportation research community will be
forever grateful for his efforts.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xxii

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xxiii

ABSTRACT
The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32 is a statistical compendium prepared
and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S.
Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle
Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an
assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and
presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this
document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition
of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data).
This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the
transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3
highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative
fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9
nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas
emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest
available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for
some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A
glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xxiv

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xxv

INTRODUCTION
In January 1976, the Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) Division of the Energy
Research and Development Administration contracted with Oak Ridge National Laboratory
(ORNL) to prepare a Transportation Energy Conservation Data Book to be used by TEC staff in
their evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. The major purposes of the Data
Book were to draw together, under one cover, transportation data from diverse sources, to
resolve data conflicts and inconsistencies, and to produce a comprehensive document. The first
edition of the TEC Data Book was published in October 1976. With the passage of the
Department of Energy (DOE) Organization Act, the work being conducted by the former
Transportation Energy Conservation Division fell under the purview of the DOE's Office of
Transportation Programs. This work continues today in the Vehicle Technologies Office.
Policymakers and analysts need to be well-informed about activity in the transportation
sector. The organization and scope of the data book reflect the need for different kinds of
information. For this reason, Edition 32 updates much of the same type of data that is found in
previous editions.
In any attempt to compile a comprehensive set of statistics on transportation activity,
numerous instances of inadequacies and inaccuracies in the basic data are encountered. Where
such problems occur, estimates are developed by ORNL. To minimize the misuse of these
statistics, an appendix (Appendix A) is included to document the estimation procedures. The
attempt is to provide sufficient information for the conscientious user to evaluate the estimates
and to form their own opinions as to their utility. Clearly, the accuracy of the estimates cannot
exceed the accuracy of the primary data, an accuracy which in most instances is unknown. In
cases where data accuracy is known or substantial errors are strongly suspected in the data, the
reader is alerted. In all cases it should be recognized that the estimates are not precise.
The majority of the statistics contained in the data book are taken directly from published
sources, although these data may be reformatted for presentation by ORNL. Consequently,
neither ORNL nor DOE endorses the validity of these data.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

xxvi

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

11

Chapter 1
Petroleum
Summary Statistics from Tables/Figures in this Chapter

Source
Table 1.3

World Petroleum Production, 2012 (million barrels per day)a

84.42

U.S. Production (million barrels per day)

8.87

U.S. Share
Table 1.4

10.5%

World Petroleum Consumption, 2012 (million barrels per day)

88.31

U.S. Consumption (million barrels per day)

18.55

U.S. Share
Figure 1.5

21.0%
OECD
Europe

North
America

Gasoline

18.7%

42.1%

Diesel oil

41.0%

27.0%

Residual fuel

12.3%

4.9%

Kerosene

7.3%

7.3%

Other

12.7%

15.2%

Average Refinery Yield, 2012

Table 1.13

U.S. transportation petroleum use as a percent of U.S. petroleum


production, 2012

140.9%

Table 1.13

Net imports as a percentage of U.S. petroleum consumption, 2012

39.9%

Table 1.14

Transportation share of U.S. petroleum consumption, 2012

69.3%

Table 1.17

Highway share of transportation petroleum consumption, 2011

85.3%

Table 1.17

Light vehicle share of transportation petroleum consumption, 2011

63.6%

In this document, petroleum is defined


as crude oil (including lease condensate)
and natural gas plant liquids.

_________________________
a

Because other liquids and processing gain are not included, the world production is smaller than
world petroleum consumption.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

12

As new technologies appear and new areas are explored, the amount of proved reserves of crude oil and natural
gas has grown. Although the reserves of natural gas in the United States were 52% higher in 2011 than it was in
1980, the U.S. share of World natural gas reserves is lower. The U.S. share of crude oil reserves has been under
2% since 2003.

Table 1.1
Proved Reserves of Crude Oil and Natural Gas, 19802011

Year
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
1970-2011
2001-2011

Crude Oil Reserves


Natural Gas Reserves
U.S. Share of
(billion barrels)
(trillion cubic feet)
Crude Oil
World
United States
World
United States
Reserves
641.9
29.8
4.6%
2,570.2
201.0
649.1
29.8
4.6%
2,626.3
199.0
667.4
29.4
4.4%
2,904.8
201.7
665.6
27.9
4.2%
3,017.0
201.5
666.5
27.7
4.2%
3,185.7
200.2
697.8
28.4
4.1%
3,385.0
197.5
698.6
28.4
4.1%
3,464.4
193.4
697.9
26.9
3.9%
3,616.4
191.6
887.5
27.3
3.1%
3,768.2
187.2
906.0
26.8
3.0%
3,907.2
168.0
1,000.5
26.5
2.6%
3,963.2
167.1
998.7
26.3
2.6%
4,205.5
169.3
989.4
24.7
2.5%
4,375.8
167.1
996.1
23.7
2.4%
4,883.3
165.0
998.3
23.0
2.3%
5,013.6
162.4
999.3
22.5
2.2%
4,981.7
163.8
1,007.4
22.4
2.2%
4,935.1
165.1
1,018.5
22.0
2.2%
4,946.7
166.5
1,020.1
22.5
2.2%
5,087.2
167.2
1,032.8
21.0
2.0%
5,141.6
164.0
1,016.8
21.8
2.1%
5,149.6
167.4
1,028.1
22.0
2.1%
5,288.5
177.4
1,032.0
22.4
2.2%
5,457.1
183.5
1,213.1
22.7
1.9%
5,504.9
186.9
1,265.0
21.9
1.7%
6,078.6
189.0
1,277.2
21.4
1.7%
6,046.1
192.5
1,292.9
21.8
1.7%
6,124.0
204.4
1,316.7
21.0
1.6%
6,189.4
211.1
1,332.0
21.3
1.6%
6,212.3
237.7
1,340.0
19.1
1.4%
6,261.3
244.7
1,355.7
20.7
1.5%
6,637.2
272.5
1,473.8
23.3
1.6%
6,707.3
304.6
Average Annual Percentage Change
2.7%
-0.8%
3.1%
1.3%
3.7%
0.6%
2.4%
5.6%

U.S. Share of
Natural Gas
Reserves
7.8%
7.6%
6.9%
6.7%
6.3%
5.8%
5.6%
5.3%
5.0%
4.3%
4.2%
4.0%
3.8%
3.4%
3.2%
3.3%
3.3%
3.4%
3.3%
3.2%
3.3%
3.4%
3.4%
3.4%
3.1%
3.2%
3.3%
3.4%
3.8%
3.9%
4.1%
4.5%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics, May 2013.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

13

In 2012, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) accounted for more than 43.5% of world oil
production, which is the highest OPEC share since the 1980s. The U.S. production of crude oil increased to 6.47
million barrels per day, which is 8.6% of World production.

Table 1.2
World Crude Oil Production, 19602012a
(million barrels per day)
Year
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

United
States
7.04
7.80
9.64
8.38
8.60
8.97
8.68
8.35
8.14
7.61
7.36
7.42
7.17
6.85
6.66
6.56
6.47
6.45
6.25
5.88
5.82
5.80
5.75
5.68
5.42
5.18
5.10
5.06
4.95
5.36
5.48
5.65
6.47

19602012
19702012
20022012

-0.2%
-0.9%
-1.2%

U.S. share
33.5%
25.7%
21.0%
15.9%
14.4%
16.6%
15.4%
14.7%
13.9%
12.7%
12.2%
12.3%
11.9%
11.4%
10.9%
10.5%
10.1%
9.8%
9.3%
8.9%
8.5%
8.5%
8.5%
8.2%
7.5%
7.0%
7.0%
6.9%
6.7%
7.4%
7.4%
7.6%
8.6%

Total OPECb
OPEC share
8.70
41.4%
14.35
47.3%
23.30
50.8%
26.79
50.3%
26.38
44.3%
15.37
28.5%
18.28
32.5%
18.52
32.7%
20.32
34.6%
22.07
36.9%
22.49
37.2%
23.27
38.7%
24.40
40.6%
25.12
41.7%
25.51
41.7%
25.54
40.9%
26.02
40.8%
27.29
41.5%
28.37
42.3%
27.22
41.3%
28.94
42.2%
28.11
41.3%
26.44
39.3%
27.89
40.2%
30.31
41.8%
31.77
43.1%
31.48
43.0%
31.14
42.7%
32.43
44.0%
30.52
42.2%
31.51
42.5%
31.78
42.9%
32.88
43.5%
Average annual percentage change
2.6%
0.8%
2.2%

Total nonOPEC
12.29
15.98
22.59
27.04
34.18
38.60
37.95
38.15
38.42
37.79
38.00
36.86
35.70
35.05
35.66
36.89
37.80
38.51
38.67
38.74
39.58
40.00
40.83
41.48
42.15
41.88
41.79
41.73
41.27
41.79
42.59
42.35
42.68

World
20.99
30.33
45.89
52.83
59.56
53.97
56.23
56.67
58.74
59.86
60.50
60.13
60.10
60.17
61.17
62.43
63.82
65.81
67.03
65.97
68.52
68.12
67.26
69.36
72.46
73.64
73.27
72.87
73.70
72.31
74.09
74.14
75.56

2.4%
1.5%
0.5%

2.5%
1.2%
1.2%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics Website, May 2013.
(Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)
a
b

Includes lease condensate. Excludes natural gas plant liquids.


See Glossary for membership.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

14

This table shows petroleum production, which includes both crude oil and natural gas plant liquids. Because
other liquids and processing gain are not included, the world total is smaller than world petroleum consumption
(Table 1.4). The United States was responsible for 10.5% of the worlds petroleum production in 2012 and 8.6%
of the worlds crude oil production (Table 1.2).

Table 1.3
World Petroleum Production, 19732012a
(million barrels per day)

Year
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

United
States
10.95
10.44
10.01
9.74
9.86
10.27
10.14
10.17
10.18
10.20
10.25
10.51
10.58
10.23
9.94
9.77
9.16
8.91
9.08
8.87
8.58
8.39
8.32
8.30
8.27
8.01
7.73
7.73
7.67
7.63
7.40
7.23
6.90
6.83
6.86
6.78
7.26
7.55
7.87
8.87

19732012
20022012

-0.5%
1.5%

U.S.
share
18.7%
17.8%
18.0%
16.2%
15.7%
16.2%
15.4%
16.1%
17.1%
17.9%
18.0%
18.0%
18.3%
16.9%
16.3%
15.5%
14.2%
13.7%
14.0%
13.7%
13.2%
12.6%
12.2%
11.9%
11.5%
11.0%
10.7%
10.3%
10.3%
10.3%
9.7%
9.1%
8.5%
8.4%
8.5%
8.3%
9.0%
9.2%
9.5%
10.5%

Total
Total
OPEC
nonOPECb
share
OPEC
29.99
51.3%
28.48
29.67
50.7%
28.84
26.16
47.0%
28.48
29.55
49.1%
30.66
30.06
47.9%
32.64
28.70
45.4%
34.54
29.95
45.4%
36.01
26.05
41.3%
35.77
21.95
36.8%
37.73
18.54
32.5%
38.55
17.26
30.3%
39.64
17.29
29.6%
41.08
16.22
28.0%
40.88
18.40
30.4%
41.17
18.69
30.7%
41.46
20.79
32.9%
41.87
22.51
35.0%
41.18
23.70
36.4%
40.81
23.71
36.5%
40.53
25.03
38.5%
39.37
25.82
39.6%
38.82
26.54
39.9%
39.21
27.23
40.0%
40.21
27.71
39.9%
41.26
29.07
40.6%
42.05
30.21
41.4%
42.35
29.13
40.4%
43.01
30.94
41.3%
43.95
30.34
40.5%
44.47
28.77
38.8%
45.30
30.35
39.7%
46.11
32.92
41.3%
46.81
34.61
42.6%
46.58
34.34
42.4%
46.65
34.05
42.2%
46.67
35.36
43.4%
46.17
33.56
41.8%
46.80
34.75
42.1%
47.74
35.04
42.4%
47.61
36.27
43.0%
48.16
Average annual percentage change
0.5%
1.4%
2.3%
0.6%

NonOPEC
share
48.7%
49.3%
51.2%
50.9%
52.1%
54.6%
54.6%
56.8%
63.2%
67.5%
69.7%
70.4%
70.6%
68.1%
68.0%
66.3%
64.0%
62.6%
62.4%
60.6%
59.5%
58.9%
59.1%
59.3%
58.7%
58.0%
59.6%
58.7%
59.5%
61.2%
60.3%
58.7%
57.4%
57.6%
57.8%
56.6%
58.2%
57.9%
57.6%
57.0%

World
58.47
58.51
55.62
60.21
62.69
63.24
65.96
63.00
59.68
57.09
56.89
58.37
57.90
60.49
60.93
63.20
64.31
65.14
64.95
64.95
65.23
66.55
68.01
69.52
71.65
73.04
72.15
74.90
74.81
74.07
76.46
79.73
81.20
80.99
80.72
81.54
80.36
82.49
82.64
84.42
0.9%
1.3%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics Website, May 2013.
(Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)
a

Includes natural gas plant liquids, crude oil and lease condensate. Does not account for all inputs or refinery
processing gain.
b
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. See Glossary for membership.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

15

During the 1980s and 1990s, the United States accounted for about one-quarter of the worlds petroleum
consumption, but since 2000 that share has been decreasing. In 2011 the United States accounted for only 21.6%.
World petroleum consumption decreased in 2009 but rose in 2010. Non-OECD consumption has continued to
increase.

Table 1.4
World Petroleum Consumption, 19602012
(million barrels per day)
Year
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

United States
9.80
11.51
14.70
16.32
17.06
16.06
15.30
15.23
15.73
15.73
16.28
16.67
17.28
17.33
16.99
16.71
17.03
17.24
17.72
17.72
18.31
18.62
18.92
19.52
19.70
19.65
19.76
20.03
20.73
20.80
20.69
20.68
19.50
18.77
19.18
18.95
18.55

19602012
19702012
20022012

1.2%
0.6%
-0.6%

U.S. share
Total OECDa
45.9%
15.78
37.0%
22.81
31.4%
34.69
29.0%
39.14
27.0%
41.87
26.3%
39.60
25.7%
37.87
25.9%
37.00
26.3%
37.90
26.2%
37.70
26.3%
38.83
26.4%
39.59
26.6%
40.92
26.2%
41.62
25.5%
41.78
24.9%
42.25
25.3%
43.28
25.5%
43.72
25.7%
44.95
25.3%
45.44
25.5%
46.57
25.3%
47.34
25.5%
47.53
25.7%
48.56
25.7%
48.54
25.4%
48.57
25.3%
48.55
25.1%
49.23
25.1%
50.09
24.7%
50.43
24.3%
50.13
24.1%
50.00
23.1%
48.34
22.1%
46.31
22.0%
46.94
21.5%
46.49
21.0%
45.90
Average annual percentage change
2.1%
0.7%
-0.6%

Total non-OECD
5.56
8.33
12.12
17.06
21.25
21.36
21.68
21.78
21.89
22.39
22.99
23.51
24.05
24.47
24.77
24.96
24.10
23.87
23.98
24.69
25.15
26.12
26.59
27.32
28.24
28.91
29.62
30.48
32.48
33.64
35.01
35.91
36.16
38.45
40.43
41.76
42.41

World
21.34
31.14
46.81
56.20
63.12
60.95
59.55
58.78
59.80
60.08
61.82
63.11
64.98
66.09
66.55
67.21
67.38
67.59
68.93
70.13
71.71
73.46
74.12
75.88
76.78
77.48
78.17
79.71
82.57
84.08
85.14
85.91
84.50
84.76
87.36
88.25
88.31

4.0%
3.0%
3.7%

2.8%
1.5%
1.2%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics Website,
May 2013. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)
a

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. See Glossary for membership.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

16

Figure 1.1. World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2011

Table 1.5
World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2011

United States
OPEC
Rest of world

Crude oil
reserves
(billion
barrels)
23.3
1,064.8
385.7

Reserve
share
2%
72%
26%

Petroleum
production
(million
barrels per
day)
9.1
35.1
36.2

Production
share
11%
44%
45%

Petroleum
consumption
(million
barrels per
day)
18.9
10.2
57.9

Consumption
share
22%
12%
66%

Sources:
Reserves Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics, May 2013.
Production Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics, May 2013.
Consumption Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics, May 2013.
resources: www.eia.doe.gov)

(Additional

Note: Total consumption is higher than total production due to refinery gains including alcohol and liquid products
produced from coal and other sources. OPEC countries include Venezuela, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
Angola, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Indonesia, Gabon, and Ecuador.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

17

Figure 1.2. World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2011

Table 1.6
World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2011
(trillion cubic feet)

U.S.
OPEC
Rest of world

Natural
gas
reserves
304.6
3,211.2
3,191.5

Reserve
share
4%
48%
48%

Natural gas
production
22.9
20.9
73.7

Production
share
19%
18%
63%

Natural gas
consumption
24.4
15.2
79.3

Consumption
share
20%
13%
67%

Source:
Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics, 2013. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)
Note: Production data are dry gas production.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

18

The share of petroleum imported to the United States can be calculated using total imports or net imports. Net
imports, which are the preferred data, rose to over 50% of U.S. petroleum consumption for the first time in 1998,
while total imports reached 50% for the first time in 1993. OPEC share of net imports has been below 50% since
1993. Net imports as a share of consumption were under 40% in 2012 for the first time since 1991.

Table 1.7
U.S. Petroleum Imports, 19602012
(million barrels per day)
Year
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Net OPECa
imports
1.31
1.48
1.34
3.60
4.30
3.32
2.15
1.86
2.05
1.83
2.84
3.06
3.52
4.14
4.30
4.09
4.09
4.27
4.25
4.00
4.21
4.57
4.91
4.95
5.20
5.53
4.61
5.16
5.70
5.59
5.52
5.98
5.94
4.78
4.91
4.56
4.24

19602012
19702012
20022012

2.3%
2.8%
-0.8%

Net OPECa
Net imports as a share
share
Net imports
of U.S. consumption
b
81.3%
1.61
b
64.7%
2.28
b
42.5%
3.16
59.5%
5.89
35.8%
62.2%
6.36
37.3%
55.4%
5.40
33.6%
42.0%
4.30
28.1%
36.9%
4.31
28.2%
37.7%
4.72
29.9%
36.1%
4.29
27.3%
45.6%
5.44
33.4%
45.8%
5.91
35.4%
47.6%
6.59
38.0%
51.4%
7.20
41.3%
53.6%
7.16
42.2%
53.7%
6.63
38.9%
51.9%
6.94
40.9%
49.6%
7.62
44.9%
47.2%
8.05
45.7%
45.3%
7.89
44.5%
44.4%
8.50
46.4%
45.0%
9.16
49.2%
45.8%
9.76
51.6%
45.6%
9.91
50.8%
45.4%
10.42
52.9%
46.6%
10.90
55.5%
39.9%
10.55
53.4%
42.1%
11.24
56.1%
43.4%
12.10
58.4%
40.7%
12.55
60.3%
40.2%
12.39
59.9%
44.4%
12.04
58.2%
46.1%
11.11
57.0%
40.9%
9.67
51.5%
41.6%
9.44
49.2%
39.6%
8.52
44.9%
40.2%
7.41
39.9%
Average annual percentage change
3.0%
2.0%
-3.5%

Total imports
1.82
2.47
3.42
6.06
6.91
6.00
5.11
5.05
5.44
5.07
6.22
6.68
7.40
8.06
8.02
7.63
7.89
8.62
9.00
8.84
9.48
10.16
10.71
10.85
11.46
11.87
11.53
12.26
13.15
13.71
13.71
13.47
12.92
11.69
11.79
11.50
10.60
3.4%
2.7%
-0.8%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, Washington, DC, May
2013, Table 3.3a. (Additional resources: www.eia.gov)
a
b

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. See Glossary for membership.


Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

19

Just over half of the oil imported to the United States in 2012 was from the western hemisphere. Canada, Mexico,
and Venezuela provided most of the oil from the western hemisphere, along with small amounts from Brazil,
Columbia, Ecuador, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (these countries are not listed separately).

Table 1.8
Imported Crude Oil by Country of Origin, 19732012
(million barrels per day)

Saudi
Arabia
0.49
0.71
1.26
1.13
0.55
0.34
0.32
0.17
0.68
0.75
1.07
1.22
1.34
1.80
1.72
1.41
1.40
1.34
1.36
1.41
1.49
1.48
1.57
1.66
1.55
1.77
1.56
1.54
1.46
1.48
1.53
1.00
1.10
1.19
1.36

Year
1973
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Venezuela
1.13
0.70
0.48
0.41
0.41
0.42
0.55
0.60
0.79
0.80
0.79
0.87
1.02
1.03
1.17
1.30
1.33
1.48
1.68
1.77
1.72
1.49
1.55
1.55
1.40
1.38
1.55
1.53
1.42
1.36
1.19
1.06
0.99
0.95
0.95

Nigeria
0.46
0.76
0.86
0.62
0.51
0.30
0.22
0.29
0.44
0.53
0.62
0.82
0.80
0.70
0.68
0.74
0.64
0.63
0.62
0.70
0.70
0.66
0.90
0.89
0.62
0.87
1.14
1.17
1.11
1.13
0.99
0.81
1.02
0.82
0.44

Other
OPECa
countries
0.91
1.42
1.70
1.17
0.67
0.80
0.96
0.76
0.92
0.97
1.03
1.23
1.13
0.55
0.52
0.82
0.87
0.55
0.56
0.69
1.00
1.33
1.19
1.43
1.03
1.14
1.45
1.36
1.52
2.00
2.25
1.90
1.80
1.59
1.50

Canada
1.32
0.85
0.45
0.45
0.48
0.55
0.63
0.77
0.81
0.85
1.00
0.93
0.93
1.03
1.07
1.18
1.27
1.33
1.42
1.56
1.60
1.54
1.81
1.83
1.97
2.07
2.14
2.18
2.35
2.45
2.49
2.48
2.54
2.80
2.95

Mexico
0.02
0.07
0.53
0.52
0.68
0.83
0.75
0.82
0.70
0.65
0.75
0.77
0.76
0.81
0.83
0.92
0.98
1.07
1.24
1.39
1.35
1.32
1.37
1.44
1.55
1.62
1.66
1.66
1.71
1.53
1.30
1.21
1.28
1.21
1.03

Russia
0.03
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.05
0.03
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.02
0.09
0.07
0.09
0.21
0.25
0.30
0.41
0.37
0.41
0.47
0.56
0.61
0.62
0.48

Other
nonOPEC
countries
1.90
1.52
1.62
1.70
1.80
1.81
2.00
1.64
1.86
2.10
2.11
2.17
1.99
1.67
1.88
2.19
2.46
2.41
2.57
2.63
2.83
2.95
3.00
2.98
3.20
3.15
3.34
3.87
3.76
3.09
2.70
2.66
2.46
2.32
1.88

Total
imports
6.26
6.06
6.91
6.00
5.11
5.05
5.44
5.07
6.22
6.68
7.40
8.06
8.02
7.63
7.89
8.62
9.00
8.83
9.48
10.16
10.71
10.85
11.46
11.87
11.53
12.26
13.15
13.71
13.71
13.47
12.92
11.69
11.79
11.50
10.60

Sources:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, Washington, DC, May
2013, Tables 3.3c and 3.3d. (Additional resources: www.eia.gov)
a

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. See Glossary for membership.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

110

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) began in October 1977 as a result of the 1975 Energy Policy and
Conservation Act. Its purpose is to provide protection against oil supply disruptions. The U.S. consumed nearly
19 million barrels per day in 2012. At that rate of consumption, the SPR supply would last 37 days if used
exclusively and continuously.

Table 1.9
Crude Oil Supplies, 1973-2012
Strategic
Petroleum
Reserve
Year
1973
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

0.0
7.5
66.9
91.2
107.8
230.3
293.8
379.1
450.5
493.3
511.6
540.6
559.5
579.9
585.7
568.5
574.7
587.1
591.7
591.6
565.8
563.4
571.4
567.2
540.7
550.2
599.1
638.4
675.6
684.5
688.6
696.9
701.8
726.6
726.5
696.0
695.3

Other
crude oil
stocksa
(Million Barrels)
242.5
340.2
309.4
339.1
358.2
363.5
349.7
343.9
345.4
320.9
331.2
349.0
330.4
341.3
322.7
324.6
318.1
335.4
337.2
303.3
283.9
304.7
323.5
284.5
285.5
312.0
277.6
268.9
285.7
323.7
312.3
286.1
325.8
325.2
333.4
330.7
365.0

Total
crude oil stocks
242.5
347.7
376.3
430.3
466.0
593.8
643.6
722.9
795.9
814.2
842.8
889.6
889.9
921.1
908.4
893.1
892.9
922.5
928.9
895.0
849.7
868.1
894.9
851.7
826.2
862.2
876.7
907.3
961.3
1,008.2
1,000.9
983.0
1,027.7
1,051.8
1,060.0
1,026.6
1,060.3

U.S. petroleum
consumption
(million barrels per day)
17.3
18.4
18.8
18.5
17.1
16.1
15.3
15.2
15.7
15.7
16.3
16.7
17.3
17.3
17.0
16.7
17.0
17.2
17.7
17.7
18.3
18.6
18.9
19.5
19.7
19.6
19.8
20.0
20.7
20.8
20.7
20.7
19.5
18.8
19.2
18.9
18.6

Number of days
the SPR would
supply the U.S.b
0
0
4
5
6
14
19
25
29
31
31
32
32
33
34
34
34
34
33
33
31
30
30
29
27
28
30
32
33
33
33
34
36
39
38
37
37

Sources:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, Washington, DC, May
2013, Tables 3.1 and 3.4. (Additional resources: www.eia.gov)
a

Other crude oil stocks include stocks held by petroleum companies, as well as stocks of Alaskan crude oil
in transit.
b
Strategic Petroleum Reserves divided by U.S. consumption per day. This would only hold true if the SPR
were the only oil used for that many days.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

111

Major oil price shocks have disrupted world energy markets five times in the past 30 years (1973-74, 1979-80,
1990-91, 1999-2000, 2008). Most of the oil price shocks were followed by an economic recession in the United
States.

Figure 1.3. Oil Price and Economic Growth, 19702012

Source:
Greene, D.L. and N. I. Tishchishyna, Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
ORNL/TM-2000/152, Oak Ridge, TN, 2000, and data updates, 2012.
(Additional resources:
cta.ornl.gov/cta/publications.shtml)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

112

The United States has long recognized the problem of oil dependence and the economic problems that arise from it.
According to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers Greene and Hopson, oil dependence is a
combination of four factors: (1) a noncompetitive world oil market strongly influenced by the OPEC cartel, (2) high
levels of U.S. imports, (3) the importance of oil to the U.S. economy, and (4) the lack of economical and readily
available substitutes for oil. ORNL developed a model to estimate the historical cost of oil dependence and analyze
the potential effectiveness of policies on likely future costs. The most recent study using this model shows that the
U.S. economy suffered the greatest losses in 2008 when wealth transfer and GDP losses (combined) amounted to
approximately half a trillion dollars. However, when comparing oil dependence to the size of the economy, the year
1980 is the highest. Oil dependence costs were almost 4.5% of GDP in 1980, but were under 3.5% in 2008. In
2009, the average oil price fell to about $60 per barrel and oil dependence costs fell to about $300 billion for 2009
and 2010.

Figure 1.4. Costs of Oil Dependence to the U.S. Economy, 19702010

Source:
Greene, David L., Roderick Lee, and Janet L. Hopson, OPEC and the Costs to the U.S. Economy of Oil
Dependence: 1970-2010, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Memorandum, 2011.
Notes:
Wealth Transfer is the product of total U.S. oil imports and the difference between the actual market price of oil
(influenced by market power) and what the price would have been in a competitive market.
Dislocation Losses are temporary reductions in GDP as a result of oil price shocks.
Loss of Potential Gross Domestic Product (GDP) results because a basic resource used by the economy to
produce output has become more expensive. As a consequence, with the same endowment of labor, capital, and
other resources, our economy cannot produce quite as much as it could have at a lower oil price.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

113

Other parts of the world refine crude oil to produce more diesel fuel and less gasoline than does North America.
The OECD Europe countries produce the lowest share of gasoline in 2012.

Figure 1.5. Refinery Gross Output by World Region, 2002 and 2012

Source:
International Energy Agency, Monthly Oil Survey, February 2013. (Additional resources: www.iea.org)
a

Includes jet kerosene and other kerosene.


Includes motor gasoline, jet gasoline, and aviation gasoline.
c
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. See Glossary for membership.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

114

Oxygenate refinery input increased significantly in 1995, most certainly due to the Clean Air Act Amendments of
1990 which mandated the sale of reformulated gasoline in certain areas beginning in January 1995. The use of
MTBE has declined in recent years due to many states banning the additive. The other hydrocarbons and liquids
category includes unfinished oils, motor gasoline blending components and aviation gasoline blending
components. Over the last five years the gasoline blending components have risen significantly.

Table 1.10
U.S. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 19872011
(thousand barrels)

Year
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Crude oil
4,691,783
4,848,175
4,891,381
4,894,379
4,855,016
4,908,603
4,968,641
5,061,111
5,100,317
5,195,265
5,351,466
5,434,383
5,403,450
5,514,395
5,521,637
5,455,530
5,585,875
5,663,861
5,555,332
5,563,354
5,532,097
5,361,287
5,232,656
5,374,094
5,404,347

19872011
20012011

0.6%
-0.2%

Oxygenates
Natural gas
Fuel
Other
liquids
ethanol
MTBEa
oxygenatesb
c
c
d
280,889
c
c
d
304,566
c
c
d
182,109
c
c
d
170,589
c
c
d
172,306
c
c
d
171,701
179,213
3,351
49,393
1,866
169,868
3,620
52,937
1,918
172,026
9,055
79,396
4,122
164,552
11,156
79,407
3,570
151,769
11,803
86,240
4,246
146,921
11,722
89,362
4,038
135,756
13,735
94,784
4,147
138,921
15,268
90,288
4,005
156,479
16,929
87,116
4,544
155,429
26,320
90,291
2,338
152,763
55,626
67,592
1,937
154,356
74,095
47,600
940
161,037
84,088
39,751
612
182,924
117,198
11,580
57
184,383
136,603
1,610
0
177,559
190,084
480
0
177,194
240,955
90
0
161,479
285,883
901
0
178,884
297,266
1,154
0
Average annual percentage change
d
d
d
-1.9%
1.3%
33.2% -35.1%
-100.0%

Other
hydrocarbons
and liquids
132,720
105,645
223,797
260,108
280,265
272,676
280,074
193,808
190,411
214,282
201,268
206,135
225,779
201,135
192,632
224,567
163,459
194,203
295,064
322,989
349,807
548,843
518,998
523,015
541,059

Total input to
refineries
5,105,392
5,258,386
5,297,287
5,325,076
5,307,587
5,352,980
5,482,538
5,483,262
5,555,327
5,668,232
5,806,792
5,892,561
5,877,651
5,964,012
5,979,337
5,955,475
6,027,252
6,135,055
6,135,884
6,198,102
6,204,500
6,277,893
6,169,893
6,345,372
6,422,710

6.3%
10.9%

1.0%
0.7%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Supply Annual 2011, Vol. 1, August
2012, Table 16, and annual. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)
a

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE).


Includes methanol and other oxygenates.
c
Reported in Other category in this year.
d
Data are not available.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

115

When crude oil and other hydrocarbons are processed into products that are, on average, less dense than the
input, a processing volume gain occurs. Due to this gain, the product yield from a barrel of crude oil is more
than 100%. The processing volume gain has been growing over the years.

Table 1.11
Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil, 19782012
(percentage)
Year
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Motor
gasoline
44.1
43.0
44.5
44.8
46.4
47.6
46.7
45.6
45.7
46.4
46.0
45.7
45.6
45.7
46.0
46.1
45.5
46.4
45.7
45.7
46.2
46.5
46.2
46.2
47.3
46.9
46.8
46.2
45.8
45.5
44.2
46.1
45.7
44.9
45.2

Distillate
fuel oil
21.4
21.5
19.7
20.5
21.5
20.5
21.5
21.6
21.2
20.5
20.8
20.8
20.9
21.3
21.2
21.9
22.3
21.8
22.7
22.5
22.3
22.3
23.1
23.8
23.2
23.7
23.9
25.0
25.4
26.1
27.8
26.9
27.5
28.9
29.1

Jet fuel
6.6
6.9
7.4
7.6
8.1
8.5
9.1
9.6
9.8
10.0
10.0
10.1
10.7
10.3
9.9
9.2
9.8
9.7
10.4
10.3
9.9
10.2
10.3
9.8
9.8
9.5
9.7
9.8
9.3
9.1
9.7
9.3
9.3
9.4
9.5

Liquefied
petroleum gas
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.2
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.2
3.4
3.6
4.0
3.6
3.8
4.3
4.1
4.2
4.5
4.5
4.6
4.4
4.5
4.5
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.0
3.6
3.9
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.3
4.0
4.0

Othera
29.6
30.3
30.0
28.7
26.2
24.8
24.2
24.6
24.8
24.5
24.4
24.2
24.1
24.1
24.0
23.3
23.2
22.8
22.4
22.4
22.9
22.4
22.0
21.6
21.5
22.1
22.2
21.6
21.7
21.5
20.7
20.2
20.3
19.8
19.2

Totalb
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.4
104.1
104.4
104.5
104.7
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.9
105.2
105.4
104.6
105.0
105.2
105.7
105.5
105.7
105.9
106.1
105.7
106.1
106.4
106.6
106.2
106.1
106.3
106.5
106.6
107.1
107.0
107.0

Source:
Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Supply Navigator, May 2013. (Additional
resources: www.eia.doe.gov)
a

Includes aviation gasoline (0.1%), kerosene (0.1%), residual fuel oil (3.0%), naphtha and other oils for
petrochemical feedstock use (1.3%), other oils for petrochemical feedstock use (0.6%), special naphthas (0.3%),
lubricants (1.0%), waxes (0.1%), petroleum coke (5.5%) asphalt and road oil (2.3%), still gas (4.4%), and
miscellaneous products (0.5%).
b
Products sum greater than 100% due to processing gain. The processing gain for years 1978 to 1980 is
assumed to be 4 percent.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

116

Domestic petroleum production increased in 2009 for the first time in 20 years and has continued to increase.
Most of the petroleum imported by the United States is in the form of crude oil. The United States does export
small amounts of petroleum, mainly refined petroleum products which go to Canada and Mexico.
Table 1.12
United States Petroleum Production, Imports and Exports, 19502012
(million barrels per day)

1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
19502012
19702012
20022012

Domestic production
Natural
gas
Crude
plant
oil
liquids
Totala
5.41
0.50
5.91
6.81
0.77
7.58
7.05
0.93
7.98
7.80
1.21
9.01
9.64
1.66
11.30
8.38
1.63
10.01
8.60
1.57
10.17
8.97
1.61
10.58
8.68
1.55
10.23
8.35
1.60
9.95
8.16
1.63
9.97
7.61
1.55
9.16
7.36
1.56
8.91
7.42
1.66
9.08
7.18
1.70
8.88
6.85
1.74
8.59
6.66
1.73
8.39
6.56
1.76
8.32
6.47
1.83
8.30
6.45
1.82
8.27
6.25
1.76
8.01
5.88
1.85
7.73
5.82
1.91
7.73
5.80
1.87
7.67
5.75
1.88
7.62
5.64
1.72
7.36
5.44
1.81
7.24
5.19
1.72
6.90
5.10
1.74
6.83
5.08
1.78
6.86
5.00
1.78
6.78
5.35
1.91
7.26
5.48
2.07
7.55
5.65
2.12
7.87
6.47
2.40
8.87
0.3%
-0.9%
1.2%

2.6%
0.9%
2.5%

Net imports

Crude
Petroleum
oil
products
Total
0.49
0.36
0.85
0.78
0.47
1.25
1.02
0.80
1.82
1.24
1.23
2.47
1.32
2.10
3.42
4.11
1.95
6.06
5.26
1.65
6.91
3.20
1.87
5.07
4.18
2.04
6.22
4.67
2.01
6.68
5.11
2.29
7.40
5.84
2.22
8.06
5.89
2.13
8.02
5.78
1.85
7.63
6.08
1.81
7.89
6.79
1.83
8.62
7.06
1.94
9.00
7.23
1.61
8.84
7.51
1.97
9.48
8.23
1.93
10.16
8.71
2.00
10.71
8.73
2.12
10.85
9.07
2.39
11.46
9.33
2.54
11.87
9.14
2.39
11.53
9.67
2.60
12.26
10.09
3.06
13.15
10.13
3.58
13.71
10.12
3.59
13.71
10.03
3.44
13.47
9.78
3.13
12.92
9.01
2.68
11.69
9.21
2.58
11.79
8.94
2.57
11.50
8.49
2.11
10.60
Average annual percentage change
0.7%
4.7%
2.9%
4.2%
-0.6%
4.5%
0.0%
2.7%
1.5%
-0.7%
-1.2%
-0.8%

Exports
Crude
oil
0.10
0.03
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.29
0.20
0.15
0.15
0.16
0.14
0.11
0.12
0.09
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.12
0.05
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06

Petroleum
products
0.21
0.34
0.19
0.18
0.25
0.20
0.26
0.58
0.63
0.61
0.66
0.72
0.75
0.89
0.86
0.90
0.84
0.86
0.87
0.90
0.84
0.82
0.99
0.95
0.98
1.01
1.02
1.13
1.29
1.41
1.77
1.98
2.31
2.94
3.13

Total
0.31
0.37
0.20
0.19
0.26
0.21
0.54
0.78
0.79
0.76
0.82
0.86
0.86
1.00
0.95
1.00
0.94
0.95
0.98
1.00
0.95
0.94
1.04
0.97
0.98
1.03
1.05
1.17
1.32
1.43
1.80
2.02
2.35
2.99
3.18

-0.8%
4.4%
19.6%

4.5%
6.2%
12.3%

3.8%
6.1%
12.5%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, April 2013, Tables 3.1
and 3.3b. (Additional resources: www.eia.gov)
a

Total domestic production includes crude oil, natural gas plant liquids and small amounts of other liquids.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

117

The U.S. is responsible for 21% of the worlds petroleum consumption. The United States relies heavily on
imported petroleum. Imports accounted for under 40% of U.S. petroleum consumption in 2012 for the first time
since 1991.

Table 1.13
Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in Context, 19502012

1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
19502012
19702012
20022012

Domestic
petroleum
productiona

Net
petroleum
imports

5.91
7.58
7.99
9.01
11.30
10.01
10.17
10.58
10.23
9.94
9.76
9.16
8.91
9.08
8.87
8.58
8.39
8.32
8.30
8.27
8.01
7.73
7.73
7.67
7.62
7.36
7.24
6.90
6.83
6.86
6.78
7.26
7.55
7.87
8.87

0.55
0.88
1.62
2.28
3.16
5.85
6.36
4.29
5.44
5.91
6.59
7.20
7.16
6.63
6.94
7.62
8.05
7.89
8.50
9.16
9.76
9.91
10.42
10.90
10.55
11.24
12.10
12.55
12.39
12.04
11.11
9.67
9.44
8.52
7.41

0.7%
-0.6%
1.5%

4.3%
2.0%
-3.5%

U.S.
Transportation
petroleum
petroleum
consumption
consumption
(million barrels per day)

World
petroleum
consumption

b
3.36
6.46
b
4.46
8.46
5.15
9.82
21.34
6.04
11.51
31.14
7.78
14.70
46.81
8.95
16.32
56.20
9.57
17.06
63.11
9.84
15.73
60.08
10.19
16.28
61.82
10.50
16.67
63.11
10.88
17.28
64.98
10.94
17.33
66.09
10.89
16.99
66.55
10.76
16.71
67.21
10.91
17.03
67.38
11.12
17.24
67.59
11.13
17.72
68.93
11.61
17.73
70.13
11.91
18.31
71.71
12.05
18.62
73.46
12.36
18.92
74.12
12.70
19.52
75.88
12.98
19.70
76.78
12.86
19.65
77.48
13.12
19.76
78.17
13.20
20.03
79.71
13.61
20.73
82.57
13.79
20.80
84.08
13.95
20.69
85.14
14.00
20.68
85.91
13.25
19.50
84.50
12.84
18.77
84.76
12.98
19.18
87.36
12.75
18.95
88.25
12.50
18.56
88.31
Average annual percentage change
b
2.1%
1.7%
1.1%
0.6%
1.5%
-0.5%
-0.6%
1.2%

Transportation
Net imports U.S. petroleum petroleum use as
as a share of consumption as
a share of
a share of world
U.S.
domestic
consumption consumption
production

8.4%
10.4%
16.5%
19.8%
21.5%
35.8%
37.3%
27.3%
33.4%
35.5%
38.1%
41.6%
42.2%
39.6%
40.8%
44.2%
45.5%
44.5%
46.4%
49.2%
51.6%
50.8%
52.9%
55.5%
53.4%
56.1%
58.4%
60.3%
59.9%
58.2%
57.0%
51.5%
49.2%
45.0%
39.9%

b
b

46.0%
37.0%
31.4%
29.0%
27.0%
26.2%
26.3%
26.4%
26.6%
26.2%
25.5%
24.9%
25.3%
25.5%
25.7%
25.3%
25.5%
25.3%
25.5%
25.7%
25.7%
25.4%
25.3%
25.1%
25.1%
24.7%
24.3%
24.1%
23.1%
22.1%
22.0%
21.5%
21.0%

56.8%
58.8%
64.5%
67.0%
68.9%
89.4%
94.1%
93.0%
99.6%
105.7%
111.4%
119.4%
122.2%
118.5%
123.0%
129.7%
132.6%
139.5%
143.5%
145.7%
154.3%
164.3%
167.9%
167.7%
172.1%
179.3%
187.8%
199.7%
204.3%
204.0%
195.3%
176.8%
171.8%
162.1%
140.9%

Sources:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, April 2013, Tables 2.5, 3.1, and A3.
(Pre-1973 data from the Annual Energy Review). World petroleum consumption - U.S. Department of Energy, Energy
Information Administration, International Energy Statistics Website, May 2013. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)
a
b

Total domestic production includes crude oil, natural gas plant liquids and small amounts of other liquids.
Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

118

Before 1989 the U.S. produced enough petroleum to meet the needs of the transportation sector, but was still
short of meeting the petroleum needs of all the sectors, including industrial, residential and commercial, and
electric utilities. In 1973 the gap between what the U.S. produced and what was consumed was 5.6 million
barrels per day. By 2040, the gap is expected to be at least 6.9 million barrels per day if all sources of petroleum
are included or 8.9 million barrels per day if only conventional petroleum sources are used.

Figure 1.6. United States Petroleum Production and Consumption All Sectors, 19732040

Source:
See Tables 1.12 and 2.7. Projections are from the Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook
2013, May 2013.
Notes: The U.S. Production has two lines after 2011. The solid line is conventional sources of petroleum, including
crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gains. The dashed line adds in other non-petroleum sources,
including ethanol, biomass, liquids from coal, other blending components, other hydrocarbons, and ethers.
The sharp increase in values between 2006 and 2007 is the result of the FHWAs methodology change. The
data change from historical to projected values occurs between 2011 and 2012.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

119

In 1989 the transportation sector petroleum consumption surpassed U.S. petroleum production for the first time,
creating a gap that must be met with imports of petroleum. By the year 2040, transportation petroleum
consumption is expected to grow to nearly 15 million barrels per day; at that time, the gap between U.S.
production and transportation consumption will be about 2 million barrels per day (when including the nonpetroleum sources).

Figure 1.7. United States Petroleum Production and Transportation Consumption, 19702040

Source:
See Tables 1.12 and 2.7. Projections are from the Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook
2013, May 2013.
Notes: The U.S. Production has two lines after 2011. The solid line is conventional sources of petroleum, including
crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gains. The dashed line adds in other non-petroleum sources,
including ethanol, biomass, liquids from coal, other blending components, other hydrocarbons, and ethers.
The sharp increase in values between 2011 and 2012 are caused by the data change from historical to projected
values. The sharp increase in the value for heavy trucks between 2006 and 2007 is the result of the FHWAs
methodology change.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

120

Transportation accounted for almost 70% of the U.S. petroleum use from 2009 to 2012. Total petroleum
consumption reached more than 20 million barrels per day from 2004 to 2007, but has been below that level from
2008 through present. Though petroleum consumption increased slightly from 2009 to 2010, it has continued to
decline since 2010.

Table 1.14
Consumption of Petroleum by End-Use Sector, 19732012
(million barrels per day)
Year
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
19732012
20022012

Transportation
9.05
8.84
8.95
9.40
9.76
10.16
10.00
9.57
9.49
9.31
9.41
9.62
9.84
10.19
10.51
10.88
10.94
10.89
10.76
10.91
11.08
11.36
11.61
11.91
12.05
12.36
12.70
12.98
12.86
13.12
13.20
13.61
13.79
13.95
14.00
13.25
12.84
12.98
12.84
12.50
0.8%
-0.5%

Percentage
Residential
Commercial
52.3%
1.46
0.77
53.1%
1.33
0.70
54.8%
1.29
0.65
53.7%
1.40
0.72
53.0%
1.39
0.75
53.9%
1.35
0.72
54.0%
1.07
0.65
56.0%
0.89
0.63
59.1%
0.79
0.54
60.8%
0.75
0.50
61.8%
0.72
0.57
61.0%
0.79
0.60
62.6%
0.81
0.53
62.6%
0.80
0.57
63.0%
0.85
0.55
62.7%
0.87
0.54
62.8%
0.88
0.51
64.7%
0.74
0.49
63.2%
0.74
0.46
64.2%
0.76
0.44
63.7%
0.77
0.41
64.7%
0.76
0.41
64.9%
0.74
0.38
64.6%
0.81
0.40
65.2%
0.78
0.38
65.6%
0.72
0.36
65.3%
0.82
0.37
65.9%
0.87
0.42
65.7%
0.85
0.41
66.7%
0.82
0.38
66.3%
0.85
0.43
65.9%
0.84
0.42
66.8%
0.81
0.39
68.2%
0.69
0.34
68.7%
0.71
0.34
69.2%
0.76
0.35
70.2%
0.68
0.33
69.6%
0.66
0.34
69.5%
0.62
0.35
69.3%
0.60
0.33
Average annual percentage change
-2.3%
-2.1%
-3.1%
-1.4%

Industrial
4.48
4.30
4.04
4.46
4.82
4.87
5.34
4.86
4.27
4.06
3.85
4.20
4.07
4.09
4.21
4.36
4.33
4.15
4.53
4.45
4.64
4.57
4.83
4.96
4.86
4.84
5.03
4.92
4.89
4.93
4.90
5.23
5.10
5.19
5.05
4.57
4.26
4.49
4.54
4.51

Electric
utilities
1.54
1.48
1.39
1.52
1.71
1.75
1.44
1.15
0.96
0.69
0.68
0.56
0.48
0.64
0.55
0.69
0.75
0.57
0.53
0.44
0.50
0.47
0.33
0.36
0.41
0.58
0.53
0.51
0.56
0.43
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.29
0.29
0.21
0.17
0.17
0.14
0.10

Total
17.31
16.65
16.32
17.51
18.43
18.84
18.51
17.10
16.06
15.30
15.23
15.78
15.72
16.29
16.67
17.34
17.40
16.84
17.03
16.99
17.39
17.57
17.90
18.44
18.47
18.86
19.46
19.68
19.57
19.67
19.91
20.63
20.63
20.45
20.38
19.14
18.29
18.64
18.48
18.04

0.0%
-0.9%

-6.8%
-13.6%

0.1%
-0.9%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, April 2013, Tables 2.2
2.6. Converted to million barrels per day using Table A3. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

121

Light trucks include pick-ups, minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and vans. See Table 2.7 for highway energy use in
trillion Btu.

Table 1.15
Highway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 19702011a
(thousand barrels per day)

Year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Cars
4,424
4,836
5,107
5,157
5,261
4,996
4,565
4,508
4,509
4,587
4,609
4,665
4,773
4,782
4,784
4,821
4,538
4,196
4,268
4,374
4,428
4,440
4,515
4,559
4,677
4,780
4,766
4,798
4,923
4,866
4,919
5,050
4,893
4,852
4,664
4,463
4,239
4,318

Light
trucks
803
1,245
1,359
1,460
1,576
1,595
1,552
1,546
1,481
1,562
1,670
1,785
1,897
1,996
2,130
2,170
2,323
2,493
2,670
2,795
2,878
2,975
3,089
3,222
3,292
3,448
3,453
3,491
3,602
3,963
4,137
3,840
3,959
4,034
3,992
4,092
3,975
4,040

19702011
20012011

0.0%
-0.8%

4.2%
2.0%

Light
vehicle
subtotal
5,227
6,081
6,466
6,617
6,837
6,591
6,117
6,054
5,989
6,149
6,280
6,450
6,670
6,778
6,914
6,992
6,861
6,688
6,938
7,169
7,305
7,415
7,604
7,781
7,969
8,228
8,219
8,290
8,525
8,829
9,055
8,890
8,852
8,885
8,656
8,555
8,215
8,357

Motorcycles
4
7
8
8
9
11
13
14
13
11
11
12
12
12
13
14
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
13
12
12
13
12
14
31
32
31
28
28

1.2%
0.4%

5.0%
7.2%

Heavy
Class
Class
Trucks
7-8
3-6
subtotal
trucks
trucks
Buses
62
140
598
738
58
181
771
952
63
191
814
1,005
65
212
903
1,114
66
237
1,010
1,247
68
247
1,052
1,299
68
247
1,055
1,302
69
253
1,077
1,329
71
253
1,077
1,330
72
257
1,097
1,354
69
266
1,132
1,398
72
265
1,131
1,396
76
271
1,155
1,426
77
279
1,190
1,469
80
284
1,211
1,495
79
291
1,242
1,534
78
304
1,294
1,597
83
310
1,320
1,630
87
315
1,345
1,660
86
325
1,386
1,711
86
343
1,463
1,806
87
357
1,523
1,881
88
367
1,564
1,931
91
370
1,579
1,949
93
382
1,630
2,012
96
420
1,792
2,212
98
437
1,861
2,298
93
436
1,859
2,295
91
456
1,944
2,401
90
443
1,890
2,334
92
411
1,752
2,162
93
461
1,965
2,426
94
470
2,006
2,476
92
585
2,495
3,080
95
591
2,521
3,112
95
549
2,341
2,890
90
558
2,379
2,937
92
525
2,232
2,764
Average annual percentage change
0.9%
3.5%
3.5%
3.5%
-0.8%
2.5%
2.5%
2.5%

Highway
subtotal
6,031
7,099
7,542
7,805
8,160
7,969
7,500
7,466
7,403
7,586
7,758
7,930
8,184
8,336
8,503
8,618
8,549
8,413
8,698
8,979
9,211
9,396
9,636
9,834
10,086
10,550
10,630
10,690
11,029
11,265
11,323
11,422
11,436
12,089
11,895
11,571
11,270
11,242
1.7%
0.9%

Total
transportationb
7,333
8,472
8,969
9,314
9,793
9,725
9,118
9,175
8,944
9,077
9,364
9,537
9,896
10,111
10,343
10,505
10,425
10,246
10,583
10,820
11,091
11,346
11,601
11,776
12,014
12,644
12,794
12,665
12,945
13,128
13,395
13,563
13,604
14,295
13,988
13,438
13,230
13,180
1.4%
0.4%

Source:
See Appendix A for Highway Energy Use.
a

Each gallon of petroleum product was assumed to equal one gallon of crude oil. The oil used to produce
electricity is also estimated. See Appendix A, p. 23 for details.
b
Total transportation figures do not include military and off-highway energy use and may not include all
possible uses of fuel for transportation (e.g., snowmobiles).
c
Due to changes in the FHWA fuel use methodology, motorcycle, bus, and heavy truck data are not
comparable with data before the year 2007. Car and light truck data changed after 2008; see Appendix A for
car/light truck shares.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

122

Although about 19% of transportation energy use is for nonhighway modes, only 15% of transportation
petroleum use is for nonhighway. This is because some nonhighway modes, such as pipelines and transit rail, use
electricity. An estimate for the petroleum used to make electricity is included in the data. See Table 2.8 for
nonhighway transportation energy use in trillion Btu.

Table 1.16
Nonhighway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 19702011a
(thousand barrels per day)
Year
1970
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
19702011
20012011

Air
625
651
697
706
701
699
781
814
884
920
958
960
991
928
942
961
1,004
1,036
1,068
1,113
1,102
1,202
1,236
1,161
1,079
1,094
1,188
1,226
1,216
1,215
1,160
1,029
1,040
1,046
1.3%
-1.0%

Water
381
423
625
722
604
561
577
564
601
626
644
688
655
690
724
653
635
668
644
574
566
625
662
546
572
496
596
625
661
709
664
613
677
636

Pipeline
Rail
43
253
50
249
35
262
29
253
21
214
20
212
16
232
13
216
17
210
15
213
18
220
18
221
14
216
12
202
10
208
11
215
11
230
7
239
8
245
9
246
12
248
11
257
10
256
11
257
8
257
10
263
10
278
10
281
5
286
5
277
4
266
3
221
3
241
3
253
Average annual percentage change
1.3%
-6.3%
-0.0%
1.5%
-12.2%
-0.2%

Nonhighway
subtotal
1,302
1,373
1,618
1,709
1,541
1,491
1,606
1,606
1,712
1,775
1,840
1,887
1,876
1,833
1,885
1,841
1,880
1,950
1,965
1,942
1,927
2,095
2,164
1,975
1,917
1,863
2,073
2,142
2,168
2,206
2,094
1,867
1,961
1,938

Total
transportationb
7,333
8,472
9,118
9,175
8,944
9,077
9,364
9,537
9,896
10,111
10,343
10,505
10,425
10,246
10,583
10,820
11,091
11,346
11,601
11,776
12,014
12,644
12,794
12,665
12,945
13,128
13,395
13,563
13,604
14,295
13,988
13,438
13,230
13,180

1.0%
-0.2%

1.4%
0.4%

Source:
See Appendix A for Nonhighway Energy Use.
a

Each gallon of petroleum product was assumed to equal one gallon of crude oil. The oil used to produce
electricity is also estimated. See Appendix A, p. 23 for details.
b
Total transportation figures do not include military and off-highway energy use and may not include all
possible uses of fuel for transportation (e.g., snowmobiles).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

123

Highway vehicles were responsible for 85.3% of all transportation petroleum use in 2011. See Table 2.6 for
transportation energy use in trillion Btu.

Table 1.17
Transportation Petroleum Use by Mode, 20092011a

HIGHWAY
Light vehicles
Cars
Light trucksb
Motorcycles
Buses
Transit
Intercity
School
Medium/heavy trucks
Class 3-6
Class 7-8
NONHIGHWAY
Air
General aviation
Domestic air carriers
International air carriers
Water
Freight
Recreational
Pipeline
Rail
Freight (Class I)
Passenger
Transit
Commuter
Intercity
HWY & NONHWY
TOTALc
Off-Highway

Thousand barrels
per day
2010
2011
11,269.8
11,241.8
8,242.6
8,385.2
4,239.4
4,317.9
3,975.3
4,039.5
27.8
27.8
90.2
92.3
41.5
43.6
14.0
14.0
34.7
34.7
2,937.0
2,764.3
558.0
525.2
2,379.0
2,239.0
1,960.7
1,938.0
1,039.7
1,046.3
108.8
111.3
734.2
722.2
196.6
212.8
677.2
636.0
551.7
510.7
125.5
125.3
3.2
2.6
240.7
253.1
229.6
242.0
11.1
11.1
0.6
0.5
6.3
6.4
4.2
4.2
13,230.5
1018.2

13,179.8
1026.5

Percentage of total
2010
2011
85.2%
85.3%
62.3%
63.6%
32.0%
32.8%
30.0%
30.6%
0.2%
0.2%
0.7%
0.7%
0.3%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.3%
22.2%
21.0%
4.2%
4.0%
18.0%
17.0%
14.8%
14.7%
7.9%
7.9%
0.8%
0.8%
5.5%
5.5%
1.5%
1.6%
5.1%
4.8%
4.2%
3.9%
0.9%
1.0%
0.0%
0.0%
1.8%
1.9%
1.7%
1.8%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
100.0%

Percentage of total U.S.


petroleum consumption
2010
2011
58.8%
59.3%
43.0%
44.3%
22.1%
22.8%
20.7%
21.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.5%
0.5%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
15.3%
14.6%
2.9%
2.8%
12.4%
11.8%
10.2%
10.2%
5.4%
5.5%
0.6%
0.6%
3.8%
3.8%
1.0%
1.1%
3.5%
3.4%
2.9%
2.7%
0.7%
0.7%
0.0%
0.0%
1.3%
1.3%
1.2%
1.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

100.0%

69.0%

69.6%

Source:
See Appendix A for Energy Use Sources.
a

Each gallon of petroleum product was assumed to equal one gallon of crude oil. The oil used to produce
electricity is also estimated. See Appendix A, p. 23 for details.
b
Two-axle, four-tire trucks.
c
Civilian consumption only. Totals may not include all possible uses of fuels for transportation (e.g.,
snowmobiles).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

124

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

21

Chapter 2
Energy
Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source
Table 2.1

Transportation share of U.S. energy


consumption, 2012

28.1%

Table 2.2

Petroleum share of transportation energy


consumption, 2012

92.5%

Table 2.3

Alternative fuel and oxygenate consumption, 2011


(thousand
gasoline
equivalent
gallons)
Ethanol in gasohol

8,563,841

85.7%

Compressed natural gas

220,247

2.2%

E85

137,165

1.4%

Liquefied petroleum gas

124,457

1.2%

26,242

0.3%

7,635

0.1%

0.0%

(trillion Btu)

(transportation
energy share)

Cars

8,141

30.2%

Light trucks

7,629

28.3%

Medium/heavy trucks

5,798

21.5%

194

0.7%

21,815

81.0%

Air

2,162

8.0%

Water

1,388

5.2%

Pipeline

949

3.5%

Rail

609

2.3%

Liquefied natural gas


Electricity
MTBE
Table 2.6

(share of Total
alt fuel/oxygenates)

Transportation energy use by mode, 2011

Buses
Total Highway

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

22

Petroleum accounted for 35% of the worlds energy use in 2010. Though petroleum is the dominant energy source
for OECD countries, the non-OECD countries rely on coal and petroleum.

Figure 2.1. World Consumption of Primary Energy, 2010

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics Database, May
2013. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

23

Total energy use was 95.1 quads in 2012 with transportation using 28.1%. The Energy Information Administration
includes renewable energy in each sector.

Table 2.1
U. S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-Use Sector, 19732012
(quadrillion Btu)

Year
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Transportation
18.6
18.1
18.2
19.1
19.8
20.6
20.5
19.7
19.5
19.1
19.2
19.7
20.1
20.8
21.5
22.3
22.5
22.4
22.1
22.4
22.8
23.4
23.8
24.4
24.8
25.3
25.9
26.5
26.3
26.8
27.0
27.9
28.4
28.8
29.1
27.8
27.1
27.6
27.2
26.7

19732012
20022012

0.9%
0.0%

Percentage
transportation of
total
Industrial
Commercial
24.6%
32.6
9.5
24.5%
31.8
9.4
25.4%
29.4
9.5
25.1%
31.4
10.1
25.4%
32.3
10.2
25.8%
32.7
10.5
25.3%
33.9
10.6
25.2%
32.0
10.6
25.6%
30.7
10.6
26.1%
27.6
10.9
26.3%
27.4
10.9
25.7%
29.6
11.4
26.3%
28.8
11.5
27.1%
28.3
11.6
27.2%
28.4
11.9
27.0%
30.7
12.6
26.5%
31.3
13.2
26.5%
31.8
13.3
26.2%
31.4
13.4
26.1%
32.6
13.4
26.1%
32.6
13.8
26.3%
33.5
14.1
26.2%
34.0
14.7
26.0%
34.9
15.2
26.2%
35.2
15.7
26.8%
34.8
16.0
26.8%
34.8
16.4
26.9%
34.7
17.2
27.3%
32.7
17.1
27.5%
32.7
17.3
27.6%
32.5
17.3
27.8%
33.5
17.7
28.3%
32.4
17.9
28.9%
32.4
17.7
28.7%
32.4
18.3
28.0%
31.4
18.4
28.7%
28.6
17.9
28.1%
30.5
18.1
27.9%
30.9
18.0
28.1%
30.7
17.5
Average annual percentage change
-0.2%
1.6%
-0.6%
0.1%

Residential
14.9
14.7
14.8
15.4
15.7
16.1
15.8
15.8
15.3
15.5
15.4
16.0
16.0
16.0
16.3
17.1
17.8
16.9
17.4
17.4
18.2
18.1
18.5
19.5
19.0
19.0
19.6
20.4
20.0
20.8
21.1
21.1
21.6
20.7
21.5
21.7
21.0
21.8
21.4
20.2

Totala
75.7
74.0
72.0
76.0
78.0
80.0
80.9
78.1
76.1
73.1
73.0
76.7
76.4
76.7
79.1
82.7
84.8
84.5
84.4
85.8
87.4
89.1
91.0
94.0
94.6
95.0
96.7
98.8
96.2
97.6
98.0
100.2
100.3
99.6
101.3
99.3
94.6
98.0
97.5
95.1

0.8%
-0.3%

0.6%
-0.3%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, April 2013, Washington,
DC, Table 2.1. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)
a

Electrical energy losses have been distributed among the sectors.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

24

In transportation, the alcohol fuels blended into gasoline to make gasohol (10% ethanol or less) are counted under
renewables and are not in with petroleum. The petroleum category, however, still contains other blending
agents, such as MTBE, that are not actually petroleum, but are not broken out into a separate category.

Table 2.2
Distribution of Energy Consumption by Source, 1973 and 2012
(percentage)
Energy
source
Petroleuma
Natural gasb
Coal
Renewable
Nuclear
Electricityc
Total

Transportation
1973
2012
95.8
92.5
4.0
2.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.3
100.0
100.0

Residential
1973
2012
18.8
5.1
33.4
21.1
0.6
0.0
2.4
3.2
0.0
0.0
44.8
70.7
100.0
100.0

Energy
source
Petroleuma
Natural gasb
Coal
Renewable
Nuclear
Electricityc
Total

Industrial
1973
27.8
31.8
12.4
3.7
0.0
24.2
100.0

Electric utilities
1973
2012
17.8
0.6
19.0
24.3
43.9
41.4
14.4
12.2
4.6
21.0
0.2
0.4
100.0
100.0

2012
26.5
28.2
4.8
7.3
0.0
33.2
100.0

Commercial
1973
2012
16.8
3.6
27.8
16.9
1.7
0.2
0.1
0.8
0.0
0.0
53.7
78.4
100.0
100.0

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, April 2013, Washington,
DC, Tables 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, and 2.6. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)
Note: Numbers may not add due to rounding.
a
b

use.

In transportation, the petroleum category contains some blending agents which are not petroleum.
Includes supplemental gaseous fuels. Transportation sector includes pipeline fuel and natural gas vehicle
Includes electrical system energy losses.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

25

Oxygenates are blended with gasoline to be used in conventional vehicles. The amount of oxygenate use dwarfs the
alternative fuel use. Gasoline-equivalent gallons are used in this table to allow comparisons of different fuel types.

Table 2.3
Alternative Fuel and Oxygenate Consumption, 20052011
(thousand gasolineequivalent gallons)
Alternative fuel
Liquefied petroleum gas
Compressed natural gas
Liquefied natural gas
E85a
Electricityb
Hydrogen
Biodiesel
Other
Subtotal
Oxygenates
MTBEc
Ethanol in gasohol
Total

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

188,171
166,878
22,409
38,074
5,219
25
91,649
2
512,427

173,130
172,011
23,474
44,041
5,104
41
267,623
2
685,426

152,360
178,585
24,594
54,091
5,037
66
367,764
2
782,479

147,784
189,358
25,554
62,464
5,050
117
324,329
2
754,658

129,631
199,513
25,652
71,213
4,956
140
334,809
2
756,916

126,354
210,007
26,072
90,323
4,847
152
270,170
0
727,925

124,457
220,247
26,242
137,165
7,635
174
910,968
0
1,426,888

1,654,500
2,756,663
4,923,590

435,000
3,729,168
4,849,594

0
4,694,304
5,476,783

0
6,442,781
7,197,439

0
7,343,133
8,099,342

0
8,527,431
9,255,356

0
8,563,841
9,990,729

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data website, May 2013,
www.eia.doe.gov/renewable. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)
a

Consumption includes gasoline portion of the mixture.


Vehicle consumption only; does not include power plant inputs.
c
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. This category includes a very small amount of other ethers, primarily Tertiary
Amyl Methyl Ether (TAME) and Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE).
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

26

Ethanol is used as an oxygenate, blended with gasoline to be used as gasohol in conventional vehicles. The amount
of ethanol used in gasohol dwarfs the amount used in E85. Production of E95 ended in 2000.

Table 2.4
Ethanol Consumption, 19952011
(thousand gallons)

1995
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2011 Percentage

Ethanol blends
E85
E95
166
970
10,530
12
12,756
0
15,513
0
26,376
0
31,581
0
38,074
0
44,041
0
54,091
0
62,464
0
71,213
0
90,323
0
137,165
0
1.6%
0.0%

Ethanol in gasohol
934,615
1,114,313
1,173,323
1,450,721
1,919,572
2,414,167
2,756,663
3,729,168
4,694,304
6,442,781
7,343,133
8,527,431
8,563,841
98.4%

Total
935,751
1,124,855
1,186,079
1,466,234
1,945,948
2,445,748
2,794,737
3,773,209
4,748,395
6,505,245
7,414,346
8,617,754
8,701,006
100.0%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Alternative Fuel Vehicle website data,
Washington, DC, May 2013, website: www.eia.doe.gov/renewable/afv/index.cfm. (Additional resources:
www.eia.doe.gov)
Note: Gallons of E85, E95 and Ethanol in gasohol, do not include the gasoline portion of the blended fuel.
Although this estimate for ethanol blend consumption (E85 and E95) is the best available, it is based solely on data
from selected fleets (federal and state governments, alternative fuel providers, and transit companies).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

27

As data about alternative fuel use become available, an attempt is made to incorporate them into this table.
Sometimes assumptions must be made in order to use the data. Please see Appendix A for a description of the
methodology used to develop these data. See Table 1.17 for transportation petroleum use in thousand barrels per
day.

Table 2.5
Domestic Consumption of Transportation Energy by Mode and Fuel Type, 2011a
(trillion Btu)

HIGHWAY
Light vehicles
Cars
Light trucksb
Motorcycles
Buses
Transit
Intercity
School
Medium/heavy trucks
Class 3-6 trucks
Class 7-8 trucks
NONHIGHWAY
Air
General aviation
Domestic air carriers
International air carriersc
Water
Freight
Recreational
Pipeline
Rail
Freight (Class I)
Passenger
Transit
Commuter
Intercity
TOTAL HWY &
NONHWY

Gasoline
15,978.9
15,388.4
8,095.0
7,240.2
53.2
7.8
1.1
6.7
582.7
536.1
46.6
221.8
25.9
25.9
195.9
195.9
-

16,200.6

Diesel
fuel
5,751.1
389.5
45.9
343.6
165.9
69.6
29.8
66.5
5,195.8
727.4
4,468.3
949.5
-

412.8
363.8
49.0
536.6
514.6
22.0
13.2
8.8
6,700.6

Liquefied
petroleum
gas
64.6
45.2

Jet fuel
-

Residual
fuel oil
-

Natural
gas
20.2
-

Electricity
0.6
-

45.2
19.3
19.2
0.2
-

20.2
20.2

0.6
0.6

2,136.2
2,136.2
201.2
1,494.7
440.3

779.4
-

704.9
-

316.6
-

704.9
-

244.1
72.5

779.4
779.4
-

72.5
48.1
18.7
5.7
64.6

2,136.2

779.4

725.1

317.3

Total
21,815.3
15,823.1
8,140.9
7,629.0
53.2
194.4
91.5
29.8
73.1
5,797.8
1,282.6
4,515.2
5,108.4
2,162.1
227.1
1,494.7
440.3
1,388.1
1,143.2
244.9
949.0
609.1
514.6
94.5
48.1
31.9
14.5
26,923.7

Source:
See Appendix A for Energy Use Sources.
a

Civilian consumption only. Totals may not include all possible uses of fuels for transportation (e.g.,
snowmobiles).
b
Two-axle, four-tire trucks.
c
One half of fuel used by domestic carriers in international operation.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

28

Highway vehicles were responsible for 81.0% of all transportation energy use in 2011. See Table 1.17 for
transportation energy use in thousand barrels per day.

Table 2.6
Transportation Energy Use by Mode, 20102011a

HIGHWAY
Light vehicles
Cars
Light trucksb
Motorcycles
Buses
Transit
Intercity
School
Medium/heavy trucks
Class 3-6 trucks
Class 7-8 trucks
NONHIGHWAY
Air
General aviation
Domestic air carriers
International air
Water
Freight
Recreational
Pipeline
Rail
Freight (Class I)
Passenger
Transit
Commuter
Intercity
HWY & NONHWY TOTAL
Off-highway

Trillion Btu
2010
2011
21,908.0
21,815.3
15,557.9
15,823.1
7,994.9
8,140.9
7,509.7
7,629.0
53.3
53.2
190.1
194.4
87.2
91.5
29.8
29.8
73.1
73.1
6,160.1
5,797.8
1,362.8
1,282.6
4,797.3
4,515.2
5,151.9
5,108.4
2,147.6
2,162.1
221.2
227.1
1,519.5
1,494.7
406.9
440.3
1,484.5
1,388.1
1,239.3
1,143.2
245.2
244.9
938.7
949.0
581.0
609.1
488.1
514.6
92.9
94.5
46.8
48.1
31.5
31.9
14.6
14.5
27,059.9
26,923.7
2,036.4
2,053.9

Percentage of total based on Btus


2010
2011
81.0%
81.0%
57.5%
58.8%
29.5%
30.2%
27.8%
28.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.7%
0.7%
0.3%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.3%
22.8%
21.5%
5.0%
4.8%
17.7%
16.8%
19.0%
19.0%
7.9%
8.0%
0.8%
0.8%
5.6%
5.6%
1.5%
1.6%
5.5%
5.2%
4.6%
4.2%
0.9%
0.9%
3.5%
3.5%
2.1%
2.3%
1.8%
1.9%
0.3%
0.4%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
100.0%
100.0%

Source:
See Appendix A for Energy Use Sources.
a

Civilian consumption only. Totals may not include all possible uses of fuels for transportation (e.g.,
snowmobiles).
b
Two-axle, four-tire trucks.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

29

Light trucks include pick-ups, minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and vans. See Table 1.15 for highway petroleum use
in thousand barrels per day.

Table 2.7
Highway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 19702011
(trillion Btu)

Year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Cars
8,479
9,298
9,826
9,928
10,134
9,629
8,800
8,693
8,673
8,802
8,837
8,932
9,138
9,157
9,158
9,232
8,688
8,029
8,169
8,368
8,470
8,489
8,634
8,710
8,936
9,134
9,100
9,161
9,391
9,255
9,331
9,579
9,296
9,221
8,831
8,434
7,995
8,141

Light
trucks
1,539
2,384
2,602
2,797
3,020
3,056
2,975
2,963
2,837
2,990
3,197
3,413
3,629
3,819
4,078
4,156
4,451
4,774
5,117
5,356
5,515
5,695
5,917
6,168
6,304
6,602
6,607
6,678
6,883
7,551
7,861
7,296
7,534
7,679
7,572
7,747
7,510
7,629

1970-2011
2001-2011

-0.1%
-1.2%

4.0%
1.3%

Light
vehicles
subtotal
10,018
11,682
12,428
12,725
13,154
12,685
11,775
11,656
11,510
11,792
12,034
12,345
12,767
12,976
13,236
13,388
13,139
12,803
13,286
13,724
13,985
14,184
14,551
14,878
15,240
15,736
15,707
15,839
16,274
16,806
17,192
16,875
16,830
16,900
16,404
16,181
15,505
15,770

Motorcycles
7
14
15
16
18
22
26
27
25
22
22
23
23
24
25
26
24
23
24
25
26
25
24
25
26
26
26
24
24
24
25
24
28
59
61
60
53
53

Buses
129
124
134
137
141
144
143
145
151
152
146
153
160
164
169
169
167
177
184
183
183
184
186
192
196
203
209
196
192
190
194
196
199
195
200
199
190
194

1.1%
0.0%

5.1%
8.2%

1.0%
-0.1%

Heavy
Class
Class
trucks
7-8
3-6
subtotal
trucks
trucks
333
1,220
1,553
430
1,574
2,003
453
1,661
2,114
503
1,841
2,344
672
1,935
2,607
813
1,884
2,697
929
1,757
2,686
1,065
1,659
2,724
1,182
1,525
2,707
1,121
1,649
2,770
1,072
1,801
2,873
986
1,897
2,883
920
2,038
2,958
858
2,203
3,061
860
2,257
3,118
869
2,330
3,199
891
2,442
3,334
895
2,507
3,402
897
2,570
3,468
906
2,671
3,577
936
2,842
3,778
954
2,983
3,937
958
3,088
4,045
945
3,141
4,086
967
3,251
4,218
1,054
3,584
4,638
1,085
3,734
4,819
1,074
3,738
4,813
1,114
3,921
5,035
1,083
3,812
4,895
1,003
3,532
4,535
1,126
3,963
5,088
1,149
4,045
5,193
1,429
5,031
6,460
1,444
5,083
6,527
1,341
4,720
6,061
1,363
4,797
6,160
1,283
4,515
5,798
Average annual percentage change
3.3%
3.2%
3.3%
1.8%
1.9%
1.9%

Highway
subtotal
11,707
13,823
14,691
15,222
15,920
15,548
14,630
14,552
14,393
14,736
15,075
15,404
15,908
16,225
16,548
16,782
16,664
16,405
16,962
17,509
17,972
18,330
18,806
19,181
19,680
20,603
20,761
20,872
21,525
21,915
21,946
22,183
22,250
23,615
23,192
22,502
21,908
21,815
1.5%
0.4%

Total
transportationa
15,395
17,424
18,492
19,126
20,097
19,652
18,940
18,741
18,237
18,368
18,962
19,205
20,276
20,771
21,327
21,685
21,581
21,182
21,841
22,322
22,930
23,465
23,974
24,327
24,662
25,960
26,273
25,945
26,536
26,715
27,173
27,582
27,724
29,223
28,592
27,445
27,060
26,924
1.4%
0.4%

Source:
See Appendix A for Highway Energy Use.
Note: Totals may not add due to rounding.
a

Total transportation figures do not include military and off-highway energy use and may not include all
possible uses of fuel for transportation (e.g., snowmobiles). These data have been revised due to a new data series
for recreational boats.
b
Due to changes in the FHWA fuel use methodology, motorcycle, bus, and heavy truck data are not
comparable with data before the year 2007. Car and light truck data changed after 2008; see Appendix A for
car/light truck shares.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

210

About 19% of transportation energy use is for nonhighway modes. Air travel accounts for over 42.3% of
nonhighway energy use. See Table 1.16 for nonhighway petroleum use in thousand barrels per day.

Table 2.8
Nonhighway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 19702011
(trillion Btu)
Year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Air
1,307
1,274
1,333
1,350
1,423
1,488
1,434
1,453
1,445
1,440
1,609
1,677
1,823
1,899
1,978
1,981
2,046
1,916
1,945
1,986
2,075
2,141
2,206
2,300
2,275
2,483
2,554
2,397
2,229
2,260
2,456
2,532
2,511
2,509
2,396
2,127
2,148
2,162

19702011
20012011

1.2%
-1.0%

Water
836
927
1,083
1,177
1,382
1,149
1,393
1,270
1,063
974
964
871
1,323
1,378
1,417
1,516
1,442
1,523
1,599
1,437
1,394
1,468
1,411
1,250
1,232
1,367
1,454
1,186
1,247
1,074
1,299
1,368
1,450
1,559
1,460
1,341
1,485
1,388

Pipeline
Rail
990
555
840
559
803
581
786
591
784
588
860
607
896
588
904
561
855
481
740
478
782
532
755
498
735
487
772
498
874
511
890
515
923
506
860
478
846
490
885
505
951
539
967
559
979
572
1,022
574
897
578
908
599
904
601
886
603
931
605
850
617
822
650
842
657
842
670
882
657
911
634
934
540
939
581
949
609
Average annual percentage change
1.2%
-0.1%
0.2%
1.6%
0.7%
0.1%

Nonhighway
subtotal
3,688
3,601
3,800
3,904
4,177
4,104
4,310
4,189
3,844
3,632
3,887
3,801
4,368
4,546
4,779
4,903
4,918
4,777
4,879
4,813
4,958
5,135
5,167
5,146
4,982
5,357
5,512
5,073
5,012
4,800
5,227
5,399
5,473
5,608
5,400
4,943
5,152
5,108

Total
transportationa
15,395
17,424
18,492
19,126
20,097
19,652
18,940
18,741
18,237
18,368
18,962
19,205
20,276
20,771
21,327
21,685
21,581
21,182
21,841
22,322
22,930
23,465
23,974
24,327
24,662
25,960
26,273
25,945
26,536
26,715
27,173
27,582
27,724
29,223
28,592
27,445
27,060
26,924

0.8%
0.1%

1.4%
0.4%

Source:
See Appendix A for Nonhighway Energy Use.
Note: Totals may not add due to rounding.
a

Total transportation figures do not include military and off-highway energy use and may not include all
possible uses of fuel for transportation (e.g., snowmobiles).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

211

The Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2008a model estimates fuel use for different types of equipment
and off-highway vehicles. Most of these vehicles/equipment use diesel fuel. Recreational equipment, such as offhighway motorcycles, snowmobiles, and ATVs, are mainly fueled by gasoline.

Table 2.9
Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Consumption from the Nonroad Model, 2011
(trillion Btus)
Gasoline

Diesel

LPG

CNG

Total

Agricultural equipment
Tractors, mowers, combines, balers, and other farm
equipment which has utility in its movement.

8.4

565.5

0.0

Airport ground equipment

0.3

14.6

0.2

15.1

11.4

904.9

1.8

918.1

8.0

117.9

199.1

1.7

23.0

0.2

Construction and mining equipment


Pavers, rollers, drill rigs, graders, backhoes,
excavators, cranes, mining equipment
Industrial equipment
Forklifts, terminal tractors, sweeper/scrubbers
Logging equipment
Feller/buncher/skidder
Railroad maintenance equipment
Recreational equipment
Off-road motorcycles, snowmobiles, all-terrain
vehicles, golf carts, specialty vehicles
Total

15.2

573.9

340.2

24.7

3.5

0.0

3.7

176.1

2.0

0.1

178.2

206.0

1,631.4

201.3

Source:
Environmental Protection Agency, NONROAD2008a model, www.epa.go/oms/nonrdmdl.htm.
a

0.0

There is no equipment listed for this fuel type.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

15.2

2,053.9

212

Mowing equipment consumes nearly half of all the fuel used by lawn and garden equipment. The gasoline used in
lawn and garden equipment is 1.9% of total gasoline use.

Table 2.10
Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment, 2011
(million gallons)
Equipment
Mowing equipment
Front mowers
Lawn & garden tractors
Lawn & garden tractors
Lawn mowers
Lawn mowers
Rear engine riding mowers
Rear engine riding mowers
Total
Soil and turf equipment
Commercial turf equipmenta
Rotary tillers < 6 HP
Rotary tillers < 6 HP
Total
Wood cutting equipment
Chain saws < 6 HP
Chain saws < 6 HP
Chippers/stump grinders
Shredders < 6 HP
Total
Blowers and vacuums
Leafblowers/vacuums
Leafblowers/vacuums
Snowblowers
Snowblowers
Total
Trimming equipment
Trimmers/edgers/brush cutter
Trimmers/edgers/brush cutter
Other lawn & garden equipmentb
Other lawn & garden equipmentb
Total
Total all equipment

Classification

Gasoline

Diesel

LPG

Total fuel
consumption

Commercial
Commercial
Residential
Commercial
Residential
Commercial
Residential

19.84
232.97
547.06
155.15
208.72
17.14
40.80
1,221.68

114.46
23.63
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
138.09

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

134.30
256.60
547.06
155.15
208.72
17.14
40.80
1,359.77

Commercial
Commercial
Residential

750.55
86.50
18.89
855.93

18.36
0.00
0.00
18.36

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

768.91
86.50
18.89
874.29

Commercial
Residential
Commercial
Commercial

75.00
17.98
39.03
9.29
141.31

0.00
0.00
155.76
0.00
155.76

0.00
0.00
18.89
0.00
18.89

75.00
17.98
213.68
9.29
315.95

Commercial
Residential
Commercial
Residential

206.71
18.26
35.44
18.76
279.17

0.02
0.00
2.03
0.00
2.05

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

206.73
18.26
36.46
18.76
281.21

Commercial
Residential
Commercial
Residential

63.34
26.09
23.66
19.83
132.92
2,631.00

0.00
0.00
0.43
0.00
0.43
314.69

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
18.89

63.34
26.09
24.09
19.83
133.35
2,964.58

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NONROAD2008a Model, www.epa.gov/oms/nonrdmdl.htm.
a

Includes equipment such as aerators, dethatchers, sod cutters, hydro-seeders, turf utility vehicles, golf course
greens mowers, and sand trap groomers.
b
Includes equipment not otherwise classified such as augers, sickle-bar mowers, and wood splitters.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

213

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) cautions that data from 1993 on may not be directly comparable to
earlier years. Some states have improved reporting procedures in recent years, and the estimation procedures were
revised in 1994. Now, the FHWA does not publish separate estimates of gasohol or ethanol used in gasohol. See
Table 2.3 for details on oxygenate usage.

Table 2.11
Highway Usage of Gasoline and Diesel, 19732011
(billion gallons)
Year
1973
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Total gasoline and gasohol


100.6
99.4
101.2
99.6
98.5
100.1
101.4
103.6
106.8
108.7
109.8
110.6
110.2
107.9
111.0
113.7
115.0
117.1
119.5
120.9
124.7
128.7
128.9
129.7
133.0
134.1
136.5
135.2
134.8
135.4
132.2
132.9
133.1
131.5

19732011
20012011

0.7%
0.1%

Diesela
Percent diesel
9.8
8.9%
9.6
8.8%
13.8
12.0%
14.9
13.0%
14.9
13.1%
16.0
13.8%
17.3
14.6%
17.8
14.6%
18.4
14.7%
19.0
14.9%
20.1
15.5%
21.2
16.1%
21.4
16.3%
20.7
16.1%
22.0
16.5%
23.5
17.1%
25.1
17.9%
26.2
18.3%
27.2
18.5%
29.4
19.6%
30.2
19.5%
31.9
19.9%
33.4
20.6%
33.4
20.5%
34.8
20.7%
35.5
20.9%
37.4
21.5%
39.1
22.4%
40.1
22.9%
40.7
23.1%
38.6
22.6%
35.3
21.0%
36.6
21.6%
37.1
22.0%
Average annual percentage change
3.6%
1.1%

Total highway fuel use


110.5
109.0
115.0
114.5
113.4
116.1
118.7
121.3
125.2
127.7
129.9
131.9
131.6
128.6
132.9
137.2
140.1
143.3
146.7
150.3
154.9
160.7
162.3
163.1
167.8
169.6
173.9
174.3
174.9
176.1
170.8
168.1
169.7
168.6
1.1%
0.3%

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2011, Washington, DC,
2013, Table MF-21 and annual. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov)
a

Consists primarily of diesel fuel, with small quantities of other fuels, such as liquefied petroleum gas and

E85.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

214

Great care should be taken when comparing modal energy intensity data among modes. Because of the inherent
differences among the transportation modes in the nature of services, routes available, and many additional factors,
it is not possible to obtain truly comparable national energy intensities among modes. These values are averages,
and there is a great deal of variability even within a mode.

Table 2.12
Passenger Travel and Energy Use, 2011

Cars
Personal trucks
Motorcycles
Demand responsea
Buses
Transit
Intercityc
Schoolc
Air
Certificated routed
General aviation
Recreational boats
Rail
Intercity (Amtrak)
Transit
Commuter

Vehiclemiles
(millions)
1,561,500
912,850
18,500
1,612

Passengermiles
(millions)
2,420,325
1,679,644
21,460
1,477

69.7

2,425

21,574

583.4

Number of
vehicles
(thousands)
125,657.0
93,131.8
8,330.0
65.3
b
b

220.8
13,497.5
20.8
0.3
13.3
7.2

8.9

37,718

4,240

5,542

566,622

102.2

269,681

2,638

1,386
296
744
345

37,617
6,670
19,520
11,427

27.1
22.5
26.2
33.1

68,217
49,080
64,585
92,474

2,513
2,214
2,462
2,794

Energy intensities
(Btu per
(Btu per
passengervehiclemile)
mile)
5,214
3,364
6,900
3,750
2,874
2,478
14,934
16,297
b

Load factor
(persons/
vehicle)
1.55
1.84
1.16
0.9
b

Energy use
(trillion Btu)
8,140.9
6,298.5
53.2
24.1
194.4
91.5
29.8
73.1
1,721.8
1,494.7
227.1
244.9
94.5
14.5
48.1
31.9

Source:
See Appendix A for Passenger Travel and Energy Use.
a

Includes passenger cars, vans, and small buses operating in response to calls from passengers to the transit
operator who dispatches the vehicles.
b
Data are not available.
c
Energy use is estimated.
d
Only domestic service and domestic energy use are shown on this table. (Previous editions included half of
international energy.) These energy intensities may be inflated because all energy use is attributed to passengers
cargo energy use is not taken into account.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

215

Great care should be taken when comparing modal energy intensity data among modes. Because of the inherent
differences among the transportation modes in the nature of services, routes available, and many additional factors,
it is not possible to obtain truly comparable national energy intensities among modes. These values are averages,
and there is a great deal of variability even within a mode.

Table 2.13
Energy Intensities of Highway Passenger Modes, 19702011
Light trucka
(Btu per
(Btu per
passenger-mile)
vehicle-mile)
4,868
12,480
4,733
11,879
4,796
11,524
4,710
11,160
4,693
10,807
4,632
10,468
4,279
10,224
4,184
9,997
4,109
9,268
4,092
9,124
4,066
8,931
4,110
8,730
4,197
8,560
4,128
8,359
4,033
8,119
4,046
7,746
3,856
7,746
3,695
7,351
3,723
7,239
3,804
7,182
3,765
7,212
3,689
7,208
3,683
7,247
3,646
7,251
3,638
7,260
3,684
7,327
3,611
7,158
3,583
7,080
3,607
7,125
3,525
7,673
3,496
7,653
3,571
7,009
3,502
6,959
3,512
6,904
3,526
6,830
3,473
7,231
3,302
6,851
3,364
6,960
Average annual percentage change
-0.9%
-1.4%
-0.6%
-0.2%

Cars
Year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

(Btu per
vehicle-mile)
9,250
8,993
9,113
8,950
8,839
8,647
7,916
7,670
7,465
7,365
7,202
7,164
7,194
6,959
6,683
6,589
6,169
5,912
5,956
6,087
6,024
5,902
5,874
5,797
5,767
5,821
5,687
5,626
5,662
5,535
5,489
5,607
5,499
5,513
5,465
5,383
5,118
5,214

19702011
20012011

-1.4%
-0.6%

Transit Busesb
(Btu per
(Btu per
vehicle-mile)
passenger-mile)
31,796
2,472
33,748
2,814
34,598
2,896
35,120
2,889
36,603
2,883
36,597
2,795
36,553
2,813
37,745
3,027
38,766
3,237
37,962
3,177
38,705
3,307
38,876
3,423
37,889
3,545
36,247
3,594
36,673
3,706
36,754
3,732
37,374
3,794
37,732
3,877
40,243
4,310
39,043
4,262
37,259
4,262
37,251
4,307
37,452
4,340
38,861
4,434
41,296
4,399
40,578
4,344
41,695
4,531
38,535
4,146
37,548
4,133
37,096
4,213
37,855
4,364
37,430
4,250
39,568
4,316
39,931
4,372
39,906
4,348
39,160
4,242
35,953
4,118
37,718
4,240
0.4%
-0.2%

1.3%
0.2%

Source:
See Appendix A for Highway Passenger Mode Energy Intensities.
a

All two-axle, four-tire trucks.


Series not continuous between 1983 and 1984 because of a change in data source by the American Public
Transportation Association (APTA).
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

216

Great care should be taken when comparing modal energy intensity data among modes. Because of the inherent
differences between the transportation modes in the nature of services, routes available, and many additional
factors, it is not possible to obtain truly comparable national energy intensities among modes.

Table 2.14
Energy Intensities of Nonhighway Passenger Modes, 19702011

Year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
19702011
20012011

Air
Certificated air carriersa
(Btu per
passenger-mile)
10,115
7,625
7,282
6,990
6,144
5,607
5,561
5,774
5,412
5,133
5,298
5,053
5,011
4,827
4,861
4,844
4,797
4,602
4,455
4,490
4,407
4,349
4,199
4,173
3,987
4,108
3,960
3,943
3,718
3,614
3,505
3,346
3,250
3,153
3,055
2,901
2,823
2,779
-3.1%
-3.4%

Intercity Amtrak
(Btu per
passenger-mile)
b

3,548
3,278
3,443
3,554
3,351
3,065
2,883
3,052
2,875
2,923
2,703
2,481
2,450
2,379
2,614
2,505
2,417
2,534
2,565
2,282
2,501
2,690
2,811
2,788
2,943
3,235
3,257
3,212
2,800
2,760
2,709
2,650
2,516
2,398
2,435
2,271
2,214
Average annual percentage changec
-1.3%
-3.8%

Rail
Rail transit
(Btu per
passenger-mile)
2,157
2,625
2,633
2,364
2,144
2,290
2,312
2,592
2,699
2,820
3,037
2,809
3,042
3,039
3,072
2,909
3,024
3,254
3,155
3,373
3,338
3,340
3,017
2,856
2,823
2,785
2,797
2,803
2,872
2,837
2,750
2,783
2,707
2,577
2,521
2,516
2,520
2,462
0.3%
-1.3%

Commuter rail
(Btu per
passenger-mile)
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b

2,804
2,826
2,926
2,801
2,872
2,864
2,822
2,770
2,629
2,976
2,682
2,632
2,582
2,724
2,646
2,714
2,551
2,515
2,514
2,545
2,569
2,743
2,527
2,638
2,656
2,812
2,897
2,794
0.0%
1.1%

Source:
See Appendix A for Nonhighway Passenger Mode Energy Intensities.
a

These data differ from the data on Table 2.12 because they include half of international services. These
energy intensities may be inflated because all energy use is attributed to passengerscargo energy use is not taken
into account.
b
Data are not available.
c
Average annual percentage calculated to earliest year possible.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

217

The energy intensity of light rail systems, measured in btu per passenger-mile varies greatly. The weighted average
of all light rail systems in 2011 is 3,501 btu/passenger-mile.

Figure 2.2. Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems, 2011

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation, National Transit Database, May 2013.
www.ntdprogram.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

(Additional resources:

218

Figure 2.3. Energy Intensity of Heavy Rail Systems, 2011

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation,
www.ntdprogram.gov)

National

Transit

Database,

May 2013.

(Additional

resources:

Figure 2.4. Energy Intensity of Commuter Rail Systems, 2011

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation,
www.ntdprogram.gov)

National

Transit

Database,

May 2013.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

(Additional

resources:

219

Great care should be taken when comparing modal energy intensity data among modes. Because of the inherent
differences between the transportation modes in the nature of services, routes available, and many additional
factors, it is not possible to obtain truly comparable national energy intensities among modes.

Table 2.15
Energy Intensities of Freight Modes, 19702011

Year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
19702011
20012011

Heavy single-unit and


combination trucks
Class I freight railroad
(Btu per vehicle-mile)
(Btu per freight car-mile)
(Btu per ton-mile)
24,960
17,669
691
24,631
18,739
687
24,567
18,938
680
24,669
19,226
669
24,655
18,928
641
24,746
19,188
618
24,758
18,742
597
25,059
18,629
572
24,297
18,404
553
23,853
17,864
525
23,585
17,795
510
23,343
17,500
497
23,352
17,265
486
22,923
16,790
456
22,596
16,758
443
22,411
16,894
437
22,795
16,619
420
22,749
15,835
391
22,609
16,043
393
22,373
16,056
389
22,193
16,340
388
22,097
15,992
372
22,109
15,747
368
21,340
15,784
370
21,516
15,372
365
22,884
15,363
363
23,449
14,917
352
23,024
15,108
346
23,462
15,003
345
22,461
15,016
344
20,540
15,274
341
22,866
15,152
337
b
14,990
330
23,340
21,238
14,846
320
21,008
14,573
305
21,024
13,907
291
21,499
13,733
289
21,698
14,043
298
Average annual percentage change
-0.3%
-0.6%
-2.0%
-0.6%
-0.7%
-1.5%

Waterborne commerce on
taxable waterways
(Btu per ton-mile)
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

266
256
266
270
253
253
251
241
241
235
225
252
225
217
a
a
a

Source:
See Appendix A for Freight Mode Energy Intensities.
a
b

Data are not available.


Due to changes in the FHWA fuel use methodology, truck data are not comparable with data before the year

2007.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

220

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

31

Chapter 3
All Highway Vehicles and Characteristics
Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source
Table 3.2

U.S. share of world car registrations, 2011

17.1%

Table 3.3

U.S. share of world truck & bus registrations, 2011

37.7%

Table 3.4

Number of U.S. cars, 2011 (thousands)

125,657

Table 3.4

Number of U.S. trucks, 2011 (thousands)

118,456

Table 3.7

Vehicle miles traveled, 2011 (million miles)

Table 3.10

2,957,192

Cars

52.8%

Two-axle, four-tire trucks

37.1%

Combination trucks

5.5%

Other single-unit trucks

3.5%

Motorcycles

0.6%

Buses

0.5%

Average age of vehicles, 2011


Cars (years)

11.1

Light trucks (years)

10.4

All light vehicles (years)

10.8

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

32

The top countries producing the worlds cars and trucks have changed over the last ten years. In 2011, China was
the largest producer of cars and trucks. In 2000, Japan produced the most cars and the United States produced the
most trucks (includes light trucks).

Table 3.1
World Production of Cars and Trucks, 2000 and 2011
(thousands)
Cars
China
Japan
Germany
Brazil
U.S.
India
Spain
France
Mexico
UK
Russia
Czech Republic
All other countries
Total world
Trucksa
China
U.S.
South Korea
Japan
India
Canada
Thailand
All other countries
Total world

2000
605
8,363
5,132
1,362
5,542
605
2,366
2,880
1,130
1,641
969
428
10,205
41,229

2011
10,053
7,159
5,872
2,519
2,976
2,479
1,868
1,914
1,657
1,344
1,738
1,192
11,473
52,244

2000
1,464
7,263
513
1,781
283
1,411
315
4,685
17,717

2011
8,366
5,679
1,755
1,240
1,461
1,145
920
5,977
26,543

Percent change
2000-2011
1,563%
-14%
14%
85%
-46%
310%
-21%
-34%
47%
-18%
79%
178%
12%
27%
Percent change
2000-2011
471%
-22%
242%
-30%
416%
-19%
192%
28%
50%

Source:
Wards Communications, Wards World Motor Vehicle Data, 2012 Edition, Southfield, MI, 2011, pp.
271-276 and annual. (Additional resources: www.wardsauto.com)
a

Includes all trucks and buses. In the United States, light trucks, such as pickups, vans, and sport-utility
vehicles are counted as trucks.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

33

Use caution comparing historical data because of disconnects in data series. Also, the United States is unique in
how many light trucks (SUVs, minivans, pickups) are used for personal travel. Those light trucks are not included
on this table. The U.S. share of world cars continues to decline. The growth in the World total comes mainly from
developing countries, like China, India, and South Korea.

Table 3.2
Car Registrations for Selected Countries, 19602011
(thousands)

Country
Argentina
Brazil
Canadab
China
France
India
Indonesia
Germanyc
Japan
Malaysia
Pakistan
Russia
South Korea
United
Kingdom
United States
U.S. percentage
of world
World total

1960
474

1970
1,482

1980
3,112

4,104
a

4,950

6,602
a

11,860

10,256
351
18,440

4,856
457

14,376
8,779

23,236
23,660

2,075

43,772
52,437
4,213
375
20,353
8,084

2005
5,340
18,370
18,124
8,900
30,100
7,654
3,850
46,090
57,091
6,402
411
25,285
11,122

2008
6,244
21,884
19,613
18,270
30,850
9,400
4,750
41,321
57,865
7,190
445
32,021
12,484

2010
7,605
25,541
20,121
34,430
31,300
13,300
8,891
42,302
58,347
9,115
1,726
34,350
13,632

2011
8,413
27,491
20,352
43,220
31,425
14,165
9,685
42,928
58,670
9,690
1,849
36,415
14,136

Average
annual
percentage
change
1990-2011
3.3%
4.0%
2.3%
16.1%
1.4%
9.0%
10.5%
0.9%
2.5%
8.3%
4.5%
5.4%d
9.6%

1990
4,284
12,127
12,622
1,897
23,550
2,300
1,200
35,512
34,924
1,811
738
a

2000
5,060
15,393
16,832
3,750
28,060
5,150
a

5,650
61,671

11,802
89,244

15,438
121,601

22,528
143,550

27,185
127,721

30,652
132,909

31,252
135,882

31,258
129,053

31,363
127,577

1.6%
-0.6%

62.7%
98,305

46.1%
193,479

38.0%
320,390

32.3%
444,900

23.3%
548,558

21.5%
617,914

20.4%
667,630

17.8%
723,567

17.1%
747,358

2.5%

Source:
Wards Communications, Wards World Motor Vehicle Data, 2012 Edition, Southfield, MI, 2012, pp. 293296 and
annual. (Additional resources: www.wardsauto.com)
a
b

2000.

c
d

Data are not available.


Data from 2000 and later are not comparable to prior data. Canada reclassified autos and trucks prior to
Data for 1990 and prior include West Germany only. Kraftwagen are included with automobiles.
Data for earliest year available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

34

The United States totals include SUVs, minivans, and light trucks, many of which are used for personal travel.

Table 3.3
Truck and Bus Registrations for Selected Countries, 19602011
(thousands)

1960

Country
Argentina

1970

1980

1990

2000

2005

2011

Average
annual
percentage
change
1990-2011

392

788

1,217

1,501

1,554

1,730

2,745

2.9%

936

3,917

4,653

7,164

10.2%

1,056

1,481

2,955

3,931

739

786

959

-6.5%

1,650

1,850

1,480
2,550

4,314
4,910

9,650
5,733

21,750
6,198

50,280
6,516

12.4%
1.4%

India

2,050

2,390

4,145

9,949

7.8%

Indonesia

1,391

2,373

2,950

7,171

8.1%

Germany
Japan

786
896

1,228
8,803

1,617
14,197

2,764
22,773

3,534
20,211

3,133
16,734

3,056
15,196

0.5%
-1.9%

Malaysia

616

1,030

1,323

1,173

3.1%

Pakistan

172

385

414

560

5.8%

Russia
South Korea
United Kingdom
United States
U.S. percentage of world
World total

1,534
12,186
42.6%
28,583

1,769
19,175
36.2%
52,899

1,920
34,195
37.7%
90,592

7,200
1,320
3,774
45,106
32.7%
138,082

5,041
3,956
3,361
85,579
42.1%
203,272

5,705
4,275
3,943
104,788
42.6%
245,798

6,447
4,301
4,270
121,355
37.7%
322,081

-0.5%
5.8%
0.6%
4.8%

Brazil
Canadab
China
France

4.1%

Source:
Wards Communications, Wards World Motor Vehicle Data, 2012 Edition, Southfield, MI, 2012, pp. 293296 and
annual. (Additional resources: www.wardsauto.com)
a
b

2000.

Data are not available.


Data from 2000 and later are not comparable to prior data. Canada reclassified autos and trucks prior to
Data for 1990 and prior include West Germany only. Kraftwagen are included with automobiles.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

35

VEHICLES IN USE
Both the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and The Polk Company report figures on the car
and truck population each year. The two estimates, however, differ by as much as 11.2% (1981). The
differences can be attributed to several factors:

The FHWA data include all vehicles which have been registered at any time throughout the calendar
year. Therefore, the data include vehicles which were retired during the year and may double count
vehicles which have been registered in different states or the same states to different owners. The
Polk Company data include only those vehicles which are registered on July 1 of the given year.

The classification of mini-vans, station wagons on truck chassis, and utility vehicles as cars or trucks
causes important differences in the two estimates. The Polk Company data included passenger vans
in the car count until 1980; since 1980 all vans have been counted as trucks. Recently, the Federal
Highway Administration adjusted their definition of cars and trucks. Starting in 1993, some minivans
and sport utility vehicles that were previously included with cars were included with trucks. This
change produced a dramatic change in the individual percentage differences of cars and trucks. The
difference in total vehicles has been less than 5% each year since 1990 and does not appear to be
significantly affected by the FHWA reclassifications.

The FHWA data include all non-military Federal vehicles, while The Polk Company data include
only those Federal vehicles which are registered within a state. Federal vehicles are not required to
have State registrations, and, according to the General Services Administration, most Federal
Vehicles are not registered.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

36

In the early 1980's, researchers had to make a conscious choice of which data series to use, since they differed by as
much as 11%. In 2009 the two sources differed by a little over 1%. Both sources show a decline in automobiles
from 2008 to 2011.

Table 3.4
U.S. Cars and Trucks in Use, 19702011
(thousands)

Year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

FHWA
89,243
106,706
110,189
112,288
116,573
118,429
121,601
123,098
123,702
126,444
128,158
127,885
130,004
131,482
133,836
134,559
133,700
128,300
126,581
127,327
127,883
128,387
129,728
129,749
131,839
132,432
133,621
137,633
135,921
135,670
136,431
136,568
135,400
135,933
137,080
134,880
130,892
125,657

Automobiles
The Polk Percentage
Company difference
80,448
10.9%
95,241
12.0%
97,818
12.6%
99,904
12.4%
102,957
13.2%
104,677
13.1%
104,564
16.3%
105,839
16.3%
106,867
15.8%
108,961
16.0%
112,019
14.4%
114,662
11.5%
117,268
10.9%
119,849
9.7%
121,519
10.1%
122,758
9.6%
123,276
8.5%
123,268
4.1%
120,347
5.2%
121,055
5.2%
121,997
4.8%
123,242
4.2%
124,613
4.1%
124,673
4.1%
125,966
4.7%
126,869
4.4%
127,721
4.6%
128,714
6.9%
129,907
4.6%
131,072
3.5%
132,469
3.0%
132,909
2.8%
135,047
0.3%
135,222
0.5%
135,882
0.9%
132,500
1.8%
129,053
1.4%
127,577
-1.5%

FHWA
18,797
25,781
27,876
29,314
31,336
32,914
33,667
34,644
35,382
36,723
37,507
43,210
45,103
46,826
49,941
52,172
54,470
59,206
63,136
66,082
69,491
72,458
75,940
77,307
79,062
83,148
87,108
92,045
92,939
94,944
100,016
103,819
107,944
110,498
110,242
110,561
110,322
118,456

Trucks
The Polk
Company
17,688
24,813
26,560
28,222
30,565
32,583
35,268
36,069
36,987
38,143
40,143
42,387
44,826
47,344
50,221
53,202
56,023
58,179
61,172
65,260
66,717
70,199
73,681
76,398
79,077
82,640
85,579
87,969
91,120
94,810
99,698
105,475
109,596
113,479
113,931
116,472
119,179
121,355

Percentage
difference
6.3%
3.9%
5.0%
3.9%
2.5%
1.0%
-4.5%
-4.0%
-4.3%
-3.7%
-6.6%
1.9%
0.6%
-1.1%
-0.6%
-1.9%
-2.8%
1.8%
3.2%
1.3%
4.2%
3.2%
3.1%
1.2%
0.0%
0.6%
1.8%
4.6%
2.0%
0.1%
0.3%
-1.6%
-1.5%
-2.6%
-3.2%
-5.1%
-7.4%
-2.4%

FHWA
108,040
132,487
138,065
141,602
147,909
151,343
155,267
157,743
159,084
163,166
165,665
171,095
175,106
178,308
183,777
186,731
188,171
187,505
189,717
193,409
197,375
200,845
205,669
207,056
210,901
215,580
220,729
229,678
228,860
230,614
236,447
240,387
243,344
246,431
247,322
245,441
241,214
244,113

Total
The Polk
Company
98,136
120,054
124,378
128,126
133,522
137,260
139,832
141,908
143,854
147,104
152,162
157,049
162,094
167,193
171,740
175,960
179,299
181,447
181,519
186,315
188,714
193,441
198,294
201,071
205,043
209,509
213,300
216,683
221,027
225,882
232,167
238,384
244,643
248,701
249,813
248,972
248,232
248,932

Percentage
difference
10.1%
10.4%
11.0%
10.5%
10.8%
10.3%
11.0%
11.2%
10.6%
10.9%
8.9%
8.9%
8.0%
6.6%
7.0%
6.1%
4.9%
3.3%
4.5%
3.8%
4.6%
3.8%
3.7%
3.0%
2.9%
2.9%
3.5%
6.0%
3.5%
2.1%
1.8%
0.8%
-0.5%
-0.9%
-1.0%
-1.4%
-2.8%
-1.9%

Source:
FHWA - U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1970-2008, Highway Statistics 2008
and earlier, Washington, DC, 2009, Table VM-1 and annual. 2009-2011 data from tables MV-1 and MV-9,
Highway Statistics 2011. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov)
Polk - The Polk Company, Detroit, Michigan. FURTHER REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED. (Additional
resources: www.polk.com)
a

Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

37

The graphs below show the number of motor vehicles per thousand people for various countries. The data for the
United States are displayed in the line which goes from 1900 to 2011. The points labeled on that line show data for
the other countries/regions around the world and how their vehicles per thousand people compare to the United
States at two different points in time, 2001 and 2011. For instance, the graph shows that in 2001, Western Europes
vehicles per thousand people was about where the United States was in 1970, but by 2011 it is about where the
United States was in 1972. The lower part of the graph (1900-1940) is shown enlarged on the facing page.

Figure 3.1. Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to
Other Countries (in 2001 and 2011)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

38

Source:
See Tables 3.4 and 3.5.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

39

Though some countries are listed separately in this table, those countries are also included in the regional total.
For instance, China is listed separately, but is also included in the Asia, Far East region.

Table 3.5
Vehicles per Thousand People in Other Countries, 2001 and 2011
Country/Region
Africa
Asia, Far East
Asia, Middle East
Brazil
Canada
Central & South America
China
Europe, East
Europe, West
India
Indonesia
Pacific

Vehicles per 1,000 people


2001
2011
24.0
32.4
41.4
71.3
84.1
119.3
112.3
175.4
566.8
626.2
110.1
170.6
11.4
69.9
205.3
334.4
552.3
589.9
8.2
20.3
25.7
68.5
513.6
566.7

Sources:
Population U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, International Data Base (IDB) World, March 22, 2013.
(Additional resources: www.census.gov/population/international)
Vehicles Wards Communications, Wards World Motor Vehicle Data 2012, pp. 293296. (Additional resources:
www.fhwa.dot.gov, www.wardsauto.com)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

310

The number of vehicles per thousand people in the United States has grown significantly from 1900 to 2007. In
2008 to 2010, however, the number decreased from a high of 843.57 in 2007. There was a slight increase in 2011.

Table 3.6
Vehicles per Thousand People in the United States, 19902011

Year
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922

U.S.
vehicles
per 1,000
people
0.11
0.19
0.29
0.41
0.67
0.94
1.27
1.65
2.24
3.45
5.07
6.81
9.90
12.94
17.79
24.77
35.48
49.57
59.69
72.50
86.78
96.68
111.53

Year
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945

U.S.
vehicles
per 1,000
people
134.90
154.35
173.26
189.10
195.77
204.87
219.31
217.34
210.37
195.38
192.38
199.90
208.61
222.62
233.33
229.65
236.93
245.63
261.57
244.73
225.89
220.23
221.80

Year
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

U.S.
vehicles
per 1,000
people
243.11
262.56
280.20
299.56
323.71
337.14
340.57
353.67
361.40
379.77
387.58
392.11
392.17
402.83
410.37
415.11
426.06
438.75
451.57
466.90
489.34
500.66
516.49

Year
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991

U.S.
vehicles
per 1,000
people
533.37
545.35
562.45
585.60
615.19
632.32
640.07
659.47
669.03
690.17
700.42
710.71
715.22
713.95
724.30
728.20
744.50
753.33
758.58
772.92
776.99
773.40
760.19

Year
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

U.S.
vehicles
per 1,000
people
757.96
761.94
766.94
770.99
781.16
776.02
781.20
790.07
800.30
825.49
815.22
815.50
829.26
836.58
840.09
843.57
840.80
828.04
808.44
812.32

Sources:
Population U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, International Data Base (IDB) World, March 20, 2013.
(Additional resources: www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/)
Vehicles (2011) U.S.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics
2011, Washington, DC, 2013.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

311

Total vehicle-miles traveled decreased slightly from 2010 to 2011. The trend of using two-axle, four-tire trucks, such
as pickups, vans, and sport-utility vehicles, for personal travel is evident in these data; two-axle, four-tire trucks
account for 26.0% more travel in 2011 than in 1970, and cars account for 29.8% less travel in that time period.

Table 3.7
Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type, 19702011

Year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Cars
82.6%
77.9%
76.9%
75.6%
74.2%
72.8%
72.8%
72.9%
72.8%
72.3%
71.3%
70.2%
69.2%
68.5%
67.6%
66.8%
65.7%
62.5%
61.0%
59.9%
59.6%
59.4%
59.1%
58.7%
58.9%
58.3%
58.3%
58.4%
58.1%
57.8%
57.3%
57.1%
56.1%
53.7%
52.8%
52.9%
52.5%
52.8%

Two-axle,
Other
four-tire
single-unit
Combination
Motorcycles
trucks
trucks
trucks
0.3%
11.1%
2.4%
3.2%
0.4%
15.1%
2.6%
3.5%
0.4%
16.1%
2.6%
3.5%
0.4%
17.1%
2.7%
3.8%
0.5%
18.1%
2.8%
4.1%
0.6%
19.1%
2.7%
4.4%
0.7%
19.0%
2.6%
4.5%
0.7%
19.1%
2.5%
4.4%
0.6%
19.2%
2.5%
4.4%
0.5%
19.8%
2.6%
4.5%
0.5%
20.8%
2.6%
4.5%
0.5%
22.0%
2.6%
4.4%
0.5%
23.1%
2.5%
4.4%
0.5%
23.8%
2.5%
4.5%
0.5%
24.8%
2.4%
4.4%
0.5%
25.6%
2.4%
4.4%
0.4%
26.8%
2.4%
4.4%
0.4%
29.9%
2.4%
4.4%
0.4%
31.5%
2.4%
4.4%
0.4%
32.5%
2.5%
4.5%
0.4%
32.4%
2.6%
4.6%
0.4%
32.6%
2.6%
4.8%
0.4%
32.8%
2.6%
4.8%
0.4%
33.2%
2.6%
4.9%
0.4%
33.0%
2.6%
4.9%
0.4%
33.5%
2.6%
4.9%
0.4%
33.6%
2.6%
4.9%
0.3%
33.6%
2.6%
4.9%
0.3%
33.8%
2.7%
4.9%
0.3%
34.0%
2.7%
4.8%
0.3%
34.6%
2.6%
4.8%
0.3%
34.8%
2.6%
4.8%
0.4%
35.9%
2.7%
4.7%
0.7%
35.7%
3.8%
5.9%
0.7%
36.2%
4.1%
6.0%
0.7%
36.2%
4.1%
5.7%
0.6%
36.8%
3.7%
5.9%
0.6%
37.1%
3.5%
5.5%
Average annual percentage change

Buses
0.4%
0.5%
0.4%
0.4%
0.4%
0.4%
0.4%
0.4%
0.4%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%

Total
vehicle-miles
traveled
(million miles)
1,109,724
1,327,664
1,402,380
1,467,027
1,544,704
1,529,133
1,527,295
1,555,308
1,595,010
1,652,788
1,720,269
1,774,826
1,834,872
1,921,204
2,025,962
2,096,487
2,144,362
2,172,050
2,247,151
2,296,378
2,357,588
2,422,696
2,485,848
2,561,695
2,631,522
2,691,056
2,746,925
2,790,372
2,855,508
2,890,450
2,964,788
2,989,430
3,014,369 a
3,117,292
3,063,109
2,961,660
2,977,112
2,957,192

19702011
20012011

2.4%
0.6%

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2011, Washington, DC,
2013, Table VM-1 and annual. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov). 2009-2011 cars and 2-axle 4-tire
trucks see Appendix A for car/light truck shares.
a

Due to FHWA methodology changes, data from 2007-on are not comparable with previous data.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

312

Due to data restrictions, the 2001 data are the latest that can be published.

Table 3.8
Cars in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001
1970
Vehicles
(thousands)

Age (years)

Percentage

2001
Cumulative
percentage

Vehicles
(thousands)

Percentage

Cumulative
percentage

2001 Estimated vehicle


travel
Cumulative
Percentage
percentage

Average
annual
miles per
vehicle

Under 1a

6,288

7.8%

7.8%

6,183

4.8%

4.8%

6.9%

6.9%

15,000

9,299

11.6%

19.4%

8,882

6.9%

11.7%

9.4%

16.3%

14,300

8,816

11.0%

30.3%

8,093

6.3%

18.0%

8.2%

24.6%

13,700

7,878

9.8%

40.1%

7,555

5.9%

23.9%

7.2%

31.8%

12,900

8,538

10.6%

50.8%

7,860

6.1%

30.0%

7.2%

39.1%

12,400

8,506

10.6%

61.3%

7,337

5.7%

35.7%

6.5%

45.6%

12,000

7,116

8.8%

70.2%

8,555

6.6%

42.3%

7.4%

53.1%

11,700

6,268

7.8%

78.0%

7,471

5.8%

48.1%

6.3%

59.4%

11,400

5,058

6.3%

84.3%

7,420

5.8%

53.9%

6.1%

65.5%

11,100

3,267

4.1%

88.3%

6,807

5.3%

59.2%

5.4%

71.0%

10,700

10

2,776

3.5%

91.8%

6,810

5.3%

64.5%

5.0%

76.0%

9,900

11

1,692

2.1%

93.9%

6,692

5.2%

69.7%

4.5%

80.5%

9,000

12

799

1.0%

94.9%

6,742

5.2%

74.9%

4.7%

85.2%

9,400

13

996

1.2%

96.1%

6,189

4.8%

79.7%

3.8%

88.9%

8,200

14

794

1.0%

97.1%

5,345

4.2%

83.9%

2.9%

91.8%

7,200

100.0%

20,773

16.1%

100.0%

8.2%

100.0%

5,300

128,714

100.0%

15 and older

2,336

2.9%

Subtotal

80,427

100.0%

Age not given


Total

22

80,449

128,714

100.0%

Average age

5.6

9.3

Median age

4.9

8.1

Source:
The Polk Company, Detroit, MI. FURTHER REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED.
Vehicle travelAverage annual miles per auto by age were multiplied by the number of vehicles in operation by
age to estimate the vehicle travel. Average annual miles per auto by age - generated by ORNL from the
National Household Travel Survey website: nhts.ornl.gov.
(Additional resources:
www.polk.com,
nhts.ornl.gov)
a

Includes cars from model year 2002 and 2001 which were sold prior to July 1, 2002, and similarly, model
years 1971 and 1970 sold prior to July 1, 1970.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

313

Due to data restrictions, the 2001 data are the latest that can be published.

Table 3.9
Trucks in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001
1970

2001

Average
annual
miles per
vehicle

Age (years)

Vehicles
(thousands)

Percentage

Cumulative
percentage

Vehicles
(thousands)

Percentage

Under 1a

1,262

7.1%

7.1%

6,213

7.1%

7.1%

8.5%

8.5%

17,500

1,881

10.6%

17.8%

7,958

9.0%

16.1%

12.0%

20.6%

19,200

1,536

8.7%

26.5%

7,522

8.6%

24.7%

11.7%

32.3%

19,800

1,428

8.1%

34.6%

6,398

7.3%

31.9%

9.0%

41.3%

17,900

1,483

8.4%

43.0%

6,109

6.9%

38.9%

8.4%

49.7%

17,500

1,339

7.6%

50.5%

5,122

5.8%

44.7%

6.8%

56.6%

17,000

1,154

6.5%

57.1%

5,574

6.3%

51.0%

6.8%

63.4%

15,600

975

5.5%

62.6%

5,042

5.7%

56.8%

6.1%

69.5%

15,400

826

4.7%

67.3%

4,148

4.7%

61.5%

4.9%

74.4%

15,100

621

3.5%

70.8%

3,395

3.9%

65.3%

3.5%

77.9%

13,200

10

658

3.7%

74.5%

3,221

3.7%

69.0%

2.3%

80.3%

9,200

11

583

3.3%

77.8%

3,039

3.5%

72.5%

2.2%

82.5%

9,200

12

383

2.2%

80.0%

3,345

3.8%

76.3%

2.4%

84.9%

9,200

13

417

2.4%

82.3%

3,112

3.5%

79.8%

2.3%

89.1%

9,200

14

414

2.3%

84.7%

2,544

2.9%

82.7%

1.8%

89.0%

9,200

15 and older

2,710

15.3%

100.0%

15,227

17.3%

100.0%

11.0%

100.0%

9,200

Subtotal

17,670

100.0%

87,969

100.0%

Age not given

15

Total

Cumulative
percentage

2001 Estimated vehicle


travel
Cumulative
Percentage
percentage

100.0%

17,685

87,969

Average age

7.3

7.9

Median age

5.9

6.8

Source:
The Polk Company, Detroit, MI. FURTHER REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED.
Vehicle travelThe average annual vehicle-miles per truck by age were multiplied by the number of trucks in
operation by age to estimate the vehicle travel. Average annual miles per truck by age were generated by
ORNL from the 1997 Truck Inventory and Use Survey public use tape provided by U.S. Department of
Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC, 2000. (Additional resources: www.polk.com,
www.census.gov)
a

Includes trucks from model year 2002 and 2001 which were sold prior to July 1, 2002, and similarly, model
years 1971 and 1970 sold prior to July 1, 1970.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

314

Table 3.10
U.S. Average Vehicle Age, 19952011

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Passenger cars
8.4
8.5
8.7
8.9
9.1
9.1
9.3
9.4
9.6
9.8
10.1
10.3
10.4
10.6
10.8
11.0
11.1

Source:
The Polk Company, Detroit, MI.
www.polk.com)

Light trucks
8.3
8.3
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.9
9.0
9.3
9.8
10.1
10.4

All light vehicles


8.4
8.5
8.6
8.8
8.8
8.9
8.9
9.0
9.1
9.4
9.5
9.7
9.8
10.0
10.3
10.6
10.8

FURTHER REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

(Additional resources:

315

Table 3.11
New Retail Vehicle Sales, 19702012
(thousands)
Calendar
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
1970-2012
2002-2012

Cars
8,399
10,242
10,941
11,424
8,853
8,624
10,110
11,183
11,314
10,673
8,949
8,489
7,956
9,148
10,324
10,979
11,404
10,192
10,547
9,779
9,303
8,185
8,213
8,518
8,991
8,620
8,479
8,217
8,085
8,638
8,778
8,352
8,042
7,556
7,483
7,660
7,762
7,562
6,769
5,401
5,635
6,089
7,242
-0.4%
-1.0%

Light
Subtotal
Light Vehicles
Trucksa
1,457
9,856
1,673
11,915
2,097
13,038
2,512
13,936
2,163
11,016
2,053
10,677
2,719
12,829
3,109
14,292
3,474
14,788
2,845
13,518
1,960
10,909
1,746
10,235
2,063
10,019
2,521
11,669
3,255
13,579
3,688
14,667
4,594
15,998
4,610
14,802
4,800
15,347
4,610
14,389
4,548
13,851
4,122
12,307
4,629
12,842
5,351
13,869
6,033
15,024
6,053
14,673
6,519
14,998
6,797
15,014
7,299
15,384
8,073
16,711
8,386
17,164
8,598
16,950
8,633
16,675
8,938
16,494
9,254
16,737
9,114
16,774
8,574
16,336
8,305
15,867
6,246
13,015
4,834
10,235
5,758
11,393
6,449
12,538
6,975
14,217
Average annual percentage change
3.8%
0.9%
-2.1%
-1.6%

Heavy
Trucks
334
340
438
497
424
298
324
376
441
391
265
235
183
189
277
285
265
287
334
312
277
221
249
303
353
388
359
376
424
521
462
350
322
328
432
497
545
371
298
200
218
306
346

Total
Vehicle
Sales
10,191
12,255
13,475
14,433
11,440
10,975
13,153
14,668
15,229
13,909
11,174
10,470
10,202
11,858
13,856
14,952
16,263
15,089
15,681
14,700
14,129
12,528
13,091
14,172
15,376
15,061
15,356
15,391
15,808
17,232
17,626
17,300
16,998
16,822
17,168
17,271
16,880
16,238
13,314
10,435
11,611
12,845
14,563

0.1%
0.7%

0.9%
-1.5%

Source:
1970-2012: Wards Communications, www.wardsauto.com.
a

Includes light trucks of 10,000 lb. gross vehicle weight and less.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

316

Using current registration data and a scrappage model by Greenspan and Cohen, [1996 paper:
www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/1996/199640/199640pap.pdf], ORNL calculated car scrappage rates for 1970,
1980, and 1990. These data are fitted model values which assume constant economic conditions. Using 1977-2002
data, the Federal Highway Administration completed a separate survivability study in 2006.

Table 3.12
Car Scrappage and Survival Rates
1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years
Vehicle
agea
(years)
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

1970 model year


Scrappage
Survival
ratec
rateb
99.0
1.0
94.1
5.0
88.4
6.1
82.0
7.2
75.2
8.3
68.1
9.5
60.9
10.6
53.8
11.7
46.9
12.8
40.3
14.0
34.2
15.1
28.7
16.2
23.7
17.4
19.3
18.5
15.5
19.6
12.3
20.8
9.6
21.9
7.4
23.0
5.6
24.2
4.2
25.3
3.1
26.4
2.2
27.5
1.6
28.6
1.1
29.7
0.8
30.8
0.5
31.9
0.4
33.0

1980 model year


Survival
Scrappage
rateb
ratec
100.0
0.0
96.3
3.7
91.3
5.1
85.7
6.1
79.7
7.1
73.3
8.1
66.6
9.0
60.0
10.0
53.3
11.0
46.9
12.0
40.8
13.0
35.1
14.0
29.8
15.0
25.0
16.1
20.8
17.1
17.0
18.1
13.8
19.1
11.0
20.1
8.7
21.2
6.7
22.2
5.2
23.2
3.9
24.2
2.9
25.3
2.2
26.3
1.6
27.3
1.1
28.4
0.8
29.4

1990 model year


Survival
Scrappage
rateb
ratec
100.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
99.4
0.6
96.3
3.2
92.7
3.7
88.7
4.3
84.4
4.9
79.8
5.5
75.0
6.1
70.0
6.7
64.9
7.3
59.7
7.9
54.6
8.6
49.5
9.3
44.6
9.9
39.9
10.6
35.4
11.3
31.1
12.0
27.2
12.7
23.5
13.5
20.2
14.2
17.1
15.0
14.5
15.7
12.1
16.5
10.0
17.2
8.2
18.0
6.6
18.8

Median
lifetime

11.5 years

12.5 years

16.9 years

2002
Survival
rate
95.9
94.1
91.9
89.2
86.0
82.5
78.7
71.7
61.3
50.9
41.4
33.1
26.0
20.3
15.7
12.0
9.2
7.0
5.3
4.0
3.0
2.3
d
d
d
d
d

152,137
Lifetime
miles

Sources:
Schmoyer, Richard L., unpublished study on scrappage rates, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN,
2001.
U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Vehicle Survivability and
Travel Mileage Schedules, January 2006.
a

It was assumed that scrappage for vehicles less than 4 years old is 0.
The percentage of automobiles which will be in use at the end of the year.
c
The percentage of automobiles which will be retired from use during the year.
d
Data are not available.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

317

Using current registration data and a scrappage model by Greenspan and Cohen [1996 paper:
www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/1996/199640/199640pap.pdf], ORNL calculated light truck scrappage rates for
1970, 1980, and 1990. These data are fitted model values which assume constant economic conditions. Using 19772002 data, the Federal Highway Administration completed a separate survivability study in 2006.
Table 3.13
Light Trucka Scrappage and Survival Rates
1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years
Vehicle
ageb
(years)
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Median
lifetime

1970 model year


Survival
Scrappage
ratec
rated
99.7
0.3
97.5
2.2
94.9
2.7
91.8
3.2
88.3
3.8
84.4
4.4
80.2
5.0
75.7
5.6
70.9
6.3
66.0
6.9
61.0
7.6
55.9
8.3
50.8
9.0
45.9
9.8
41.1
10.5
36.4
11.3
32.1
12.0
28.0
12.8
24.2
13.6
20.7
14.4
17.5
15.2
14.7
16.1
12.2
16.9
10.1
17.8
8.2
18.6
6.6
19.5
5.2
20.4
16.2 years

1980 model year


Survival
Scrappage
ratec
rated
99.1
0.9
96.6
2.5
93.7
3.1
90.2
3.7
86.3
4.3
82.0
5.0
77.3
5.7
72.4
6.4
67.3
7.1
62.1
7.8
56.8
8.5
51.5
9.3
46.3
10.1
41.3
10.8
36.5
11.6
32.0
12.4
27.7
13.3
23.8
14.1
20.3
14.9
17.1
15.8
14.2
16.7
11.7
17.5
9.6
18.4
7.7
19.3
6.2
20.2
4.9
21.1
3.8
22.1
15.3 years

1990 model year


Survival
Scrappage
ratec
rated
99.3
0.7
96.9
2.4
94.1
3.0
90.7
3.6
86.9
4.2
82.7
4.8
78.2
5.5
73.4
6.1
68.4
6.8
63.3
7.5
58.0
8.2
52.8
9.0
47.7
9.7
42.7
10.5
37.9
11.3
33.3
12.1
29.0
12.9
25.0
13.7
21.4
14.5
18.1
15.4
15.2
16.2
12.6
17.1
10.3
18.0
8.4
18.8
6.7
19.7
5.3
20.6
4.2
21.5
15.5 years

2002
Survival
ratec
91.9
89.1
85.9
82.3
78.3
74.0
69.6
65.0
60.4
55.2
50.1
45.2
40.6
36.3
32.4
28.7
25.4
22.4
19.8
17.4
15.2
13.3
11.7
10.2
8.9
7.7
6.7
179,954
Lifetime
miles

Sources:
Schmoyer, Richard L., unpublished study on scrappage rates, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN,
2001.
U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Vehicle Survivability and
Travel Mileage Schedules, January 2006.
a

Light trucks are trucks less than 10,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight.
It was assumed that scrappage for vehicles less than 4 years old is 0.
c
The percentage of light trucks which will be in use during the year.
d
The percentage of light trucks which will be retired from use at the end of the year.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

318

Using current registration data and a scrappage model by Greenspan and Cohen [1996 paper:
www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/1996/199640/199640pap.pdf], ORNL calculated heavy truck (trucks over 26,000
lbs. gross vehicle weight) scrappage rates. The expected median lifetime for a 1990 model year heavy truck is 29
years. These data are fitted model values which assume constant economic conditions.
Table 3.14
Heavy Trucka Scrappage and Survival Rates
1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years
Vehicle
ageb
(years)
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Median
lifetime

1970 model year


Scrappage
Survival
rated
ratec
98.8
1.2
97.2
1.6
95.3
1.9
93.2
2.3
90.7
2.6
88.1
3.0
85.2
3.3
82.1
3.6
78.8
4.0
75.4
4.3
71.9
4.7
68.3
5.0
64.6
5.3
61.0
5.7
57.3
6.0
53.7
6.3
50.1
6.7
46.6
7.0
43.2
7.3
39.9
7.6
36.7
8.0
33.7
8.3
30.8
8.6
28.0
8.9
25.4
9.3
23.0
9.6
20.7
9.9

1980 model year


Survival
Scrappage
ratec
rated
98.5
1.5
96.7
1.9
94.5
2.3
92.0
2.7
89.1
3.1
86.0
3.5
82.7
3.9
79.1
4.3
75.4
4.7
71.6
5.1
67.7
5.5
63.7
5.9
59.7
6.3
55.7
6.7
51.8
7.1
47.9
7.4
44.2
7.8
40.6
8.2
37.1
8.6
33.7
9.0
30.6
9.4
27.6
9.7
24.8
10.1
22.2
10.5
19.8
10.9
17.6
11.2
15.5
11.6

1990 model year


Survival
Scrappage
ratec
rated
99.4
0.6
98.6
0.8
97.6
1.0
96.5
1.2
95.2
1.3
93.8
1.5
92.2
1.7
90.5
1.9
88.6
2.0
86.7
2.2
84.6
2.4
82.4
2.6
80.2
2.7
77.9
2.9
75.5
3.1
73.0
3.3
70.5
3.4
68.0
3.6
65.4
3.8
62.8
3.9
60.3
4.1
57.7
4.3
55.1
4.5
52.6
4.6
50.0
4.8
47.6
5.0
45.1
5.1

20.0 years

18.5 years

28.0 years

Source:
Schmoyer, Richard L., unpublished study on scrappage rates, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN,
2001.
a

Heavy trucks are trucks over 26,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight.
It was assumed that scrappage for vehicles less than 4 years old is 0.
c
The percentage of heavy trucks which will be in use at the end of the year.
d
The percentage of heavy trucks which will be retired from use during the year.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

41

Chapter 4
Light Vehicles and Characteristics
Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source
Table 4.1

Table 4.2

Table 4.6

Table 4.7

Table 4.10

Tables 4.21
and 4.22

Table 4.28

Cars, 2011
Registrations (thousands)
Vehicle miles (billion miles)
Fuel economy (miles per gallon)
Two-axle, four-tire trucks, 2011
Registrations (thousands)
Vehicle miles (billion miles)
Fuel economy (miles per gallon)
Light truck share of total light vehicle sales
1970 calendar year
2012 calendar year
Car sales, 2012 model year (thousands)
Small
Midsize
Large
Light truck sales, 2012 model year (thousands)
Large truck SUV
Midsize truck SUV
Large pickup
Midsize van
Midsize pickup
Large van
Small truck SUV
Corporate average fuel economy
Car standard, MY 2012
Car fuel economy, MY 2012
Light truck standard, MY 2012 (unreformed)
Light truck fuel economy, MY 2012
Average fuel economy loss from 50 to 70 mph

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

125,657
1,561.5
23.6
105,571
1,085.1
17.5
14.8%
48.3%
8,524
3,352
2,901
832
4,819
1,417
1,380
1,305
656
31
29
0
(mpg)
32.7
35.2
25.1
25.0
24.5%

42

Car registrations, along with vehicle travel and fuel use, all declined from 2008 to 2011. The data in this table from
1985on DO NOT include minivans, pickups, or sport utility vehicles. Much of the data for 2009-on were estimated;
the FHWA no longer publishes travel and fuel data for cars.

Table 4.1
Summary Statistics for Cars, 19702011
Year
1970
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985c
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Registrationsa
(thousands)
89,244
106,706
121,601
123,098
123,702
126,444
128,158
127,885
130,004
131,482
133,836
134,559
133,700
128,300
126,581
127,327
127,883
128,387
129,728
129,749
131,839
132,432
133,621
137,633
135,921
135,670
136,431
136,568
135,400
135,933
137,080
134,880
130,892
125,657

Vehicle travel
(billion miles)
916.7
1,034.0
1,111.6
1,133.3
1,161.7
1,195.1
1,227.0
1,246.8
1,270.2
1,316.0
1,370.3
1,401.2
1,408.3
1,358.2
1,371.6
1,374.7
1,406.1
1,438.3
1,469.9
1,502.6
1,549.6
1,569.1
1,600.3
1,628.3
1,658.5
1,672.1
1,699.9
1,708.4
1,690.5
1,672.5
1,615.9
1,566.8
1,562.1
1,561.5

19702011
20012011

0.8%
-0.9%

1.3%
0.2%

Miles
Fuel use
(per vehicle)
(million gallons)
10,272
67,820
9,690
74,140
9,141
69,981
9,207
69,112
9,391
69,116
9,451
70,322
9,574
70,663
9,749
71,518
9,770
73,174
10,009
73,308
10,238
73,345
10,413
73,913
10,533
69,568
10,586
64,318
10,836
65,436
10,797
67,047
10,995
67,874
11,203
68,072
11,330
69,221
11,580
69,892
11,754
71,695
11,848
73,283
11,976
73,065
11,831
73,559
12,202
75,471
12,325
74,590
12,460
75,402
12,510
77,418
12,485
75,009
12,304
74,377
11,788
71,497
11,616
68,418
11,934
64,990
12,427
66,194
Average annual percentage change
0.5%
-0.1%
0.5%
-1.0%

Fuel economyb
(miles per gallon)
13.5
13.9
15.9
16.4
16.8
17.0
17.4
17.4
17.4
18.0
18.7
19.0
20.2
21.1
21.0
20.5
20.7
21.1
21.2
21.5
21.6
21.4
21.9
22.1
22.0
22.4
22.5
22.1
22.5
22.5
22.6
22.9
24.0
23.6

1.4%
0.7%

Source:
1970-2008: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2009,
Washington, DC, 2011, Table VM-1 and annual. 2009-on: See Appendix A for Car/Light Truck Shares.
(Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov)
a

This number differs from R.L. Polks estimates of number of cars in use. See Table 3.3.
Fuel economy for car population.
c
Beginning in this year the data were revised to exclude minivans, pickups and sport utility vehicles which
may have been previously included.
d
Due to FHWA methodology changes, data from 2009-on are not comparable with previous data.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

43

Much of the data for 2009-on were estimated; the FHWA no longer publishes travel and fuel use data for two-axle,
four tire trucks.

Table 4.2
Summary Statistics for Two-Axle, Four-Tire Trucks, 19702011
Year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985a
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Registrations
(thousands)
14,211
20,418
22,301
23,624
25,476
27,022
27,876
28,928
29,792
31,214
32,106
37,214
39,382
41,107
43,805
45,945
48,275
53,033
57,091
59,994
62,904
65,738
69,134
70,224
71,330
75,356
79,085
84,188
85,011
87,187
91,845
95,337
99,125
101,470
101,235
100,154
102,702
105,571

Vehicle travel
(billion miles)
123.3
200.7
225.8
250.6
279.4
291.9
290.9
296.3
306.1
327.6
358.0
391.0
423.9
456.9
502.2
536.5
574.6
649.4
706.9
745.8
764.6
790.0
816.5
850.7
868.3
901.0
923.1
943.2
966.0
984.1
1,027.2
1,041.1
1,082.5
1,112.3
1,108.6
1,066.5
1,085.5
1,085.1

19702011
20012011

5.0%
2.3%

5.4%
1.4%

Miles
Fuel use
(per vehicle)
(million gallons)
8,675
12,313
9,830
19,081
10,127
20,828
10,607
22,383
10,968
24,162
10,802
24,445
10,437
23,796
10,244
23,697
10,276
22,702
10,497
23,945
11,151
25,604
10,506
27,363
10,764
29,074
11,114
30,598
11,465
32,653
11,676
33,271
11,902
35,611
12,245
38,217
12,381
40,929
12,430
42,851
12,156
44,112
12,018
45,605
11,811
47,354
12,115
49,389
12,173
50,462
11,957
52,859
11,672
52,939
11,204
53,522
11,364
55,220
11,287
60,758
11,184
63,417
10,920
58,869
10,920
60,685
10,962
61,836
10,951
61,199
10,649
62,733
10,569
60,942
10,278
61,926
Average annual percentage change
0.4%
4.0%
-0.9%
1.5%

Fuel economy
(miles per gallon)
10.0
10.5
10.8
11.2
11.6
11.9
12.2
12.5
13.5
13.7
14.0
14.3
14.6
14.9
15.4
16.1
16.1
17.0
17.3
17.4
17.3
17.3
17.2
17.2
17.2
17.0
17.4
17.6
17.5
16.2
16.2
17.7
17.8
18.0
18.1
17.0
17.8
17.5

1.4%
-0.1%

Source:
1970-2008: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2009,
Washington, DC, 2011, Table MV-9. Previous years Table VM-1. 2009-on: See Appendix A for Car/Light
Truck Shares. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov)
a

Beginning in this year the data were revised to include all vans (including mini-vans), pickups and sport
utility vehicles.
b
Due to FHWA methodology changes, data from 2009-on are not comparable with previous data.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

44

Because data on Class 2b trucks are scarce, the U.S. DOE funded a study to investigate available sources of data.
In the final report, four methodologies are described to estimate the sales of Class 2b trucks. Until another study is
funded, the 1999 data are the latest available.

Table 4.3
Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks

Class 1
Class 2a
Class 2b

CY 1999
truck sales
(millions)
5.7
1.8
0.5

MY 2000
truck
population
(millions)
49.7
19.2
5.8

Percent
diesel trucks
in
population
0.3%
2.5%
24.0%

Average
age
(years)
7.3
7.4
8.6

Estimated
annual
milesa
(billions)
672.7
251.9
76.7

Estimated
fuel use
(billiona
gallons)
37.4
18.0
5.5

Estimated fuel
economy
(miles per
gallon)
18.0
14.0
13.9

Source:
Davis, S.C. and L.F. Truett, Investigation of Class 2b Trucks (Vehicles of 8,500 to 10,000 lbs GVWR), ORNL/TM2002/49, March 2002, Table 16.
Note: CY - calendar year. MY - model year.

Table 4.4
Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 19891999

Calendar year
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

Class 1
(6,000 lbs and under)
3,313
3,451
3,246
3,608
4,119
4,527
4,422
4,829
5,085
5,263
5,707

19891999

72.3%

Sales estimates (thousands)


Class 2a
Class 2b
(6,001-8,500 lbs)
(8,501-10,000 lbs)
918
379
829
268
670
206
827
194
975
257
1,241
265
1,304
327
1,356
334
1,315
397
1,694
342
1,845
521
Percent change
101.0%
37.5%

Total
4,610
4,548
4,122
4,629
5,351
6,033
6,053
6,519
6,797
7,299
8,073
75.1%

Source:
Davis, S.C. and L.F. Truett, Investigation of Class 2b Trucks (Vehicles of 8,500 to 10,000 lbs GVWR), ORNL/TM2002/49, March 2002, Table 1.
Note: These data were calculated using Methodology 4 from the report.
a

Estimates derived using 2000 population data and 1997 usage data. See source for details.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

45

Car sales in 2009 and 2010 were below 6 million but increased to more than 7 million by 2012. In 1980, the Big 3
(Chrysler, Ford and General Motors) held 73.8% of the market; by 2012, that had dropped to 31.63%.

Table 4.5
New Retail Car Sales in the United States, 19702012
Calendar
year
1970
1975
1980
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Domestica

19702012
20022012

-0.8%
-1.3%

7,119
7,053
6,580
8,205
8,215
7,085
7,543
7,098
6,919
6,162
6,286
6,742
7,255
7,114
7,206
6,862
6,705
6,919
6,762
6,254
5,817
5,473
5,333
5,473
5,417
5,197
4,491
3,558
3,791
4,143
5,117

Importb
Total
Percentage
(thousands)
imports
1,280
8,399
15.2%
1,571
8,624
18.2%
2,369
8,949
26.5%
2,775
10,979
25.3%
3,189
11,404
28.0%
3,107
10,192
30.5%
3,004
10,547
28.5%
2,680
9,779
27.4%
2,384
9,303
25.6%
2,023
8,185
24.7%
1,927
8,213
23.5%
1,776
8,518
20.9%
1,735
8,991
19.3%
1,506
8,620
17.5%
1,272
8,479
15.0%
1,355
8,217
16.5%
1,380
8,085
17.1%
1,719
8,638
19.9%
2,016
8,778
23.0%
2,098
8,352
25.1%
2,226
8,042
27.7%
2,083
7,556
27.6%
2,149
7,483
28.7%
2,187
7,660
28.5%
2,345
7,762
30.2%
2,365
7,562
31.3%
2,278
6,769
33.7%
1,843
5,401
34.1%
1,844
5,635
32.7%
1,947
6,089
32.0%
2,125
7,242
29.3%
Average annual percentage change
1.2%
-0.4%
-0.5%
-1.0%

Percentage
Big 3
salesc
d
d

73.8%
72.9%
70.9%
67.6%
69.3%
67.9%
65.7%
64.2%
65.8%
67.3%
65.9%
65.3%
64.1%
62.2%
59.7%
58.3%
55.0%
51.4%
48.4%
47.1%
44.9%
43.1%
40.5%
36.9%
34.2%
31.3%
31.7%
33.3%
31.6%

Percentage
diesel
0.07%
0.31%
4.32%
0.83%
0.37%
0.17%
0.02%
0.13%
0.08%
0.10%
0.06%
0.04%
0.04%
0.03%
0.09%
0.09%
0.14%
0.16%
0.26%
0.18%
0.39%
0.52%
0.40%
0.63%
0.82%
0.11%
0.11%
2.94%
2.69%
1.47%
0.33%

Source:
Domestic and import data - 197097: American Automobile Manufacturers Association, Motor Vehicle Facts and
Figures 1998, Detroit, MI, 1998, p. 15, and annual. 1997 data from Economic Indicators, 4th Quarter 1997.
19982010: Wards Communication, Wards Automotive Yearbook, Detroit, MI, 2009, p. 249. 2011-2012:
Wards Communications, www.wardsauto.com.
Diesel data - Ward's Communications, Ward's Automotive Yearbook, Detroit, MI, 2009, p. 31, and Wards
Communications, www.wardsauto.com.
a

North American built.


Does not include import tourist deliveries.
c
Big 3 includes Chrysler, Ford and General Motors.
d
Data are not available.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

46

Light trucks, which include pick-ups, minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and other trucks less than 10,000 pounds gross
vehicle weight (GVW), accounted for more than half of light vehicle sales from 2001 to 2007 and again in 2011.

Table 4.6
New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 19702012
Percentages
Calendar
year
1970
1975
1980
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Light truck
salesa
(thousands)
1,457
2,053
1,960
3,688
4,594
4,610
4,800
4,610
4,548
4,122
4,629
5,351
6,033
6,053
6,519
6,797
7,299
8,073
8,386
8,598
8,633
8,938
9,254
9,114
8,574
8,305
6,246
4,834
5,758
6,449
6,975

19702012
20022012

3.8%
-2.1%

Importb
4.5%
10.0%
24.4%
22.6%
21.3%
20.0%
14.8%
13.9%
13.5%
13.1%
8.8%
7.1%
6.8%
6.6%
6.7%
8.5%
9.0%
9.6%
10.2%
11.4%
12.4%
13.7%
13.5%
13.3%
15.7%
16.7%
17.6%
18.3%
15.6%
15.2%
15.2%

Big 3
salesc

Dieseld
f
f

4.0%
78.2%
4.0%
76.9%
3.7%
78.3%
2.3%
81.6%
2.3%
81.9%
2.9%
80.9%
2.3%
79.4%
3.2%
83.1%
2.5%
83.4%
2.3%
82.9%
2.5%
83.4%
3.8%
83.8%
3.1%
81.9%
2.7%
80.5%
2.6%
78.0%
2.9%
76.1%
3.4%
75.3%
2.9%
74.7%
2.7%
72.4%
2.9%
70.1%
2.8%
68.2%
2.7%
63.9%
2.8%
61.9%
3.2%
61.2%
3.4%
57.8%
4.2%
57.6%
4.9%
59.4%
5.4%
57.7%
5.5%
Average annual percentage change

Light trucks of
light-duty
vehicle salese
14.8%
20.9%
17.5%
23.9%
28.6%
30.9%
31.1%
31.7%
32.8%
33.4%
36.0%
38.5%
40.1%
41.1%
43.2%
44.9%
47.0%
47.8%
48.3%
50.2%
51.3%
53.7%
54.9%
53.8%
51.9%
51.6%
47.3%
46.5%
49.8%
50.6%
48.3%

Light trucks
of total
truck sales
80.5%
82.8%
78.6%
77.7%
93.4%
92.2%
91.5%
91.0%
93.8%
94.4%
94.4%
94.2%
94.0%
93.2%
93.4%
93.4%
92.6%
92.0%
92.8%
94.3%
94.9%
95.0%
94.3%
93.1%
92.3%
93.3%
92.9%
93.0%
93.8%
92.8%
92.5%

Source:
Wards Communications, Wards Automotive Yearbook, Detroit, MI, 2012, and updates at www.wardsauto.com.
(Additional resources: www.wardsauto.com)
a

Includes all trucks of 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight and less sold in the United States.
Excluding transplants.
c
Big 3 includes Chrysler, Ford and General Motors.
d
Based on model year factory installations.
e
Light-duty vehicles include cars and light trucks.
f
Indicates less than 1 percent.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

47

The sales-weighted fuel economy of new cars (including wagons and non-truck SUVs) increased dramatically from
1975 (15.8 mpg) to 1985 (26.9 mpg), but rose only 1.9 mpg from 1985 to 2005. Since 2005, fuel economy rose 5.5
mpgfrom 29.1 mpg in 2005 to 34.6 mpg in 2012.

Table 4.7
Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies
of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 19752012a
(thousands)
CARS
Small
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
Midsize
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
Large
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
WAGONS
Small
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
Midsize
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
Large
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
NON-TRUCK SUVS
Small
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
Midsize
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
Large
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
TOTAL
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg

1975

1980

1985

1990

4,089
49.6%
18.3

4,825
51.1%
26.1

5,519
50.7%
29.8

4,999
56.3%
29.8

1,631
19.8%
13.6

2,987
31.6%
21.6

2,777
25.5%
24.9

1,555
18.9%
13.1

963
10.2%
19.1

477
5.8%
22.4

Sales period
1995

2000

2005

2010

2012

5,190
54.0%
30.7

4,264
43.8%
30.3

3,185
36.0%
31.1

2,506
36.0%
34.1

3,352
39.3%
36.9

2,342
26.4%
26.2

2,515
26.2%
26.1

2,894
29.7%
27.0

2,886
32.6%
29.8

2,261
32.4%
34.1

2,901
34.0%
34.8

1,512
13.9%
22.3

1,092
12.3%
23.7

1,305
13.6%
24.4

1,665
17.1%
25.6

1,234
14.0%
26.4

832
11.9%
28.3

832
9.8%
30.0

310
3.3%
28.6

496
4.6%
32.5

160
1.8%
29.6

198
2.1%
33.3

68
0.7%
29.2

365
4.1%
32.4

447
6.1%
34.1

486
5.7%
35.7

289
3.5%
13.2

257
2.7%
21.1

342
3.1%
25.2

184
2.1%
25.3

176
1.8%
26.6

234
2.4%
27.3

238
2.7%
26.0

8
0.1%
28.6

38
0.4%
56.6

197
2.4%
11.9

102
1.1%
19.1

146
1.3%
20.9

31
0.4%
22.7

10
0.1%
22.8

0.0
0.0%

118.3
1.3%
22.2

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

6
0.1%
12.0

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

27
0.3%
23.4

25
0.3%
29.2

131
1.3%
23.3

41
0.5%
30.9

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

4
0.0%
15.2

0
0.0%

88
0.8%
23.5

38
0.4%
21.8

195
2.0%
20.8

482
4.9%
21.7

478
5.4%
25.7

539
7.7%
29.8

533
6.3%
30.9

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

4
0.0%
21.3

294
3.3%
24.4

376
5.4%
28.1

381
4.5%
30.2

8,247
100.0%
15.8

9,734
100.0%
17.5

10,879
100.0%
26.9

8,875
100.0%
27.7

9,616
100.0%
28.1

9,742
100.0%
27.7

8,839
100.0%
29.1

6,969
100%
32.6

8,524
100%
34.6

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy
Trends: 1975 Through 2012, March 2013. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)
a
b

The fuel economy data on this table are EPA laboratory test values.
No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

48

The term wagon conjures up images of the station wagons from the 1960's. However, most of the cars that are
now classified as wagons have little in common with those station wagons. The wagons below make up the category
wagon on Tables 4.7 through 4.15.

Table 4.8
Definition of Wagons in Model Year 2012
Small wagon
BMW 328i Sport Wagon
BMW 328i xDrive Sport Wagon
Chrysler-Fiat Caliber
GM CTS Wagon
GM CTS Wagon AWD
Honda FIT
Honda TSX Wagon
Hyundai Elantra Touring
Kia SOUL
Kia SOUL ECO
Mitsubishi Lancer Sportback
Nissan CUBE
Nissan JUKE
SCNA 9-3 SPORTCOMBI
SCNA 9-3X SPORTCOMBI AWD
Subaru Impreza Wagon/Outback Sport \AWD
Suzuki SX4
Suzuki SX4 AWD
Toyota Corolla Matrix
Toyota xB
VW A3
VW A3 Quattro
VW A4 Avant Quattro
Midsize wagon
Daimler E 350 4Matic (Wagon)
Kia RONDO
Toyota PRIUS v
Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2012, March 2013. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

49

A new vehicle classification was created to match the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) methodology.
Under CAFE, small, two-wheel drive SUVs will be considered cars. The vehicles below make up the category
non-truck SUV on Tables 4.7 through 4.15.

Table 4.9
Definition of Non-Truck Sport Utility Vehicles in Model Year 2012
Midsize non-truck SUV
Daimler GLK 350
Ford Escape FWD
Ford Escape FWD FFV
Ford Escape Hybrid FWD
GM Captiva FWD
Honda CR-V 2WD
Honda RDX 2WD
Hyundai Santa Fe 2WD
Hyundai Tucson 2WD
Kia Sorento 2WD
Kia Sportage 2WD
Mazda CX-7 2WD
Mitsubishi Outlander 2WD
Mitsubishi Outlander Sport 2WD
Nissan Rogue FWD
Nissan Xterra 2WD
Toyota FJ Cruiser 2WD
Toyota RAV4 2WD
Toyota RX 350
Toyota RX 450h
Toyota Venza
Volvo XC60 FWD
Large non-truck SUV
Ford MKX FWD
GM 9-4X AWD
GM 9-4X FWD
GM Equinox AWD
GM Equinox FWD
GM SRX 2WD
GM SRX AWD
GM Terrain AWD
GM Terrain FWD
Hyundai Veracruz 2WD
Nissan FX35 RWD
Nissan Murano FWD
Volvo XC70 FWD
Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2012, March 2013. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

410

Sales of light trucks in 2012 are more than twice that of 1975. Similar to the car trend, the sales-weighted fuel
economy of light trucks increased substantially during the late 70's and 80's, but has increased slowly until the
mid-2000s. From 2005 to 2012, fuel economy rose from 21.0 mpg to 24.3 mpg. Some two-wheel drive SUVs are
now classified as cars.

Table 4.10
Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economiesa of New Domestic
and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 19752012
(thousands)

PICKUPS
Small
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
Midsize
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
Large
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
VANS
Small
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
Midsize
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
Large
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
TRUCK SUVS
Small
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
Midsize
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
Large
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg
TOTAL
Total sales, units
Market share, %
Fuel economy, mpg

1975

1980

1985

Sales period
1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2012

160
8.1%
22.5

452
24.3%
24.3

497
13.9%
26.7

289
7.7%
24.8

298
5.4%
24.4

101
1.5%
26.3

8
0.1%
25.8

56
2.8%
21.1

98
5.2%
25.9

617
17.2%
25.7

600
16.0%
24.7

700
12.7%
24.7

766
11.2%
22.8

216
3.1%
23.6

153
3.7%
24.9

31
0.6%
27.0

1,126
57.0%
13.1

887
47.6%
17.2

965
26.9%
17.7

945
25.3%
18.0

1,273
23.0%
18.0

1,745
25.6%
19.3

2,076
29.4%
19.4

1,123
27.1%
20.5

1,305
27.1%
21.4

2
0.1%
20.6

16
0.8%
19.0

93
2.6%
25.5

31
0.8%
23.9

6
0.1%
26.5

b
b

20
0.5%
30.7

302
15.3%
13.3

130
7.0%
16.9

600
16.8%
19.8

1,124
30.1%
21.8

1,552
28.1%
22.2

1,522
22.3%
23.5

1,426
20.2%
24.2

524
12.7%
25.0

656
13.6%
26.7

153
7.8%
12.6

96
5.2%
16.0

162
4.5%
16.1

107
2.9%
16.5

104
1.9%
17.1

169
2.5%
18.0

55
0.8%
19.4

15
0.4%
20.1

29
0.6%
19.1

47
2.4%
16.8

61
3.3%
18.8

115
3.2%
22.1

163
4.3%
23.4

164
3.0%
23.6

269
3.9%
22.2

174
2.5%
23.2

98
2.4%
21.8

119
6.0%
12.0

100
5.4%
14.2

475
13.3%
19.2

408
10.9%
18.9

1,202
21.7%
19.5

1,381
20.2%
20.7

1,602
22.7%
22.3

1,309
31.6%
26.8

1,380
28.6%
27.7

11
0.5%
12.2

24
1.3%
14.3

57
1.6%
16.9

72
1.9%
16.7

230
4.2%
16.6

876
12.8%
17.6

1,496
21.2%
19.2

898
21.7%
22.4

1,417
29.4%
23.4

1,977
100.0%
13.7

1,863
100.0%
18.6

3,581
100.0%
20.5

3,740
100.0%
20.7

5,529
100.0%
20.5

6,829
100.0%
20.7

7,053
100.0%
21.0

4,141
100.0%
23.4

4,819
100.0%
24.3

b
b

b
b

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2012, March 2013. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)
Note: Includes light trucks of 8,500 lbs. or less.
a
b

The fuel economy data on this table are EPA laboratory test values.
No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

411

Back in 1975 only 19.3% of new light vehicle sales were light trucks. Because of the boom in sales of minivans,
sport utility vehicles, and pick-up trucks, that number rose to over 40% in 2005. Cars made a comeback to account
for 62.7% in 2010 and 63.9% in 2012.

Table 4.11
Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 19752012

Small car
Midsize car
Large car
Small wagon
Midsize wagon
Large wagon
Small non-truck
SUV
Midsize non-truck
SUV
Large non-truck
SUV
Small pickup
Midsize pickup
Large pickup
Small van
Midsize van
Large van
Small truck SUV
Midsize truck SUV
Large truck SUV

Total light
vehicles sold
(thousands)
Cars
Light trucks

Model year
1995

1975

1980

1985

1990

2000

2005

2010

2012

40.0%
16.0%
15.2%
4.7%
2.8%
1.9%

42.7%
26.4%
8.5%
2.7%
2.3%
0.9%

38.2%
19.2%
10.5%
3.4%
2.4%
1.0%

39.6%
18.6%
8.7%
1.3%
1.5%
0.2%

34.3%
16.6%
8.6%
1.3%
1.2%
0.1%

25.7%
17.5%
10.0%
0.4%
1.4%

20.0%
18.2%
7.8%
2.3%
1.5%
0.7%

22.6%
20.4%
7.5%
4.0%
0.1%

25.1%
21.7%
6.2%
3.6%
0.3%

0.2%

0.2%

0.8%

0.3%

0.3%

1.3%

2.9%

3.0%

4.8%

4.0%

0.0%
0.6%
4.6%
10.5%

1.9%
0.1%
1.4%
13.1%

3.4%

2.9%

0.0%

0.6%
a

1.6%
0.5%
11.0%
0.0%
3.0%
1.5%
0.5%
1.2%
0.1%

4.0%
0.9%
7.8%
0.1%
1.1%
0.8%
0.5%
0.9%
0.2%

3.4%
4.3%
6.7%
0.6%
4.1%
1.1%
0.8%
3.3%
0.4%

2.3%
4.8%
7.5%
0.2%
8.9%
0.9%
1.3%
3.2%
0.6%

2.0%
4.6%
8.4%
0.0%
10.2%
0.7%
1.1%
7.9%
1.5%

10,224
80.7%

11,306
83.5%

14,460
75.2%

12,615
70.4%

19.3%

16.5%

24.8%

29.6%

9.2%
1.0%
1.6%
8.3%
5.3%

9.0%
0.3%
1.1%
10.1%
9.4%

1.4%
10.1%
0.2%
4.7%
0.1%
0.9%
11.8%
8.1%

15,145
63.5%

16,571
58.8%

15,892
55.6%

11,110
62.7%

13,342
63.9%

36.5%

41.2%

44.4%

37.3%

36.1%

0.2%
9.8%
a

4.9%
0.2%
a

10.3%
10.6%

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2012, March 2013. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)
Note: Includes light trucks of 8,500 lbs. or less.
a

No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

412

The effects of the Japanese earthquake/tsunami in 2011 are apparent in the large decline in small car sales for that
year. Light trucks were gaining market share from the early 1980s until 2004, mainly due to increases in the market
share of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and pickup trucks. A new category of SUVs has been added to the vehicle
classificationnon-truck SUVs. The non-truck SUVs are two-wheel drive SUVs that will be counted as cars in the
Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards for model years 2011-2016. A listing of the makes/models of non-truck
SUVs is in Table 4.9.

Figure 4.1. Light Vehicle Market Shares, Model Years 19752012

Source:
See Table 4.11

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

413

The midsize and large cars and wagons sales-weighted engine sizes have decreased at an average of almost 3% per
year since 1975.

Table 4.12
Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class,
Model Years 19752012
(litersa)
Model year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
19752012
20022012

Small
3.67
3.70
3.67
2.91
2.72
2.25
2.12
2.15
2.24
2.30
2.26
2.25
2.19
2.18
2.15
2.15
2.14
2.19
2.18
2.25
2.25
2.23
2.18
2.24
2.31
2.28
2.29
2.32
2.35
2.40
2.36
2.47
2.39
2.42
2.30
2.38
2.51
2.18

Cars
Midsize
5.79
5.62
5.45
4.79
4.46
3.74
3.60
3.46
3.48
3.44
3.35
3.18
3.09
3.00
2.97
3.07
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.11
3.10
2.96
3.01
2.90
2.87
2.86
2.87
2.91
2.85
2.85
2.76
2.77
2.71
2.67
2.56
2.58
2.53
2.55

Large
6.71
6.72
6.01
5.85
5.56
5.14
4.99
4.79
4.80
4.82
4.58
4.26
4.25
4.30
4.29
4.22
4.33
4.30
4.20
4.07
4.06
4.10
3.97
3.94
3.85
3.62
3.63
3.57
3.67
3.69
3.68
3.76
3.75
3.50
3.28
3.31
3.21
3.27

-1.4%
0.6%

-2.2%
-1.3%

-1.9%
-0.9%

Wagons
Small
Midsize
Large
2.09
5.92
6.73
2.24
5.17
6.81
2.20
4.86
5.98
2.19
4.23
5.80
2.02
4.08
5.46
1.86
3.74
5.30
1.78
3.17
5.12
1.78
3.36
5.01
1.72
3.28
5.03
1.76
2.82
5.01
1.75
2.79
4.99
1.85
2.65
4.99
1.90
2.83
4.99
1.85
2.80
4.98
1.83
2.88
4.98
1.97
2.97
4.98
1.97
2.96
4.99
2.01
3.09
5.53
1.93
3.08
5.57
1.98
2.96
5.74
1.94
2.74
5.74
2.00
2.64
5.74
b
2.04
2.62
b
2.03
2.54
b
2.05
2.58
b
2.08
2.51
b
2.38
2.54
b
2.38
2.50
b
2.08
2.48
2.07
2.59
3.52
2.00
2.99
3.56
2.08
2.99
3.58
2.08
2.63
3.88
2.12
2.71
3.71
2.05
2.51
3.43
b
2.05
2.52
b
1.99
3.40
b
1.92
1.86
Average annual percentage change
-0.2%
-3.1%
-2.0c
d
-2.1%
-2.9%

Small
4.21
4.23
4.23
4.23
2.66
b
b

2.47
2.47
2.46
b

2.93
2.93
2.93
2.87
2.72
2.23
2.07
2.09
1.92
1.56
1.77
2.14
2.36
2.13
2.52
2.06
2.11
2.03
2.43
2.36
b

3.80
b
b
b
b
b

-0.3%c
-0.3%c

Non-truck SUVs
Midsize
Large
b
4.41
b
4.47
b
4.47
b
4.61
b
4.93
b
4.59
b
5.21
b
3.39
b
2.79
b
2.97
b
2.80
b
2.78
b
2.93
b
3.44
b
4.10
b
3.91
b
3.86
b
3.78
b
4.11
b
3.77
b
3.76
b
3.82
b
3.79
b
3.85
3.65
4.00
3.72
4.00
3.40
3.81
3.19
3.34
3.05
3.44
3.11
3.55
2.89
3.39
2.80
3.42
2.82
3.47
2.72
3.47
2.71
3.35
2.74
2.91
2.62
2.86
2.66
2.71
-1.4%
-1.8%

-3.0%
-2.1%

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2012, March 2013. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)
a

1 liter = 61.02 cubic inches.


No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.
c
Data are thru latest available year.
d
Data are not available.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

414

The engine size of large truck sport utility vehicles (SUVs) declined an average of 1.2% per year from 2002 to 2012.

Table 4.13
Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class,
Model Years 19752012
(litersa)
Model year
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
1975-2012
2002-2012

Small

1.94
2.00
2.13
2.25
2.32
2.32
2.35
2.38
2.40
2.43
2.51
2.51
2.49
2.50
2.41
2.48
2.58
2.60
2.39
2.62
2.83
2.43
2.42
2.89
2.91
3.02
2.46
2.46
b
b
b
b
b
b
c
c

Pickups
Midsize

Large

Small

1.79
2.18
2.15
2.49
2.40
2.43
2.52
2.41
2.60
2.71
2.90
2.87
3.11
3.20
3.25
3.23
3.11
3.06
3.20
3.14
3.27
3.15
3.40
3.70
3.22
3.59
3.14
3.23
3.32
3.29
3.31
3.27
2.81
2.85

5.62
5.00
4.80
4.91
4.94
4.93
4.99
4.88
5.06
5.22
5.22
5.25
5.17
5.11
4.97
5.17
5.19
5.16
4.97
5.04
5.13
4.74
4.78
4.83
4.82
4.94
4.82
4.75
4.89
4.95
5.02
5.01
4.65
4.71

1.94
1.97
1.97
1.82
1.93
1.97
1.98
2.15
2.19
2.20
2.14
2.29
2.04
2.11
1.99
2.21
2.20
2.33

1.3%
-2.6%

Average annual percentage change


c
-0.5%
-1.0%
-0.3%
c
-0.3%
0.0%
0.2%

b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b

2.29
2.29
2.29
b
b

Vans
Midsize

Large

Small

5.08
4.72
4.57
4.66
4.81
4.06
3.82
3.68
3.70
3.65
3.57
3.59
3.50
3.57
3.45
3.59
3.70
3.47
3.45
3.43
3.49
3.40
3.37
3.44
3.48
3.50
3.49
3.47
3.55
3.60
3.56
3.52
3.42
3.44

5.47
5.17
5.09
5.14
5.14
5.14
5.12
5.01
5.06
5.07
5.06
5.14
5.12
5.16
5.16
5.21
5.15
5.33
4.91
4.87
4.86
4.85
4.97
4.79
4.74
4.79
4.72
4.65
4.65
4.63
4.66
4.73
4.85
4.91

4.52
3.72
3.68
3.71
3.74
3.06
2.74
2.74
2.61
2.52
2.80
2.65
2.46
2.58
2.66
2.45
2.37
1.75
3.35
2.77
2.70
2.94
2.76
2.77
2.80
3.08
3.05
3.28
3.39
3.52
3.79
3.80
b
b
c
c

Truck SUVs
Midsize

Large

5.76
5.32
5.19
5.28
4.25
3.81
3.59
3.42
3.63
3.88
4.18
3.99
3.87
3.83
3.86
3.94
3.91
4.13
3.87
3.88
3.76
3.77
3.54
3.40
3.48
3.61
3.49
3.50
3.32
3.24
3.02
3.04
3.03
2.98

5.96
5.58
5.54
5.64
5.82
5.76
5.74
5.74
5.73
5.75
5.75
5.75
5.37
5.42
5.65
5.62
5.69
5.64
5.37
5.13
5.31
5.12
4.67
4.57
4.75
4.80
4.67
4.42
4.57
4.40
4.04
4.08
4.19
4.05

-1.8%
-1.3%

-1.0%
-1.2%

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2012, March 2013. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)
Note: Includes light trucks of 8,500 lbs. or less.
a

1 liter = 61.02 cubic inches.


No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.
c
Data are not available.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

415

Table 4.14
Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class,
Model Years 19752012
(pounds)
Model year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Small
3,440
3,474
3,486
3,029
2,936
2,717
2,648
2,684
2,734
2,776
2,771
2,791
2,803
2,818
2,841
2,897
2,886
2,921
2,903
2,965
2,988
2,977
2,977
3,013
3,085
3,079
3,101
3,125
3,169
3,192
3,163
3,255
3,238
3,284
3,254
3,268
3,381
3,207

1975-2012
2002-2012

-0.2%
0.3%

Cars
Midsize
4,630
4,558
4,474
3,820
3,710
3,362
3,346
3,321
3,316
3,318
3,319
3,241
3,247
3,293
3,314
3,450
3,412
3,515
3,515
3,529
3,546
3,527
3,551
3,534
3,540
3,550
3,566
3,549
3,567
3,577
3,545
3,568
3,581
3,564
3,539
3,577
3,605
3,603
-0.7%
0.2%

Wagons
Large
Small
Midsize
Large
5,142
2,834
4,791
5,453
5,156
2,902
4,555
5,444
4,482
2,801
4,410
4,713
4,394
2,805
3,836
4,664
4,210
2,711
3,758
4,467
4,130
2,591
3,535
4,423
4,108
2,531
3,285
4,394
4,034
2,580
3,384
4,396
4,041
2,565
3,348
4,380
4,022
2,620
3,298
4,371
3,841
2,579
3,356
4,354
3,719
2,648
3,355
4,381
3,696
2,795
3,434
4,348
3,730
2,757
3,378
4,349
3,721
2,766
3,436
4,334
3,799
3,026
3,499
4,337
3,893
3,005
3,506
4,403
3,872
3,076
3,504
4,500
3,831
2,882
3,498
4,500
3,859
2,908
3,533
4,500
3,830
2,859
3,482
4,500
3,894
2,952
3,661
4,500
a
3,821
2,901
3,666
a
3,784
2,874
3,669
a
3,854
2,923
3,691
a
3,782
3,107
3,572
a
3,774
3,470
3,775
a
3,767
3,504
3,732
a
3,841
3,262
3,745
3,858
3,235
3,860
4,769
3,933
3,160
3,839
4,791
4,014
3,255
3,827
4,806
4,026
3,263
3,727
4,785
3,966
3,295
3,845
5,017
3,883
3,260
3,653
5,500
a
3,923
3,268
3,814
a
3,868
3,251
4,469
a
3,889
3,146
3,529
Average annual percentage change
-0.8%
0.3%
-0.8%
0.0%b
a
0.3%
-1.1%
-0.6%

Small
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
3,127
a
a

2,500
2,500
2,500
a

3,500
3,500
3,500
3,500
3,444
3,241
3,076
3,088
3,018
2,617
2,857
3,002
3,380
3,214
3,563
3,271
3,235
3,035
3,054
3,000
a

4,000
a
a
a
a
a

0.0%b
a

Non-truck SUVs
Midsize
4,000
3,963
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
3,461
3,500
3,545
3,469
3,479
3,489
3,492
3,496
3,570
3,863
3,870
3,934
3,900
3,913
3,854
3,935
3,924
3,927
3,952
3,869
3,850
3,776
3,858
3,776
3,765
3,799
3,758
3,729
3,748
3,698
3,736
-0.2%
-0.3%

Large
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,210
4,080
4,089
4,205
4,289
4,200
4,238
4,195
4,148
a

0.0%

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2012, March 2013. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)
a
b

No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.


Data to latest available year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

416

The interior space of new midsize cars in 2012 was about the same as in the late 1990's; large cars, however, had
smaller interior space. The interior space increased for small cars.

Table 4.15
Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class,
Model Years 19772012
(cubic feet)
Model year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
19752012
20022012

Small
a
a

Cars
Midsize
a
a

Large
a
a

95.4
90.9
89.2
90.0
91.6
92.2
95.1
95.2
95.8
96.7
96.9
98.5
98.3
97.6
97.6
97.9
98.3
98.7
99.6
99.9
99.2
98.8
98.9
99.4
99.2
99.9
99.4
99.0
99.1
98.8
99.3
98.3
99.8
101.6
100.5
101.3

112.9
113.0
113.1
113.2
113.9
113.9
113.8
113.7
113.6
113.8
113.7
113.4
113.6
113.7
113.5
113.9
113.9
113.5
114.3
114.1
114.5
114.0
114.0
113.6
113.7
114.8
114.6
114.0
114.5
114.0
113.8
113.3
113.9
114.3
113.8
114.4

128.1
128.5
130.0
130.9
131.0
131.0
131.3
130.9
129.3
127.4
127.0
128.1
127.4
126.7
129.0
129.6
128.9
128.3
127.9
128.1
127.4
127.4
127.0
124.9
124.8
124.3
124.8
124.7
125.0
124.7
123.8
123.2
122.6
122.8
122.1
122.9

0.2%
0.1%

0.0%
0.0%

-0.1%
0.0%

Small
a

Wagons
Midsize

a
a

Large
a
a

108.0
143.6
163.1
108.0
140.0
162.4
105.1
139.7
162.5
108.2
139.7
161.5
110.6
136.2
161.4
112.2
136.1
161.3
108.2
136.2
161.6
116.5
135.9
161.7
117.7
134.8
161.7
118.4
137.8
161.4
120.0
140.2
161.8
118.7
139.4
161.7
118.6
139.9
161.8
122.2
141.6
161.6
123.3
142.3
169.1
123.7
142.6
170.3
123.0
137.7
169.3
122.9
137.4
169.2
122.1
135.9
169.3
118.0
136.9
170.2
a
119.5
136.5
a
116.9
135.3
a
117.9
136.4
a
119.7
134.0
a
119.6
133.6
a
118.2
133.6
a
115.2
133.5
117.5
135.0
165.0
115.9
133.3
165.0
118.4
135.6
164.4
111.7
135.4
159.2
114.0
134.6
160.1
114.2
133.7
161.7
a
117.6
135.1
a
114.7
135.6
a
117.4
131.6
Average annual percentage change
0.2%
-0.2%
0.0%
a
0.0%
0.0%

Small
a

Non-truck SUVs
Midsize
Large
a

100.0
100.0
100.0

125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.1
125.1
125.1

150.0
150.0

0.0%
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%

a
a

100.0
100.0
100.0
a

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
a

100.0
a
a
a
a
a

0.0%
0.0%

150.0
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
143.8
150.0
149.9

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2012, March 2013. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)
a

No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

417

The average light vehicle in 2011 contained more than 2,000 pounds of steel, most of it conventional steel. High and
medium strength steel, however, made up almost 15% of the vehicle. The use of aluminum grew from 1995 to 2011,
while the use of iron castings declined.

Table 4.16
Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Light Vehicle,
Model Years 1995, 2000, and 2011

Material
Regular steel
High and medium strength steel
Stainless steel
Other steels
Iron castings
Aluminum
Magnesium castings
Copper and brass
Lead
Zinc castings
Powder metal parts
Other metals
Plastics and plastic composites
Rubber
Coatings
Textiles
Fluids and lubricants
Glass
Other materials

Pounds
1,630.0
324.0
51.0
46.0
466.0
231.0
4.0
50.0
33.0
19.0
29.0
4.0
240.0
149.0
23.0
42.0
192.0
97.0
64.0

Total

3,694.0

1995
Percentage
44.1%
8.8%
1.4%
1.2%
12.6%
6.3%
0.1%
1.4%
0.9%
0.5%
0.8%
0.1%
6.5%
4.0%
0.6%
1.1%
5.2%
2.6%
1.7%
100.0%

Pounds
1,655.0
408.0
62.0
26.0
432.0
268.0
8.0
52.0
36.0
13.0
36.0
4.0
286.0
166.0
25.0
44.0
207.0
103.0
71.0
3,902.0

2000
Percentage
42.4%
10.5%
1.6%
0.7%
11.1%
6.9%
0.2%
1.3%
0.9%
0.3%
0.9%
0.1%
7.3%
4.3%
0.6%
1.1%
5.3%
2.6%
1.8%
100.0%

Pounds
1,458.0
608.0
73.0
32.0
275.0
355.0
12.0
67.0
41.0
9.0
41.0
5.0
377.0
222.0
34.0
48.0
223.0
98.0
94.0
4,072.0

2011
Percentage
35.8%
14.9%
1.8%
0.8%
6.8%
8.7%
0.3%
1.6%
1.0%
0.2%
1.0%
0.1%
9.3%
5.5%
0.8%
1.2%
5.5%
2.4%
2.3%
100.0%

Source:
Wards Communications, Wards Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures, 2012, Detroit, MI, 2012, p. 62 and updates.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

418

The number of franchised dealerships which sell new light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks) has declined 43%
since 1970. The average number of vehicles sold per dealer in 2011 was 737 vehicles per dealer, down from a high
of 806 vehicles per dealer in 2005.

Table 4.17
New Light Vehicle Dealerships and Sales, 19702011
Calendar year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
19702011
20012011

Number of franchised new


New light vehicle sales
light vehicle dealershipsa
(thousands)
30,800
9,862
29,600
10,905
29,300
13,066
29,100
14,613
29,000
15,122
28,500
13,984
27,900
11,389
26,350
10,678
25,700
10,426
24,725
12,132
24,725
14,187
24,725
15,437
24,825
15,998
25,150
14,802
25,025
15,347
25,000
14,389
24,825
13,851
24,200
12,312
23,500
12,842
22,950
13,869
22,850
15,024
22,800
14,688
22,750
15,046
22,700
15,069
22,600
15,441
22,400
16,771
22,250
17,234
22,150
17,472
21,800
17,139
21,725
16,967
21,650
17,299
21,640
17,444
21,495
17,049
21,200
16,460
20,770
13,493
20,010
10,601
18,460
11,772
17,700
13,041
Average annual percentage change
-1.4%
0.7%
-2.2%
-2.9%

Light vehicle sales per


dealer
320
368
446
502
521
491
408
405
406
491
574
624
644
589
613
576
558
509
546
604
658
644
661
664
683
749
775
789
786
781
799
806
793
776
650
530
638
737
2.1%
-0.7%

Source:
Number of dealers - National Automobile Dealers Association website, www.nada.org. (Additional resources:
www.nada.org/Publications/NADADATA/) Light-duty vehicle sales - See tables 4.5 and 4.6.
a

As of the beginning of the year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

419

In 2010 the number of conventional refueling stations fell below 160,000 for the first time in the series history and
continued to decline in 2011. The number of vehicles fueling at those stations fell in 2009 for the first time in
several years but rose slightly in 2011. In 2011, there were 0.63 fueling stations per thousand vehicles or 1.51
thousand vehicles per station.

Table 4.18
Conventional Refueling Stations, 1993-2011
Number of retail
outlets
Year
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

207,416
202,878
195,455
190,246
187,892
182,596
180,567
175,941
172,169
170,018
167,571
167,346
168,987
167,476
164,292
161,068
162,350
159,006
157,393

Vehicles in
operation
(thousands)
Conventional fuels
186,315
188,714
193,441
198,294
201,071
205,043
209,509
213,299
216,683
221,027
225,882
232,167
238,384
244,643
248,701
249,813
248,972
248,231
248,932

Stations per
thousand vehicles

Thousand
vehicles per
station

1.11
1.08
1.01
0.96
0.93
0.89
0.86
0.82
0.79
0.77
0.74
0.72
0.71
0.69
0.66
0.64
0.65
0.64
0.63

0.90
0.93
0.99
1.04
1.07
1.12
1.16
1.21
1.26
1.30
1.35
1.39
1.41
1.46
1.51
1.55
1.53
1.56
1.51

Sources:
Conventional refueling stations: National Petroleum News Survey, 2012.
Conventional vehicles: The Polk Company, Detroit, MI, FURTHER REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED.
Notes: The County Business Patterns (CBP) data published by the Bureau of the Census tells the number of
establishments by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). NAICS is an industry classification
system that groups establishments into industries based on the activities in which they are primarily engaged.
NAICS 447 represents gasoline stations. However, the CBP gasoline station data differ from the National
Petroleum News Survey data by as much as 30% (117,189 stations in 2005); the CBP may not include every
gasoline retail outlet due to the classification of the primary activity of the business.
Alternative Fuel Refueling Stations are listed in Chapter 6.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

420

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency issued joint
rulemaking to establish a new National Program to regulate fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions for model
year 2012-2025 cars and light trucks.

Table 4.19
Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, MY 2012-2025
Year
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025

2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025

Combined cars and light


Light trucks
trucks
Average required fuel economy
(miles per gallon)
33.3
25.4
29.7
34.2
26.0
30.5
34.9
26.6
31.3
36.2
27.5
32.6
37.8
28.8
34.1
40.1
29.4
35.4
41.6
30.0
36.5
43.1
30.6
37.7
44.8
31.2
38.9
46.8
33.3
41.0
49.0
34.9
43.0
51.2
36.6
45.1
53.6
38.5
47.4
56.2
40.3
49.7
Average projected emissions compliance levels under
the footprint-based carbon dioxide standards
(grams per mile)
263
346
295
256
337
286
247
326
276
236
312
263
225
298
250
212
295
243
202
285
232
191
277
222
182
269
213
172
249
199
164
237
190
157
225
180
150
214
171
143
203
163

Cars

Source:
Federal Register, Vol. 77, No. 199, October 15, 2012. (Additional resources: www.nhtsa.dot.gov/fuel-economy)
Note: The required fuel economy, along with projections of CO2 emissions, shown here use a model year 2008
baseline. The presented rates of increase in stringency for NHTSA CAFE standards are lower than the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rates of increase in stringency for greenhouse gas (GHG) standards. One
major difference is that NHTSAs standards, unlike EPAs, do not reflect the inclusion of air conditioning system
refrigerant and leakage improvements, but EPAs standards would allow consideration of such improvements which
reduce GHGs but generally do not affect fuel economy. The 2025 EPA GHG standard of 163 grams/mile would be
equivalent to 54.5 mpg, if the vehicles were to meet this level all through fuel economy improvements. The agencies
expect, however, that a portion of these improvements will be made through reductions in air conditioning leakage,
which would not contribute to fuel economy.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

421

The target levels for the fuel economy and carbon dioxide emission standards for vehicles manufactured in model
years 2012-on are assigned based on a vehicles footprint. Each footprint has a different target. The vehicle
footprint is calculated as:
footprint = track width wheelbase,
where
track width = lateral distance between the centerlines of the base tires at ground, and
wheelbase = longitudinal distance between the front and rear wheel centerlines.

Table 4.20
Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year 2025

Vehicle type

Example
model footprint
(square feet)

Example models

CO2 emissions
target
(grams per mile)

Fuel economy target


(miles per gallon)

131
147
170

61.1
54.9
48.0

170
188
209
252

47.5
43.4
39.2
33.0

Example Passenger Cars


Compact car
Midsize car
Fullsize car

Honda Fit
Ford Fusion
Chrysler 300

40
46
53
Example Light-Duty Trucks

Small SUV
Midsize crossover
Minivan
Large pickup truck

4WD Ford Escape


Nissan Murano
Toyota Sienna
Chevy Silverado

44
49
55
67

Source:
Federal Register, Vol. 77, No. 199, October 15, 2012. (Additional resources: www.nhtsa.gov/fuel-economy)
Note: Examples use model year 2008 vehicle specifications.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

422

The Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards were established by the U.S. Energy Policy and Conservation Act
of 1975 (PL94-163). These standards must be met at the manufacturer level. Some manufacturers fall short of
meeting the standards while others exceed them. Legislation passed in December 2007 changed the CAFE
standards beginning in the 2011 model year (MY). Some two-wheel drive sport utility vehicles are classified as cars
under the final standards for MY 2011-2021.

Table 4.21
Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)
Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 19782012a
(miles per gallon)
Model
yearb
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

CAFE
standards
18.0
19.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
26.0
27.0
27.5
26.0
26.0
26.0
26.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
27.5
30.2
32.7d

Cars
CAFE estimatesc
Domestic
Import
18.7
27.3
19.3
26.1
22.6
29.6
24.2
31.5
25.0
31.1
24.4
32.4
25.5
32.0
26.3
31.5
26.9
31.6
27.0
31.2
27.4
31.5
27.2
30.8
26.9
29.9
27.3
30.1
27.0
29.2
27.8
29.6
27.5
29.6
27.7
30.3
28.1
29.6
27.8
30.1
28.6
29.2
28.0
29.0
28.7
28.3
28.7
29.0
29.1
28.8
29.1
29.9
29.9
28.7
30.5
29.9
30.3
29.7
30.6
32.2
31.2
31.8
32.1
33.8
33.1
35.2
32.5
35.3
34.5
36.4

Combined
19.9
20.3
24.3
25.9
26.6
26.4
26.9
27.6
28.2
28.5
28.8
28.4
28.0
28.4
27.9
28.4
28.3
28.6
28.5
28.7
28.8
28.3
28.5
28.8
29.0
29.5
29.5
30.3
30.1
31.2
31.5
32.9
33.9
33.8
35.2

CAFE estimates
Cars and light
trucks combined
19.9
20.1
23.1
24.6
25.1
24.8
25.0
25.4
25.9
26.2
26.0
25.6
25.4
25.6
25.1
25.2
24.7
24.9
24.9
24.6
24.7
24.5
24.8
24.5
24.7
25.1
24.6
25.4
25.8
26.6
27.1
29.0
29.3
29.6
33.2

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation, NHTSA, "Summary of Fuel Economy Performance," Washington, DC, October
2012. (Additional resources: www.nhtsa.dot.gov)
a

Only vehicles with at least 75 percent domestic content can be counted in the average domestic fuel
economy for a manufacturer.
b
Model year as determined by the manufacturer on a vehicle by vehicle basis.
c
All CAFE calculations are sales-weighted.
d
Projected 2012 required average fuel economy standards value based on pre-model year reports.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

423

The Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards for light trucks are lower than the car standards. Light trucks
include pickups, minivans, sport utility vehicles and vans. New legislation passed in December 2007 changed the
CAFE standards beginning in the 2011 model year (MY). Some two-wheel drive sport utility vehicles are classified
as cars under the final standards for MY 2011-2021.

Table 4.22
Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)
Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 19782012a
(miles per gallon)
Model
yearc
1978
1980
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

CAFE
standards
e
e

19.5
20.0
20.5
20.5
20.5
20.0
20.2
20.2
20.4
20.5
20.6
20.7
20.7
20.7
20.7
20.7
20.7
20.7
20.7
20.7
21.0
21.6
22.2
22.5g
23.1g
23.5g
24.2g
25.1h

Light trucksb
CAFE estimatesd
Domestic
Import
f

16.8
19.6
20.0
20.5
20.6
20.4
20.3
20.9
20.5
20.7
20.5
20.3
20.5
20.1
20.5
20.4
21.1
20.6
20.6
21.8
20.7

24.3
26.5
25.9
25.2
24.6
23.5
23.0
23.0
22.7
22.8
22.1
21.5
22.2
22.1
23.0
22.5
19.7
21.8
21.9
22.4
22.3

Combined
f

18.5
20.7
21.5
21.7
21.3
21.0
20.8
21.3
20.8
21.0
20.8
20.5
20.8
20.6
21.0
20.9
21.3
20.9
21.4
21.8
21.5
22.1
22.5
23.1
23.6
24.8
25.2
24.5
25.0

CAFE estimates
Cars and light
trucks combined
19.9
23.1
25.4
25.9
26.2
26.0
25.6
25.4
25.6
25.1
25.2
24.7
24.9
24.9
24.6
24.7
24.5
24.8
24.5
24.7
25.1
24.6
25.4
25.8
26.6
27.1
29.0
29.3
29.6
33.2

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation, NHTSA, "Summary of Fuel Economy Performance," Washington, DC, October
2012. (Additional resources: www.nhtsa.dot.gov)
a

Only vehicles with at least 75% domestic content can be counted in the average domestic fuel economy for a
manufacturer.
b
Represents two- and four-wheel drive trucks combined. Gross vehicle weight of 0-6,000 pounds for model
year 1978-1979 and 0-8,500 pounds for subsequent years.
c
Model year as determined by the manufacturer on a vehicle by vehicle basis.
d
All CAFE calculations are sales-weighted.
e
Standards were set for two-wheel drive and four-wheel drive light trucks, but no combined standard was set
in this year.
f
Data are not available.
g
Unreformed standards. See Table 4.19 for reformed standards.
h
Projected 2012 required average fuel economy standards value based on pre-model year reports.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

424

Manufacturers of cars and light trucks whose vehicles do not meet the CAFE standards are fined. Data from the
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration show CAFE fine in the year in which the money was collected,
which may not be the same year in which it was assessed. A manufacturer can also use CAFE credits to offset fines.
Fines for recent model years are still being collected.

Table 4.23
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 1983-2011a
(thousands)
Model year
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Current
dollars
$58
$5,958
$15,565
$29,872
$31,261
$43,471
$48,549
$48,309
$42,243
$38,287
$28,688
$31,499
$40,787
$19,302
$36,212
$21,740
$27,516
$51,067
$35,507
$20,042
$15,225
$30,412
$25,057
$40,934
$37,386
$11,620
$9,148
$23,803
$25,574

2011 constant
dollarsb
$130,921
$12,898,855
$32,537,844
$61,307,812
$61,898,876
$82,656,136
$88,069,822
$83,140,716
$69,765,822
$61,383,761
$44,658,377
$47,808,751
$60,201,437
$27,672,128
$50,750,513
$30,000,754
$37,151,998
$66,707,134
$45,098,823
$25,059,045
$18,612,992
$36,214,091
$28,859,830
$45,672,830
$40,558,865
$12,139,742
$9,591,994
$24,554,773
$25,573,845

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Office of Vehicle Safety
Compliance, Washington, DC, April 2013. (Additional resources: www.nhtsa.dot.gov)
a

These are fines which are actually collected. Fines which are assessed in certain year may not have been
collected in that year.
b
Adjusted using the Consumer Price Inflation Index.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

425

Consumers must pay the Gas Guzzler Tax when purchasing a car that has an Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) fuel economy rating (combined city and highway) less than that stipulated in the table below. The Gas
Guzzler Tax doubled in 1991 after remaining constant from 1986 to 1990. The tax has not changed since 1991.
This tax does not apply to light trucks such as pickups, minivans, sport utility vehicles, and vans.

Table 4.24
The Gas Guzzler Tax on New Cars
(dollars per vehicle)
Vehicle fuel
economy (mpg)
Over 22.5
22.022.5
21.522.0
21.021.5
20.521.0
20.020.5
19.520.0
19.019.5
18.519.0
18.018.5
17.518.0
17.017.5
16.517.0
16.016.5
15.516.0
15.015.5
14.515.0
14.014.5
13.514.0
13.013.5
12.513.0
Under 12.5

1980
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
200
200
300
300
550
550

1981
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
200
200
350
350
450
450
550
550
650
650

1982
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
200
200
350
350
450
450
600
600
750
750
950
950
1,200

1983
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
350
350
500
500
650
650
800
800
1,000
1,000
1,250
1,250
1,550
1,550

1984
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
450
450
600
600
750
750
950
950
1,150
1,150
1,450
1,450
1,750
1,750
2,150

1985
0
0
0
0
500
500
600
600
800
800
1,000
1,000
1,200
1,200
1,500
1,500
1,800
1,800
2,200
2,200
2,650
2,650

Source:
Internal Revenue Service, Form 6197, (Rev. 10-05), "Gas Guzzler Tax."
www.irs.ustreas.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

198690
0
500
500
650
650
850
850
1,050
1,050
1,300
1,300
1,500
1,500
1,850
1,850
2,250
2,250
2,700
2,700
3,200
3,200
3,850

1991 - on
0
1,000
1,000
1,300
1,300
1,700
1,700
2,100
2,100
2,600
2,600
3,000
3,000
3,700
3,700
4,500
4,500
5,400
5,400
6,400
6,400
7,700

(Additional resources:

426

Consumers who purchased these 2012 model year vehicles paid the Gas Guzzler tax.

Table 4.25
List of Model Year 2012 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes
Make
Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Audi
Audi
Audi
Audi
Audi
Audi
Audi
Audi
Audi
Audi
Bentley
Bentley
Bentley
Bentley
Bentley
Bentley
BMW
BMW
BMW
BMW
BMW
BMW
BMW
BMW
BMW
BMW
BMW
BMW
Bugatti
Chrysler
Chrysler
Chrysler
Ferrari
Ferrari
Ferrari

Model(s)
DB9
DB9
DBS
DBS
Rapide
V12 Vantage
V8 Vantage
V8 Vantage
V8 Vantage S
Virage
Gallardo Coupe
Gallardo Coupe
Gallardo Spyder
R8
R8
R8
R8 Spyder
R8 Spyder
R8 Spyder
S5
Continental Flying Spur
Continental GT
Continental GTC
Continental Supersports
Continental Supersports Convt
Mulsanne
750i
750i xDrive
750Li
750Li xDrive
760Li
Alpina B7 LWB
Alpina B7 LWB xDrive
Alpina B7 SWB
Alpina B7 SWB xDrive
M3 Convertible
M3 Coupe
M6 Convertible
Veyron
300 SRT8
Challenger SRT8
Charger SRT8
Ferrari 458 Italia
Ferrari California
FF

Size class
Minicompact Cars
Minicompact Cars
Minicompact Cars
Minicompact Cars
Subcompact Cars
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Minicompact Cars
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Subcompact Cars
Midsize Cars
Compact Cars
Subcompact Cars
Two Seaters
Subcompact Cars
Midsize Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Subcompact Cars
Subcompact Cars
Compact Cars
Two Seaters
Large Cars
Midsize Cars
Large Cars
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Midsize Cars

Combined city/highway
fuel economya
13
15
13
14
15
13
15
16
16
15
15
16
16
14
15
16
14
15
16
17
14
14
14
14
14
13
17
16
17
16
15
17
16
17
16
16
16
16
10
17
17
17
14
15
13

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

427

Table 4.25 (Continued)


List of Model Year 2012 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes
Make
General Motors
General Motors
General Motors
General Motors
General Motors
General Motors
General Motors
Lamborghini
Lamborghini
Maserati
Maserati
Maserati
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Rolls-Royce
Rolls-Royce
Rolls-Royce
Rolls-Royce
Rolls-Royce
Rolls-Royce
Roush
Toyota
Volkswagen

Model(s)
Camaro
Camaro
Corvette
CTS
CTS
CTS Wagon
CTS Wagon
Aventador Coupe
Gallardo Spyder
Granturismo
Granturismo Convertible
Quattroporte
C 63 AMG
C 63 AMG Coupe
C 63 Black Series AMG Coupe
CL 600
CL 65 AMG
Maybach 57
Maybach 57 S
Maybach 62
Maybach 62 S
Maybach Landaulet
S 600
S 65 AMG
SL 550
SL 63 AMG
SLS AMG
SLS AMG Roadster
Ghost
Ghost EWB
Phantom
Phantom Coupe
Phantom Drophead Coupe
Phantom EWB
Roush Stage 3 Mustang
LFA
A8L

Size class
Compact Cars
Compact Cars
Two Seaters
Midsize Cars
Midsize Cars
Small Station Wagons
Small Station Wagons
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Subcompact Cars
Subcompact Cars
Large Cars
Compact Cars
Subcompact Cars
Subcompact Cars
Compact Cars
Compact Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Two Seaters
Large Cars
Large Cars
Large Cars
Compact Cars
Compact Cars
Large Cars
Subcompact Cars
Two Seaters
Large Cars

Combined city/highway
fuel economya
14
16
17
14
16
14
16
13
14
15
15
15
15
15
15
14
14
12
12
12
12
12
14
14
17
14
16
16
15
15
14
14
14
14
16
12
16

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy Guide database,
www.fueleconomy.gov
a

Tax based on unadjusted combined fuel economy; data shown here are adjusted combined fuel economy.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

428

Consumers continue to demand gas guzzling cars though fewer gas guzzlers were bought in model year 2011 than in
the previous eleven years. The IRS collected almost $69 million in 2011 from those buying cars with combined
city/highway fuel economy less than 22.5 miles per gallon. This tax does not apply to light trucks such as pickups,
minivans, sport utility vehicles, and vans. It is worthy to note that total revenue from fines paid by consumers to
purchase gas-guzzling vehicles greatly exceeds the overall fines paid by manufacturers whose vehicles fail to meet
CAFE standards (see Table 4.21).

Table 4.26
Tax Receipts from the Sale of Gas Guzzlers, 19802011
(thousands)
Model year
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Current dollars
740
780
1,720
4,020
8,820
39,790
147,660
145,900
116,780
109,640
103,200
118,400
144,200
111,600
64,100
73,500
52,600
48,200
47,700
68,300
70,800
78,200
79,700
126,700
140,800
163,800
201,700
178,700
172,428
99,300
85,226
68,905

2011
constant dollarsa
2,020
1,930
4,009
9,079
19,095
83,181
303,052
288,896
222,049
198,890
177,611
195,542
231,192
173,725
97,291
108,484
75,410
67,552
65,826
92,217
92,484
99,324
99,653
154,890
167,662
188,659
225,051
193,866
180,145
104,115
87,916
68,905

Source:
Wards Communications, Detroit, MI, 2013. Original data source: Internal Revenue Service. (Additional resources:
www.epa.gov/fueleconomy/guzzler)
a

Adjusted using the Consumer Price Inflation Index.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

429

The Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) provides vehicle simulations for a variety of research purposes. It
is used by the Department of Energy to evaluate the fuel efficiency potential of advanced powertrain configurations
for different driving conditions. Recently, PSAT was used to develop data on the relationship between speed and
fuel economy.
Table 4.27
Fuel Economy by Speed, PSAT Model Results
Gasoline conventional
Speed (mph)

Midsize
car

Small
SUV

Large
SUV

Diesel conventional
Midsize
car

Small
SUV

Hybrid vehicles

Large
SUV

2000
Insighta

2004
Prius

2007
Camrya

2008
Tahoea

45

39.1

32.5

29.5

56.4

47.7

43.6

101.3

72.0

52.2

32.2

55

41.7

34.3

30.0

57.0

46.0

39.9

94.3

66.0

46.8

27.1

65

36.9

29.1

23.0

47.9

37.6

32.5

80.0

57.0

40.9

23.7

75

31.9

24.5

19.8

40.2

30.8

26.9

60.6

42.0

35.0

21.1

Fuel economy loss


55 - 65 mph

11.5%

15.2%

23.5%

16.0%

18.3%

18.5%

15.2%

13.6%

12.6%

12.4%

65 - 75 mph

13.6%

15.8%

13.8%

16.2%

18.1%

17.2%

24.3%

26.3%

14.5%

11.1%

55 - 75 mph

23.5%

28.6%

34.0%

29.6%

33.1%

32.6%

35.8%

36.4%

25.3%

22.1%

Source:
Argonne National Laboratory, Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit, July 16, 2009,
www.transportation.anl.gov/modeling_simulation/PSAT/. (Additional resources: www.transportation.anl.gov)
a

From Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (Vehicle Test Data).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

430

The latest study of vehicle fuel economy by speed indicated higher fuel economy around 40 miles per hour, as did
the 1973 and 1984 studies. Engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory believe that the lowest speed in the
vehicle's highest gear is where the best fuel economy is typically obtained. That speed will be different for
individual vehicles.

Table 4.28
Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, 1997, and 2012 Studies
(miles per gallon)
Speed
(miles per hour)
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
5060 mph
6070 mph
5070 mph

1973a
(13 vehicles)
d
d
d

21.1
21.1
21.1
20.3
19.5
18.5
17.5
16.2
14.9
d
d

10.3%
14.9%
23.6%

1984b
(15 vehicles)
21.1
25.5
30.0
31.8
33.6
33.6
33.5
31.9
30.3
27.6
24.9
22.5
20.0

1997c
(9 vehicles)
24.4
27.9
30.5
31.7
31.2
31.0
31.6
32.4
32.4
31.4
29.2
26.8
24.8

2012e
(74 vehicles)

20.5

Fuel economy loss


13.5%
3.1%
18.5%
14.6%
29.5%
17.3%

d
d
d
d
d

33.2
d

31.9
d

27.9
d

24.1
d

12.5%
13.6%
24.5%

Sources:
1973- U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Office of Highway Planning, The Effect
of Speed on Automobile Gasoline Consumption Rates, Washington, DC, October 1973.
1984 - U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Fuel Consumption and Emission
Values for Traffic Models, Washington, DC, May 1985.
1997 - West, B.H., R.N. McGill, J.W. Hodgson, S.S. Sluder, and D.E. Smith, Development and Verification of
Light-Duty Modal Emissions and Fuel Consumption Values for Traffic Models, FHWA-RD-99-068, U.S.
Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, March 1999.
2012 - U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy Guide website:
www.fueleconomy.gov. The Green Car Congress, "ORNL researchers quantify the effect of increasing
highway speed on fuel economy." February 8, 2013.
a

Model years 1970 and earlier cars.


Model years 198184 cars and light trucks.
c
Model years 198897 cars and light trucks as shown in Table 4.29.
d
Data are not available.
e
Model years 2003-2012 cars and light trucks.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

431

Figure 4.2. Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, 1997, and 2012 Studies

Source:
See Tables 4.27 and 4.28.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

432

This table shows the new methodology that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) used to determine fuel
economy ratings for new vehicles beginning in model year 2008. In addition to the Urban Driving Cycle and the
Highway Driving cycle, the EPA will also use three additional tests to adjust fuel economy ratings to account for
higher speeds, air conditioner use, and colder temperatures. Though the EPA uses a complex combination of these
five cycles to determine the fuel economy that will be posted on a new vehicle window sticker, the manufacturers
Corporate Average Fuel Economy is still calculated using only the city and highway driving cycles. To know more
about new vehicle fuel economy ratings, visit www.fueleconomy.gov.

Table 4.29
Driving Cycle Attributes

Trip type
Top speed
Average speed
Max. acceleration
Simulated distance
Time
Stops
Idling time
Engine startupa
Lab temperature
Vehicle air conditioning

City
Low speeds in
stop-and-go
urban traffic

Highway
Free-flow traffic
at highway
speeds

Test schedule
High speed
Higher speeds; harder
acceleration &
braking

AC
AC use under
hot ambient
conditions

Cold temp
City test
w/colder outside
temperature

56 mph
20 mph
3.3 mph/sec
11 mi.
31 min.
23
18% of time
Cold
68-86 F

60 mph
48 mph
3.2 mph/sec
10 mi.
12.5 min.
None
None
Warm
68-86 F

80 mph
48 mph
8.46 mph/sec
8 mi.
10 min.
4
7% of time
Warm
68-86 F

54.8 mph
22 mph
5.1 mph/sec
3.6 mi.
9.9 min.
5
19% of time
Warm
95 F

56 mph
20 mph
3.3 mph/sec
11 mi.
31 min.
23
18% of time
Cold
20 F

Off

Off

Off

On

Off

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy website,
www.fueleconomy.gov.
a

A vehicles engine doesnt reach maximum fuel efficiency until it is warm.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

433

These driving cycles simulate the performance of an engine while driving in the city and on the highway. Once the
city cycle is completed, the engine is stopped, and then started again for the 8.5 minute hot start cycle. Three
additional cycles also influence new vehicle fuel economy ratings beginning with the 2008 model year.

Figure 4.3. City Driving Cycle

Figure 4.4. Highway Driving Cycle

Source:
Code of Federal Regulations, 40CFR, "Subpart B - Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year
Automobiles - Test Procedures," July 1, 1988 edition, p. 676.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

434

Beginning with the 2008 model year, these cycles influence the new vehicle fuel economy ratings.

Figure 4.5. Air Conditioning (SC03) Driving Cycle

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy website, www.fueleconomy.gov.

Figure 4.6. Cold Temperature (Cold FTP) Driving Cycle

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy website, www.fueleconomy.gov.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

435

Beginning with the 2008 model year, this cycle influences the new vehicle fuel economy ratings. The US06 driving
cycle was originally developed as a supplement to the Federal Test Procedure. It is a short-duration cycle (600
seconds) which represents hard-acceleration driving.

Figure 4.7. High-Speed (US06) Driving Cycle

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy website, www.fueleconomy.gov.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

436

The Environmental Protection Agency also uses other driving cycles to test new vehicles (although these do not
affect the fuel economy ratings). The New York Test Cycle was developed in the 1970's in order to simulate driving
in downtown congested areas. The Representative Number Five Test Cycle was developed in the 1990's to better
represent actual on-road driving by combining modern city and freeway driving.

Figure 4.8. New York City Driving Cycle

Figure 4.9. Representative Number Five Driving Cycle

Source:
Data obtained from Michael Wang, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 1997.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

437

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory have estimated the fuel economy of a midsize car using driving cycles
from different countries. These results illustrate the difference in fuel economy which can be obtained from the
same vehicle using different test cycles.

Table 4.30
Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles

Driving cycle
Japanese 10/15 mode test cycle

Projected fuel economy


for a 1995 composite
midsize vehiclea
17.5 mpg

New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)

22.0 mpg

U.S. EPA city cycle (LA4)

19.8 mpg

U.S. EPA highway cycle

32.1 mpg

U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy cycle

23.9 mpg

Source:
Santini, D., A. Vyas, J. Anderson, and F. An, Estimating Trade-Offs along the Path to the PNGV 3X Goal, presented
at the Transportation Research Board 80th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 2001.
Note: China and India both use the European Driving Cycle, though India uses a modified version called the
Modified Indian Driving Cycle which accounts for lower maximum speeds that better represent driving conditions
in India.
a

The 1995 composite midsize vehicle is an average of a Chevrolet Lumina, Chrysler Concord, and Ford
Taurus. The fuel economies were projected using the National Renewable Energy Laboratorys Advanced Vehicle
Simulator (ADVISOR) model.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

438

Testing cycles to determine vehicle fuel economy and emissions vary by country and therefore it is difficult to make
a direct comparison. Statistics on the driving cycles from Europe, Japan and the U.S. are listed in below. In
addition, Table 4.32 displays the cycle results of these countries by vehicle type. Note that the differences in these
cycle results vary with each individual vehicle tested.

Table 4.31
Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles Attributes

Japanese JC08 test cycle


New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)
U.S. EPA city cycle(LA4)a
U.S. EPA highway cycle
U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) cycle

Time
(seconds)

Average
speed
(mph)

Maximum
speed
(mph)

Maximum
acceleration
(mph/s)

631
1,181
1,375

14.8
20.9
19.5

43.5
74.6
56.7

1.8
2.4
3.3

766

48.2
32.4b

59.9
59.9

3.3
3.3

Source:
The International Council on Clean Transportation, Passenger Vehicle Greenhouse Gas and Fuel Economy
Standards: A Global Update, July 2009.
Note: China uses the NEDC. India uses a modified version of the NEDC called The Modified Indian Driving Cycle
which accounts for lower maximum speeds that better represent driving conditions in India.

Table 4.32
Example of Differing Results Using the
U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles

Vehicle type
Small car
Large car
Minivan
Sport-utility vehicle
Pickup

CAFE cycle
34.8
26.6
23.9
20.2
18.8

Miles per gallon


NEDC
JC08 cycle
32.4
27.6
24.7
21.5
20.5
17.2
17.6
15.9

14.6
13.5

Percentage difference from


CAFE to NEDC
CAFE to JC08
-7%
-21%
-7%
-19%
-14%
-28%
-13%
-15%

-28%
-28%

Source:
The International Council on Clean Transportation, Passenger Vehicle Greenhouse Gas and Fuel Economy
Standards: A Global Update, July 2009.
Note: Simulation results for identical gasoline vehicles (i.e., results for the same small car on each of the three
cycles).

Data are not available.


The actual Federal Procedure (FTP), which is also the test for emissions certification, repeats the first 505
seconds of the Federal Urban Driving Simulation cycle, hot started, after a 10 minute hot soak. Starting with Model
Year 2001, the emissions test-but not the fuel economy test-incorporates a supplemental cycle that simulates
aggressive urban driving, coupled with an added air conditioning load.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

439

Demand response vehicles (also called paratransit or dial-a-ride) are widely used by transit agencies. The vehicles
do not operate over a fixed route or on a fixed schedule. The vehicle may be dispatched to pick up several
passengers at different pick-up points before taking them to their respective destinations and may even be
interrupted en route to these destinations to pick up other passengers. Demand response service is provided
primarily by vans. In 2007, the data changed substantially due to improved estimation methodologies.
Unfortunately, those data are no longer comparable to the rest of the historical series.

Table 4.33
Summary Statistics on Demand Response Vehicles, 19942011

Year
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Number
of
agencies
5,214
5,214
5,214
5,214
5,214
5,252
5,252
5,251
5,251
5,346
5,960
5,960
5,960
7,300
7,200
6,700
6,741
6,600

Number of active
vehicles

28,729
29,352
30,804
32,509
29,646
31,884
33,080
34,661
34,699
35,954
37,078
41,958
43,509
64,865
65,799
68,957
68,621
65,336

Vehicle-miles
(millions)
463.7
506.5
548.3
585.3
670.9
718.4
758.9
789.3
802.6
864.0
889.5
978.3
1,013.0
1,471.4
1,495.2
1,529.2
1,693.6
1,611.8

Average
miles per
vehicle
16.14
17.26
17.80
18.00
22.63
22.53
22.94
22.77
23.13
24.03
23.99
23.32
23.28
22.68
22.72
22.18
24.68
24.67

Passengermiles
(millions)
577
607
656
754
735
813
839
855
853
930
962
1,058
1,078
1,502
1,412
1,477
1,494
1,580

Energy use
(trillion Btu)
9.5
9.2
9.9
9.8
10.4
10.6
10.8
11.3
11.6
12.9
13.3
14.8
15.5
24.7
24.7
23.1
22.8
24.1

Source:
American Public Transportation Association, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, April 2013.
(Additional resources: www.apta.com)
Note: See Glossary for a detailed definition of demand response.
a

Data are not continuous between 2006 and 2007 due to changes in estimation methodology. See source
document for details.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

440

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

51

Chapter 5
Heavy Vehicles and Characteristics
Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source
Table 5.1

Class 3-8 single-unit trucks, 2011


Registration (thousands)
Vehicle miles (millions)
Fuel economy (miles per gallon)

Table 5.2

Vehicle miles (millions)


Fuel economy (miles per gallon)
and 5.15

7.3
2,452
163,692
5.8

Freight Shipments, 2007 Commodity Flow Survey


Value (billion dollars)

11,685

Tons (millions)

12,543

Ton-miles (billions)
Table 5.16

103,515

Class 7-8 combination trucks, 2011


Registration (thousands)

Tables 5.14

7,819

Transit buses in operation, 2011

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

3,345
69,654

52

Class 3-8 single-unit trucks include trucks over 10,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight with the cab/engine and cargo
space together as one unit. Most of these trucks would be used for business or for individuals with heavy hauling or
towing needs. Very heavy single-units, such as concrete mixers and dump trucks, are also in this category. The
data series was recently changed by the FHWA back to 2007.

Table 5.1
Summary Statistics for Class 3-8 Single-Unit Trucks, 19702011
Year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Registrations
(thousands)
3,681
4,232
4,350
4,450
4,518
4,505
4,374
4,455
4,325
4,204
4,061
4,593
4,313
4,188
4,470
4,519
4,487
4,481
4,370
4,408
4,906
5,024
5,266
5,293
5,414
5,763
5,926
5,704
5,651
5,849
6,161
6,395
6,649
8,117
8,288
8,356
8,217
7,819

Vehicle travel
(million miles)
27,081
34,606
36,390
39,339
42,747
42,012
39,813
39,568
40,658
42,546
44,419
45,441
45,637
48,022
49,434
50,870
51,901
52,898
53,874
56,772
61,284
62,705
64,072
66,893
67,894
70,304
70,500
72,448
75,866
77,757
78,441
78,496
80,344
119,979
126,855
120,207
110,738
103,515

19702011
20012011

1.9%
3.2%

3.3%
3.6%

Average annual
Fuel use
miles per vehicle
(million gallons)
7,357
3,968
8,177
5,420
8,366
5,706
8,840
6,268
9,461
6,955
9,326
7,050
9,102
6,923
8,882
6,867
9,401
6,803
10,120
6,965
10,938
7,240
9,894
7,399
10,581
7,386
11,467
7,523
11,059
7,701
11,257
7,779
11,567
8,357
11,805
8,172
12,328
8,237
12,879
8,488
12,492
9,032
12,481
9,216
12,167
9,409
12,638
9,576
12,540
9,741
12,199
9,372
11,897
9,563
12,701
9,667
13,425
10,321
13,294
8,881
12,732
8,959
12,275
9,501
12,084
9,852
14,781
16,314
15,417
17,144
14,386
16,253
13,477
15,097
13,239
14,183
Average annual percentage change
1.4%
3.2%
0.4%
3.9%

Fuel economy
(miles per gallon)
6.8
6.4
6.4
6.3
6.1
6.0
5.8
5.8
6.0
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.4
6.4
6.5
6.2
6.5
6.5
6.7
6.8
6.8
6.8
7.0
7.0
7.5
7.4
7.5
7.4
8.8
8.8
8.3
8.2
7.3
7.4
7.4
7.3
7.3
0.2%
-0.3%

Source:
U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2011, Washington, DC,
2013, Table VM-1 and annual. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov)
a

Due to FHWA methodology changes, data from 2007-on are not comparable with previous data.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

53

Class 7-8 combination trucks include all trucks designed to be used in combination with one or more trailers with a
gross vehicle weight rating over 26,000 lbs. The average vehicle travel of these trucks (on a per truck basis) far
surpasses the travel of other trucks due to long-haul freight movement. The data series was recently changed by the
FHWA back to 2007.

Table 5.2
Summary Statistics for Class 7-8 Combination Trucks, 19702011
Year
1970
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Registrations
(thousands)
905
1,131
1,417
1,261
1,265
1,304
1,340
1,403
1,408
1,530
1,667
1,707
1,709
1,691
1,675
1,680
1,681
1,696
1,747
1,790
1,831
2,029
2,097
2,154
2,277
1,908
2,010
2,087
2,170
2,635
2,585
2,617
2,553
2,452

Vehicle travela
(million miles)
35,134
46,724
68,678
69,134
70,765
73,586
77,377
78,063
81,038
85,495
88,551
91,879
94,341
96,645
99,510
103,116
108,932
115,451
118,899
124,584
128,159
132,384
135,020
136,584
138,737
140,160
142,370
144,028
142,169
184,199
183,826
168,100
175,789
163,692

19702011
20012011

2.5%
1.3%

3.8%
1.8%

Average annual
Fuel use
miles per vehicle
(million gallons)
38,822
7,348
41,312
9,177
48,467
13,037
54,825
13,509
55,941
13,583
56,431
13,796
57,744
14,188
55,640
14,005
57,555
14,475
55,879
14,990
53,120
15,224
53,825
15,733
55,202
16,133
57,153
16,809
59,409
17,216
61,379
17,748
64,802
18,653
68,073
19,777
68,059
20,192
69,600
20,302
69,994
21,100
65,246
24,537
64,387
25,666
63,409
25,512
60,930
26,480
73,459
23,815
70,831
24,191
69,012
27,689
65,516
28,107
69,905
30,904
71,113
30,561
64,234
28,050
68,856
29,927
66,759
28,193
Average annual percentage change
1.3%
3.3%
0.5%
1.0%

Fuel economy
(miles per gallon)
4.8
5.1
5.3
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.5
5.6
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.7
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.9
6.1
6.1
5.4
5.3
5.4
5.2
5.9
5.9
5.2
5.1
6.0
6.0
6.0
5.9
5.8
0.5%
0.7%

Source:
U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2011, Washington, DC,
2013, Table VM-1 and annual. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov)
a
b

The Federal Highway Administration changed the combination truck travel methodology in 1993.
Due to FHWA methodology changes, data from 2007-on are not comparable with previous data.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

54

Truck sales rose from 2011-2012 for the first time since the sales peak in 2004. Trucks under 10,000 lbs.
continue to dominate truck sales.

Table 5.3
New Retail Truck Sales by Gross Vehicle Weight, 19702012a
(thousands)
Calendar
year

Class 1
6,000 lbs.
or less

Class 2
6,001
10,000 lbs.

1970b
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985

1,049
1,101
1,318
1,306
1,334
1,271
985
896
1,102
1,314
2,031
2,408

408
952
1,401
1,803
2,140
1,574
975
850
961
1,207
1,224
1,280

1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

3,380
3,435
3,467
3,313
3,451
3,246
3,608
4,119
4,527
4,422
4,829
5,085
5,263
5,707
5,965
6,073
6,068
6,267
6,458
6,586
6,136
5,682
4,358
3,528
4,245
4,714
5,164

1,214
1,175
1,333
1,297
1,097
876
1,021
1,232
1,506
1,631
1,690
1,712
2,036
2,366
2,421
2,525
2,565
2,671
2,796
2,528
2,438
2,623
1,888
1,306
1,513
1,735
1,811

19701985
19862012
20022012

5.7%
1.6%
-1.6%

7.9%
1.6%
-3.4%

Class 3
Class 4
Class 5
Class 6
10,001
14,001
16,001
19,501
14,000 lbs.
16,000 lbs.
19,500 lbs.
26,000 lbs.
Domestic sales (import data are not available)
6
12
58
133
23
1
9
159
c
9
153
43
36
3
5
163
73
6
3
156
15
3
3
146
c
4
2
90
c
1
2
72
c
1
1
44
c
c
1
47
c
6
5
55
c
11
5
48
Domestic and import sales
c
12
6
45
14
2
8
44
14
21
8
54
19
27
7
39
21
27
5
38
21
24
3
22
26
26
4
28
27
33
4
27
35
44
4
20
40
53
4
23
52
59
7
19
53
57
9
18
102
43
25
32
122
49
30
48
117
47
29
51
102
52
24
42
80
38
24
45
91
40
29
51
107
47
36
70
167
49
46
60
150
50
49
70
166
51
45
54
135
36
40
39
112
20
24
22
161
12
31
29
195
10
42
41
223
9
55
40
Average annual percentage change
4.1%
-1.9
-15.1%
-6.6%
11.9%
6.2%d
8.9%
-0.5%
10.8%
-13.4%
8.6%
-1.2%

Class 7
26,001
33,000 lbs.

Class 8
33,001 lbs.
and over

Total

36
23
22
28
41
50
58
51
62
59
78
97

89
83
97
141
162
174
117
100
76
82
138
134

1,791
2,351
3,043
3,485
3,915
3,236
2,231
1,972
2,248
2,710
3,538
3,983

101
103
103
93
85
73
73
81
98
107
104
114
115
130
123
92
69
67
75
89
91
70
49
39
38
41
47

113
131
148
145
121
99
119
158
186
201
170
179
209
262
212
140
146
142
203
253
284
151
133
95
107
171
195

4,870
4,912
5,149
4,942
4,846
4,365
4,903
5,681
6,421
6,481
6,930
7,226
7,826
8,716
8,965
9,050
9,035
9,357
9,793
9,777
9,268
8,842
6,680
5,145
6,137
6,951
7,544

6.8%
-2.9%
-3.8%

2.8%
-2.1%
-2.9%

5.5%
1.7%
-1.8%

Source:
Wards Communications, Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures 2012, Southfield, MI, 2012, p. 27, and annual; 2012:
Wards Communications, www.wardsauto.com. (Additional resources: www.wardsauto.com)
a

Sales include domestic-sponsored imports.


Data for 1970 is based on new truck registrations.
c
Data are not available.
d
1987-2012.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

55

The Census Bureau has discontinued the Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey; it was not
conducted in 2007. The 2002 data remain the latest available.

Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey


The Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS), which was formerly the Truck Inventory and Use
Survey (TIUS), provides data on the physical and operational characteristics of the Nation's truck
population. It is based on a probability sample of private and commercial trucks registered (or licensed)
in each state. In 1997, the survey was changed to the Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey due to future
possibilities of including additional vehicle types. The 2002 VIUS, however, only includes trucks. Copies
of the 2002 VIUS report or CD may be obtained by contacting the U.S. Bureau of the Census,
Transportation Characteristics Surveys Branch (301) 457-2797. Internet site:
www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html
Since 1987, the survey has included minivans, vans, station wagons on truck chassis, and sport
utility vehicles in addition to the bigger trucks. The 1977 and 1982 surveys did not include those vehicle
types. The estimated number of trucks that were within the scope of the 2002 VIUS and registered in the
United States as of July 1, 2002 was 85.2 million. These trucks were estimated to have been driven a
total of 1,115 billion miles during 2002, an increase of 6.8% from 1997. The average annual miles
traveled per truck was estimated at 13,100 miles.
In the 2002 VIUS, there are several ways to classify a truck by weight. The survey respondent
was asked the average weight of the vehicle or vehicle-trailer combination when carrying a typical
payload; the empty weight (truck minus cargo) of the vehicle as it was usually operated; and the
maximum gross weight at which the vehicle or vehicle-trailer combination was operated. The Census
Bureau also collected information on the Gross Vehicle Weight Class of the vehicles (decoded from the
vehicle identification number) and the registered weight of the vehicles from the State registration files.
Some of these weights are only provided in categories, while others are exact weights. Since all these
weights could be quite different for a single truck, the tabulations by weight can be quite confusing. In the
tables presented here, the Gross Vehicle Weight Class was used.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

56

Table 5.4
Truck Statistics by Gross Vehicle Weight Class, 2002
Manufacturer's gross vehicle
weight class
1) 6,000 lbs and less
2) 6,001 10,000 lbs
Light truck subtotal
3) 10,001 14,000 lbs
4) 14,001 16,000 lbs
5) 16,001 19,500 lbs
6) 19,501 26,000 lbs
Medium truck subtotal
7) 26,001 33,000 lbs
8) 33,001 lbs and up
Heavy truck subtotal
Total

Number of
trucks
51,941,389
28,041,234
79,982,623
691,342
290,980
166,472
1,709,574
2,858,368
179,790
2,153,996
2,333,786
85,174,776

Percentage
of trucks
61.0%
32.9%
93.9%
0.8%
0.3%
0.2%
2.0%
3.4%
0.2%
2.5%
2.7%
100.0%

Average
annual miles
per truck
11,882
12,684
12,163
14,094
15,441
11,645
12,671
13,237
30,708
45,739
44,581
13,088

Harmonic
mean fuel
economy
17.6
14.3
16.2
10.5
8.5
7.9
7.0
8.0
6.4
5.7
5.8
13.5

Percentage
of fuel use
42.7%
30.5%
73.2%
1.1%
0.5%
0.3%
3.2%
5.2%
0.9%
20.7%
21.6%
100.0%

Source:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Microdata File on
CD, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www.tiusview.html)

Table 5.5
Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997, and 2002
(miles per gallon)
Manufacturer's gross vehicle
weight class
1) 6,000 lbs and less
2) 6,00110,000 lbs
Light truck subtotal
3) 10,00014,000 lbs
4) 14,00116,000 lbs
5) 16,00119,500 lbs
6) 19,50126,000 lbs
Medium truck subtotal
7) 26,00133,000 lbs
8) 33,001 lbs and over
Large truck subtotal

1992
TIUS
17.2
13.0
15.7
8.8
8.8
7.4
6.9
7.3
6.5
5.5
5.6

1997
VIUS
17.1
13.6
15.8
9.4
9.3
8.7
7.3
8.6
6.4
5.7
6.1

2002
VIUS
17.6
14.3
16.2
10.5
8.5
7.9
7.0
8.0
6.4
5.7
5.8

Sources:
Estimates are based on data provided on the following public use files: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of
the Census, Census of Transportation, Washington, DC, 1992 Truck Inventory and Use Survey, 1995; 1997
Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, 2000, and 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, 2005. (Additional
resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html)
Note: Based on average fuel economy as reported by respondent.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

57

As expected, most light trucks travel within 50 miles of their home base and refuel at public stations. About sixty
percent of heavy trucks travel over 50 miles from their home base and 36% of them refuel at central companyowned refueling stations.

Table 5.6
Truck Statistics by Size, 2002

Under 50 miles
51100 miles
101200 miles
201500 miles
501 miles or more
Off-road
Vehicle not in use
Not reported
Total
Gas station
Truck stop
Own facility
Other nonpublic facility
Other
All

Manufacturer's gross vehicle weight class


Medium
(10,001
Heavy
Light
26,000 lbs)
(> 26,000 lbs)
(< 10,000 lbs)
Range of operation
69.2%
61.5%
40.7%
8.5%
11.7%
13.5%
2.4%
3.2%
6.7%
1.1%
1.8%
7.6%
1.4%
2.2%
10.4%
1.1%
3.5%
3.2%
2.2%
4.4%
3.2%
14.1%
11.7%
14.7%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Primary refueling facility
96.9%
62.4%
28.4%
0.7%
7.7%
31.9%
2.0%
27.3%
36.2%
0.3%
2.6%
3.5%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

Total
68.2%
8.7%
2.5%
1.3%
1.7%
1.2%
2.3%
14.1%
100.0%
93.9%
1.8%
3.7%
0.5%
0.0%
100.0%

Source:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Microdata. File on
CD, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

58

More medium truck owners listed construction as the trucks major use than any other major use category.
Construction was the second highest major use for light trucks and heavy trucks.

Table 5.7
Percentage of Trucks by Size Ranked by Major Use, 2002

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Light
(< 10,000 lbs
average weight)
Personal
81.5%
Construction
4.6%
Other services a
2.5%
Not in use
2.2%
Agriculture
1.9%
Retail
1.5%
Unknown
1.3%
Leasing
0.7%
Manufacturing
0.7%
Utilities
0.6%
Waste management
0.6%
Wholesale
0.6%
Information services
0.4%
For hire
0.4%
Food services
0.3%
Arts
0.2%
Mining
0.1%

Medium
(10,001 26,000 lbs
average weight)
Construction
18.4%
Agriculture
16.2%
For hire
9.6%
Retail
7.1%
Not in use
6.4%
Leasing
6.2%
Wholesale
5.5%
Waste management
5.4%
Utilities
5.0%
Personal
4.8%
Unknown
4.4%
Manufacturing
3.3%
Other servicesa
3.2%
Food services
1.6%
Information services
1.3%
Mining
1.1%
Arts
0.5%

Heavy
(> 26,000 lbs average
weight)
For hire
30.1%
Construction
15.9%
Agriculture
12.2%
Retail
5.4%
Not in use
5.1%
Waste management
5.0%
Manufacturing
4.9%
Wholesale
4.8%
Leasing
4.6%
Unknown
3.2%
Personal
2.5%
Mining
2.4%
Other servicesa
1.3%
Utilities
1.1%
Food services
1.1%
Arts
0.3%
Information services
0.1%

Source:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Micro data File on
CD, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html)
a

Business and personal services.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

59

Nearly half of trucks in fleets of 11-20 and 21-50 vehicles use company-owned facilities. Most trucks in smaller
fleets use public gas stations for fueling.

Table 5.8
Percentage of Trucks by Fleet Size and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002
Truck fleet size
15
610
1120
2150
51 or more
Fleets of 6 or more
vehicles
No fleet

Gas station
73.8%
55.3%
41.1%
42.9%
48.3%
47.6%
96.4%

Primary refueling facility


Truck stop
Own facility
6.1%
18.2%
5.7%
35.5%
5.1%
48.9%
3.7%
49.8%
6.3%
44.4%
5.2%
1.6%

43.9%
1.7%

Other's facility
1.9%
3.4%
4.9%
3.6%
1.0%

Total
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

3.4%
0.3%

100.0%
100.0%

Source:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Microdata File
CD, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

on

510

Most trucks are fueled at gas stations but for-hire or warehousing trucks are more often fueled at truck stops.
Mining trucks and vehicle leasing or rental trucks fuel at the companies own facility more than 30% of the time.

Table 5.9
Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002
Major use
Personal
Other services
All
Information services
Retail trade
Construction
Accommodation or food services
Manufacturing
Arts, entertainment, recreation services
Waste mgmt, landscaping, admin/support services
Wholesale trade
Utilities
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting
Vehicle leasing or rental
Mining
For-hire or warehousing

Gas
station
98.6%
96.0%
93.9%
92.3%
86.6%
84.7%
82.4%
81.5%
81.1%
78.2%
76.2%
72.6%
62.7%
60.2%
48.7%
33.3%

Truck
stop
0.6%
1.4%
1.8%
0.4%
3.5%
3.3%
7.5%
5.1%
4.3%
3.0%
6.6%
1.8%
6.7%
1.3%
8.5%
38.7%

Own
facility
0.7%
1.6%
3.7%
7.2%
8.6%
9.8%
8.8%
11.9%
14.2%
17.1%
12.0%
24.3%
29.4%
31.8%
34.3%
25.8%

Others
facility
0.1%
0.9%
0.5%
0.1%
1.2%
2.2%
1.3%
1.5%
0.3%
1.6%
5.1%
1.3%
1.0%
6.8%
8.5%
2.3%

Other
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

All
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

Overall

93.9%

1.8%

3.7%

0.5%

0.0%

100.0%

Source:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Microdata File on
CD, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

511

The figure below shows the distribution of annual travel the two types of Class 7 and 8 vehiclescombination units
(separate tractor and trailer) and single units (tractor and trailer on a single chassis). This information is for
vehicles two years old or less and comes from the 2002 VIUS. Combination trucks, dominated by box-type trailers,
display the greatest amount of annual travel of all heavy vehicle types, as is evidenced both by the range of annual
use which is up to 250,000 miles per year, and the peaking that occurs in the 100,000 to 140,000-mile segments.
Most of the single-unit trucks in the survey travel 40,000 miles per year or less.

Figure 5.1. Distribution of Trucks over 26,000 lbs. Less than Two Years Old
by Vehicle-Miles Traveled

Source:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Microdata File on
CD, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html)
Note: Heavy trucks (class 7 & 8) are greater than 26,000 pounds gross vehicle weight based on the manufacturers
rating.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

512

The latest Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey asked truck owners if the truck had certain features as permanent
equipment on the truck. Some of the features asked about were onboard computers, idle-reduction devices,
navigational systems, and Internet access. Of the 2.3 million heavy trucks (class 7 & 8) in the United States, nearly
10% were equipped with onboard computers that had communication capabilities and another 5% had onboard
computers without communication capabilities. Six percent of heavy trucks were equipped with idle-reducing
technology. Navigational systems and Internet access were available in less than one percent of heavy trucks.

Figure 5.2. Share of Heavy Trucks with Selected Electronic Features, 2002

Source:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and User Survey, Microdata File on
CD, 2005.
Note: Heavy trucks (class 7 & 8) are greater than 26,000 pounds gross vehicle weight based on the manufacturers
rating.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

513

Fuel Economy Study for Class 8 Trucks


As part of a long-term study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of
Vehicle Technologies (OVT), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in conjunction with several
industry partners has collected data and information related to heavy-truck operation in real-world
highway environments. The primary objective of the project was to collect real-world performance and
spatial data for long-haul operations of Class 8 tractor-trailers from a fleet engaged in normal freight
operations. Six model year 2005 Class 8 trucks from the selected fleet, which operates within a large area
of the country extending from the east coast to Mountain Time Zone and from Canada to the US-Mexican
border, were instrumented and 60 channels of data were collected for over a year at a rate of 5 Hz (or 5
readings per second). Those channels included information such as instantaneous fuel rate, engine speed,
gear ratio, vehicle speed, and other information read from the vehicles databus; weather information
(wind speed, precipitation, air temperature, etc.) gathered from an on-board weather station; spatial
information (latitude, longitude, altitude) acquired from a GPS (Global Positioning System) device; and
instantaneous tractor and trailer weight obtained from devices mounted on the six participating tractors
and ten trailers. Three of the six instrumented tractors and five of the ten instrumented trailers were
mounted with New Generation Single Wide-Based Tires and the others with regular dual tires. Over the
duration of this phase of the project (just over a year) the six tractors traveled nearly 700,000 miles.
To find out more about this project, contact Oscar Franzese, franzeseo@ornl.gov, 865-946-1304.
The final report on this project is available on-line at:
cta.ornl.gov/cta/Publications/Reports/ORNL_TM_2008-122.pdf.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

514

The type of terrain a truck is traveling on can cause significant differences in fuel efficiency. This study (see page
513 for project description) shows fuel economy on severe upslopes is less than half that on flat terrain. On severe
downslopes, the fuel economy was two times higher than on flat terrain.

Table 5.10
Effect of Terrain on Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy

Type of terrain
Severe upslope (>4%)
Mild upslope (1% to 4%)
Flat terrain (1% to 1%)
Mild downslope (-4% to -1%)
Severe downslope (<-4%)

Share of data
records
0.7%
13.2%
72.4%
12.6%
1.1%

All
trucks
2.90
4.35
7.33
15.11
23.5

Average fuel efficiency (mpg)


Difference
between dual
Tractors
Tractors
and single
with single
with dual
tires (percent)
(wide) tires
tires
2.86
2.94
2.91%
4.25
4.44
4.35%
7.08
7.58
7.13%
14.64
15.57
6.36%
21.82
25.3
15.97%

Source:
Capps, Gary, Oscar Franzese, Bill Knee, M.B. Lascurain, and Pedro Otaduy. Class-8 Heavy Truck Duty Cycle
Project Final Report, ORNL/TM-2008/122, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, December 2008.
(Additional resources: cta.ornl.gov/cta/Publications/Reports/ORNL_TM_2008-122.pdf)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

515

This table presents a distribution of distance traveled, fuel consumed, and fuel economy by speed and by type of tires
for the vehicles participating in the project (see page 5-13 for project description). The speed bins are divided into
5-mile intervals, going from 0+ mph (i.e., speed > 0.00 mph) to 85 mph, while the four main columns of the table
are organized by the type of tires that were mounted on the tractor and trailers. The first row of the table contains
information about fuel consumed while the vehicle was idling (i.e., the vehicle was static with the engine on) with
the following rows presenting information about the distance traveled, fuel consumed, and fuel economy for each
one of the speed intervals. The next-to-the-last row shows the totals for both traveled distances and fuel consumed
as well as the overall fuel economy for each tire-combination category. The latter are then used to compute the
percentage difference in terms of fuel economy from dual tire tractors and trailers, which is the most common tire
setup for large trucks at the present time.

Table 5.11
Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed
and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination

Speed
(mph)
Idling
0+ to 5
5+ to 10
10+ to 15
15+ to 20
20+ to 25
25+ to 30
30+ to 35
35+ to 40
40+ to 45
45+ to 50
50+ to 55
55+ to 60
60+ to 65

Dual tire tractor


dual tire trailer
Distance
Fuel
Fuel
traveled
cons.
econ.
(miles)
(gal)
(MPG)
N/A
1,858.5
N/A
281
101.8
2.76
674
198.8
3.39
723
192.0
3.77
744
199.1
3.73
938
228.4
4.11
1,178
266.9
4.41
1,481
336.8
4.40
1,917
403.5
4.75
2,955
584.1
5.06
4,935
907.9
5.43
9,397
1,629.8
5.77
20,656
3,297.2
6.26
38,964
5,879.6
6.63

65+ to 70
70+ to 75
75+ to 85
Totala

58,304
56,378
7,849
207,374

Percent
increase in
fuel
economy
from dual
tire
trac/trail

8,313.2
7,483.2
808.2
30,831.0

7.01
7.53
9.71
6.73

0.00%

Dual tire tractor


Single (wide) tire tractor
single (wide) tire trailer
dual tire trailer
Distance
Fuel
Fuel
Distance
Fuel
Fuel
traveled
cons.
econ.
traveled
cons.
econ.
(miles)
(gal)
(MPG)
(miles)
(gal)
(MPG)
N/A
967.9
N/A
N/A
1,676.4
N/A
148
50.4
2.93
368.0
124.2
3.0
368
103.2
3.56
808.0
245.4
3.3
396
98.3
4.03
848.0
216.5
3.9
404
100.9
4.00
882.0
221.6
4.0
489
113.6
4.31
1,111.0
244.2
4.6
609
131.5
4.63
1,420.0
286.9
5.0
753
154.2
4.88
1,774.0
341.1
5.2
1,000
193.6
5.17
2,284.0
433.6
5.3
1,543
285.9
5.40
3,380.0
603.6
5.6
2,573
447.7
5.75
5,410.0
872.8
6.2
4,962
811.5
6.11
10,046.0
1,622.7
6.2
11,707
1,721.9
6.80
22,373.0
3,257.8
6.9
21,472
2,980.8
7.20
34,517.0
4,840.0
7.1
NOT ADJUSTED FOR TERRAIN: See note below.
27,931
3,652.2
7.65
65,063.0
9,256.4
7.0
21,751
2,745.5
7.92
66,882.0
8,435.6
7.9
3,610
403.2
8.95
11,513.0
911.1
12.6
99,714 13,994.0
7.13
228,680.0
31,913.0
7.2

5.93%

6.53%

Single (wide) tire tractor single (wide) tire trailer


Distance
Fuel
Fuel
traveled
cons.
econ.
(miles)
(gal)
(MPG)
N/A
706.0
N/A
156
52.8
2.96
331
98.8
3.35
343
87.0
3.95
361
90.5
3.98
462
101.1
4.57
580
117.6
4.93
708
141.1
5.02
941
184.3
5.10
1,350
254.4
5.31
2,177
360.4
6.04
3,877
625.5
6.20
8,710
1,246.9
6.99
14,944
2,049.4
7.29
27,144
32,887
6,817
101,790

3,880.1
4,056.1
512.2
13,858.0

7.00
8.11
13.31
7.35

9.20%

Source:
Capps, Gary, Oscar Franzese, Bill Knee, M.B. Lascurain, and Pedro Otaduy. Class-8 Heavy Truck Duty Cycle
Project Final Report, ORNL/TM-2008/122, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, December 2008.
(Additional resources: cta.ornl.gov/cta/Publications/Reports/ORNL_TM_2008-122.pdf)
Note: These data were not adjusted to account for the effects of terrain. The increase in fuel economy for speeds
above 70 mph is likely due to the vehicle achieving high speeds while traveling down slope. Therefore, this increase
in fuel economy is not expected to be characteristic of all travel at these higher speeds.
a

Total Fuel Consumed does not include fuel consumed while idling.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

516

The fuel economy information presented in Table 5.11 is on the upper limits of todays large-truck fleets and is
mostly a result of driver training and the extensive vehicle maintenance (including constant tire pressure) to which
the fleet company participating in this project adheres. Nevertheless, the results of this extensive test indicate that
there are substantial gains in terms of fuel economy for large trucks when single (wide) tires are used in
combination with dual tires or alone (best case). Figure 5.3 shows the information from Table 5.10 in a graphical
form (bars) and also displays for each speed bin the percentage of the total distance that is traveled at that speed
(line). It is possible to observe that above 80% of the distance traveled by long-haul Class 8 trucks is done at speeds
above 55 mph. Therefore, any gains in fuel economies at these speeds derived from a given tire combination would
have a very large impact on the overall fuel economy of these types of trucks. Figure 5.3 shows that, except for the
D-S combination within the 65+ to 70 mph, the combinations with all single (wide) tires perform better and,
therefore, obtain the largest overall fuel economy.

Figure 5.3. Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire
Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed
NOT ADJUSTED FOR TERRAIN: See note below.

Source:
Capps, Gary, Oscar Franzese, Bill Knee, M.B. Lascurain, and Pedro Otaduy. Class-8 Heavy Truck Duty Cycle
Project Final Report, ORNL/TM-2008/122, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, December 2008.
Note: D = Dual tire. S = Single (wide) tire.
These data were not adjusted to account for the effects of terrain. The increase in fuel economy for speeds above 70
mph is likely due to the vehicle achieving high speeds while traveling down slope. Therefore, this increase in fuel
economy is not expected to be characteristic of all travel at these higher speeds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

517

This graph presents for each one of the four tire-combination categories the percent of total fuel that is consumed
when traveling at different speeds (bars) as well as the average percent of fuel consumed for each speed bin (line).
As opposed to Table 5.10, the total fuel consumed on this graph includes the fuel consumed while idling.

Figure 5.4. Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed
and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination
NOT ADJUSTED FOR TERRAIN: See note below.

Source:
Capps, Gary, Oscar Franzese, Bill Knee, M.B. Lascurain, and Pedro Otaduy. Class-8 Heavy Truck Duty Cycle
Project Final Report, ORNL/TM-2008/122, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, December 2008.
Note: D = Dual tire. S = Single (wide) tire.
These data were not adjusted to account for the effects of terrain. The increase in fuel economy for speeds above 70
mph is likely due to the vehicle achieving high speeds while traveling down slope. Therefore, this increase in fuel
economy is not expected to be characteristic of all travel at these higher speeds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

518

A typical class 8 truck tractor weighs about 17,000 lbs. The powertrain is nearly a quarter of the weight (24%)
while the truck body structure is 19%.

Table 5.12
Class 8 Truck Weight by Component

Wheels and tires


Chassis/frame
Drivetrain and suspension
Misc. accessories/systems
Truck body structure
Powertrain
Total

Pounds
1,700
2,040
2,890
3,060
3,230
4,080
17,000

Share of total
10%
12%
17%
18%
19%
24%
100%

Source:
National Academy of Sciences, Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium and
Heavy-Duty Vehicles, prepublication copy, March 2010, p. 5-42.
Notes:
Powertrain includes engine and cooling system, transmission and accessories.
Truck body structure includes cab-in-white, sleeper unit, hood and fairings, interior and glass.
Miscellaneous accessories/systems include batteries, fuel system, and exhaust hardware.
Drivetrain and suspension includes drive axles, steer axle, and suspension system.
Chassis/frame includes frame rails and crossmembers, fifth wheel and brackets. Wheels and tires include a set of
10 aluminum wheels, plus tires.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

519

The gross weight of a vehicle (GVW) is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the weight of the maximum payload that
the vehicle was designed to carry. In cars and small light trucks, the difference between the empty weight of the
vehicle and the GVW is not significantly different (1,000 to 1,500 lbs). The largest trucks and tractor-trailers,
however, have a payload capacity share of 200%, which means they can carry 200% of their empty weight. The
medium-sized trucks (truck classes 3-6) have payload capacity shares between 50% and 100%.

Table 5.13
Gross Vehicle Weight vs. Empty Vehicle Weight

Vehicle description
Cars
Minivans, small SUVs,
small pick-ups
Large SUVs, standard pickups
Large SUVs, standard pickups
Utility van, multi- purpose,
mini-bus, step van
City delivery, parcel
delivery, large walk-in,
bucket, landscaping
City delivery, parcel
delivery, large walk-in,
bucket
City delivery, school bus,
large walk-in, bucket
City bus, furniture,
refrigerated, refuse, fuel
tanker, dump, tow, concrete,
fire engine, tractor-trailer
Refuse, concrete, furniture,
city bus, tow, fire engine
(straight trucks)
Tractor-trailer: van,
refrigerated, bulk tanker, flat
bed (combination trucks)

Gross vehicle
weight range
(pounds)
3,200-6,000

Empty vehicle
weight range
(pounds)
2,400-5,000

Maximum
payload
capacity
(pounds)
1,000

Payload
capacity share
(percent of
empty weight)
20%

4,000-2,400

3,200-4,500

1,500

33%

2a

6,001-8,500

4,500-6,000

2,500

40%

2b

8,501-10,000

5,000-6,300

3,700

60%

10,001-14,000

7,650-8,750

5,250

60%

14,001-16,000

7,650-8,750

7,250

80%

16,001-19,500

9,500-10,000

8,700

80%

19,501-26,000

11,500-14,500

11,500

80%

26,001-33,000

11,500-14,500

18,500

125%

8a

33,001-80,000

20,000-26,000

54,000

200%

8b

33,001-80,000

20,000-26,000

54,000

200%

Truck class

Source:
National Academy of Sciences, Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium and
Heavy-Duty Vehicles, prepublication copy, March 2010, pp. 2-2 and 5-42.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

520

According to weigh-in-motion data collected by fifteen states, the majority of 5-axle tractor-trailers on the road
weigh between 33,000 and 73,000 lbs. Eleven percent of the tractor-trailers had weight recorded around 72,800 lbs
and 10% around 68,300 lbs. Another 10% of tractor-trailers were on the lighter end of the scale around 37,500
lbs. These data show that only a small percent of trucks on the road are near the maximum roadway gross vehicle
weight of 80,000 lbs. Thus, most trucks are filling the trailer space to capacity (cubing-out) before they reach the
maximum weight limit (weighing-out).

Figure 5.5. Distribution of Class 8 Trucks by On-Road Vehicle Weight, 2008a

Source:
National Academy of Sciences, Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium and
Heavy-Duty Vehicles, prepublication copy, March 2010, p. 5-45. Original source: Federal Highway
Administration, Vehicle Travel Information System, 2008.
Note: Data are from these 15 States: California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri,
Montana, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, and Washington.
a

Study reported data on 5-axle tractor-trailers which are class 8 trucks. Single-unit class 8 trucks were not
considered in the study.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

521

Commodity Flow Survey


The Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) is designed to provide data on the flow of goods and materials
by mode of transport. The 1993, 1997, 2002, and 2007 CFS are a continuation of statistics collected in the
Commodity Transportation Survey from 1963 through 1977, and include major improvements in
methodology, sample size, and scope.

The 2007 CFS covers business establishments with paid

employees that are located in the United States and are classified using the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS) in mining, manufacturing, wholesale trade, and select retail trade
industries, namely, electronic shopping and mail-order houses. Establishments classified in services,
transportation, construction, and most retail industries are excluded from the survey. Farms, fisheries,
foreign establishments, and most government-owned establishments are also excluded.a
The 1993, 1997, 2002, and 2007 CFS differ from previous surveys in their greatly expanded
coverage of intermodalism (i.e., shipments which travel by at least two different modes, such as rail and
truck). Earlier surveys reported only the principal mode. Route distance for each mode for each
shipment was imputed using methodologies developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Distance, in
turn, was used to compute ton-mileage by mode of transport.
The data can be viewed at: www.bts.gov/publications/commodity_flow_survey.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics and U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2007 Economic Census, 2007
Commodity Flow Survey, December 2008.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

522

Industries covered by the 2007 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) shipped over 12 billion tons of goods worth over $11
trillion. Compared to the 1997 CFS, the value of shipments is up 1.3% per year and tons shipped are up 1.6% per
year. By value, intermodal shipments increased 4.7% per year from 1997 to 2007.

Table 5.14
Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and
2007 Commodity Flow Surveys
(Detail may not add to total because of rounding)
Value of goods shipped

Mode of transportation
All modes
Single modes
Trucka
For-hire truck
Private truck
Rail
Water
Shallow draft
Great Lakes
Deep draft
Air (includes truck and air)
Pipelineb
Multiple modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service
or courier
Truck and rail
Truck and water
Rail and water
Other multiple modes
Other and unknown modes

1997
(billion
2007
dollars)
8,970.5
7,388.8
6,435.3
3,748.0
2,630.8
412.9
97.9
69.6
1.9
26.4
296.0
146.6
1,221.9

2002
(billion
2007
dollars)
9,678.0
8,124.6
7,186.0
4,330.2
2,818.3
359.5
102.9
66.3
0.9
35.7
305.4
172.0
1,243.8

1,105.7
97.8
10.6
2.3
5.6
359.9

1,138.5
80.6
16.6
3.8
4.4
309.6

2007
(billions)
11,684.9
9,539.0
8,335.8
4,955.7
3,380.1
436.4
114.9
91.0

Tons
Average
annual
percent
change
(1997-2007)
2.7%
2.6%
2.6%
2.8%
2.5%
0.6%
1.6%
2.7%

23.1
252.3
399.6
1,866.7

-1.3%
-1.6%
10.5%
4.3%

1997
(millions)
11,089.7
10,436.5
7,700.7
3,402.6
4,137.3
1,549.8
563.4
414.8
38.4
110.2
4.5
618.2
216.7

1,561.9
187.2
58.4
13.9
45.3
279.1

3.5%
6.7%
18.6%
19.7%
-8.0%
-2.5%

23.7
54.2
33.2
79.3
26.2
436.5

2002
(millions)
11,667.9
11,086.7
7,842.8
3,657.3
4,149.7
1,873.9
681.2
458.6
38.0
184.6
3.8
685.0
216.7
25.5
43.0
23.3
105.1
19.8
364.6

2007
(millions)
12,543.4
11,698.1
8,778.7
4,075.1
4,703.6
1,861.3
403.6
343.3
17.8
42.5
3.6
650.9
573.7

Average
annual
percent
change
1.2%
1.1%
1.3%
1.8%
1.3%
1.8%
-3.3%
-1.9%
-7.4%
-9.1%
-2.2%
0.5%
10.2%

33.9
225.6
145.5
54.9
113.8
271.6

3.6%
15.3%
15.9%
-3.6%
15.8%
-4.6%

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics and U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau
of the Census, 2007 Commodity Flow Survey, Table 1a.
(Additional resources: www.bts.gov/
publications/commodity_flow_survey)
a

"Truck" as a single mode includes shipments which went by private truck only, for-hire truck only, or a
combination of private truck and for-hire truck.
b
Denotes data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response
quality.
c
CFS data for pipeline exclude most shipments of crude oil.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

523

Industries covered by the 2007 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) accounted for 3.3 trillion ton-miles on the nations
highways, railways, waterways, pipelines, and aviation system. Ton-miles increased an average of 2.7% per year
from 1997 to 2007.

Table 5.15
Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and
2007 Commodity Flow Surveys
(Detail may not add to total because of rounding)
Ton-miles

Mode of transportation
All modes
Single modes
Trucka
For-hire truck
Private truck
Rail
Water
Shallow draft
Great Lakes
Deep draft
Air (includes truck and air)
Pipelineb
Multiple modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service
or courier
Truck and rail
Truck and water
Rail and water
Other multiple modes
Other and unknown modes

1997
(billions)
2,661.4
2,383.5
1,023.5
741.1
268.6
1,022.5
261.7
189.3
13.4
59.0
6.2

2002
(billions)
3,137.9
2,867.9
1,255.9
959.6
291.1
1,261.6
282.7
211.5
13.8
57.4
5.8

204.5

225.7

416.6

18.0
55.6
34.8
77.6
18.6
73.4

19.0
45.5
32.4
115.0
13.8
44.2

28.0
196.8
98.4
47.1
46.4
33.8

2007
(billions)
3,344.7
2,894.3
1,342.1
1,055.6
286.5
1,344.0
157.3
117.5
6.9
33.0
4.5
c

Average miles per shipment


Average
annual
percent
change
(1997-2007)
2.3%
2.0%
2.7%
3.6%
0.6%
2.8%
-5.0%
-4.7%
-6.4%
-0.1%
-3.2%

1997
472
184
144
485
53
769
482
177
204
1,024
1,380

2002
546
240
173
523
64
807
568
450
339
664
1,919

2007
619
234
206
599
57
728
520
144
657
923
1,304

Average
annual
percent
change
2.7%
2.4%
3.6%
2.1%
0.7%
-0.5%
0.8%
-2.0%
12.4%
-1.0%
-0.6%

7.4%

813

895

975

1.8%

4.5%
13.5%
11.0%
-4.9%
0.1%
-7.5%

813
1,347
1,265
1,092

894
1,413
1,950
957

1.8%
-2.9%
1.2%
5.8%

122

130

975
1,007
1,429
1,928
1,182
116

-0.5%

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics and U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau
of the Census, 2007 Commodity Flow Survey, Table 1a.
(Additional resources:
www.bts.gov/publications/commodity_flow_survey)
a

"Truck" as a single mode includes shipments which went by private truck only, for-hire truck only, or a
combination of private truck and for-hire truck.
b
CFS data for pipeline exclude most shipments of crude oil.
c
Denotes data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons. Some
unpublished estimates can be derived from other data published in this table. However, figures obtained in this
manner are subject to these same limitations.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

524

In 2007, the data changed substantially due to improved estimation methodologies. Unfortunately, those data are
no longer comparable to the rest of the historical series.

Table 5.16
Summary Statistics on Transit Buses and Trolleybuses, 19942011

Year
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Number of
active buses
68,766
67,802
72,353
73,425
72,788
74,885
75,665
76,675
76,806
78,000
81,630
82,642
83,689
65,808
67,096
65,363
66,810
69,654

Vehicle-miles
(millions)
2,176
2,198
2,234
2,259
2,188
2,290
2,329
2,389
2,425
2,435
2,484
2,498
2,507
2,314
2,388
2,345
2,425
2,425

Passengermiles
(millions)
19,019
19,005
19,280
19,793
20,542
21,391
21,433
22,209
22,029
21,438
21,550
21,998
22,985
21,132
21,918
21,645
21,172
21,574

Btu/passengermile
4,262
4,307
4,340
4,434
4,399
4,344
4,531
4,146
4,133
4,213
4,364
4,250
4,316
4,372
4,348
4,242
4,118
4,240

Energy use
(trillion Btu)
81.1
81.9
83.7
87.8
90.4
92.9
97.1
92.1
91.1
90.3
94.0
93.5
99.2
92.4
95.3
91.8
87.2
91.5

Source:
American Public Transportation Association, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, April 2013,
Tables 6, 8, 9, 15, and Appendix A. (Additional resources: www.apta.com)
a

Data are not continuous between 2006 and 2007 due to changes in estimation methodology. See source
document for details.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

61

Chapter 6
Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology
Vehicles and Characteristics
Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter
Source
Table 6.1

Alternative fuel vehicles in use, 2011


E85

862,837

LPG

139,477

CNG

118,214

Electric

Table 6.6

1,191,786

67,295

LNG

3,436

M85

Number of alternative fuel refuel sites, 2013


Electric

23,406
15,989

LPG

2,790

CNG

1,197

Biodiesel

710

Hydrogen

58

Fuel type abbreviations are used throughout this chapter.


B20
= 20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel
CNG = compressed natural gas
E85
= 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline
E95
= 95% ethanol, 5% gasoline
H2
= hydrogen
LNG = liquefied natural gas
LPG = liquefied petroleum gas
M85 = 85% methanol, 15% gasoline
M100 = 100% methanol

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

62

Alternative Fuels
The Energy Policy Act of 1992 defines alternative fuels and allows the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
to add to the list of alternative fuels if the fuel is substantially nonpetroleum, yields substantial energy
security benefits, and offers substantial environmental benefits. DOE currently recognizes the following
as alternative fuels:

methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols,


blends of 85% or more of alcohol with gasoline,
natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas,
liquefied petroleum gas (propane),
coal-derived liquid fuels,
hydrogen,
electricity,
biodiesel (BIOO),
fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials,
P-series.

Alternative Fuels Data Center


DOE established the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) in 1991 to support its work aimed at
fulfilling the Alternative Motor Fuels Act directives. Since then, the AFDC has expanded its focus to
include all advanced transportation fuels, vehicles, and technologies. It has been renamed the Alternative
Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center to reflect this broader scope. The AFDC is operated and
managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado.
The purposes of the AFDC are:

to gather and analyze information on the fuel consumption, emissions, operation, and durability
of alternative fuel vehicles, and

to provide unbiased, accurate information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles to
government agencies, private industry, research institutions, and other interested organizations.

Much of the AFDC data can be obtained through their website: www.afdc.energy.gov. Several tables
and graphs in this chapter contain statistics which were generated by the AFDC. Below are some links to
specific areas of the AFDC website.

Alternative & Advanced Fuels www.afdc.energy.gov


Alternative Fueling Station Locator www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/
Alternative & Advanced Vehicles www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels
State & Federal Incentives & Laws www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/
Data Analysis & Trends www.afdc.energy.gov/data/
Tools www.afdc.energylgov/tools

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

63

There are almost 1.2 million alternative fuel vehicles in the United States, not including flex-fuel E85 vehicles which
operate mainly on gasoline. The E85 vehicles in this table are those believed to be regularly fueled with E85 and
represent only fleet vehicles covered under the Energy Policy Act.

Table 6.1
Estimates of Alternative Fuel Highway Vehicles in Usea, 19952011
E85b

E95

Electricityc

386

1,527

136

2,860

246,855

172

4,536

361

3,280

265,006

21,040

172

9,130

347

4,453

280,205

19,648

200

12,788

14

5,243

295,030

1,681

18,964

198

24,604

14

6,964

322,302

2,090

10,426

87,570

11,830

394,664

2,576

7,827

100,303

17,847

425,457

120,839

2,708

5,873

120,951

33,047

471,098

190,369

114,406

2,640

176,799

47,485

531,708

182,864

118,532

2,717

211,800

49,536

43

565,492

2005

173,795

117,699

2,748

246,363

51,398

119

592,122

2006

164,846

116,131

2,798

297,099

53,526

159

634,559

2007

158,254

114,391

2,781

364,384

55,730

223

695,763

2008

151,049

113,973

3,101

450,327

56,901

313

775,664

2009

147,030

114,270

3,176

504,297

57,185

357

826,315

2010

143,037

115,863

3,354

618,506

57,462

421

938,643

2011

139,477

118,214

3,436

862,837

67,295

527

1,191,786

Year

LPG

1995

172,806

1996

175,585

1997

CNG

LNG

M85

M100

50,218

603

18,319

60,144

663

20,265

175,679

68,571

813

1998

177,183

78,782

1,172

1999

178,610

91,267

2000

181,994

100,750

2001

185,053

111,851

2002

187,680

2003
2004

Hydrogen

Total

Average annual percentage change


1995-2011

-1.3%

5.5%

11.5%

-100.0%

-100.0%

48.6%

-100.0%

21.8%

10.3%

Source:
U. S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data, Washington, DC,
May 2013, website: www.eia.gov/renewable/afv/. 1995-2006, Annual Energy Review, Table 10.4. Estimated
Number of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use and Replacement Fuel Consumption.
a

Vehicles in Use represent accumulated acquisitions, less retirements, as of the end of each calendar year.
They do not include concept and demonstration vehicles.
b
Includes only those E85 vehicles believed to be used as alternative-fuels vehicles (AFVs), primarily fleetoperated vehicles; excludes other vehicles with E85-fueling capability. In 1997, some vehicle manufacturers began
including E85-fueling capability in certain model lines of vehicles. For 2007, the Energy Information
Administration (EIA) estimates that the number of E85 vehicles that are capable of operating on E85, motor
gasoline, or both, is about 7.1 million. Many of these AFVs are sold and used as traditional gasoline-powered
vehicles.
c
Excludes HEVs.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

64

Trollybus, heavy rail, and light rail use nearly all alternative fuels. However, the 36.6% of buses using alternative
fuels replace a lot of traditional fuel use. Rail transit vehicles have the highest average age.

Table 6.2
Alternative Fuel Transit Vehicles, 2011

Mode
Bus
Commuter rail
Ferry boat
Heavy rail
Light rail
Paratransit
Trolleybus
Vanpool

Average
age
8.0
18.2
18.8
20.2
16.6
4.1
9.9
a

Percent
powered by
alternative fuels
36.6%
11.6%
45.5%
100.0%
98.4%
7.7%
100.0%
a

Number
of
vehicles
69,175
7,193
184
11,342
1,986
65,336
479
13,342

Source:
American Public Transportation Association, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC,
April 2013, Appendix A. (Additional resources: www.apta.com)
Note: See Glossary for definition of modes, such as paratransit and vanpool.
a

Not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

65

Table 6.3
Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2013
Model

Fuel

Type

Emission class

E85 flex fuel


E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel

Sedan
Sedan
Sedan
Wagon
SUV

Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV


Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV
Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV
Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV
Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV

E85 flex fuel


E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel

Sedan
Sedan
Sedan
Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII LEV


Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII LEV
Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII LEV
Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII LEV

E85 flex fuel


E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
B20
Bi-Fuel/CNG
E85 flex fuel

Sedan
Sedan
Minivan
Sedan
Sedan
Minivan
SUV
SUV
Sedan
SUV
SUV
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Minivan

Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 4
HD 1
N/A
Tier 2 Bin 4

E85 flex fuel


CNG/LPG Capable w/Prep Package
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
B20
CNG/LPG Capable w/Prep Package
E85 flex fuel
CNG/LPG Capable w/Prep Package
E85 flex fuel

Van/Wagon
Van/Wagon
Van/Wagon
SUV
SUV
Pickup
Sedan
Sedan
SUV
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Sedan
Van
SUV

Tier 2 Bin 8
N/A
Tier 2 Bin 8
Tier 2 Bin 8
Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 4
N/A
N/A
Fed HD
Fed HD
N/A
Tier 2 Bin 5
N/A
Tier 2 Bin 8

E85 flex fuel


E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
B20

Sedan
Sedan
Sedan
Sedan
Sedan
SUV
SUV
SUV
SUV
SUV
SUV
Van

Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 5
HDV2

Audi: 1-800-822-AUDI; www.audiusa.com


A4
A5
A5 Cabriolet
Allroad Quatro
Q5
Bentley: 1-800-777-BENTLEY; www.bentleymotors.com
Continental Flying Spur
Continental GT
Continental GTC
Continental Super Sport
Chrysler: 1-800-999-FLEET; www.fleet.chrysler.com
Chrysler 200
Chrysler 300 FWD/AWD
Chrysler Town & Country
Dodge Avenger
Dodge Charger FWD/AWD
Dodge Grand Caravan
Dodge Durango 2WD/AWD
Dodge Journey FWD
Dodge Charger Police Pursuit
Dodge Durango Police Special Service
Jeep Grand Cherokee 2WD/FWD
Ram 1500 2WD/4WD
Ram 2500/3500 HD
Ram 2500
Ram CV

Ford: 1-800-34-FLEET; www.fleet.ford.com; 1-313-322-3000; www.fordvehicles.com


Ford E150/E250
Ford E150/E250/E350
Ford E350
Ford Expedition 2WD/AWD
Ford Explorer 2WD/AWD
Ford F150 2WD/4WD
Ford Focus
Ford Police Interceptor
Ford Police Interceptor Utility
Ford Super Duty Ford F250/350
Ford Super Duty F250/350
Ford Super Duty F250/350
Ford Taurus
Ford Transit Connect
Lincoln Navigator 2WD/4WD
General Motors: 1-313-556-5000; www.gm.com/vehicles
Buick LaCrosse FWD/AWD
Buick Regal
Buick Regal
Buick Verano
Cadillac ATS RWD/AWD
Cadillac Escalade
Cadillac Escalade ESV 2WD/AWD
Cadillac Escalade EXT
Cadillac SRX 2WD/AWD
Chevrolet Tahoe 1500 2WD/4WD
Chevrolet Avalanche 1500 2WD/4WD
Chevrolet Cab Chassis 3500
Continued on next page.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

66

Table 6.3 (continued)


Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2013
Model

Fuel

Type

Emission class

E85 flex fuel


E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
B20
CNG
LPG
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
B20
E85 flex fuel
Bi-Fuel/CNG
E85 flex fuel

Sedan
SUV
SUV
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Sedan
Sedan
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
SUV

E85 flex fuel

SUV

B20
E85 flex fuel
B20
CNG
LPG
E85 flex fuel
B20
E85 flex fuel
Bi-Fuel/CNG
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel

Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
SUV
SUV
SUV

HDV2
Tier 2 Bin 8
HDV1
N/A
N/A
Tier 2 Bin 4
HDV1
Tier 2 Bin 5
N/A
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 5

Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 2

General Motors Corporation (continued)


Chevrolet Caprice Police Patrol & Detective Vehicle
Chevrolet Captiva FWD/AWD
Chevrolet Equinox FWD/AWD
Chevrolet Express 2500/3500
Chevrolet Express 2500/3500
Chevrolet Express 2500/3500
Chevrolet Express 4500 Cutaway
Chevrolet Express Prisoner Transport Van
Chevrolet Express 1500 2WD/AWD
Chevrolet Impala
Chevrolet Impala Police & Undercover Vehicle
Chevrolet Silverado 2500/3500 HD
Chevrolet Silverado C/K 1500
Chevrolet Silverado 2500 HD 2WD/AWD
Chevrolet Suburban 1500 2WD/4WD
Chevrolet Tahoe Police Patrol & Special Service
Vehicle
GMC Cab Chassis 3500
GMC Savana 2500/3500
GMC Savana 2500/3500
GMC Savana 2500/3500
GMC Savana 4500 Cutaway
GMC Savana 1500 2WD/AWD
GMC Sierra 2500/3500 HD
GM Sierra C/K 1500
GMC Sierra 2500 HD 2WD/AWD
GMC Terrain FWD/AWD
GMC Yukon 1500 Yukon XL 2WD/4WD
GMC Yukon XL Yukon Denali 2WD/AWD

N/A
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 8
HDV1
N/A
N/A
N/A
Tier 2 Bin 4
Tier 2 Bin 4
N/A
HDV1
Tier 2 Bin 5
N/A
Tier 2 Bin 5
N/A

Honda: 1-888-CC-HONDA; www.honda.com


Civic NGV

CNG Dedicated

Mercedes-Benz: 1-800-FOR-MERCEDES; www.mbusa.com


C300 4Matic
C350 Sedan/Coupe
E350 Sedan/Coupe
ML350

E85 flex fuel


E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel
E85 flex fuel

Sedan
Sedan
Sedan
SUV

N/A
Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII LEV
Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII LEV
N/A

E85 flex fuel


E85 flex fuel

SUV
Pickup

N/A
N/A

E85 flex fuel


E85 flex fuel

SUV
Pickup

Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 5

Nissan: 1-800-NISSAN-1; www.nissanusa.com


Armada 2WD/4WD
Titan 2WD/4WD
Toyota: 1-800-331-4331; www.toyota.com
Sequoia 4WD
Tundra 4WD

Vehicle Production Group (VPG): 1-877-MV1-FORU; www.vpgautos.com


MV-1

CNG

SUV

Tier 2 Bin 2 LEVII SULEV

E85 flex fuel

Van

Tier 2 Bin 4

Volkswagen: 1-800 DRIVEVW; www.volkswagen.com


Routan

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, National Alternative Fuels Data Center, website,
www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/index.html, February 2013. (Additional resources:
www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/)
Note: LEV=low emission vehicle. ILEV=inherently low emission vehicle. ULEV=ultra low emission vehicle.
ZEV=zero emission vehicle. TLEV=transitional low emission vehicle. SULEV=super ultra low emission vehicle.
See Chapter 12 for details on emissions.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

67

The hybrid share of all light vehicles peaked in 2009 with 2.8% of the market. Plug-in vehicles certified for highway
use began selling in 2010.

Table 6.4
Hybrid and Plug-In Vehicle Sales, 1999-2012
Calendar
year
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Hybrid vehicle
sales
(thousands)
0.0
9.4
20.3
36.0
47.6
84.2
205.9
251.9
351.1
315.8
290.3
274.6
266.5
434.6

Plug-in vehicle
sales
(thousands)
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
17.8
53.2

All light
vehicle sales
(thousands)
16,894
17,350
17,122
16,816
16,639
16,867
16,948
16,504
16,089
13,195
10,402
11,555
12,734
14,217

Hybrid share
of all light
vehicles
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.5%
1.2%
1.5%
2.2%
2.4%
2.8%
2.4%
2.1%
3.1%

Plug-in share
of all light
vehicles
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.4%

Sources:
Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Sales Compiled by the Transportation Research Center at Argonne
National Laboratory, 2013.
All Light Vehicle Sales Table 3.11.
Note: Plug-in vehicle sales include only those vehicles certified for highway use. Small electric carts
and neighborhood electric vehicles are excluded.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

68

Table 6.5
Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2013
Model
Acura: 1-800-999-1009; www.acura.com/
ILX

Type

Emissions Class

Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII PZEV

Audi: 1-800-822-AUDI; www.audiusa.com


Q5 Hybrid

SUV

Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV

BMW: 1-800-831-1117; www.bmwusa.com


ActiveHybrid 3
ActiveHybrid 5
ActiveHybrid 7

Sedan
Sedan
Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 5 LEV-II ULEV


Tier 2 Bin 5 LEV-II ULEV
Tier 2 Bin 5 LEV-II ULEV

CODA: 1-855-464-2632; www.codaautomotive.com


CODA

Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 1 LEVII ZEV

Chrysler: 1-800-999-FLEET; www.fleet.chrysler.com


Ram 500e

Sedan

LEV II ZEV

Ford: 1-800-34-FLEET; www.fleet.ford.com; 1-313-322-3000; www.fordvehicles.com


Ford C-MAX
Sedan
Tier 2 Bin 3
Ford C-MAX ENERGI
Sedan
Tier 2 Bin 3
Ford Focus
Sedan
Tier 2 Bin 1 LEVII ZEV
Ford Fusion
Sedan
Tier 2 Bin 3
Ford Fusion ENERGI
Sedan
N/A
Lincoln MKZ
Sedan
Tier 2 Bin 3
General Motors: 1-313-556-5000; www.gm.com/vehicles
Cadillac Escalade 2WD/AWD
Chevrolet Silverado C/K 1500
Chevrolet Spark
Chevrolet Tahoe 2WD/AWD
Chevrolet Volt
GMC Yukon Denali 2WD/AWD
GMC Sierra C/K 1500
Honda: 1-800-999-1009; www.honda.com
Civic
CRZ
Fit
Insight

SUV
Pickup
Sedan
SUV
Sedan
SUV
Pickup

Sedan
Two seater
Sedan
Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 5
LEV II ZEV
Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 2 LEVII PZEV
Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 5
Tier 2 Bin 2
Tier 2 Bin 2
Tier 2 Bin 1 ZEV
Tier 2 Bin 3

Hyundai : 1-800-633-5151; www.hyundaiusa.com


Sonata

Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 2 LEVII SULEV

Infiniti: 1-800-662-6200; www.infinitiusa.com


M35h

Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV

Kia: 1-800-333-4KIA; www.kia.com


Optima

Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 2 LEVII SULEV

Lexus: 1-800-255-3987; www.lexus.com


CT 200h
ES 300h
LS 600h L
GS 450h
RX 450h FWD/AWD

Sedan
Sedan
Sedan
Sedan
SUV

Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII SULEV


Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII SULEV
Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII SULEV
Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII SULEV
Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII SULEV

Mercedes Benz: 1-800-FOR-MERCEDES; www.mbusa.com


S400
Sedan
Smart ForTwo
Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 4 LEVII PZEV


N/A

Continued on next page.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

69

Table 6.5 (continued)


Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2013
Model

Type

Emissions Class

Mitsubishi: 1-888-MITSU2013; www.mitsubishicars.com


i-MiEV
Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 1 LEVII ZEV

Nissan: 1-800-NISSAN-1; www.nissanusa.com


Leaf

Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 1 LEVII ZEV

Porsche: 1-800-PORSCHE; www.porsche.com/usa/


Cayenne S Hybrid
PanameraS Hybrid

SUV
Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV


Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV

Tesla: 1-877-79-TESLA; www.teslamotors.com


Model S

Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 1 LEVII ZEV

Toyota: 1-800-331-4331; www.toyota.com


Avalon
Camry
Highlander
Prius
Prius C
Prius V
RAV 4 EV
Scion iQ EV

Sedan
Sedan
SUV
Sedan
Sedan
Wagon
SUV
Sedan

Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII SULEV


Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII SULEV
Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII SULEV
Tier 2 Bin 3 AT-PZEV
Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII SULEV
Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII SULEV
Tier 2 Bin 1 LEVII ZEV
N/A

Volkswagen: 1-800-DRIVE-VW; www.vw.com


Jetta Hybrid
Toureg Hybrid

Sedan
SUV

Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII PZEV


Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII ULEV

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, National Alternative Fuels Data Center, website,
www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/index.html, February 2013 (Additional resources:
www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/)
Note: LEV = low emission vehicle; ILEV = inherently low emission vehicle; ULEV = ultra-low emission vehicle;
ZEV = zero emission vehicle; TLEV = transitional low emission vehicle; SULEV = super ultra-low emission
vehicle; AT-PZEV = advanced technology - partial zero emissions vehicle. See Chapter 12 for details on emissions.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

610

This list includes public and private refuel sites; therefore, not all of these sites are available to the public.

Table 6.6
Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2013
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Dist. of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Totals by Fuel:

B20
sites
11
0
20
4
80
21
2
1
2
16
26
8
7
10
8
7
7
3
2
4
9
6
18
10
3
4
6
3
5
3
5
8
21
137
3
21
5
25
7
2
34
2
44
17
3
1
14
37
2
4
12
710

CNG
sites
15
1
33
5
257
36
16
1
2
28
23
1
8
36
15
2
6
4
18
1
9
20
19
8
2
11
2
8
7
3
27
10
109
30
2
24
95
14
41
6
7
0
8
54
88
3
16
23
0
32
11
1,197

E85
sites
29
0
32
33
74
84
1
1
3
51
59
3
9
206
158
188
32
35
4
1
22
8
129
361
1
110
3
77
19
0
5
14
85
30
79
88
27
8
32
0
86
100
43
81
4
1
21
20
4
126
9
2,596

Electric
sites
48
4
566
36
3,896
208
168
15
105
869
209
316
11
486
169
83
71
36
61
23
435
440
673
154
37
122
2
10
62
42
197
31
495
511
4
149
29
825
226
41
210
9
754
1,378
67
32
315
1,135
37
187
0
15,989

Hydrogen
sites
0
0
1
0
24
1
2
0
0
0
0
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
0
0
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
9
0
0
1
0
0
2
0
2
0
0
1
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
58

LNG
sites
2
0
6
0
41
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
9
3
0
0
0
0
1
0
66

LPG
sites
94
7
63
44
227
59
15
3
0
68
48
3
27
97
181
20
36
43
21
9
18
20
75
37
138
64
41
22
39
11
10
49
35
71
18
71
54
33
70
6
39
17
75
471
26
4
58
72
9
51
21
2,790

Totals by
Statea
199
12
721
122
4,599
409
205
21
112
1,032
365
334
62
836
531
300
152
121
107
38
493
495
918
570
181
312
54
120
135
59
244
112
754
779
106
355
210
905
378
55
378
128
924
2,011
191
41
426
1,288
52
401
53
23,406

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center website,
www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/stations counts.html, February 2013.
a

Totals by State is the total number of fuel types available at stations. Stations are counted once for each type of fuel

available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

611

Clean Cities is a locally-based government/industry partnership, coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy to
expand the use of alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. By combining the decision-making with voluntary action
by partners, the "grass-roots" approach of Clean Cities departs from traditional "top-down" Federal programs.

Figure 6.1. Clean Cities Coalitions

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuel Data Center, February 2013.
www.eere.energy.gov/cleancities/progs/coalition_locations.php)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

(Additional resources:

612

Table 6.7
Properties of Conventional and Alternative Fuels
Property

Gasoline

No. 2 diesel

Methanol

Ethanol

Chemical formula
Physical state
Molecular weight
Composition (weight %)
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen

C4 to C12
Liquid
100105

C8 to C25
Liquid
~200

CH3OH
Liquid
32.04

CH3CH2OH
Liquid
46.07

8588
1215
0

87
13
0

37.5
12.6
49.9

52.2
13.1
34.7

Main fuel source(s)


Specific gravity (60 F/ 60 F)
Density (lb/gal @ 60 F)
Boiling temperature (F)
Freezing point (F)
Autoiginition temperature (F)
Reid vapor pressure (psi)

Crude oil
0.720.78
6.06.5
80437
-40
495
815

Crude oil
0.85
7.079
356644
-4030
~600
<0.2

Natural gas, coal, or


woody biomass
0.796
6.63
149
-143.5
867
4.6

Corn, grains, or
agricultural waste
0.794
6.61
172
-173.2
793
2.3

Property
Chemical formula
Physical state
Molecular weight
Composition (weight %)
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Main fuel source
pecific gravity (60 F/ 60 F)
Density (lb/gal @ 60 F)
Boiling temperature (F)
Freezing point (F)
Autoiginition temperature (F)
Reid vapor pressure (psi)

Propane

CNG

Hydrogen

C3H8

CH4

H2

Compressed gas
44.1

Compressed gas
16.04

Compressed gas or liquid


2.02

82
18
n/a

75
25
n/a

Underground reserves
0.508
4.22
-44
-305.8
842
208

Underground reserves
0.424
1.07
-263.2 to -126.4
-296
900-1,170
2,400

0
100
0
Natural gas, methanol,
and other energy sources
0.07
n/a
-423
-435
932
n/a

Source:
Alternative Fuels Data Center, Properties of Fuel, www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/pdfs/fueltable.pdf and Fuel
Comparison, www.afdc.energy.gov/pdfs/afv_info.pdf, March 2013.
Note: n/a = not applicable.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

71

Chapter 7
Fleet Vehicles and Characteristics
Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source
Figure 7.1

Fleet cars, 2012

4,376,300

Figure 7.1

Fleet trucks 19,500 lbs. GVW, 2012

4,227,800

Table 7.3

Average annual miles per business fleet vehicle

Figure 7.2

SUVs

25,392

Intermediate cars

24,120

Pickup trucks

24,048

Average annual miles per Federal Government


fleet vehicle, 2011
Sedans

Table 7.4

11,070

SUVs

9,961

Buses

9,784

Heavy trucks

7,932

Medium trucks

7,008

Light trucks

6,516

Ambulances

5,689

Federal government vehicles, FY 2011

655,989

Light trucks (<8,500 lbs. GVW)

285,296

Cars and other passenger vehicles

245,528

Medium trucks (8,50026,000 lbs. GVW)

81,791

Heavy trucks (>26,000 lbs. GVW)

33,951

Buses and ambulances

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 332013

9,423

72

Vehicles in fleets of 15 or more are counted as fleet vehicles, as well as vehicles in fleets where five or more vehicles
are purchased annually. Historical data on fleets are not available due to definitional changes of what constitutes a
fleet.

Figure 7.1. Fleet Vehicles in Service as of January 1, 2012

Source:
Bobit Publishing Company, Automotive Fleet Research Department, Automotive Fleet Factbook 2012-2013,
Redondo Beach, CA, 2013. (Additional resources: www.fleet-central.com)
a

Taxi category includes vans.


Rental category includes vans and sports utility vehicles under cars, not trucks.
c
Fleets of 15 or more in operation or 5 or more fleet vehicles purchased annually.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

73

Rental companies made the largest light fleet vehicle registrations in 2011 buying over 1.6 million vehicles, most of
them cars (56.0%). Only 29.7% of the new commercial fleet registrations were cars.

Table 7.1
New Light Fleet Vehicle Registrations by Vehicle Type, Model Year 2011
Cars
Pickup trucks
Vans
Sport utility vehicles
Total

Commercial
29.7%
32.3%
19.1%
18.9%
582,647

Rental
56.0%
6.4%
12.8%
24.8%
1,651,758

Government
41.9%
26.7%
15.8%
15.6%
167,717

Total
48.7%
14.1%
14.5%
22.7%
2,402,122

Source:
Bobit Publishing Company, Automotive Fleet Factbook 2012-2013, www.automotive-fleet.com/statistics.
(Additional resources: www.fleet-central.com)
Table 7.2
Average Length of Time Commercial Fleet Vehicles are in Service, 2011

Vehicle type
Compact cars
Intermediate cars
Pickup trucks
Minivans
Sport utility vehicles
Full-size vans

Average months
in service
37
37
56
42
31
57

Source:
Bobit Publishing Company, Automotive Fleet Factbook 2012-2013, www.automotive-fleet.com.
resources: www.fleet-central.com)

(Additional

Note: Based on data collected from four leading Fleet Management companies.

Table 7.3
Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel
for Commerical Fleet Vehicles, 2011
Business fleet vehicles
Compact cars
Intermediate cars
Pickup trucks
Minivans
Sport utility vehicles
Full-size vans

Average annual miles of


travel
19,824
24,120
24,048
25,836
25,392
26,724

Source:
Bobit Publishing Company, Automotive Fleet Factbook 2012-2013, www.automotive-fleet.com. (Additional
resources: www.fleet-central.com)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 332013

74

These data, which apply to domestic Federal fleet vehicles, indicate that sedans have the highest average annual
miles per vehicle, followed closely by sport utility vehicles and buses.

Figure 7.2. Average Miles per Domestic Federal Vehicle by Vehicle Type, 2011

Source:
U.S. General Services Administrations, Federal Vehicle Policy Division, FY 2011 Federal Fleet Report,
Washington, DC, 2012, Table 4-2. (Additional resources: www.gsa.gov)
Note: Light trucks = less than 8,500 pounds gross vehicle weight ratio (GVWR).
Medium trucks = 8,501-23,999 pounds GVWR.
Heavy trucks = 24,000 pounds GVWR or more.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

75

The Federal Government vehicle inventory includes more light trucks than passenger vehicles.

Table 7.4
Federal Government Vehicles, 2001-2011
Vehicle Type
Passenger vehicles
Subcompact

2001

2002

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

5,462

4,638

2,401

2,181

1,968

3,058

5,935

6,797

10,658

Compact

60,938

57,002

58,284

56,220

48,495

41,482

36,662

46,489

49,657

Midsize

36,921

40,779

36,656

39,762

48,622

55,157

57,284

48,242

38,057

Large

11,107

11,265

15,966

11,783

11,907

10,679

10,230

10,063

9,146

116

130

191

318

217

238

349

412

158

56,563

61,518

42,109

41,911

43,203

43,131

41,855

41,676

40,964
16,633

Limousines
Light duty passenger vans
Medium duty passenger vans

727

1,701

13,252

15,657

15,231

15,696

15,362

15,218

40,842

48,343

50,445

52,393

53,837

56,329

64,793

66,316

68,807

6,096

7,192

7,733

10,837

7,344

11,117

11,448

212,676

225,376

225,400

227,417

231,213

236,607

239,814

246,330

245,528

Light trucks 4x2

227,937

220,205

243,477

241,847

243,720

243,143

244,022

241,011

238,261

Light trucks 4x4

29,975

27,108

35,417

37,019

40,115

34,962

36,713

40,105

47,035

Medium trucks

88,993

86,949

83,747

81,721

84,414

88,509

89,052

89,253

81,791

Heavy trucks

27,988

31,426

35,230

33,383

32,492

32,752

32,629

32,760

33,951

Ambulances

1,819

1,710

1,580

1,601

1,982

1,474

1,433

1,480

1,445

Buses

6,726

7,313

7,837

7,752

8,297

8,044

8,040

8,186

7,978

383,438

374,711

407,288

403,323

411,020

408,884

411,889

412,795

410,461

596,114

600,087

632,688

630,740

642,233

645,491

651,703

659,125

655,989

Light duty SUVs


Medium duty SUVs
Total passenger vehicles
Trucks and other vehicles

Total trucks and other


vehicles
GRAND TOTAL ALL
VEHICLES

Source:
U.S. General Services Administration, Federal Supply Service, FY 2011 Federal Fleet Report, Washington, DC,
2012, Tables 2-5 and 2-6. (Additional resources: www.gsa.gov)
Note: Light trucks = less than 8,500 pounds gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR).
Medium trucks = 8,501-23,999 pounds GVWR.
Heavy trucks = 24,000 pounds GVWR or more.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 332013

76

Table 7.5
Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions
by Fuel Type, FY 20022011

Fuel type
Gasoline
Diesel
Gasoline hybrid
Diesel hybrid
CNG
E-85
Electric
LNG
LPG
M-85
Hydrogen
Grand total

2002
44,850
8,107
a
b

1,267
8,054
7
3
59
25
0
62,372

2005
41,247
6,049
222
1
188
16,892
13
0
1
0
0
64,613

Acquisitions by year
2006
2007
2008
37,242
32,089
30,376
6,809
5,809
5,897
516
458
531
0
4
0
243
129
123
18,168
26,581
27,792
0
7
6
0
0
0
0
4
3
0
0
0
0
0
1
62,978
65,081
64,729

2009
31,782
4,742
3,959
4
77
27,850
7
0
23
0
1
68,445

2010
26,547
4,136
4,853
27
60
26,789
1,376
0
2
0
4
63,794

2011
20,785
4,422
3,787
50
84
24,785
450
0
11
0
4
54,378

Source:
U.S. General Services Administrations, Federal Vehicle Policy Division, FY 2011 Federal Fleet Report,
Washington, DC, 2012, Table 5-4. (Additional resources: www.gsa.gov)

Table 7.6
Fuel Consumed by Federal Government Fleets, FY 20002011
(thousand gasoline equivalent gallons)

Gasoline
Diesel
CNG
Electricity
Biodiesel
Methanol/M-85
LPG
Ethanol/E-85
LNG
Other
Total

FY00
284,480
70,181
865
1
569
14
34
347
0
0
356,491

FY05
300,261
53,363
1,245
6
8,052
0
231
3,060
102
0
366,320

FY06
288,923
47,489
807
5
8,334
0
105
3,206
90
0
348,959

FY07
293,848
74,806
889
5
9,515
0
322
3,854
95
0
383,334

FY08
292,046
72,262
731
4
6,992
0
399
6,293
59
0
378,786

FY09
301,340
75,329
499
4
7,398
0
208
7,923
35
0
392,736

FY10
322,023
75,149
504
36
8,258
0
195
8,201
0
0
414,366

FY11
321,066
78,252
436
90
8,131
0
187
9,521
0
0
417,683

Source:
U.S. General Services Administrations, Federal Vehicle Policy Division, FY 2011 Federal Fleet Report,
Washington, DC, 2012, Table 5-1. (Additional resources: www.gsa.gov)
a
b

Combined with gasoline.


Combined with diesel.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

77

In FY2000, the General Services Administration owned 143,948 vehicles which they leased to other agencies. In
FY2011, they owned 1,217 vehicles.

Table 7.7
Federal Government Vehicles by Agency, FY 2011
Department or agency
CIVILIAN
American Battle Monuments Commission
Broadcasting Board of Governors
Consumer Product Safety Commission
Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency
Department of Agriculture
Department of Commerce
Department of Education
Department of Energy
Department of Health and Human Services
Department of Homeland Security
Department of Housing and Urban Development
Department of Justice
Department of Labor
Department of State
Department of the Interior
Department of Transportation
Department of Treasury
Department of Veterans Affairs
Environmental Protection Agency
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Federal Communications Commission
Federal Housing Finance Agency
Federal Trade Commission
General Services Administration
Government Printing Office
Library of Congress
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
National Archives & Records Administration
National Gallery of Art
National Labor Relations Board
National Science Foundation
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Office of Personnel Management
Peace Corps
Small Business Administration
Smithsonian Institution
Social Security Administration
Tennessee Valley Authority
US Agency for International Development
TOTAL CIVILIAN AGENCIES
MILITARY
Corps of Engineers, Civil Works
Defense Agencies
Department of Air Force
Department of Army
Department of Navy
United States Marine Corps
TOTAL MILITARY AGENCIES
U. S. POSTAL SERVICE
TOTAL ALL FLEETS

Cars

Buses

Light
trucks

Medium
trucks

Heavy
trucks

Total

28
4
71
53
5,599
314
71
768
2,089
12,928
374
18,459
1,200
2,558
2,821
1,517
2,583
6,395
278
67
1
4
1
677
8
8
531
13
0
35
31
12
1,564
35
137
11
310
577
123
62,255

0
10
0
0
75
7
1
168
10
433
0
213
304
135
494
3
1
647
7
0
0
0
0
2
0
2
91
0
0
0
9
0
0
16
0
8
7
0
8
2,651

11
119
33
20
27,208
1,420
32
7,587
2,309
38,073
74
18,778
2,391
7,330
17,586
3,530
1,124
7,911
682
9
105
3
2
491
23
7
1,640
43
7
3
189
26
141
642
417
312
149
1,645
1,006
143,078

8
26
0
0
8,382
375
0
3,952
280
3,654
0
1,660
216
1,650
9,499
987
9
809
110
0
0
0
1
40
6
1
811
12
2
0
139
0
2
0
0
85
5
749
34
33,504

0
19
0
0
2,135
44
0
2,083
139
1,387
0
977
30
594
3,112
110
10
602
25
0
0
0
0
7
5
7
367
8
1
0
41
5
1
0
0
26
28
44
24
11,831

47
178
104
73
43,399
2,160
104
14,558
4,827
56,475
448
40,087
4,141
12,267
33,512
6,147
3,727
16,364
1,102
76
106
7
4
1,217
42
25
3,440
76
10
38
409
43
1,708
693
554
442
499
3,015
1,195
253,319

961
1,705
4,866
18,979
7,769
3,855
38,135
7,286
107,676

1
156
1,665
2,376
621
499
5,318
9
7,978

5,067
2,344
21,681
36,715
18,426
5,995
90,228
191,287
424,593

1,950
570
15,837
13,749
6,845
2,065
41,016
7,271
81,791

655
434
6,747
5,841
2,692
1,286
17,655
4,465
33,951

8,634
5,209
50,796
77,660
36,353
13,700
192,352
210,318
655,989

Source:
U.S. General Services Administration, Federal Supply Service, FY 2011 Federal Fleet Report, Washington, DC,
2012, Table 2-1. (Additional resources: www.gsa.gov)
Note: Less than 8,500 pounds gross vehicle weight ratio (GVWR) (Includes ambulances).
8,50123,999 pounds GVWR.
24,000 pounds GVWR or more.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 332013

78

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

81

Chapter 8
Household Vehicles and Characteristics
Summary Statistics from Tables/Figures in this Chapter

Source
Table 8.2

Vehicles per capita, 2011


Vehicles per licensed driver, 2011

1.17

Vehicles per household, 2011

2.10

Table 8.3

Average household transportation expense, 2011

Table 8.5

Share of households owning 3 or more vehicles

Figure 8.1

0.799

16.7%

1960

2.5%

1970

5.5%

1980

17.5%

1990

17.3%

2000

18.3%

2010

19.5%

2011

19.1%

Average occupancy rates by vehicle type, 2009


Van

2.35

Sports Utility

1.90

Car

1.55

Pickup Truck

1.49

Table 8.10

Average annual miles per household vehicle, 2009

11,300

Table 8.16

Share of workers who car pooled, 2011

10.2%

Table 8.21

Long-distance trips in the United States, 2001


Person-trips

2,554 million

Person-miles

1,138 billion

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

82

The number of vehicles in the United States is growing faster than the population. The growth in vehicle-miles has
slowed in recent years. See Table 8.2 for vehicles per capita and vehicle-miles per capita.

Table 8.1
Population and Vehicle Profile, 19502011

Year
1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
19502011
20012011

Resident
populationa
(thousands)
151,868
165,069
179,979
193,526
205,052
215,973
227,226
238,466
240,651
242,804
245,021
247,342
250,132
253,493
256,894
260,255
263,436
266,557
269,667
272,912
276,115
279,295
282,385
285,309
288,105
290,820
293,463
296,186
298,996
302,004
304,798
307,439
308,746
311,588
1.2%
0.9%

Number of
Total
vehicles in
Total vehiclehouseholds
operation
miles
(thousands)
(thousands)
(millions)
43,554
43,501
458,246
47,874
56,540
605,646
52,799
67,906
718,762
57,436
82,066
887,812
63,401
98,136
1,109,724
71,120
120,054
1,327,664
80,776
139,831
1,527,295
86,789
157,048
1,774,826
88,458
162,094
1,834,872
89,479
167,193
1,921,204
91,066
171,741
2,025,962
92,830
175,960
2,096,487
93,347
179,299
2,144,362
94,312
181,438
2,172,050
95,669
181,519
2,247,151
96,391
186,315
2,296,378
97,107
188,714
2,357,588
98,990
193,441
2,422,696
99,627
198,294
2,485,848
101,018
201,071
2,561,695
102,528
205,043
2,631,522
103,874
209,509
2,691,056
104,705
213,300
2,746,925
108,209
216,683
2,797,287
109,297
221,027
2,855,508
111,278
225,882
2,890,450
112,000
232,167
2,964,788
113,343
238,384
2,989,430
114,384
244,643
3,014,371
116,011
248,701
3,031,124
116,783
249,813
2,976,528
117,181
248,972
2,956,764
117,538
248,231
2,967,266
118,682
248,932
2,946,131
Average annual percentage change
1.7%
2.9%
3.1%
0.9%
1.4%
0.5%

Number of
licensed drivers
(thousands)
62,194
74,686
87,253
98,502
111,543
129,791
145,295
156,868
159,487
161,975
162,853
165,555
167,015
168,995
173,125
173,149
175,403
176,628
179,539
182,709
184,980
187,170
190,625
191,276
194,296
196,166
198,889
200,549
202,810
205,742
208,321
209,618
210,115
211,875

Number of
civilian
employed
persons
(thousands)
58,920
62,171
65,778
71,088
78,628
85,846
99,303
107,150
109,597
112,440
114,968
117,342
118,793
117,718
118,492
120,259
123,060
124,900
126,708
129,558
131,463
133,488
136,891
136,933
136,485
137,736
139,252
141,730
144,427
146,047
145,362
139,877
139,064
139,869

2.0%
1.0%

1.4%
0.2%

Sources:
Resident population and civilian employed persons U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Online
Data Retrieval, Washington, DC, 2013. (Additional resources: www.census.gov)
Vehicles in operation The Polk Company. FURTHER REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED. (Additional resources:
www.polk.com)
Licensed drivers and vehicle-miles U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway
Statistics 2011, Tables DL-20 and VM-1, and annual. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov)
a

Estimates as of July 1. Includes Armed Forces in the United States.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

83

Vehicle-miles per capita reached 10,000 miles in 2004 but have declined since that time. There were 1.78 vehicles
for every employed civilian in the United States in 2011.

Table 8.2
Vehicles and Vehicle-Miles per Capita, 19502011a

Year
1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Vehicles
per capita
0.286
0.343
0.377
0.424
0.479
0.556
0.614
0.659
0.674
0.689
0.701
0.711
0.717
0.716
0.707
0.716
0.716
0.726
0.735
0.737
0.743
0.750
0.755
0.759
0.767
0.777
0.791
0.805
0.818
0.824
0.820
0.810
0.804
0.799

Vehicle-miles
per capita
3,017
3,669
3,994
4,588
5,412
6,147
6,707
7,443
7,625
7,913
8,269
8,476
8,573
8,568
8,747
8,824
8,949
9,089
9,218
9,387
9,531
9,635
9,728
9,804
9,911
9,939
10,103
10,093
10,082
10,037
9,766
9,617
9,611
9,455

19502011
20012011

1.7%
0.5%

1.9%
-0.4%

Licensed
drivers per
Vehicles per
household
household
1.43
1.00
1.56
1.18
1.65
1.29
1.71
1.43
1.76
1.55
1.82
1.69
1.80
1.73
1.81
1.81
1.80
1.83
1.81
1.87
1.79
1.89
1.78
1.90
1.79
1.92
1.79
1.92
1.81
1.90
1.80
1.93
1.81
1.94
1.78
1.95
1.80
1.99
1.81
1.99
1.80
2.00
1.80
2.02
1.82
2.04
1.77
2.00
1.78
2.02
1.76
2.03
1.78
2.07
1.77
2.10
1.77
2.14
1.77
2.14
1.78
2.14
1.79
2.12
1.79
2.11
1.79
2.10
Average annual percentage change
0.4%
1.2%
0.1%
0.5%

Vehicles
per licensed
driver
0.70
0.76
0.78
0.83
0.88
0.92
0.96
1.00
1.02
1.03
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.07
1.05
1.08
1.08
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.17
1.19
1.21
1.21
1.20
1.19
1.18
1.17

Vehicles per
civilian
employed
persons
0.74
0.91
1.03
1.15
1.25
1.40
1.41
1.47
1.48
1.49
1.49
1.50
1.51
1.54
1.53
1.55
1.53
1.55
1.56
1.55
1.56
1.57
1.56
1.58
1.62
1.64
1.67
1.68
1.69
1.70
1.72
1.78
1.79
1.78

0.8%
0.3%

1.4%
1.2%

Sources:
Resident population and civilian employed persons U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Online
Data Retrieval, Washington, DC, 2013. (Additional resources: www.census.gov)
Vehicles in operation The Polk Company. FURTHER REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED. (Additional resources:
www.polk.com)
Vehicle-miles U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2011,
Table VM-1 and annual. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov)
a

Includes all vehicles (light and heavy).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

84

Table 8.3
Average Annual Expenditures of Households by Income, 2011a
All
households
$49,705

Total expenditures
Foodc
Housing
Apparel and services
Transportation
Vehicle purchases (net outlay)
Gasoline and motor oil
Other vehicle expenditures
Public transportation
Health care
Entertainment
Personal Insurance & pensions
Othersd
Householdse (thousands)
Percentage of households
Average number of vehicles in HH

13.0%
33.8%
3.5%
16.7%
5.4%
5.3%
4.9%
1.0%
6.7%
5.2%
10.9%
9.4%
122,287
100.0%
1.9

$20,000
$29,999
$30,398

Total expenditures
Foodc
Housing
Apparel and services
Transportation
Vehicle purchases (net outlay)
Gasoline and motor oil
Other vehicle expenditures
Public transportation
Health care
Entertainment
Personal Insurance & pensions
Othersd
Householdse (thousands)
Percentage of households
Average number of vehicles in HH

14.1%
38.6%
3.1%
15.3%
3.4%
6.5%
4.8%
0.6%
8.7%
5.4%
4.9%
9.2%
14,460
11.8%
1.4

Income before taxes


Less than
$5,000
$10,000
$5,000
$9,999
$14,999
$22,960
$20,884
$19,959
Percentage of total expendituresb
15.0%
17.2%
16.4%
37.4%
38.9%
42.5%
4.9%
4.5%
3.7%
15.1%
15.3%
12.8%
4.9%
5.2%
1.4%
5.0%
5.3%
5.9%
4.2%
4.0%
4.7%
1.0%
0.7%
0.9%
5.4%
5.3%
7.9%
3.9%
4.8%
4.6%
1.4%
1.4%
2.1%
16.0%
11.6%
9.1%
4,978
5,449
8,170
4.1%
4.5%
6.7%
0.9
0.8
1.0
Income before taxes
$30,000
$40,000
$50,000
$39,999
$49,999
$69,999
$36,769
$40,306
$50,034
Percentage of total expendituresb
14.5%
12.8%
13.1%
36.5%
36.1%
33.8%
4.0%
2.9%
3.5%
17.4%
17.7%
18.0%
5.4%
4.9%
5.8%
6.1%
6.6%
5.9%
5.1%
5.3%
5.5%
0.8%
0.9%
0.8%
7.5%
8.2%
7.4%
4.6%
4.7%
5.7%
6.4%
8.2%
9.7%
8.2%
8.5%
8.1%
13,328
11,347
17,376
10.9%
9.3%
14.2%
1.6
1.9
2.1

$15,000
$19,999
$24,806
15.1%
39.7%
3.3%
16.2%
4.5%
6.0%
5.0%
0.7%
8.2%
4.4%
2.7%
9.7%
7,745
6.3%
1.2

$70,000
and over
$81,767
12.0%
31.4%
3.5%
16.6%
5.9%
4.7%
4.7%
1.3%
5.8%
5.3%
14.8%
9.6%
39,434
32.2%
2.6

Source:
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, website: www.bls.gov/cex/, March 2013. (Additional
resources: www.bls.gov)
a

Public assistance monies are included in reported income. Data for those reporting income.
Percentages may not sum to totals due to rounding.
c
Includes alcoholic beverages.
d
Includes personal care, reading, education, tobacco and smoking supplies, cash contributions, and
miscellaneous items.
e
The term household refers to a consumer unit, which is defined differently than households on Table 8.1.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

85

The average amount of money that a household spends in a year has changed very little between 1985 and 2011 in
constant dollar terms. Expenditures on transportation were 19.4% of the total in 1985, but were 16.7% in 2011.
Vehicle purchases made up one-third of transportation expenditures in 2011, while gas and oil were 32%.
Table 8.4
Annual Household Expenditures for Transportation, 1985-2011
(constant 2011 dollars)

Year
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Vehicle
purchases
4,313
4,798
3,992
4,541
4,259
3,736
3,557
3,474
3,602
4,103
3,950
4,189
4,003
4,199
4,600
4,528
4,799
4,724
4,732
4,045
4,082
3,817
3,519
2,878
2,786
2,670
2,669

Transportation expenditures
Other
Gas &
Public
vehicle
Oil
expensesa transportation
2,187
2,667
554
1,894
2,820
513
1,744
2,834
513
1,776
2,953
506
1,790
3,019
504
1,814
2,871
521
1,648
2,933
509
1,560
2,896
460
1,521
2,939
495
1,503
3,019
596
1,497
3,045
542
1,586
3,078
614
1,556
3,240
547
1,421
3,153
589
1,446
3,153
551
1,719
3,063
576
1,638
3,108
514
1,565
3,188
505
1,654
2,954
489
1,903
2,816
525
2,318
2,694
516
2,485
2,628
563
2,586
2,812
584
2,837
2,738
536
2,082
2,659
502
2,199
2,542
509
2,655
2,454
516

Total
transportation
9,719
10,026
9,085
9,773
9,573
8,942
8,646
8,388
8,555
9,222
9,034
9,465
9,347
9,363
9,751
9,886
10,058
9,983
9,830
9,289
9,610
9,493
9,501
8,989
8,029
7,919
8,293

Average
annual
household
expenditures
50,122
50,158
49,059
50,177
51,379
50,017
50,350
48,943
48,936
49,693
49,588
51,025
50,658
51,419
52,850
52,562
52,577
53,211
52,252
51,674
53,452
54,001
53,851
52,746
51,446
49,628
49,705

Transportation
share of
annual
expenditures
19.4%
20.0%
18.5%
19.5%
18.6%
17.9%
17.2%
17.1%
17.5%
18.6%
18.2%
18.5%
18.5%
18.2%
18.5%
18.8%
19.1%
18.8%
18.8%
18.0%
18.0%
17.6%
17.6%
17.0%
15.6%
16.0%
16.7%

Source:
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, www.bls.gov/cex, March
2013. (Additional resources: www.bls.gov)
a

Other vehicle expenses include vehicle finance charges, maintenance and repairs, insurance, licenses, and
other vehicle charges.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

86

Household vehicle ownership shows a dramatic increase from 1960 to 1990. In 1960, nearly 79% of households
owned less than two vehicles; by 1990, it declined to 45%. Census data prior to 1990 indicated that the majority of
households owned one vehicle; in 1990 that changed to two vehicles. Since 2000, less than 10% of households had
no vehicles. The American Community Survey now collects these data on an annual basis, thus 2010 and 2011 data
are available.

Table 8.5
Household Vehicle Ownership, 19602011 Census
(percentage)

1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2011

No
vehicles
21.5%
17.5%
12.9%
11.5%
9.4%
9.1%
9.3%

One
vehicle
56.9%
47.7%
35.5%
33.7%
33.8%
33.8%
34.1%

Two
vehicles
19.0%
29.3%
34.0%
37.4%
38.6%
37.6%
37.5%

Three or
more
vehicles
2.5%
5.5%
17.5%
17.3%
18.3%
19.5%
19.1%

Source:
U. S. Department of Transportation, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Journey-to-Work Trends in the
United States and its Major Metropolitan Area, 19601990, Cambridge, MA, 1994, p. 2-2.
2000 data U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Fact Finder, factfinder.census.gov, Table QT-04, August 2001.
(Additional resources: www.census.gov)
2010 and 2011 data U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey, Table CP04, 2011.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

87

2009 National Household Travel Survey Daily Trip Data


The Department of Transportation (DOT) collected data on daily trips in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and
1995 via the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). For 2001, the DOT combined the
collection of long trip and daily trip data into one survey the 2001 National Household Travel Survey
(NHTS). The long trip data were not included in the 2009 NHTS.
The NHTS is the nations inventory of daily travel. The survey includes demographic characteristics
of households, people, vehicles, and detailed information on daily travel for all purposes by all modes.
NHTS survey data are collected from a sample of U.S. households and expanded to provide national
estimates of trips and miles by travel mode, trip purpose, and a host of household attributes.
The NHTS was designed to continue the NPTS series, but as with all data surveys, caution should be
used when comparing statistics from one survey to another due to changes in terminology, survey
procedures, and target population. The 2001 and 2009 surveys collected data on trips of children under 5
years of age, while the previous NPTS did not. Improved methodologies first used in the collection of
trip information in the 1995 NPTS make it difficult to compare these data with past NPTS survey data.
Thus, the 1990 NPTS trip data have been adjusted to make it comparable with the later surveys.
Table 8.6
Demographic Statistics from the 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS

Persons per household


Vehicles per household
Workers per household
Licensed drivers per household
Vehicles per worker
Vehicles per licensed driver
Average vehicle trip length (miles)

1969
3.16
1.16
1.21
1.65
0.96
0.70
8.89

1977
2.83
1.59
1.23
1.69
1.29
0.94
8.34

1983
2.69
1.68
1.21
1.72
1.39
0.98
7.90

1990
2.56
1.77
1.27
1.75
1.40
1.01
8.98

1995
2.63
1.78
1.33
1.78
1.34
1.00
9.06

2001
2.58
1.89
1.35
1.77
1.39
1.06
9.87

2009
2.50
1.87
1.34
1.88
1.40
1.00
9.72

Percent
change
19692009
-21%
61%
11%
14%
46%
42%
9%

Sources:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation
Survey: Summary of Travel Trends, FHWA-PL-92-027, Washington, DC, March 1992, Table 2. Data for
1995, 2001 and 2009 were generated from the website nhts.ornl.gov. (Additional resources:
www.fhwa.dot.gov)
Note: Average vehicle trip length for 1990 and 1995 is calculated using only those records with trip mileage
information present. The 1969 survey does not include pickups and other light trucks as household vehicles. Data
on vehicles per household and licensed drivers per household will not match Table 8.2.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

88

Due to methodology improvements in collecting trip information, the 2001 and 1995 data should be compared only
to the 1990 adjusted data. The original 1990 data are comparable to all previous surveys; however, comparisons
should always be made with caution because of differing survey methodologies.

Table 8.7
Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household
1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS
Journey-to-worka
All trips
Average annual vehicle-miles per household
1969
4,183
12,423
1977
3,815
12,036
1983
3,538
11,739
1990 original
4,853
15,100
1990 adjusted
4,853
18,161
1995
6,492
20,895
2001
5,724
21,171
2009
5,513
19,850
Average annual vehicle trips per household
1969
445
1,396
1977
423
1,442
1983
414
1,486
1990 original
448
1,702
1990 adjusted
448
2,077
1995
553
2,321
2001
479
2,171
2009
457
2,068
Average vehicle trip length (miles)
1969
9.4
8.9
1977
9.0
8.4
1983
8.5
7.9
1990 original
11.0
9.0
1990 adjusted
11.0
8.9
1995
11.8
9.1
2001
12.2
9.9
2009
12.2
9.7
Sources:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation
Survey: Summary of Travel Trends, FHWA-PL-92-027, Washington, DC, March 1992, Table 7. 1990
adjusted data Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, August 1998. 1995 NPTS, 2001, 2009
NHTS data were generated from the website nhts.ornl.gov. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov,
nhts.ornl.gov)

It is believed that the methodology changes in the 1995 NPTS did not affect journey-to-work trips;
therefore, no adjustment is necessary.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

89

In 2001 and 2009 vehicle-miles traveled (vmt) for a three-person household is around 28,000 miles. The number of
drivers in a household makes a big difference in vmt, as does the presence of children in the household. Households
with children have more than double the vmt of households without children.

Table 8.8
Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household,
1990 NPTS and 2001 and 2009 NHTS
Average
vehicle-miles traveled
per household

Average
number of vehicles
per household
Number of licensed
drivers
1
2
3
4 or more
Household size
1 person
2 persons
3 persons
4 persons
5 persons
6 or more persons
Household urban status
Urban
Rural
Household composition
With children
Without children
All households

1990
1.5
2.1
2.9
3.8

2001
1.2
2.2
3.0
3.8

2009
1.1
2.2
3.0
3.9

1990
15,200
22,900
29,400
40,500

2001
9,700
25,800
37,900
47,200

2009
8,800
23,500
37,700
55,200

1.2
1.9
2.2
2.4
2.4
2.7

1.0
2.0
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.5

1.0
2.0
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4

11,400
19,300
23,700
25,300
24,900
29,200

7,500
21,200
28,400
28,600
33,200
33,800

7,100
17,500
27,900
33,200
33,700
33,600

1.9
2.1

1.8
2.3

1.7
2.4

19,000
22,200

19,300
28,400

17,600
27,700

2.2
1.8
1.8

2.2
1.7
1.9

2.2
1.7
1.9

24,100
17,600
18,300

28,300
16,700
21,200

30,400
14,400
19,900

Source:
Generated from the Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Nationwide Personal
Transportation Survey Public Use Files, Washington, DC, 2000 and the National Household Travel Survey
website: nhts.ornl.gov. (Additional resources: nhts.ornl.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

810

In 2009, 22% of vehicle trips were traveling to and from work. Another 22% of trips were for shopping. Shopping
is done close to home, as the average trip length for shopping was only 6.5 miles.

Table 8.9
Trip Statistics by Trip Purpose, 2001 and 2009 NHTS

Trip purpose
To/from work
Work-related business
Shopping
Other family/personal business
School/church
Medical/dental
Vacation
Visit friends/relatives
Other social/recreational
Other
All

Share of trips
2001
2009
22.1%
22.3%
4.1%
3.9%
21.1%
22.8%
24.7%
21.9%
4.9%
5.0%
2.2%
2.6%
0.4%
0.7%
6.3%
5.7%
13.7%
14.9%
0.5%
0.3%
100.0% 100.0%

Share of vehiclemiles traveled


2001
2009
27.0%
28.7%
8.4%
7.2%
14.5%
15.5%
18.7%
15.7%
3.7%
4.6%
2.2%
2.6%
1.8%
2.3%
9.4%
9.4%
13.2%
13.5%
1.0%
0.6%
100.0% 100.0%

Trip length
(miles)
2001
2009
12.1
12.2
20.3
17.2
6.7
6.5
7.5
6.8
7.5
8.8
9.9
9.9
47.4
31.4
14.9
15.7
9.6
8.6
18.1
19.0
9.9
9.7

Trip length
(minutes)
2001 2009
22.3
22.9
30.9
27.5
14.4
14.4
15.2
14.8
15.8
17.5
20.7
21.2
59.6
41.3
24.4
24.6
18.2
17.2
31.4
29.7
18.7
18.6

Source:
Generated from the National Household Travel Survey website: nhts.ornl.gov.
Note: The "All" category for average trip length and duration includes records for which trip purpose was not
identified.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

811

While car occupancy stayed nearly constant from 1995 to 2009, most other vehicle types showed increased
occupancy. Vans and sport utility vehicles have higher vehicle occupancies than cars.
Figure 8.1. Average Vehicle Occupancy by Vehicle Type, 1995 NPTS and 2009 NHTS

Sources:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1995 Nationwide Personal Transportation
Survey, Washington, DC, 1997, and 2009 National Household Travel Survey, Washington, DC. (Additional
resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov, website: nhts.ornl.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

812

The average vehicle occupancy, calculated as person-miles per vehicle-mile, is highest for social and recreational
purposes. The highest vehicle occupancy levels for all purposes were in 1977. The increase in number of vehicles
per household and the decrease in average household size could have contributed to the decline since then.

Figure 8.2. Average Vehicle Occupancy by Trip Purpose


1977 NPTS and 2009 NHTS

Sources:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation
Survey: Summary of Travel Trends, FHWA-PL-92027, Washington, DC, March 1992, Figure 6. Data from
2009 NHTS were generated from the website nhts.ornl.gov, March 2011. (Additional resources:
www.fhwa.dot.gov, nhts.ornl.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

813

The 1990 household survey reports the highest average annual miles per vehicle and the 1983 survey reports the
lowest. These data show that younger vehicles are typically driven more miles than older vehicles.

Table 8.10
Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age
Vehicle age
(years)
Under 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 and older
All household
vehicles

1983
self-reported
8,200
15,200
16,800
14,500
13,000
12,100
11,300
10,000
9,800
9,000
7,300

1990
self-reported
19,600
16,800
16,600
14,700
13,600
12,900
13,200
12,400
12,600
11,500
9,200

1995
self-reported
15,900
16,800
15,500
14,400
14,100
13,500
13,200
12,800
12,200
12,200
8,900

10,400

12,500

12,200

2001
self-reported
15,500
14,300
14,000
13,100
12,500
12,000
11,800
11,600
10,900
10,800
7,400
11,100

2009
self-reported
13,200
14,600
13,900
12,700
12,600
12,800
12,100
11,900
11,500
11,300
9,300
11,300

Sources:
Nationwide Personal Transportation Study1983: D. Klinger and J. Richard Kuzmyak, COMSIS Corporation,
Personal Travel in the United States, Volume 1: 198384 Nationwide Personal Travel Study, prepared for the
U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, August 1986, Table 4-22, p. 4-21. 1990: Generated
from the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Study Public Use Tape, March 1992. 1995, 2001 and
2009: Generated from the 2009 NHTS datasets, version 2, February 2011. (Additional resources:
nhts.ornl.gov)
Note: Data include all household vehicles, and have been rounded to the nearest hundred.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

814

Historically, the data from the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) are based on estimates reported
by survey respondents. For the 1995 NPTS and the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), odometer data
were also collected. The 1995 data indicate that respondents overestimate the number of miles they drive in a year,
but the 2001 data do not show that same trend.

Table 8.11
Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and 2001 NHTS
Vehicle age
(years)
Under 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 and older
All household
vehicles

1995
self-reported
15,900
16,800
15,500
14,400
14,100
13,500
13,200
12,800
12,200
12,200
8,900
12,200

1995
odometer
15,600
14,500
14,800
13,800
12,900
12,700
12,400
11,600
11,300
11,200
9,000
11,800

2001
self-reported
15,500
14,300
14,000
13,100
12,500
12,000
11,800
11,600
10,900
10,800
7,400
11,000

2001
odometer
14,500
14,200
13,700
14,100
13,400
12,900
12,400
12,100
11,300
10,500
8,100
11,800

Source:
Generated from the website: nhts.ornl.gov and 2001 NHTS public use file.
Note: The 2009 NHTS did not collect similar data. Survey methodology on odometer reading data differs from
1995 to 2001 data.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

815

Figure 8.3. Share of Vehicle Trips by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS

Source:
National Household Travel Survey, website nhts.ornl.gov.

Figure 8.4. Share of Vehicle Trips to Work by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS

Source:
National Household Travel Survey, website: nhts.ornl.gov.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

816

Nineteen percent of new vehicles (1 year old and under) travel over 20,000 miles per year. Almost half of the
vehicles over 20 years old travel less than 4,000 miles in a year.

Table 8.12
Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS
Vehicle age (years)
Annual vehicle miles
of travel
< 1,000 miles
1 - 2,000 miles
2 - 4,000 miles
4 - 6,000 miles
6 - 8,000 miles
8 - 10,000 miles
10 - 12,000 miles
12 - 15,000 miles
15 - 20,000 miles
20 - 30,000 miles
>30,000 miles
All

1 and
under
2%
2%
5%
7%
10%
11%
9%
16%
18%
13%
6%
100%

2
3%
3%
6%
10%
10%
11%
11%
15%
15%
11%
5%
100%

< 1,000 miles


1 - 2,000 miles
2 - 4,000 miles
4 - 6,000 miles
6 - 8,000 miles
8 - 10,000 miles
10 - 12,000 miles
12 - 15,000 miles
15 - 20,000 miles
20 - 30,000 miles
>30,000 miles
All

8
4%
4%
9%
11%
12%
13%
11%
13%
12%
9%
3%
100%

9
4%
4%
9%
12%
12%
11%
11%
13%
13%
8%
3%
100%

3
4
3%
3%
2%
3%
7%
7%
9%
8%
11%
11%
11%
11%
11%
11%
14%
15%
17%
17%
12%
11%
4%
3%
100%
100%
Vehicle age (years)
10
11-15
4%
6%
4%
5%
10%
11%
12%
14%
11%
14%
12%
12%
11%
10%
12%
10%
14%
9%
7%
7%
3%
3%
100%
100%

5
3%
3%
6%
8%
10%
11%
12%
15%
16%
11%
4%
100%

6
4%
3%
7%
10%
12%
12%
11%
14%
14%
10%
4%
100%

16-20
9%
7%
16%
14%
13%
10%
8%
8%
7%
4%
2%
100%

Over 20
19%
8%
19%
14%
12%
7%
6%
5%
5%
3%
2%
100%

7
3%
3%
9%
10%
12%
12%
11%
13%
14%
9%
3%
100%

Source:
Generated from the Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 2009 National Household
Travel Survey website: nhts.ornl.gov. (Additional resources: nhts.ornl.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

817

The average driver makes three trips per day with an average of 9.7 miles for each trip.

Table 8.13
Household Vehicle Trips, 2009 NHTS

1990
1995
2001
2009

Number of daily
vehicle trips
(per driver)
3.3
3.6
3.4
3.0

Average
vehicle trip
length (miles)
8.9
9.1
9.9
9.7

Daily vehicle
miles of travel
(per driver)
28.5
32.1
32.7
29.0

Source:
National Household Travel Survey website: nhts.ornl.gov.

Figure 8.5. Average Daily Miles Driven (per Driver), 2009 NHTS

Source:
National Household Travel Survey website: nhts.ornl.gov.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

818

Table 8.14
Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles
in the Household, 2009 NHTS

Number of household vehicles


1
2
3
4
5
More than 5
All

Daily miles per vehicle


2001
2009
25.6
29.1
27.5
32.7
24.2
31.3
23.0
30.2
21.1
27.6
18.4
27.2
25.2
31.1

Source:
2009 National Household Travel Survey, website: nhts.ornl.gov.

Table 8.15
Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for
Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS
Vehicle number
One-vehicle household
1
Two-vehicle household
1
2
Three-vehicle household
1
2
3
Four-vehicle household
1
2
3
4
Five-vehicle household
1
2
3
4
5
Six-vehicle household
1
2
3
4
5
6

Average
daily miles

Average
annual miles

Average age
(years)

29.0

10,600

9.0

43.6
21.4

15,900
7,800

7.6
9.0

50.7
28.2
14.0

18,500
10,300
5,100

7.9
9.1
11.8

56.2
33.2
20.3
9.9

20,500
12,100
7,400
3,600

8.5
8.8
11.4
13.2

57.8
34.0
22.7
14.2
6.3

21,100
12,400
8,300
5,200
2,300

8.5
9.4
12.3
12.7
16.8

61.4
38.1
26.3
17.5
10.4
4.4

22,400
13,900
9,600
6,400
3,800
1,600

10.2
9.8
12.2
12.5
14.5
17.9

Source:
2009 National Household Travel Survey, website: nhts.ornl.gov.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

819

Figure 8.6. Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS

Source:
2009 National Household Travel Survey, website: nhts.ornl.gov.

Figure 8.7. Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS

Source:
2009 National Household Travel Survey, website: nhts.ornl.gov.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

820

According to the U.S. Census data, the percentage of workers who car pooled has dropped from 19.7% in 1980 to
10.2% in 2011. The percent of workers using public transit declined from 6.4% to 5.3% in the ten-year period
between 1980 and 1990, but stayed relatively the same from 1990 to 2011 (~5.0%). The average travel time
increased by 3.7 minutes from 1980 to 2011. The American Community Survey (ACS) now collects journey-to-work
data on an annual basis. It shows the average commute time as 25.4 minutes in 2011.

Table 8.16
Means of Transportation to Work, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2011
1980 Census
Number of
workers
(thousands)
Share
81,258
84.1%
62,193
64.4%
19,065
19.7%
6,175
6.4%

Means of transportation
Private vehicle
Drove alone
Car pooled
Public transportation
Bus or trolley busa

3,925
a

Streetcar or trolley car


Subway or elevated
Railroad

Ferryboat
Taxicab
Motorcycle
Bicycle
Walked only
Other means
Worked at home
Total workers
Average travel time (minutes)

1,529
554
b

167
419
468
5,413
703
2,180
96,617
21.7

1990 Census
Number of
workers
(thousands)
Share
99,593
86.5%
84,215
73.2%
15,378
13.4%
6,070
5.3%
3.0%

3,207

2.5%

3,695

2.6%

78
1,755
574

0.1%
1.5%
0.5%

73
1,886
658

0.1%
1.5%
0.5%

87

0.1%

2,341
752

1.7%
0.5%

37
179
237
467
4,489
809
3,406
115,070
22.4

0.0%
0.2%
0.2%
0.4%
3.9%
0.7%
3.0%
100.0%

44
200
142
488
3,759
901
4,184
128,279
25.5

0.0%
0.2%
0.1%
0.4%
2.9%
0.7%
3.3%
100.0%

39
162
309
745
3,948
1,204
5,890
139,488
25.4

0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.5%
2.8%
0.9%
4.2%
100.0%

1.6%
0.6%
0.2%
0.4%
0.5%
5.6%
0.7%
2.3%
100.0%

2011 ACS
Number of
workers
(thousands)
Share
120,316
86.3%
106,139
76.1%
14,177
10.2%
6,914
5.0%

3,445

4.1%

2000 Census
Number of
workers
(thousands)
Share
112,736
87.9%
97,102
75.7%
15,635
12.2%
6,068
4.7%

Sources:
1980-1990 data Provided by the Journey-to-Work and Migration Statistics Branch, Population Division, U.S.
Bureau of the Census.
2000 data U.S. Bureau of the Census, Journey to Work: 2000, Tables 1 and 2, 1990-2000, March 2004
(www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/journey.html).
2011 data U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2007-2011 American Community Survey Five-Year Estimates, Tables
B08301 and S0802. (Additional resources: www.census.gov)

a
b

This category was "Bus or streetcar" in 1980.


Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

821

Table 8.17
Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density

All classes detached single


All classes other
<1,000/sq. mile detached single
<1,000/sq. mile all other
1,000-4,000/sq. mile detached single
1,000-4,000/sq. mile all other
4,000-10,000/sq. mile detached single
4,000-10,000/sq. mile all other
10,000-25,000/sq. mile detached single
10,000-25,000/sq. mile all other
>25,000/sq. mile detached single
>25,000/sq. mile all other

Share of
vehicles in
density type
77.0%
23.0%
81.6%
18.4%
75.5%
24.5%
42.5%
57.5%
17.8%
82.2%
9.8%
90.2%

Hours per
vehicle
per day
0.92
0.99
0.91
0.91
0.94
1.03
0.96
1.15
1.02
1.05
0.72
1.23

Average vehicle
speed
(miles/hour)
32.0
27.7
34.7
32.5
27.5
25.1
26.1
21.5
18.2
21.3
20.5
21.9

Miles
per vehicle
per day
29.6
27.4
31.6
29.5
26.0
25.9
25.1
24.6
18.5
22.3
14.8
26.9

Source:
Generated from the 2009 National Household Survey website: nhts.ornl.gov.

Table 8.18
Housing Unit Characteristics, 2010
Share of occupied
housing units
Type of housing unit
New construction (< = 4 years)
Manufactured/mobile homes
Geographic location (Census Region)
Northeast
Midwest
South
West
Tenure
Owner
Renter
All occupied units

% with garage or
carport

2.2%
6.3%

75.7%
39.1%

18.3%
22.4%
37.1%
22.3%

50.5%
74.0%
60.0%
79.2%

66.2%
33.8%
114,907 units

79.4%
38.8%
65.6%

Source:
U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2011 American Housing Survey, Table C-02-AO. (Additional information:
www.census.gov/housing/ahs)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

822

The average commute time increased to 25.3 minutes in 2011. Two thirds of workers travel less than 30 minutes to
work. In 1990, 15.9% of workers commuted less than 15 minutes; in 2011, 28.3% enjoyed the short commute.

Table 8.19
Workers by Commute Time, 1990, 2000 and 2011
Commute time
Less than 15 minutes
1529 minutes
3039 minutes
4059 minutes
60 minutes or more
Average travel time (minutes)

1990
15.9%
51.6%
14.7%
9.0%
5.9%
22.4

2000
30.1%
36.3%
15.7%
10.7%
7.3%
25.5

2011
28.3%
36.3%
16.2%
11.1%
8.1%
25.3

Sources:
1990 U. S. Department of Transportation, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Journey-to-Work
Trends in the United States and its Major Metropolitan Area, 19601990, FHWA-PL-94-012, Cambridge,
MA, 1994, p. 2-6.
2000 U.S. Bureau of the Census, Journey to Work: 2000, Tables 1 and 2, 1990-2000, March 2004.
2011 U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2007-2011 American Community Survey, 5-Year Estimates, Tables S0802 and
B08303. (Additional resources: www.census.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

823

Sales of bicycles with wheel sizes of 20 inches and over have grown at an average annual rate of 1.4% from 1981 to
2011. Bicycle sales experienced a large decline in 2009, which brought total sales to 14.9 milliona new low in the
18-year series. Sales rose in 2010, but decreased in 2011 to 15.7million.

Table 8.20
Bicycle Sales, 19812011
(millions)
Wheel
sizes under
20 inches

1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
19812011
20012011

Wheel sizes
of 20 inches
and over
a
8.9
a
6.8
a
9.0
a
10.1
a
11.4
a
12.3
a
12.6
a
9.9
a
10.7
a
10.8
a
11.6
3.7
11.6
3.8
13.0
4.2
12.5
4.1
12.0
4.5
10.9
4.2
11.0
4.7
11.1
5.9
11.6
9.0
11.9
5.4
11.3
5.9
13.6
5.6
12.9
5.3
13.0
5.8
14.0
5.5
12.7
5.4
12.8
5.1
13.4
4.7
10.2
6.3
13.5
4.7
11.0
Average annual percentage change
a
1.4%
-1.4%
-0.3%

All
wheel
sizes
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

15.3
16.8
16.7
16.1
15.4
15.2
15.8
17.5
20.9
16.7
19.5
18.5
18.3
19.8
18.2
18.2
18.5
14.9
19.8
15.7
a

-0.6%

Source:
19811996: Bicycle Manufacturers Association. 1997on: National Bicycle Dealers Association. (Additional
resources: www.nbda.com)
a

Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

824

In 2009, 4.5% of walk trips and 10.9% of bike trips were to/from work. Forty-seven percent of all bike trips were
for social/recreational purposes. Nearly 15% of walk trips were shopping trips.

Figure 8.8. Walk and Bike Trips by Trip Purpose,


2009 NHTS

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 2009 National Household Travel Survey
website: nhts.ornl.gov.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

825

In 2009 only data on daily trips were collected in the NHTS. The 2001 data are still the latest available on longdistance trips.

Long Distance Trips 2001 National Household Travel Survey


The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) collected data on long-distance trips as well
as everyday travel. The everyday travel data is a continuation of the Nationwide Personal Transportation
Survey (NPTS), while the long-distance travel data is a continuation of the American Travel Survey
(ATS) which was collected in 1977 and 1985. The survey collected trip-related data such as mode of
transportation, duration, distance and purpose of trip. It also gathered demographic, geographic, and
economic data for analysis purposes.
A long-distance trip is defined as a trip of 50 miles or more, one-way. Long-trip data from the 2001
NHTS were released in the summer of 2004. For additional information about the 2001 NHTS data,
contact the Bureau of Transportation Statistics at 202-366-3282 or visit the following website:
www.bts.gov/programs/national_household_travel_survey.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

826

Table 8.21
Long-Distance Tripa Characteristics, 2001 NHTS
Trip characteristic
Total
Principal means of transportation:
Personal use vehicles
Airplane
Commercial airplane
Busb
Intercity bus
Charter, tour, or school bus
Train
Round trip distance:
100 to 300 miles
300 to 499 miles
500 to 999 miles
1,000 to 1,999 miles
2,000 miles or more
Mean (miles)
Median (miles)
Calendar quarter:
1st quarter
2nd quarter
3rd quarter
4th quarter
Main purpose of trip:
Commuting
Other business
Personal/leisure
Personal business
Other
Nights away from home:
None
1 to 3 nights
4 to 7 nights
8 or more nights
Destination:
Within Census division
Across Census division, within Census
Across Census region

Person trips
(thousands)
(percent)
2,554,068
100.0

Person miles
(thousands)
(percent)
1,138,322,697
100.0

2,310,376
165,039
158,880
52,962
3,456
45,952
20,672

90.5
6.5
6.2
2.1
0.1
1.8
0.8

735,882,255
367,888,741
361,717,015
23,747,433
1,765,696
21,019,942
9,266,373

64.7
32.3
31.8
2.1
0.2
1.9
0.8

1,688,358
373,550
261,802
125,665
104,694
446
206

66.1
14.6
10.3
4.9
4.1

284,586,370
143,571,597
180,669,482
178,629,838
350,865,409

25.0
12.6
15.9
15.7
30.8

566,502
653,310
734,878
599,378

22.2
25.6
28.8
23.5

246,556,190
298,154,812
341,021,290
252,590,405

21.7
26.2
30.0
22.2

329,395
405,866
1,406,411
322,645
88,230

12.9
15.9
55.1
12.6
3.5

65,877,968
242,353,212
667,471,358
130,020,982
32,031,679

5.8
21.3
58.7
11.4
2.8

1,454,847
808,281
214,464
76,475

57.0
31.7
8.4
3.0

304,469,524
414,219,147
269,265,597
150,368,429

26.8
36.4
23.7
13.2

2,077,810
196,890
279,367

81.4
7.7
10.9

549,651,116
134,930,113
453,741,468

48.3
11.9
39.9

c
c

Source:
U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics and the U.S. Federal Highway Administration, 2001 National Household
Transportation Survey. (Additional resources: www.bts.gov/programs/national_household_travel_survey)
Note: Long-distance trips were not included in the 2009 NHTS.
a

A long-distance trip is defined as a trip of 50 miles or more, one-way.


Includes other types of buses.
c
Not applicable.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

91

Chapter 9
Nonhighway Modes
Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source
Passenger-miles

(millions)

Table 9.2

Domestic and international air carrier, 2012

Table 9.10

Amtrak, 2011

Table 9.11

Commuter rail, 2011

11,427

Table 9.12

Transit rail, 2011

19,520

Freight ton-miles
Table 9.5

Domestic waterborne commerce, 2011

Table 9.8

Class I railroad, 2011


Passenger energy use

832,712
6,670

(millions)
500,000
1,729,256
(trillion Btus)

Table 9.2

Domestic and international air carrier, 2012

Table 9.3

General aviation, 2011

227.1

Table 9.6

Recreational boats, 2011

244.9

Table 9.10

Amtrak, 2011

14.5

Table 9.11

Commuter rail, 2011

31.9

Table 9.12

Transit rail, 2011

48.1

Freight energy use


Table 9.8

Class I railroad, 2011

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

2,307.2

(trillion Btus)
514.6

92

Nonhighway transportation modes accounted for 19.0% of total transportation energy use in 2011.

Table 9.1
Nonhighway Energy Use Shares, 19702011

Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Air
8.5%
8.1%
7.7%
7.7%
7.3%
7.3%
7.2%
7.1%
7.1%
7.6%
7.6%
7.8%
7.9%
7.8%
8.5%
8.7%
9.0%
9.1%
9.3%
9.1%
9.5%
9.0%
8.9%
8.9%
9.0%
9.1%
9.2%
9.5%
9.2%
9.6%
9.7%
9.2%
8.4%
8.5%
9.0%
9.2%
9.1%
8.6%
8.4%
7.8%
7.9%
8.0%

Water
5.4%
4.8%
4.6%
5.0%
5.1%
5.3%
5.9%
6.2%
6.9%
5.8%
7.4%
6.8%
5.8%
5.3%
5.1%
4.5%
6.5%
6.6%
6.6%
7.0%
6.7%
7.2%
7.3%
6.4%
6.1%
6.3%
5.9%
5.1%
5.0%
5.3%
5.5%
4.6%
4.7%
4.0%
4.8%
5.0%
5.2%
5.3%
5.1%
4.9%
5.5%
5.2%

Share of transportation energy use


Nonhighway
Pipeline
Rail
total
6.4%
3.6%
24.0%
6.3%
3.5%
22.8%
6.1%
3.4%
21.9%
5.6%
3.4%
21.7%
5.4%
3.6%
21.5%
4.8%
3.2%
20.7%
4.3%
3.1%
20.6%
4.1%
3.1%
20.4%
3.9%
2.9%
20.8%
4.4%
3.1%
20.9%
4.7%
3.1%
22.8%
4.8%
3.0%
22.4%
4.7%
2.6%
21.1%
4.0%
2.6%
19.8%
4.1%
2.8%
20.5%
3.9%
2.6%
19.8%
3.6%
2.4%
21.5%
3.7%
2.4%
21.9%
4.1%
2.4%
22.4%
4.1%
2.4%
22.6%
4.3%
2.3%
22.8%
4.1%
2.3%
22.6%
3.9%
2.2%
22.3%
4.0%
2.3%
21.6%
4.1%
2.3%
21.6%
4.1%
2.4%
21.9%
4.1%
2.4%
21.6%
4.2%
2.4%
21.2%
3.6%
2.3%
20.2%
3.5%
2.3%
20.6%
3.4%
2.3%
21.0%
3.4%
2.3%
19.6%
3.5%
2.3%
18.9%
3.2%
2.3%
18.0%
3.0%
2.4%
19.2%
3.1%
2.4%
19.6%
3.0%
2.4%
19.7%
3.0%
2.2%
19.2%
3.2%
2.2%
18.9%
3.4%
2.0%
18.0%
3.5%
2.1%
19.0%
3.5%
2.3%
19.0%

Source:
See Appendix A for Nonhighway Energy Use.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

Transportation
total (trillion Btu)
15,395
16,015
17,036
17,874
17,174
17,424
18,492
19,126
20,097
19,652
18,940
18,741
18,237
18,368
18,962
19,205
20,276
20,771
21,327
21,685
21,581
21,182
21,841
22,322
22,930
23,465
23,974
24,327
24,662
25,960
26,273
25,945
26,536
26,715
27,173
27,582
27,724
29,223
28,592
27,445
27,060
26,924

93

These data include ALL international and domestic certificated route air carrier statistics; therefore, the data are
different than those in Chapter 2. Revenue aircraft-miles, passenger-miles, and seat-miles began to rise in 2010.
Passenger load factor was 82.3% in 2012.

Table 9.2
Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International
Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 19702012a

Year
1970
1975
1980
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
19702012
20022012

Revenue
aircraftmiles
(millions)
2,542
2,241
2,924
3,462
3,873
4,182
4,354
4,442
4,724
4,661
4,899
5,118
5,360
5,627
5,855
6,025
6,220
6,558
6,946
6,814
6,834
7,367
7,479
7,716
8,220
8,415
8,142
7,534
7,666
7,783
7,725
2.7%
1.2%

Passenger load
Revenue
Available
Available
factor
passenger-miles
seat-miles
seats per
(percentage)c
(millions)
(millions)
aircraftb
148,137
264,904
104
55.9%
173,324
315,823
141
54.9%
267,722
448,479
153
59.7%
351,073
565,677
163
62.1%
378,923
623,075
161
60.8%
417,808
670,825
160
62.3%
437,649
696,337
160
62.9%
447,480
703,888
158
63.6%
472,236
753,211
159
62.7%
463,296
738,030
158
62.8%
493,715
772,869
158
63.9%
505,996
793,959
155
63.7%
537,518
809,259
151
66.4%
558,794
832,081
148
67.2%
596,164
859,721
147
69.3%
620,029
880,715
146
70.4%
634,933
899,029
145
70.6%
668,626
942,311
144
71.0%
708,926
981,080
141
72.3%
664,849
950,519
139
69.9%
655,215
913,898
134
71.7%
674,160
922,440
125
73.1%
752,341
1,000,193
134
75.2%
795,117
1,029,316
133
77.2%
810,086
1,027,526
125
78.8%
842,007
1,060,093
126
79.4%
823,783
1,040,840
128
79.1%
779,997
975,307
129
80.0%
809,051
991,934
129
81.6%
825,916
1,012,597
130
81.6%
832,712
1,012,234
131
82.3%
Average annual percentage change
4.2%
3.2%
0.6%
2.4%
1.0%
-0.2%

Revenue cargo
ton-miles
(millions)
3,755
5,062
7,885
9,048
10,987
13,137
14,632
16,347
16,403
16,149
17,306
19,083
21,773
23,375
24,892
27,610
28,015
25,147
30,221
27,882
30,507
32,446
37,958
39,286
38,251
38,433
35,227
30,317
35,209
35,713
34,921

Energy use
(trillion
Btu)d
1,363.4
1,283.4
1,386.0
1,701.4
1,847.1
1,954.9
2,049.4
2,087.4
2,180.2
2,085.2
2,116.4
2,169.7
2,271.5
2,338.6
2,409.1
2,513.6
2,459.5
2,665.0
2,750.4
2,592.5
2,430.1
2,470.6
2,657.2
2,693.3
2,661.1
2,684.6
2,547.8
2,303.2
2,333.3
2,375.3
2,307.2

5.5%
1.4%

1.3%
-0.5%

Sources:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, www.transtats.bts.gov. (Additional
resources: www.bts.gov/programs/airline_information/air_carrier_traffic_statistics)
197076 Energy Use Department of Transportation, Civil Aeronautics Board, Fuel Cost and Consumption,
Washington, DC, 1981, and annual.
a

Data are for all U.S. air carriers reporting on Form 41.
Available seats per aircraft is calculated as the ratio of available seat-miles to revenue aircraft-miles.
c
Passenger load factor is calculated as the ratio of revenue passenger-miles to available seat-miles for
scheduled and nonscheduled services.
d
Energy use includes fuel purchased abroad for international flights.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

94

General aviation includes: (1) aircraft operating under general operating and flight rules; (2) not-for-hire airplanes
with a seating capacity of 20 or more or a maximum payload capacity of 6,000 lbs. or more; (3) rotorcraft external
load operations; (4) on-demand and commuter operations not covered under Federal Aviation Regulations Part
121; and (5) agricultural aircraft operations.

Table 9.3
Summary Statistics for General Aviation, 19702011
Calendar year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
19702011
20012011

Aircraft hours flown


Total number of aircraft
(thousands)
131,700a
26,030b
168,475
30,298
177,964
31,950
184,294
33,679
199,178
36,844
210,339
40,432
211,045
41,016
213,226
40,704
209,779
36,457
213,293
35,249
220,943
36,119
196,500
31,456
205,300
31,782
202,700
30,883
196,200
31,114
205,000
32,332
198,000
32,096
196,874
29,862
185,650
26,747
177,120
24,455
172,935
24,092
188,089
26,612
191,129
26,909
192,414
27,713
204,710
28,100
219,464
31,231
217,533
29,960
211,446
27,017
211,244
27,040
209,708
27,329
219,426
28,126
224,352
26,982
221,943
27,705
231,607
27,852
228,663
26,009
223,877
23,763
223,370
24,802
220,770
24,570
Average annual percentage change
1.3%
-0.1%
0.4%
-0.9%

Energy use (trillion btu)


94.4
110.7
118.8
127.2
165.3
167.9
165.9
161.2
173.6
134.2
155.3
143.9
147.9
139.1
148.5
134.1
131.8
120.0
103.7
93.6
95.3
106.6
111.0
121.1
147.4
172.1
175.2
165.1
141.5
141.4
175.9
242.4
256.3
243.6
265.7
210.3
221.2
227.1
2.2%
3.2%

Sources:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, General Aviation Activity and Avionics
Survey: Calendar Year 2010, Tables 1.2, 1.5, 5.1, and annual. 2011 Data: Aviation Forecasts, Tables 28 and
29, May 2013. (Additional resources: www.faa.gov/data-research/aviation_data_statistics/general_aviation)
a
b

Active fixed-wing general aviation aircraft only.


Includes rotorcraft.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

95

In the early seventies, domestic waterborne commerce accounted for over 60% of total tonnage, but by 1994 foreign
tonnage grew to more than half of all waterborne tonnage. Total foreign and domestic tons shipped were about
2.37 billion tons in 2011, down from a peak of 2.59 billion tons in 2006.

Table 9.4
Tonnage Statistics for Domestic and
International Waterborne Commerce, 19702011
(million tons shipped)
Year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Foreign and domestic


total
1,532
1,695
1,835
1,908
2,021
2,073
1,999
1,942
1,777
1,708
1,836
1,788
1,874
1,967
2,088
2,140
2,164
2,092
2,132
2,128
2,215
2,240
2,284
2,333
2,340
2,323
2,425
2,393
2,340
2,394
2,552
2,527
2,588
2,564
2,477
2,211
2,335
2,368

19702011
20012011

1.1%
-0.1%

Foreign totala
Domestic totalb
581
951
749
946
856
979
935
973
946
1,075
993
1,080
921
1,077
887
1,054
820
957
751
957
803
1,033
774
1,014
837
1,037
891
1,076
976
1,112
1,038
1,103
1,042
1,122
1,014
1,079
1,037
1,095
1,060
1,068
1,116
1,099
1,147
1,093
1,183
1,101
1,221
1,113
1,245
1,094
1,261
1,062
1,355
1,070
1,351
1,042
1,319
1,021
1,378
1,016
1,505
1,047
1,499
1,029
1,565
1,023
1,543
1,022
1,521
956
1,354
857
1,441
894
1,480
888
Average annual percentage change
2.3%
-0.2%
0.9%
-1.6%

Percent domestic of total


62.1%
55.8%
53.4%
51.0%
53.2%
52.1%
53.9%
54.3%
53.9%
56.0%
56.3%
56.7%
55.3%
54.7%
53.3%
51.5%
51.8%
51.6%
51.4%
50.2%
49.6%
48.8%
48.2%
47.7%
46.8%
45.7%
44.1%
43.5%
43.6%
42.4%
41.0%
40.7%
39.5%
39.9%
38.6%
38.8%
38.3%
37.5%

Source:
U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, The U.S. Waterway System, Transportation Facts and
Information, November 2012. (Additional resources: www.ndc.iwr.usace.army.mil)
a

All movements between the United States and foreign countries and between Puerto Rico and the Virgin
Islands and foreign countries are classified as foreign trade.
b
All movements between U.S. ports, continental and noncontiguous, and on the inland rivers, canals, and
connecting channels of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, excluding the Panama Canal.
Beginning in 1996, fish was excluded for internal and intra port domestic traffic.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

96

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Navigation Data Center collects a wealth of waterborne commerce data. Energy
use data, however, have never been collected as part of this effort. The energy use data collected by the Energy
Information Administration (EIA) on vessel bunkering was formerly displayed on this table. The EIA data include
different uses of fuel, not just fuel for domestic waterborne commerce; therefore it was misleading to display those
data together.

Table 9.5
Summary Statistics for Domestic Waterborne Commerce, 19702011
Year
1970
1975
1980
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Number of vesselsa
25,832
31,666
38,792
41,672
40,308
40,000
39,192
39,209
41,119
39,233
39,210
39,064
39,064
39,445
41,104
41,419
42,032
41,766
39,641
41,588
41,002
39,983
40,290
41,354
41,109
40,695
40,301
40,109
40,512
40,521

19702011
20012011

1.1%
-0.3%

Ton-miles
(billions)
Tons shippedb (millions)
596
949
566
944
922
1,074
893
1,011
873
1,033
895
1,072
890
1,106
816
1,097
834
1,118
848
1,074
857
1,090
790
1,063
815
1,093
808
1,086
765
1,093
707
1,106
673
1,087
656
1,056
646
1,064
622
1,037
612
1,016
606
1,010
621
1,042
591
1,024
562
1,018
553
1,016
521
952
477
852
503
894
500
888
Average annual percentage change
-0.4%
-0.2%
-2.2%
-1.5%

Average length of haul


(miles)
628.2
599.9
856.4
883.5
845.3
835.0
804.3
743.2
745.7
789.9
785.7
742.7
745.5
743.6
699.4
639.5
619.0
621.1
606.8
599.7
602.5
600.3
596.4
577.4
548.7
544.2
546.7
559.7
562.8
563.5
-0.3%
-0.6%

Sources:
Number of vessels 197092, 19952011 U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Waterborne
Transportation Lines of the United States, 2011, New Orleans, LA, 2012, Table 2, p. 6, and annual. 199394
U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, The U.S. Waterway System-Facts, Navigation Data
Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, January 1996.
Ton-miles, tons shipped, average length of haul U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Waterborne
Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 2011, Part 5: National Summaries, New Orleans, LA, 2012,
Table 1-4, pp. 1-6, 1-7, and annual. (Additional resources: www.iwr.usace.army.mil/ndc)
a

Grand total for self-propelled and non-self-propelled.


These figures are not consistent with the figures on Table 9.3 because intra-territory tons are not included in
this table. Intra-territory traffic is traffic between ports in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

97

The data displayed in this table come from the Environmental Protection Agencys NONROAD2008a model.

Table 9.6
Recreational Boat Energy Use, 19702011
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Number of boats
(thousands)
10,087
10,137
10,187
10,237
10,287
10,337
10,387
10,437
10,487
10,537
10,587
10,637
10,687
10,737
10,787
10,837
10,887
10,937
11,030
11,122
11,215
11,327
11,440
11,553
11,770
11,988
12,206
12,244
12,283
12,321
12,359
12,464
12,568
12,673
12,777
12,882
12,984
13,086
13,189
13,291
13,393
13,497

19702011
20012011

0.7%
0.8%

Diesel fuel

Gasoline
(trillion Btu)
5.5
151.7
6.5
152.6
7.6
153.6
8.6
154.5
9.7
155.5
10.7
156.4
11.8
157.4
12.8
158.3
13.9
159.3
14.9
160.2
16.0
161.2
17.0
162.1
18.0
163.1
19.1
164.0
20.1
165.0
21.2
165.9
22.2
166.9
23.3
167.8
24.3
170.4
25.4
172.9
26.4
175.4
27.5
178.7
28.5
182.0
29.5
185.3
30.6
192.5
31.6
199.7
32.7
206.8
33.7
207.2
34.8
207.4
35.8
207.1
36.8
206.6
37.9
206.9
39.0
206.7
40.2
206.0
41.3
205.0
42.4
203.7
43.5
202.5
44.6
201.2
45.7
200.0
46.8
198.8
47.9
197.3
49.0
195.9
Average annual percentage change
5.5%
0.6%
2.6%
-0.5%

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NONROAD2008a model, downloadable file from
www.epa.gov/otaq/nonrdmdl.htm.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

Total energy use


157.2
159.2
161.2
163.2
165.1
167.1
169.1
171.1
173.1
175.1
177.1
179.1
181.1
183.1
185.1
187.1
189.1
191.1
194.7
198.3
201.8
206.2
210.5
214.8
223.1
231.3
239.5
240.9
242.2
243.0
243.4
244.9
245.7
246.2
246.2
246.1
245.9
245.8
245.7
245.6
245.2
244.9
1.1%
0.0%

98

The Interstate Commerce Commission designates Class I railroads on the basis of annual gross revenues. In 2011,
seven railroads were given this designation. The number of railroads designated as Class I has changed
considerably in the last 30 years; in 1976 there were 52 railroads given Class I designation.

Table 9.7
Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States
Ranked by Revenue Ton-Miles, 2011
Railroad
Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway Company
Union Pacific Railroad Company
CSX Transportation
Norfolk Southern Railway
Canadian National, Grand Trunk Corporation
Canadian Pacific Soo Railway
Kansas City Southern Railway Company
Total

Revenue ton-miles
(billions)
648
544
228
192
51
35
30
1,728

Percent
37.5%
31.5%
13.2%
11.1%
3.0%
2.0%
1.7%
100.0%

Source:
Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts, 2012 Edition, Washington, DC, November 2012, p. 66.
(Additional resources: www.aar.org)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

99

Revenue ton-miles for Class I freight railroads was over 1.7 trillion in 2011. Though there are many regional and
local freight railroads, the Class I freight railroads accounted for 94% of the railroad industrys freight revenue in
2011 and 69% of the industrys mileage operated. The energy intensity of Class I railroads hit an all-time low of
289 btu/ton-mile in 2010 and continued to be below 300 btu/ton-mile in 2011.

Table 9.8
Summary Statistics for Class I Freight Railroads, 19702011

Year
1970
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
19702011
20012011

Number of
locomotives
in servicea
27,077d
27,846
28,094
27,421
26,795
25,448
24,117
22,548
20,790
19,647
19,364
19,015
18,835
18,344
18,004
18,161
18,505
18,812
19,269
19,684
20,261
20,256
20,028
19,745
20,506
20,774
22,015
22,779
23,732
24,143
24,003
24,045
23,893
24,250

Number of
freight cars
(thousands)b
1,424
1,359
1,168
1,111
1,039
1,007
948
867
799
749
725
682
659
633
605
587
591
583
571
568
576
579
560
500
478
467
474
475
475
460
450
416
398
381

-0.3%
2.1%

-3.2%
-2.7%

Tons
Trainoriginatedc
miles
Car-miles
(millions) (millions)
(millions)
427
29,890
1,485
403
27,656
1,395
428
29,277
1,492
408
27,968
1,453
345
23,952
1,269
346
24,358
1,293
369
26,409
1,429
347
24,920
1,320
347
24,414
1,306
361
25,627
1,372
379
26,339
1,430
383
26,196
1,403
380
26,159
1,425
375
25,628
1,383
390
26,128
1,399
405
26,883
1,397
441
28,485
1,470
458
30,383
1,550
469
31,715
1,611
475
31,660
1,585
475
32,657
1,649
490
33,851
1,717
504
34,590
1,738
500
34,243
1,742
500
34,680
1,767
516
35,555
1,799
535
37,071
1,844
548
37,712
1,899
563
38,995
1,957
543
38,186
1,940
524
37,226
1,934
436
32,115
1,668
476
35,541
1,851
493
36,649
1,885
Average annual percentage change
0.4%
0.5%
0.6%
-0.1%
0.7%
0.8%

Average
length of
haul
(miles)
515
541
616
626
629
641
645
665
664
688
697
723
726
751
763
794
817
843
842
851
835
835
843
859
853
862
902
894
906
913
919
919
914
917

Revenue
ton-miles
(millions)
764,809
754,252
918,958
910,169
797,759
828,275
921,542
876,984
867,722
943,747
996,182
1,013,841
1,033,969
1,038,875
1,066,781
1,109,309
1,200,701
1,305,688
1,355,975
1,348,926
1,376,802
1,433,461
1,465,960
1,495,472
1,507,011
1,551,438
1,662,598
1,696,425
1,771,897
1,770,545
1,777,236
1,532,214
1,691,004
1,729,256

Energy
intensity
(Btu/tonmile)
691
687
597
572
553
525
510
497
486
456
443
437
420
391
393
389
388
372
368
370
365
363
352
346
345
344
341
337
330
320
305
291
289
298

Energy
use
(trillion
Btu)
528.1
518.3
548.7
521.0
440.8
435.1
469.9
436.1
421.5
430.3
441.4
442.6
434.7
405.8
419.2
431.6
465.4
485.9
499.4
499.7
502.0
520.0
516.0
517.3
520.3
533.9
566.2
571.4
584.5
566.9
542.5
446.6
488.1
514.6

1.4%
0.7%

2.0%
1.5%

-2.0%
-1.5%

-0.1%
-0.1%

Source:
Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts, 2012 Edition, Washington, DC, November 2012, pp. 27, 28, 33,
34, 36, 49, 52, 61. (Additional resources: www.aar.org)
a

Does not include self-powered units.


Does not include private or shipper-owned cars. Beginning in 2001, Canadian-owned U.S. railroads are
excluded.
c
Tons originated is a more accurate representation of total tonnage than revenue tons. Revenue tons often
produces double-counting of loads switched between rail companies.
d
Data represent total locomotives used in freight and passenger service. Separate estimates are not available.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

910

According to the 2007 Commodity Flow Survey, 7% of all freight ton-miles are rail intermodal shipments (truck/rail
or rail/water). See Table 5.15 for details. The number of trailers and containers moved by railroads has increased
more than seven-fold from 1965 to 2011. Containerization has increased in the last two decades, evidenced by the
343% increase in the number of containers from 1988 to 2011. The number of trailers moved by rail, however, fell
to an all-time low in 2009, but has continued to increase since that time.

Table 9.9
Intermodal Rail Traffic, 19652011a
Year
1965
1970
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
19652011
20012011

Trailers & containers


Trailers
b
1,664,929
b
2,363,200
b
2,238,117
b
3,059,402
b
3,150,522
b
3,396,973
b
4,090,078
b
4,565,743
b
4,590,952
b
4,997,229
b
5,503,819
5,779,547
3,481,020
5,987,355
3,496,262
6,206,782
3,451,953
6,246,134
3,201,560
6,627,841
3,264,597
7,156,628
3,464,126
8,128,228
3,752,502
7,936,172
3,492,463
8,143,258
3,302,128
8,698,308
3,453,907
8,772,663
3,353,032
8,907,626
3,207,407
9,176,890
2,888,630
8,935,444
2,603,423
9,312,360
2,531,338
9,955,605
2,625,837
10,993,662
2,928,123
11,693,512
2,979,906
12,282,221
2,882,699
12,026,631
2,600,635
11,499,978
2,478,890
9,875,195
1,639,603
11,283,151
1,684,684
11,892,431
1,720,967
Average annual percentage change
b
4.4%
2.9%
-4.1%

Containers
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b

2,298,527
2,491,093
2,754,829
3,044,574
3,363,244
3,692,502
4,375,726
4,443,709
4,841,130
5,244,401
5,419,631
5,700,219
6,288,260
6,332,021
6,781,022
7,329,768
8,065,539
8,713,606
9,399,522
9,425,996
9,021,088
8,236,364
9,598,467
10,171,464
b

4.9%

Source:
Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts, 2012 Edition, Washington, DC, November 2012, p. 26.
(Additional resources: www.aar.org)
a

Beginning in 1995, the Grand Trunk Western Railroad and the Soo Line Railroad Company are excluded.
Beginning in 1999, the Illinois Central data are excluded. Beginning in 2002, the Wisconsin Central data are
excluded.
b
Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

911

The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, known as Amtrak, began operation in 1971. Amtrak revenue
passenger-miles have grown at an average annual rate of 3.1% from 1971 to 2011.
Table 9.10
Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak), 19712011

Year
1971
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
19712011
20012011

Number of
locomotives
in service
a

355
448
398
396
388
387
382
369
381
391
312
318
316
336
360
411
422
348
292
362
385
385
401
372
442
276
258
319
270
278
274
282
287
a

-3.3%

Number of
passenger
cars
1,165
1,913
2,128
1,830
1,929
1,880
1,844
1,818
1,793
1,850
1,845
1,742
1,863
1,786
1,796
1,853
1,874
1,907
1,501
1,572
1,347
1,285
1,891
2,084
2,896
1,623
1,211
1,186
1,191
1,164
1,177
1,214
1,274
1,301
0.3%
-4.6%

Revenue
passengermiles
Train-miles
Car-miles
(millions)
(thousands)
(thousands)
16,537
140,147
1,993
30,166
253,898
3,753
29,487
235,235
4,503
30,380
222,753
4,397
28,833
217,385
3,993
28,805
223,509
4,227
29,133
234,557
4,427
30,038
250,642
4,785
28,604
249,665
5,011
29,515
261,054
5,361
30,221
277,774
5,686
31,000
285,255
5,859
33,000
300,996
6,057
34,000
312,484
6,273
34,000
307,282
6,091
34,936
302,739
6,199
34,940
305,600
5,869
31,579
282,579
5,401
30,542
277,750
5,066
32,000
287,760
5,166
32,926
315,823
5,325
34,080
349,337
5,289
35,404
371,215
5,574
36,512
377,705
5,571
37,624
378,542
5,314
37,459
331,864
5,680
37,159
308,437
5,511
36,199
264,796
5,381
36,083
263,908
5,410
37,484
266,545
5,784
37,736
271,762
6,179
38,300
282,764
5,914
37,453
294,820
6,420
37,090
296,315
6,670
Average annual percentage change
2.0%
1.9%
3.1%
0.2%
-2.4%
1.8%

Average
trip length
(miles)
188
224
217
226
220
223
227
238
249
259
265
274
273
285
286
280
276
266
257
255
251
245
243
238
228
231
219
215
220
218
215
217
220
213
0.3%
-1.1%

Energy intensity
(Btu per revenue
passenger-mile)

Energy
use
(trillion
Btu)

3,548
3,065
2,883
3,052
2,875
2,923
2,703
2,481
2,450
2,379
2,614
2,505
2,417
2,534
2,565
2,282
2,501
2,690
2,811
2,788
2,943
3,235
3,257
3,212
2,800
2,760
2,709
2,650
2,516
2,398
2,435
2,271
2,214

13.3
13.8
12.7
12.2
12.2
12.9
12.9
12.4
13.1
13.5
15.3
15.2
15.2
15.4
15.9
13.4
13.5
13.6
14.5
14.8
15.6
18.0
18.1
17.1
15.9
15.2
14.6
14.3
14.5
14.8
14.4
14.6
14.5

-3.8%

-2.2%

Sources:
197183 Association of American Railroads, Economics and Finance Department, Statistics of Class I Railroads,
Washington, DC, and annual.
198488 Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts, 1988 Edition, Washington, DC, December 1989, p.
61, and annual.
198993 Personal communication with the Corporate Accounting Office of Amtrak, Washington, D.C.
19942011 Number of locomotives in service, number of passenger cars, train-miles, car-miles, revenue
passenger-miles, and average trip length - Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts, 2012 Edition,
Washington, DC, 2012, p. 77.
Energy use Personal communication with the Amtrak, Washington, DC. (Additional resources: www.amtrak.com,
www.aar.org)
a

Data are not available.


Energy use for 1994 on is not directly comparable to earlier years. Some commuter rail energy use may
have been inadvertently included in earlier years.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

912

Commuter rail, which is also known as regional rail or suburban rail, is long-haul rail passenger service operating
between metropolitan and suburban areas, whether within or across state lines. Commuter rail lines usually have
reduced fares for multiple rides and commutation tickets for regular, recurring riders.
Table 9.11
Summary Statistics for Commuter Rail Operations, 19842011

Year
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Number of
passenger
vehicles
4,075
4,035
4,440
4,686
4,649
4,472
4,982
5,126
5,164
4,982
5,126
5,164
5,240
5,426
5,536
5,550
5,498
5,572
5,724
5,959
6,228
6,392
6,403
6,391
6,617
6,941
6,927
7,193

Vehiclemiles
(millions)
167.9
182.7
188.6
188.9
202.2
209.6
212.7
214.9
218.8
223.9
230.8
237.7
241.9
250.7
259.5
265.9
270.9
277.3
283.7
286.0
294.7
303.4
314.7
325.7
310.2
343.5
345.3
345.2

19842011
20012011

2.1%
2.6%

2.7%
2.2%

Passenger
PassengerAverage
trips
miles
trip length
(millions)
(millions)
(miles)
267
6,207
23.2
275
6,534
23.8
306
6,723
22.0
311
6,818
21.9
325
6,964
21.4
330
7,211
21.9
328
7,082
21.6
318
7,344
23.1
314
7,320
23.3
322
6,940
21.6
339
7,996
23.6
344
8,244
24.0
352
8,351
23.7
357
8,038
22.5
381
8,704
22.8
396
8,766
22.1
413
9,402
22.8
419
9,548
22.8
414
9,504
22.9
410
9,559
23.3
414
9,719
23.5
423
9,473
22.4
441
10,361
23.5
459
11,153
24.3
472
11,049
23.4
468
11,232
24.0
464
10,874
23.4
466
11,427
24.5
Average annual percentage change
2.1%
2.3%
0.2%
1.1%
1.8%
0.7%

Energy intensity
(Btu/passengermile)
2,804
2,826
2,926
2,801
2,872
2,864
2,822
2,770
2,629
2,976
2,682
2,632
2,582
2,724
2,646
2,714
2,551
2,515
2,514
2,545
2,569
2,743
2,527
2,638
2,656
2,812
2,897
2,794

Energy
use
(trillion
Btu)
17.4
18.5
19.7
19.1
19.7
20.7
20.0
20.3
19.2
20.7
21.4
21.7
21.6
21.9
23.0
23.8
24.0
24.0
23.9
24.3
25.0
26.0
26.2
29.4
29.3
31.6
31.5
31.9

Source:
American Public Transportation Association, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, April 2013,
Appendix A. (Additional resources: www.apta.com)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

913

This table on transit rail operations includes data on light rail and heavy rail systems. Light rail vehicles are
usually single vehicles driven electrically with power drawn from overhead wires. Heavy rail is characterized by
high speed and rapid acceleration of rail cars operating on a separate right-of-way.

Table 9.12
Summary Statistics for Rail Transit Operations, 19702011a

Year
1970
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Number of
passenger
vehicles
10,548
10,617
10,654
10,824
10,831
10,904
10,848
11,109
11,083
10,934
11,370
11,261
11,332
11,426
11,303
11,286
11,192
11,156
11,341
11,471
11,521
11,603
12,168
12,084
12,479
12,236
12,480
12,755
12,853
13,032
13,346
13,529
13,614
13,328

Vehiclemiles
(millions)
440.8
446.9
402.2
436.6
445.2
423.5
452.7
467.8
492.8
508.6
538.3
553.4
560.9
554.8
554.0
549.8
565.8
571.8
580.7
598.9
609.5
626.4
648.0
662.4
681.9
694.2
709.7
715.4
726.4
741.2
762.8
775.3
759.6
744.1

19702011
20012011

0.6%
1.0%

1.3%
1.2%

Passenger
PassengerAverage trip
trips
miles
length
(millions)b
(millions)c
(miles)d
f
2,116
12,273
f
1,797
10,423
2,241
10,939
4.9
2,217
10,590
4.8
2,201
10,428
4.7
2,304
10,741
4.7
2,388
10,531
4.4
2,422
10,777
4.4
2,467
11,018
4.5
2,535
11,603
4.6
2,462
11,836
4.8
2,704
12,539
4.6
2,521
12,046
4.8
2,356
11,190
4.7
2,395
11,438
4.8
2,234
10,936
4.9
2,453
11,501
4.7
2,284
11,419
5.0
2,418
12,487
5.2
2,692
13,091
4.9
2,669
13,412
5.0
2,813
14,108
5.0
2,952
15,200
5.1
3,064
15,615
5.1
3,025
15,095
5.0
3,005
15,082
5.0
3,098
15,930
5.1
3,189
16,118
5.1
3,334
16,587
5.0
3,879
18,070
4.7
4,001
18,941
4.7
3,955
19,004
4.8
4,007
18,580
4.6
4,083
19,520
4.8
Average annual percentage change
g
-0.1%
1.6%
1.1%
2.9%
2.3%
-0.6%

Energy intensity
(Btu/passengermile)e
2,157
2,625
2,312
2,592
2,699
2,820
3,037
2,809
3,042
3,039
3,072
2,909
3,024
3,254
3,155
3,373
3,338
3,340
3,017
2,856
2,823
2,785
2,797
2,803
2,872
2,837
2,750
2,783
2,707
2,577
2,521
2,516
2,520
2,462

Energy use
(trillion Btu)
26.5
27.4
25.3
27.5
28.1
30.3
32.0
30.3
33.5
35.3
36.2
36.5
36.4
36.4
36.1
36.9
38.4
38.1
37.7
37.4
37.9
39.3
42.5
43.8
43.3
42.8
43.8
44.9
44.9
46.6
47.8
47.8
46.8
48.1

0.3%
-1.3%

1.5%
0.9%

Sources:
American Public Transportation Association, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, April 2013,
Appendix A. (Additional resources: www.apta.com)
Energy use See Appendix A for Rail Transit Energy Use.
a

Heavy rail and light rail. Series not continuous between 1983 and 1984 because of a change in data source
by the American Public Transit Association (APTA). Beginning in 1984, data provided by APTA are taken from
mandatory reports filed with the Urban Mass Transit Administration (UMTA). Data for prior years were provided
on a voluntary basis by APTA members and expanded statistically.
b
197079 data represents total passenger rides; after 1979, data represents unlinked passenger trips.
c
Estimated for years 197076 based on an average trip length of 5.8 miles.
d
Calculated as the ratio of passenger-miles to passenger trips.
e
Large system-to-system variations exist within this category.
f
Data are not available.
g
Average annual percentage change is calculated for years 19802011.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

914

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

101

Chapter 10
Transportation and the Economy
Summary Statistics from Tables/Figures in this Chapter

Source
Figure 10.2

Table 10.11

Table 10.12

Table 10.16

Share of gasoline cost attributed to taxes, 2012


Canada

31%

France

55%

Germany

55%

Japan

44%

United Kingdom

60%

United States

14%

Average price of a new car, 2011 (current dollars)

25,233

Domestic

23,359

Import

29,621

Car operating costs, 2012


Variable costs (constant 2012 dollars per 10,000 miles)

1,964

Fixed costs (constant 2012 dollars per 10,000 miles)

5,746

Transportation sector share of total employment


2000

8.3%

2012

7.3%

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

102

The Transportation Services Index (TSI) was created by the U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of
Transportation Statistics (BTS). It is an index that measures the movement of freight and passengers. The Freight
TSI consists of:

for-hire trucking (parcel services are not included);


freight railroad services (including rail-based intermodal shipments such as containers on flat
cars);inland waterway traffic;
pipeline movements (including principally petroleum and petroleum products and natural gas); and
air freight.

The index does not include international or coastal steamship movements, private trucking, courier services, or the
United States Postal Services.
The index does not include intercity bus, sightseeing services, taxi service, private car usage, or bicycling and other
nonmotorized means of transportation.

Figure 10.1. Transportation Services Index, January 1990January 2013

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Transportation Services Index website,
www.bts.gov/xml/tsi/src/index.html. (Additional resources: www.bts.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

103

The United States prices are the lowest of these listed countries. Those in France, Japan, Korea, the United
Kingdom, and Germany paid, on average, more than six dollars per gallon in 2012. Data for China and India have
been discontinued by the International Energy Agency.

Table 10.1
Gasoline Pricesa for Selected Countries, 19902012

1990
China
Japan
India
Korea
Franced
United Kingdomd
Germany
Canada
United Statese

3.16
c
c

3.63
2.82
2.65
1.87
1.16

Current dollars per gallon


1995
2000
2005
c
1.03
1.70
4.43
3.65
4.28
c
c
3.71
c
c
5.28
4.26
3.80
5.46
3.21
4.58
5.97
3.96
3.45
5.66
1.53
1.86
2.89
1.15
1.51
2.27

2010
3.71
5.73
4.29
5.60
6.74
6.83
7.10
3.79
2.78

China
Japan
India
Korea
Franced
United Kingdomd
Germany
Canada

6.38
4.95
4.66
3.28

Constant 2012 dollarsf per gallon


1995
2000
2005
2010
c
1.55
2.00
3.91
6.67
4.87
5.03
6.04
c
c
4.36
4.52
c
c
6.20
5.89
6.42
5.07
6.42
7.09
4.84
6.11
7.01
7.19
5.97
4.60
6.65
7.48
2.30
2.48
3.40
3.99

United Statese

2.04

1.73

1990
c

5.55
c
c

2.01

2.67

2.93

2012b

Average annual
percentage change
19902012

6.90

3.6%

6.57
7.47
8.06
8.01
4.88
3.67

2012b

3.3%
4.9%
5.2%
4.5%
5.4%
Average annual
percentage change
19902012

6.90

1.0%

6.57
7.47
8.06
8.01
4.88

0.7%
2.2%
2.5%
1.8%

3.67

2.7%

Source:
International Energy Agency, Energy Prices and Taxes, Fourth Quarter, 2012, Paris, France, 2013.
resources: www.iea.org)

(Additional

Note: Comparisons between prices and price trends in different countries require care. They are of limited validity
because of fluctuations in exchange rates; differences in product quality, marketing practices, and market structures;
and the extent to which the standard categories of sales are representative of total national sales for a given period.

Prices represent the retail prices (including taxes) for regular unleaded gasoline, except for France and the
United Kingdom which are premium unleaded gasoline.
b
3rd quarter 2012.
c
Data are not available.
d
Premium gasoline.
e
These estimates are international comparisons only and do not necessarily correspond to gasoline price
estimates in other sections of the book.
f
Adjusted by the U.S. Consumer Price Inflation Index.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

104

Of these selected countries, the United Kingdom had the highest diesel fuel price average in 2012, while the United
States had the lowest. In fact, all countries listed except the United States had diesel prices over $5 per gallon in
2012.

Table 10.2
Diesel Fuel Pricesa for Selected Countries, 19982012

China
Japan
Korea
France
United Kingdom
Germany
United Statesd

China
Japan
Korea
France
United Kingdom
Germany
United Statesd

1990

2000

1.75

2.85
2.05
2.95
4.66
2.79
1.50

c
c

1.78
2.04
2.72
0.99

1990

2000

3.07

3.81
2.74
3.93
6.21
3.72
1.99

c
c

3.13
3.58
4.78
1.74

Current dollars per gallon


2005
2010
1.69
3.65
3.45
4.86
3.98
4.92
4.81
5.74
6.25
6.97
5.01
6.15
2.40
2.99
Constant 2012 dollarse per gallon
2005
2010
1.99
3.85
4.05
5.12
4.68
5.18
5.66
6.04
7.35
7.34
5.89
6.47
2.82
3.15

2011

2012b

5.98
5.96
7.04
8.41
7.51
3.85

5.97
5.96
6.62
8.37
7.12
3.94

2011

2012b

6.10
6.09
7.18
8.59
7.66
3.93

5.97
5.96
6.62
8.37
7.12
3.94

Average annual
percentage
change
19902012
c

5.7%
c

6.2%
6.6%
4.5%
6.5%
Average annual
percentage
change
19902012
c

3.1%
c

3.5%
3.9%
1.8%
4.6%

Source:
International Energy Agency, Energy Prices and Taxes, Fourth Quarter, 2012, Paris, France, 2013. (Additional
resources: www.iea.org)
Note: Comparisons between prices and price trends in different countries require care. They are of limited validity
because of fluctuations in exchange rates; differences in product quality, marketing practices, and market structures;
and the extent to which the standard categories of sales are representative of total national sales for a given period.

Prices represent the retail prices (including taxes) for car diesel fuel for non-commercial (household) use.
3rd quarter 2012.
c
Data are not available.
d
These estimates are for international comparisons only and do not necessarily correspond to gasoline price
estimates in other sections of the book.
e
Adjusted by the U.S. Consumer Price Inflation Index.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

105

In 2012 close to sixty percent of the cost of gasoline in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom went for taxes.
Of the listed countries, the United States has the lowest percentage of taxes.

Figure 10.2. Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2012

Source:
Table 10.1 and International Energy Agency, Energy Prices & Taxes, Fourth Quarter, 2012, Paris, France, 2013.
(Additional resources: www.iea.org)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

106

Diesel fuel is taxed heavily in the European countries shown here. The U.S. diesel fuel tax share is the lowest of the
listed countries.

Figure 10.3. Diesel Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2012

Source:
Table 10.2 and International Energy Agency, Energy Prices & Taxes, Fourth Quarter, 2012, Paris, France, 2013.
(Additional resources: www.iea.org)
Note: Data for Canada are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

107

Though the cost of crude oil certainly influences the price of gasoline, it is not the only factor which determines the
price at the pump. Processing cost, transportation cost, and taxes also play a major part of the cost of a gallon of
gasoline. The average price of a barrel of crude oil (in constant 2012 dollars) increased by 165% from 2000 to
2012, while the average price of a gallon of gasoline increased 75% in this same time period.

Table 10.3
Prices for a Barrel of Crude Oil and a Gallon of Gasoline, 19782012

Year
1978
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
19782012
20022012

Crude oila
Gasolineb
(dollars per barrel)
(cents per gallon)
Current
Constant 2012c
Current
Constant 2012c
12.5
44.2
65.2
231.4
28.1
78.8
122.1
342.9
35.2
89.7
135.3
344.4
31.9
76.4
128.1
307.2
29.0
67.4
122.5
284.6
28.6
63.8
119.8
266.8
26.8
57.5
119.6
257.2
14.6
30.7
93.1
196.6
17.9
36.5
95.7
194.9
14.7
28.7
96.3
188.4
18.0
33.5
106.0
197.8
22.2
39.3
121.7
215.5
19.1
32.4
119.6
203.2
18.4
30.4
119.0
196.3
16.4
26.3
117.3
187.8
15.6
24.3
117.4
183.3
17.2
26.2
120.5
183.0
20.7
30.5
128.8
190.0
19.0
27.5
129.1
186.1
12.5
17.8
111.5
158.3
17.5
24.3
122.1
169.6
28.3
38.0
156.3
210.0
23.0
30.0
153.1
200.0
24.1
31.0
144.1
185.4
28.5
35.9
163.8
206.0
37.0
45.3
192.3
235.6
50.2
59.5
233.8
277.0
60.2
69.1
263.5
302.5
67.9
75.8
284.9
318.0
94.7
101.8
331.7
356.5
59.3
63.9
240.1
259.0
76.7
81.4
283.6
301.0
101.9
104.8
357.7
368.0
100.9
100.9
369.5
369.5
Average annual percentage change
6.3%
2.5%
5.2%
1.4%
15.4%
12.5%
9.9%
7.1%

Ratio of
gasoline to
crude oil
219.8
182.7
161.3
168.8
177.5
175.7
187.8
268.7
224.5
275.7
247.7
230.0
263.5
271.2
300.2
316.3
293.7
261.2
284.8
374.0
292.9
232.3
280.2
251.1
241.1
218.4
195.5
183.7
176.1
147.0
170.1
155.3
147.4
153.8

Sources:
Crude oil U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 2013,
Washington, DC, Table 9.1.
Gasoline U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 2013,
Washington, DC, Table 9.4. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)
a

Refiner acquisition cost of composite (domestic and imported) crude oil.


Average for all types. These prices were collected from a sample of service stations in 85 urban areas
selected to represent all urban consumers. Urban consumers make up about 80% of the total U.S. population.
c
Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

108

The price of diesel fuel was lower than gasoline prior to 2005 but since that time the diesel fuel price increased to
become higher than gasoline.

Table 10.4
Retail Prices for Motor Fuel, 19782012
(cents per gallon, including tax)
Diesel fuela

Year
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
19782012
20022012

Average for all gasoline typesb


Constant
Constant
Current
2012c
Current
2012c
d
d
65
230
d
d
88
279
101
281
122
340
118
298
135
342
116
276
128
305
120
277
123
282
122
270
120
265
122
260
120
255
94
197
93
195
96
194
96
193
95
184
96
187
102
189
106
196
107
188
122
214
91
153
120
202
106
173
119
195
98
156
117
186
111
173
117
182
111
167
121
182
124
181
129
188
120
171
129
185
104
147
112
157
112
154
122
168
149
199
156
208
140
182
153
198
132
168
144
184
151
188
164
204
181
220
192
234
240
282
234
275
271
308
264
300
289
319
285
315
380
406
332
354
247
264
240
257
299
315
284
299
384
392
358
365
397
397
370
370
Average annual percentage change
4.4%e
1.1%e
5.2%
1.4%
11.6%
9.0%
9.9%
7.2%

Sources:
Gasoline U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, April 2013,
Washington, DC, Table 9.4.
Diesel U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2004,
Washington, DC, June 2004, Table 7.2. 20052012 data from EIA website. (Additional resources:
www.eia.doe.gov)

1980-1993: Collected from a survey of prices on January 1 of the current year. 1994-on: Annual average.
These prices were collected from a sample of service stations in 85 urban areas selected to represent all
urban consumers. Urban consumers make up about 80 percent of the total U.S. population.
c
Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index.
d
Data are not available.
e
Average annual percentage change is from the earliest year possible to 2012.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

109

The fuel prices shown here are refiner sales prices of transportation fuels to end users, excluding tax. Sales to end
users are those made directly to the ultimate consumer, including bulk consumers. Bulk sales to utility, industrial,
and commercial accounts previously included in the wholesale category are now counted as sales to end users.

Table 10.5
Refiner Sales Prices for Propane and No. 2 Diesel, 19782012
(cents per gallon, excluding tax)
Propanea
Year
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
19782012
20022012

Constant
Current
2012b
33.5
118.0
35.7
112.9
48.2
134.3
56.5
142.7
59.2
140.8
70.9
163.4
73.7
162.9
71.7
153.0
74.5
156.1
70.1
141.7
71.4
138.6
61.5
113.9
74.5
130.9
73.0
123.1
64.3
105.2
67.3
106.9
53.0
82.1
49.2
74.1
60.5
88.5
55.2
79.0
40.5
57.0
45.8
63.1
60.3
80.4
50.6
65.6
41.9
53.5
57.7
72.0
83.9
102.0
108.9
128.0
135.8
154.7
148.9
164.9
189.2
201.8
122.0
130.6
148.1
155.9
170.9
174.4
113.9
113.9
Average annual percentage change
3.7%
-0.1%
10.5%
7.8%

No 2. diesel fuel
Constant
Current
2012b
37.7
132.8
58.5
185.0
81.8
227.9
99.5
251.3
94.2
224.1
82.6
190.4
82.3
181.9
78.9
168.4
47.8
100.1
55.1
111.4
50.0
97.0
58.5
108.3
72.5
127.4
64.8
109.2
61.9
101.3
60.2
95.7
55.4
85.8
56.0
84.4
68.1
99.7
64.2
91.8
49.4
69.6
58.4
80.5
93.5
124.7
84.2
109.2
76.2
97.2
94.4
117.8
124.3
151.1
178.6
210.0
209.6
238.7
226.7
251.0
315.0
335.9
183.4
196.3
213.4
224.7
311.7
318.2
320.2
320.2
6.5%
15.4%

2.6%
12.7%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Data Analysis Tools, Refiner Petroleum
Product Prices by Sales Type, April 2013, Washington, DC. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)

a
b

Consumer grade.
Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1010

Prices of finished aviation gasoline dropped in 2008 but then began to climb. In 2012 both finished aviation
gasoline and kerosene-type jet fuel reached their all-time high.

Table 10.6
Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, 19782012
(cents per gallon, excluding tax)
Year
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
19782012
20022012

Finished aviation gasoline


Current
Constant 2012a
51.6
181.7
68.9
217.9
108.4
302.0
130.3
329.1
131.2
312.2
125.5
289.3
123.4
272.7
120.1
256.3
101.1
211.8
90.7
183.3
89.1
172.9
99.5
184.2
112.0
196.7
104.7
176.5
102.7
168.1
99.0
157.3
95.7
148.3
100.5
151.4
111.6
163.3
112.8
161.4
97.5
137.3
105.9
145.9
130.6
174.1
132.3
171.5
128.8
164.4
149.3
186.3
181.9
221.1
223.1
262.3
268.2
305.4
284.9
315.5
327.3
349.0
244.2
261.3
302.8
318.8
380.3
388.2
397.1
397.1
Average annual percentage change
6.2%
2.3%
11.9%
9.2%

Kerosene-type jet fuel


Current
Constant 2012a
38.7
136.3
54.7
173.0
86.6
241.3
102.4
258.6
96.3
229.1
87.8
202.4
84.2
186.1
79.6
169.8
52.9
110.8
54.3
109.7
51.3
99.6
59.2
109.6
76.6
134.6
65.2
109.9
61.0
99.8
58.0
92.2
53.4
82.7
54.0
81.4
65.1
95.3
61.3
87.7
45.2
63.7
54.3
74.8
89.9
119.9
77.5
100.5
72.1
92.0
87.2
108.8
120.7
146.7
173.5
204.0
199.8
227.5
216.5
239.7
305.2
325.5
170.4
182.4
220.1
231.7
305.4
311.7
310.4
310.4
6.3%
15.7%

2.5%
12.9%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Data Analysis Tools, Refiner Petroleum
Product Prices by Sales Type, April 2013, Washington, DC. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)

Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1011

The federal government taxes highway motor fuel and uses the money to pay for roadway upkeep and improvement,
as well as other related expenditures. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) have the
lowest taxes, while diesel fuel and liquefied natural gas (LNG) have the highest.

Table 10.7
Federal Excise Taxes on Motor Fuels, 2011
Fuel
Gasolinea
Diesel and kerosene
Gasoholb
Other special fuelsb
CNG
LNG
LPG

Cents per gallon


18.4
24.4
18.4
18.4
18.3
24.3
18.3

Source:
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2011, October 2012,
Washington, DC, Table FE-21B. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov)

a
b

All gasohol blends are taxed at the same rate.


Includes benzol, benzene, naphtha, and other liquids used as a motor fuel.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1012

These states have laws and incentives for alternative fuels production and/or use.

Table 10.8
Federal and State Alternative Fuel Incentives, 2013

State
Federal
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Dist. of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Totals

Biodiesel
33
4
2
7
5
16
7
4
3
1
9
7
8
3
15
9
10
7
8
7
6
2
5
4
5
4
5
6
4
5
6
2
10
6
13
12
5
9
8
5
3
7
7
10
6
1
6
18
18
4
13
0
380

Ethanol
27
3
2
6
4
13
8
4
3
2
10
7
10
1
16
11
12
12
7
8
5
3
4
4
10
4
5
5
5
4
3
2
8
7
12
9
6
10
9
5
2
5
8
9
5
1
6
15
15
5
10
1
368

Natural
Gas
26
3
3
14
8
27
10
7
3
4
4
6
4
3
8
8
5
6
6
10
4
1
4
2
3
9
5
3
5
9
3
5
6
8
6
3
6
15
7
5
2
2
1
6
13
10
7
16
9
7
7
3
357

Liquefied
petroleum
gas (LPG)
25
3
2
14
4
18
7
4
5
3
3
3
4
3
6
5
4
4
4
6
4
1
2
2
4
5
5
3
3
9
3
3
5
4
6
2
5
9
6
4
1
3
2
5
8
6
6
13
8
6
8
0
278

Electric
vehicles
(EVs)
22
3
1
16
2
38
6
4
3
4
9
7
8
1
14
6
6
1
3
4
5
9
2
7
5
2
4
1
2
9
3
5
6
4
10
1
4
9
11
6
3
2
0
6
7
6
6
18
19
6
6
0
342

Neighborhood
electric
vehicles
(NEVs)
2
0
1
1
0
3
1
0
1
0
1
0
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
0
2
0
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
3
2
1
1
1
0
53

Hydrogen
fuel cells
26
2
1
11
2
25
6
6
2
3
4
3
5
2
6
4
5
1
1
1
3
0
2
2
2
2
4
1
1
8
3
2
7
5
5
2
4
8
5
3
2
6
0
2
4
2
6
13
6
6
7
0
239

Aftermarket
conversions
5
0
1
0
2
7
3
3
0
0
0
2
0
0
4
3
1
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
7
2
1
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
5
4
2
0
2
71

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center. Data
downloaded March 2013. (Additional resources: www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/laws/matrix/tech)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1013

Table 10.9
Federal and State Advanced Technology Incentives, 2013
State
Federal
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Dist. of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Totals

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) or


plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs)
9
1
0
8
0
31
4
3
2
2
5
2
8
2
11
6
0
0
1
2
2
6
2
5
3
1
0
0
0
5
3
5
2
4
7
0
0
3
4
3
2
4
0
5
5
2
4
9
6
3
4
0
196

Fuel economy or
efficiency
14
1
1
0
1
5
0
2
3
3
1
1
1
1
3
1
0
1
1
1
2
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
2
1
2
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
2
0
4
3
4
4
0
0
0
73

Idle reduction
7
2
0
2
2
4
1
3
3
1
1
2
1
0
5
1
0
1
0
0
3
1
1
0
3
0
1
0
1
1
4
1
1
4
4
0
2
1
4
4
2
2
0
0
3
3
3
2
3
2
2
1
95

Othera
8
0
0
1
0
8
0
3
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
4
1
3
1
0
0
0
4
1
4
0
1
1
0
1
3
1
2
1
0
0
56

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center. Data
downloaded March 2013. (Additional resources: www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/laws/matrix/tech)

Includes Clean Fuel Initiatives and Pollution Prevention.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1014

The average price of a new car in 2011 ($25,233) was very close to the average price in 1915 ($27,974) when
adjusted for inflation. Average new car prices were at their lowest in 1940 ($12,475). Since 1914 the highest
average price was in the year 1998 ($28,102).

Table 10.10
Average Price of a New Car, 19132011

Year
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937

2011
Constant
dollars
$32,511
$33,645
$27,974
$22,304
$20,603
$18,902
$18,713
$18,524
$19,658
$20,792
$18,902
$17,011
$16,822
$16,633
$16,444
$16,255
$16,066
$15,877
$17,767
$19,658
$18,524
$17,389
$15,499
$13,609
$13,987

Year
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962

2011
Constant
dollars
$14,365
$13,420
$12,475
$12,637
$12,799
$12,960
$13,122
$13,284
$13,446
$13,608
$14,251
$16,607
$17,019
$17,308
$18,749
$18,772
$18,432
$18,331
$18,860
$20,951
$22,163
$22,210
$21,373
$20,351
$20,231

Year
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987

2011
Constant
dollars
$20,008
$20,107
$19,727
$19,711
$21,659
$20,409
$20,409
$20,534
$20,783
$20,874
$20,528
$20,258
$20,696
$21,419
$21,581
$22,007
$21,214
$20,676
$22,048
$23,053
$23,953
$24,626
$24,747
$25,966
$26,506

Year
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

2011
Constant
dollars
$26,491
$26,069
$25,888
$25,557
$26,191
$26,263
$27,173
$26,507
$26,920
$26,959
$28,102
$27,962
$26,909
$27,275
$26,569
$26,462
$26,288
$26,510
$26,370
$25,920
$24,491
$24,409
$25,294
$25,233

Sources:
Compiled by Jacob Ward, Vehicle Technologies Program, U.S. Department of Energy, from the following sources.
Raff, D.M.G. & Trajtenberg, M. (1995), "Quality-Adjusted Prices for the American Automobile Industry:
1906-1940," National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.; Gordon, R.J. (1990), The Measurement of Durable
Goods Prices, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.; and U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of
Economic Analysis (2012), National Income and Product Accounts.
Note: Estimations were used for years 1941-1946.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1015

In current dollars, import cars, on average, were less expensive than domestic cars until 1982. Since then, import
prices have almost tripled, while domestic prices have more than doubled (current dollars).

Table 10.11
Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), 19702011

Year
1970
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
19702011
20012011

Domestica
Import
Current
Constant 2011
Current
Constant 2011
dollars
dollarsb
dollars
dollarsb
3,708
21,497
2,648
15,352
5,084
21,256
4,384
18,330
5,506
21,767
4,923
19,462
5,985
22,216
5,072
18,827
6,478
22,349
5,934
20,472
6,889
21,344
6,704
20,771
7,609
20,771
7,482
20,425
8,912
22,053
8,896
22,014
9,865
22,995
9,957
23,210
10,516
23,750
10,868
24,545
11,079
23,986
12,336
26,707
11,589
24,227
12,853
26,869
12,319
25,283
13,670
28,056
12,922
25,587
14,470
28,652
13,418
25,513
15,221
28,942
13,936
25,280
15,510
28,136
14,489
24,936
16,640
28,638
15,192
25,090
16,327
26,965
15,644
25,082
18,593
29,810
15,976
24,869
20,261
31,540
16,930
25,696
21,989
33,375
16,864
24,891
23,202
34,246
17,468
25,043
26,205
37,569
17,600
24,666
27,509
38,554
18,479
25,501
29,614
40,867
19,032
25,697
27,542
37,186
19,586
25,585
25,965
33,917
20,042
25,456
25,787
32,753
18,897
23,628
27,440
34,310
19,971
24,414
26,081
31,884
20,536
24,454
25,941
30,890
21,593
24,870
26,621
30,661
22,166
24,732
27,062
30,195
22,284
24,175
27,465
29,796
22,205
23,199
25,903
27,062
22,153
23,227
25,500
26,736
23,020
23,747
27,681
28,555
23,359
23,359
29,621
29,621
Average annual percentage change
4.6%
0.2%
4.4%
1.6%
1.5%
-0.9%
1.4%
-1.0%

Current
dollars
3,542
4,950
5,418
5,814
6,379
6,847
7,574
8,910
9,890
10,606
11,375
11,838
12,652
13,386
13,932
14,371
15,042
15,475
16,336
16,871
17,903
17,959
18,777
19,236
20,364
20,710
21,041
21,474
21,249
21,646
22,076
23,017
23,634
23,892
23,442
23,280
24,520
25,233
4.9%
1.6%

Total
Constant 2011
dollarsb
20,534
20,696
21,419
21,581
22,007
21,214
20,676
22,048
23,053
23,953
24,626
24,747
25,966
26,506
26,491
26,069
25,888
25,557
26,191
26,263
27,173
26,507
26,920
26,959
28,102
27,962
27,485
27,275
26,569
26,462
26,288
26,510
26,370
25,920
24,491
24,409
25,294
25,233
0.5%
-0.8%

Source:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Average Transaction Price per New Car,
Washington, DC, 2013. (Additional resources: www.bea.gov)
a
b

Includes transplants.
Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1016

The total cost of operating a car is the sum of the fixed cost (depreciation, insurance, finance charge, and license
fee) and the variable cost (gas and oil, tires, and maintenance), which is related to the amount of travel. The gas
and oil share of total cost was 18.4% in 2012 which is one of the highest shares in the series history.

Table 10.12
Car Operating Cost per Mile, 19852012

Model year
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
19852012

Total cost per


mileb (constant
Constant 2012 dollars per 10,000 milesa
Variable cost
Fixed cost
Total cost
2012 centsa)
1,583
4,398
5,981
59.81
1,366
4,833
6,199
61.99
1,354
4,705
6,059
60.59
1,533
5,881
7,414
74.14
1,481
5,407
6,888
68.88
1,476
5,720
7,195
71.95
1,635
6,011
7,646
76.46
1,473
6,192
7,665
76.65
1,462
5,914
7,376
73.76
1,410
5,943
7,353
73.53
1,446
6,034
7,480
74.80
1,405
6,136
7,540
75.40
1,545
6,220
7,765
77.65
1,507
6,378
7,885
78.85
1,461
6,422
7,883
78.83
1,627
6,299
7,925
79.25
1,763
5,991
7,754
77.54
1,506
6,220
7,726
77.26
1,635
6,094
7,729
77.29
1,531
6,846
8,378
83.78
1,658
6,362
8,020
80.20
1,720
5,337
7,056
70.56
1,606
5,276
6,882
68.82
1,809
5,757
7,566
75.66
1,650
5,914
7,564
75.64
1,762
6,022
7,783
77.83
1,811
5,978
7,789
77.89
1,964
5,746
7,710
77.10
Average annual percentage change
0.5%
1.1%
1.0%
1.0%

Percentage gas
and oil of total
cost
19.9%
15.1%
14.7%
13.6%
14.2%
13.2%
14.6%
12.6%
12.7%
11.8%
11.7%
10.9%
12.2%
11.1%
9.8%
11.6%
13.2%
9.7%
11.6%
9.4%
12.0%
15.3%
14.3%
16.4%
14.3%
15.4%
16.2%
18.4%

Source:
Wards Communications, Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures 2012, Southfield, Michigan, 2012, p. 65, and annual.
Original data from AAA Your Driving Costs. (Additional resources: newsroom.aaa.com)
a
b

Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index.


Based on 10,000 miles per year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1017

While the previous table shows costs per mile, this table presents costs per year for fixed costs associated with car
operation. For 2012 model year cars, the fixed cost is over $16 per day.

Table 10.13
Fixed Car Operating Costs per Year, 19752012
(constant 2012 dollars)a

Model year
1975
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Insuranceb
1,634
1,963
1,493
1,527
1,365
1,288
1,068
1,083
1,116
992
1,066
1,081
1,112
1,194
1,182
1,193
1,288
1,182
1,191
1,180
1,237
1,212
1,268
1,337
1,293
1,285
1,294
1,375
1,948
1,514
1,055
1,091
1,006
1,044
1,086
988
1,001

19752012
20022012

-1.3%
-2.5%

License,
registration
& taxes
Depreciation
128
3,299
280
3,209
261
3,148
285
2,979
228
2,892
222
3,251
128
3,226
224
2,992
234
2,667
235
2,693
272
2,765
259
3,019
270
3,462
267
3,736
290
4,140
283
4,221
285
4,446
283
4,497
301
4,555
306
4,630
315
4,639
309
4,681
318
4,738
311
4,735
297
4,656
270
4,600
257
4,749
256
4,664
504
4,597
457
4,560
609
3,863
596
3,756
591
3,541
607
3,704
616
3,742
607
3,805
610
3,544
Average annual percentage change
4.3%
0.2%
9.0%
-2.9%

Finance
charge
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

1,139
1,334
1,063
1,097
1,089
1,195
448
1,303
1,065
1,004
1,033
1,051
1,099
1,145
1,141
1,132
1,123
1,057
928
901
869
815
812
808
834
849
840
846
c

-2.2%

Total
5,061
5,452
4,902
5,727
5,665
5,999
5,705
5,519
5,184
5,059
5,438
5,423
5,941
6,286
6,807
6,146
7,321
7,026
7,050
7,148
7,240
7,300
7,470
7,525
7,378
7,277
7,356
7,223
7,950
7,400
6,342
6,254
5,946
6,189
6,292
6,241
6,001

Average
fixed cost
per day
13.87
14.93
13.42
15.69
15.52
16.44
15.63
15.12
14.21
13.87
14.89
14.85
16.28
17.22
18.66
16.84
20.06
19.26
19.32
19.58
19.84
20.00
20.47
20.62
20.21
19.94
20.15
19.79
21.78
20.28
17.38
17.13
16.29
16.95
17.24
17.10
16.44

0.5%
-2.0%

0.5%
-2.0%

Source:
Wards Communications, Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures 2012, Southfield, Michigan, 2012, p. 65 and annual.
Original data from AAA Your Driving Costs. (Additional resources: newsroom.aaa.com)
a

Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index.


Fire & Theft: $50 deductible 1975 through 1977; $100 deductible 1978 through 1992; $250 deductible for
1993 on. Collision: $100 deductible through 1977; $250 deductible 1978 through 1992; $500 deductible for
1993 on. Property Damage & Liability: coverage = $100,000/$300,000.
c
Data are not available.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1018

Table 10.14
Personal Consumption Expenditures, 19702012
(billion dollars)

Year
1970
1980
1990
2000
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Personal consumption expenditures


Constant
Current
2012a
648.30
3,092.3
1,755.80
4,265.0
3,835.50
6,161.8
6,830.40
8,727.2
8,803.50
10,220.0
9,301.00
10,459.6
9,772.30
10,679.6
10,035.50
10,729.4
9,845.90
10,416.7
10,215.70
10,684.9
10,729.00
10,927.2
11,119.60
11,119.6

Transportation personal
consumption expenditures
Constant
Current
2012a
80.8
385.4
241.7
587.1
455.7
732.1
814.3
1,040.4
998.0
1,158.6
1,027.5
1,155.5
1,071.7
1,171.2
1,055.7
1,128.7
899.8
952.0
982.7
1,027.8
1,103.9
1,124.3
1,160.1
1,160.1

Transportation PCE
as a percent of PCE
12.5%
13.8%
11.9%
11.9%
11.3%
11.0%
11.0%
10.5%
9.1%
9.6%
10.3%
10.4%

Source:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts, Table 2.3.5,
www.bea.gov
Note: Transportation PCE includes the following categories: transportation, motor vehicles and parts, and gasoline
and oil.

Table 10.15
Consumer Price Indices, 19702012
(1970 = 1.000)

Year
1970
1980
1990
2000
2005
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Consumer
price index
1.000
2.124
3.369
4.438
5.034
5.549
5.529
5.620
5.797
5.917

Transportation
consumer price
indexb
1.000
2.216
3.213
4.088
4.637
5.215
4.780
5.157
5.663
5.796

New car
consumer price
index
1.000
1.667
2.286
2.689
2.597
2.527
2.554
2.599
2.672
2.716

Used car
consumer price
index
1.000
1.997
3.769
4.994
4.468
4.293
4.070
4.587
4.776
4.818

Gross national
product index
1.000
2.702
5.585
9.562
12.176
13.842
13.518
14.079
14.672
15.246

Sources:
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Price Index Table 1A for 2012, and annual.
(Additional resources: www.bls.gov)
GNP U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts,
Table 1.7.5. (Additional resources: www.bea.gov)
a

Adjusted by the GNP price deflator.


Transportation Consumer Price Index includes new and used cars, gasoline, car insurance rates, intracity
mass transit, intracity bus fare, and airline fares.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1019

The data below were summarized from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Current Employment Statistics Survey
data using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Transportation-related employment was
7.3% of total employment in 2012.

Table 10.16
Transportation-Related Employment, 2000 and 2012a
(thousands)

Truck transportation (includes drivers)


Transit and ground transportation
Air transportation
Rail transportation
Water transportation
Pipeline transportation
Motor vehicle and parts - retail
Motor vehicles and parts - wholesale
Gasoline stations - retail
Automotive repair and maintenance
Automotive equipment rental and leasing
Manufacturing
Cars and light trucks
Heavy-duty trucks
Motor vehicle bodies and trailers
Motor vehicle parts
Aerospace products and parts
Railroad rolling stock & other transportation equipment
Ship & boat building
Tires
Oil and gas pipeline construction
Highway street and bridge construction
Scenic & sightseeing
Support activities for transportation
Couriers and messengers
Travel arrangement and reservation services
Total transportation-related employment
Total nonfarm employment
Transportation-related to total employment

2000
1,405.8
372.1
614.4
231.7
56.0
46.0
1,846.9
355.7
935.7
888.1
208.3
2,143.9
237.4
54.0
182.7
839.5
516.7
72.7
154.1
86.8
72.2
340.1
27.5
537.4
605.0
298.6
10,985.4
131,785.0
8.3%

2012
1,351.0
447.6
458.3
230.2
63.1
43.9
1,732.3
319.1
841.1
830.2
173.3
1,510.3
141.2
26.8
125.4
479.6
497.4
56.4
129.3
54.2
127.9
292.0
27.3
578.3
532.8
192.8
9,751.5
133,739.0
7.3%

Percent
change
-3.9%
20.3%
-25.4%
-0.6%
12.7%
-4.6%
-6.2%
-10.3%
-10.1%
-6.5%
-16.8%
-29.6%
-40.5%
-50.4%
-31.4%
-42.9%
-3.7%
-22.4%
-16.1%
-37.6%
77.1%
-14.1%
-0.7%
7.6%
-11.9%
-35.4%
-11.2%
1.4%

Source:
Bureau of Labor Statistics website query system: www.bls.gov/data/, (Additional resources: www.bls.gov)
a

Not seasonally adjusted.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1020

The total number of employees involved in the manufacture of motor vehicles decreased by over 62% from 1990 to
2012 and by more than 73% for those involved in the manufacture of motor vehicle parts. Beginning in 2008, the
share of production workers fell below 80% for manufacturers of both vehicles and parts.

Table 10.17
U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing, 19902012a
Year

All employees

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

271.4
258.4
259.9
263.7
281.5
294.7
285.3
286.8
283.6
291.3
291.4
278.7
265.4
264.6
255.9
247.6
236.5
220.0
191.6
146.4
152.6
157.9
168.0

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

653.0
638.9
661.2
677.8
735.6
786.9
799.9
808.9
818.2
837.1
839.5
774.7
733.6
707.8
692.1
678.1
654.7
607.9
543.7
413.7
418.9
445.5
479.6

Production workers
Motor vehicles
243.4
234.8
234.0
234.8
250.9
273.7
271.2
273.6
254.8
254.3
251.0
236.4
220.8
217.1
208.0
198.6
191.8
177.3
151.1
114.2
120.7
124.7
135.1
Motor vehicle parts
527.4
514.7
537.0
554.7
606.9
647.7
657.4
662.4
660.3
674.2
676.7
624.9
590.9
567.6
561.6
553.9
533.7
488.9
430.6
317.8
323.3
345.0
362.9

Share of production workers


to total employees

Source:
Tabulated from the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov, May 2012.
a

Not seasonally adjusted.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

89.7%
90.9%
90.0%
89.0%
89.1%
92.9%
95.1%
95.4%
89.8%
87.3%
86.1%
84.8%
83.2%
82.0%
81.3%
80.2%
81.1%
80.6%
78.9%
78.0%
79.1%
79.0%
80.4%
80.8%
80.6%
81.2%
81.8%
82.5%
82.3%
82.2%
81.9%
80.7%
80.5%
80.6%
80.7%
80.5%
80.2%
81.1%
81.7%
81.5%
80.4%
79.2%
76.8%
77.2%
77.4%
75.7%

111

Chapter 11
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Summary Statistics from Tables/Figures in this Chapter

Source
Table 11.1

Carbon dioxide emissions (million metric tonnes)

1990

2012

United States

4,989

5,622

OECD Europe

4,149

4,115

China

2,293

8,598

Russia

2,393

1,655

Japan

1,054

1,102

Non-OECD Europe

1,853

1,151

573

1,653

India
Table 11.5

Transportation share of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel


consumption
1990

31.7%

2005

33.3%

2011

33.5%

Table 11.6

Motor gasoline share of transportation carbon dioxide emissions

Table 11.10

Average annual carbon footprint (short tons of CO2)

62.9%

Cars

5.4

Light trucks

7.7

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

112

The U.S. accounted for 23.2% of the Worlds carbon dioxide emissions in 1990 and 17.51% in 2012. Nearly half
(43%) of the U.S. carbon emissions are from oil use.

Table 11.1
World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990 and 2012

United States
Canada
Mexico
OECDa Europe
OECD Asia
Japan
Australia/New Zealand
Russia
Non-OECD Europe
China
India
Non-OECD Asia
Middle East
Africa
Central & South America
Total World

1990
Percent of
emissions
Million
metric tons from oil use
4,989
44%
471
48%
302
77%
4,149
45%
243
59%
1,054
65%
298
38%
2,393
33%
1,853
32%
2,293
15%
573
28%
811
57%
704
70%
659
46%
695
76%
21,488
42%

2012
Percent of
emissions
Million
metric tons from oil use
5,622
43%
576
51%
506
66%
4,115
46%
547
41%
1,102
43%
461
33%
1,655
21%
1,151
28%
8,598
15%
1,653
26%
1,934
48%
1,805
57%
1,165
41%
1,223
72%
32,113
36%

Source:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Annual Outlook 2013 Early Release, Washington,
DC, April 2013. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)
a

OECD is the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. See Glossary for included
countries.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

113

Global Warming Potentials (GWP) were developed to allow comparison of the ability of each greenhouse gas to
trap heat in the atmosphere relative to carbon dioxide. Extensive research has been performed and it has been
discovered that the effects of various gases on global warming are too complex to be precisely summarized by a
single number. Further understanding of the subject also causes frequent changes to estimates. Despite that, the
scientific community has developed approximations, the latest of which are shown below. Most analysts use the
100-year time horizon.

Table 11.2
Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide
(kilogram of gas per kilogram of carbon dioxide)

Gas
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Methane (CH4)
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
HFCsb, PFCsc, and sulfur hexafluoride
HFC-23
HFC-125
HFC-134a
HFC-152a
HFC-227ea
Perfluoromethane (CF4)
Perfluoroethane (C2F6)
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)

Lifetime
(years)
5-200a
12
114
270
29
14
1
34
50,000
10,000
3,200

Global warming potential


direct effect for time horizons of
20 years
100 years
500 years
1
1
1
72
25
8
289
298
153
12,000
6,350
3,830
437
5,310
5,210
8,630
16,300

14,800
3,500
1,430
124
3,220
7,390
12,200
22,800

12,200
1,100
435
38
1,040
11,200
18,200
32,600

Source:
Solomon, S. et al., Technical Summary, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of
Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007. (Additional
resources: www.ipcc.ch)
Note: The typical uncertainty for global warming potentials is estimated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change 35 percent.
a

No single lifetime can be defined for carbon dioxide due to different rates of uptake by different removal
processes.
b
Hydrofluorocarbons
c
Perfluorocarbons

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

114

Carbon dioxide emissions in 2011 were 9% higher than in 1990 which is a decrease from 2010. Carbon dioxide
accounts for the majority of greenhouse gases.

Table 11.3
U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming Potential, 19902011
(million metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalenta)

1990
2005
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Carbon
dioxide
5,080.0
6,053.1
6,077.8
5,896.0
5,470.4
5,678.9
5,555.2

Methane
639.8
593.6
618.7
618.7
603.8
592.7
587.2

Nitrous
oxide
344.3
355.9
375.9
349.5
338.6
343.8
356.8

High
GWP gasesb
84.5
134.2
138.4
134.8
126.1
137.2
145.2

Total
6,149.5
7,136.8
7,210.8
6,999.9
6,538.9
6,752.6
6,644.4

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U. S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2011. EPA
430-R-13-001, April 2013, www.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/ghgemissions/US-GHG-Inventory2013-Main-Text.pdf
Note: This greenhouse gas emissions inventory includes two adjustments to energy consumption which make the
data different from Table 11.5. The adjustments are as follows:
(1) Emissions from U.S. Territories are included.
(2) International bunker fuels and military bunker fuels are excluded from the U.S. total.
a

Carbon dioxide equivalents are computed by multiplying the weight of the gas being measured by its
estimated Global Warming Potential (See Table 11.2).
b
GWP = Global warming potential. Includes HFC-hydrofluorocarbons; PFC-perfluorocarbons; and SF6sulfur hexaflouride.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

115

Though the transportation sector accounts for the largest share of carbon dioxide emissions, the industrial sector
accounts for the largest share of total greenhouse gas emissions.

Table 11.4
Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by End-Use Sector, 2011
(million metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalenta)

Residential
Commercial
Agricultural
Industrial
Transportation
Transportation share of total
Total greenhouse gas emissions

Carbon
dioxide
1,131.8
966.2
123.7
1,575.2
1,758.3
31.7%
5,555.2

Methane
3.7
121.9
210.6
249.6
1.4
0.2%
587.2

Nitrous
oxide
9.2
13.5
278.1
39.1
16.9
4.7%
356.8

Hydroflurocarbons,
perflurocarbons,
sulfur hexafluoride
25.2
29.4
0.2
33.3
57.1
39.3%
145.2

Total
greenhouse
gas
emissions
1,169.9
1,131.0
612.6
1,897.2
1,833.7
27.6%
6,644.4

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, 1990-2011. EPA
430-R-13-001, April 2013. (Additional resources:
www.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/ghgemissions/US-GHG-Inventory-2013-Main-Text.pdf)
Note: Totals may not sum due to rounding.
a

Carbon dioxide equivalents are computed by multiplying the weight of the gas being measured by its
estimated Global Warming Potential (See Table 11.2).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

116

Gases which contain carbon can be measured in terms of the full molecular weight of the gas or just in terms of
their carbon content. This table presents carbon dioxide gas. The ratio of the weight of carbon to carbon dioxide is
0.2727. The transportation sector accounts for approximately one-third of carbon emissions.

Table 11.5
U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption
by End-Use Sector, 19902011a
(million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide)

1990
2005
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Residential
931.4
1,214.7
1,205.2
1,189.9
1,123.5
1,175.0
1,125.6

19902011
20052011

0.9%
-1.3%

End use sector


Commercial
Industrial
Transportation
757.0
1,535.3
1,497.0
1,027.2
1,560.4
1,896.5
1,047.7
1,559.9
1,909.7
1,039.8
1,499.3
1,820.7
976.8
1,324.6
1,753.7
993.9
1,421.3
1,768.4
960.5
1,392.1
1,749.3
Average annual percentage change
1.1%
-0.5%
0.7%
-1.1%
-1.9%
-1.3%

Transportation
percentage
31.7%
33.3%
33.4%
32.8%
33.9%
33.0%
33.5%

CO2 from
all sectors
4,720.7
5,698.8
5,722.5
5,549.7
5,178.6
5,358.6
5,227.5
0.5%
-1.4%

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, 1990-2011. EPA
430-R-13-001, April 2013. (Additional resources:
www.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/ghgemissions/US-GHG-Inventory-2013-Main-Text.pdf)
a

Includes energy from petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Electric utility emissions are distributed across
consumption sectors.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

117

Most U.S. transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions come from petroleum fuels (97.5%). Motor gasoline has
been responsible for about two-thirds of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions over the last twenty years.

Table 11.6
U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in the Transportation End-Use Sector
1990
Fuel
Motor gasoline
LPGa
Jet fuel
Distillate fuel
Residual fuel
Aviation gas
Subtotal
Natural gas
Electricityb
Totalc

Emissions

Percentage

983.7
1.4
184.2
262.9
22.6
3.1
1,457.9

65.7%
0.1%
12.3%
17.6%
1.5%
0.2%
97.4%

36.0
3.0

2.4%
0.2%

1,496.9

100.0%

2005
Emissions
Percentage
Petroleum
1,187.8
62.6%
1.7
0.1%
189.3
10.0%
458.1
24.2%
19.3
1.0%
2.4
0.1%
1,858.6
98.0%
Other energy
33.1
1.7%
4.7
0.2%
1,896.4

100.0%

2011
Emissions

Percentage

1,100.4
1.9
146.5
435.4
20.1
1.9
1,706.2

62.9%
0.1%
8.4%
24.9%
1.1%
0.1%
97.5%

38.8
4.3

2.2%
0.2%

1,749.3

100.0%

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, 1990-2011. EPA
430-R-13-001, April 2013. (Additional resources:
www.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/ghgemissions/US-GHG-Inventory-2013-Main-Text.pdf)
a

Liquified petroleum gas.


Share of total electric utility carbon dioxide emissions weighted by sales to the transportation sector.
c
Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

118

Highway vehicles are responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector.

Table 11.7
Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Mode, 1990 and 2011
(Million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent)
Carbon dioxide
1990
Highway total
1,190.5
Cars, light trucks, motorcycles
952.2
Medium & heavy trucks and buses
238.3
Water
44.5
Air
187.4
Rail
38.5
Pipeline
36.0
Other
0.0
Totala
1,497.0
2011
Highway total
1,470.4
Cars, light trucks, motorcycles
1,065.1
Medium & heavy trucks and buses
405.3
Water
47.4
Air
148.5
Rail
45.3
Pipeline
37.7
Other
0.0
a
Total
1,749.3
Percent change 19902011
Highway total
23.5%
Cars, light trucks, motorcycles
11.9%
Medium & heavy trucks and buses
70.1%
Water
6.5%
Air
-20.8%
Rail
17.7%
Pipeline
4.7%
Other
0.0%
a
Total
16.9%

Methane

Nitrous oxide

4.2
4.0
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
4.6

40.4
39.6
0.8
0.6
1.8
0.3
0.0
0.9
44.0

1.3
1.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.3
1.7

14.5
13.6
0.9
0.7
1.4
0.3
0.0
1.6
18.5

-69.0%
-70.0%
-50.0%
0.0%
-100.0%
0.0%
0.0%
50.0%
-63.0%

-64.1%
-65.7%
12.5%
16.7%
-22.2%
0.0%
0.0%
77.8%
-58.0%

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902011, Tables
3-12, 3-13, 3-14, April 2013. (Additional resources:
www.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/ghgemissions/US-GHG-Inventory-2013-Main-Text.pdf)
Note: Emissions from U.S. Territories, International bunker fuels, and military bunker fuels are not included.
a

The sums of subcategories may not equal due to rounding.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

119

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use


in Transportation (GREET) Model

greet.es.anl.gov
Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable
Energy (EERE), Argonne has developed a full life-cycle model called GREET (Greenhouse gases,
Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation). It allows researchers and analysts to evaluate
energy and emission impacts of various vehicle and fuel combinations on a full fuel-cycle/vehicle-cycle
basis. The first version of GREET was released in 1996. Since then, Argonne has continued to update and
expand the model. The most recent GREET versions are GREET 1 2012 version for fuel-cycle analysis
and GREET 2.7 version for vehicle-cycle analysis.
Figure 11.1. GREET Model

For a given vehicle and fuel system, GREET separately calculates the following:

Consumption of total energy (energy in non-renewable and renewable sources), fossil fuels
(petroleum, natural gas, and coal together), petroleum, coal and natural gas.

Emissions of CO2-equivalent greenhouse gases - primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane


(CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1110

Emissions of six criteria pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide
(CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulate matter with size smaller than 10 micron (PM10),
particulate matter with size smaller than 2.5 micron (PM2.5),and sulfur oxides (SOx).

GREET includes more than 100 fuel production pathways and more than 80 vehicle/fuel systems.
These vehicle/fuel systems cover all major vehicle technologies in the market and R&D arena:

Conventional spark-ignition (SI) engines

Direct-injection, SI engines

Direct injection, compression-ignition (CI) engines

Grid-independent hybrid electric vehicles (both SI and CI)

Grid-connected (or plug-in) hybrid electric vehicles (both SI and CI)

Battery-powered electric vehicles

Fuel-cell vehicles
Figure 11.2. GREET Model Feedstocks and Fuels

To address technology improvements over time, GREET simulates vehicle/fuel systems over the
period from 1990 to 2035, in five-year intervals.
For additional information about the GREET model, see the GREET website, or contact:
Michael Q. Wang
Argonne National Laboratory
9700 South Cass Avenue, ES/362
Argonne, IL 60439-4815
phone: 630-252-2819
fax: 630-252-3443
email: mqwang@anl.gov
TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1111

These are results from the GREET model (see preceding pages for description). Californias (CA) grid mix was
chosen due to the high renewable energy mix in that state. While in contrast, West Virginias (WV) grid mix is
primarily coal. Both of these are compared against the average U.S. grid mix for various vehicle technologies.

Figure 11.3. Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies

Source: Argonne National Laboratory, GREET 1 2012 Model.


Note: H2 = hydrogen; High-T = high-temperature.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1112

Carbon Footprint

The carbon footprint measures a vehicles impact on climate change in tons of carbon dioxide
(CO2) emitted annually. The following three tables show the carbon footprint for various vehicle classes.
The sales-weighted average fuel economy rating for each vehicle class, based on 45% highway and 55%
city driving, is used to determine the average annual carbon footprint for vehicles in the class. An
estimate of 15,000 annual miles is used for each vehicle class and for each year in the series. The equation
to calculate carbon footprint uses results of the GREET model version 1.8.

CarbonFootprint

AnnualMiles

= CO 2 LHV
+ (CH 4 + N 2 O ) AnnualMiles

CombinedMPG

where:
CO2 = (Tailpipe CO2 + Upstream Greenhouse Gases) in grams per million Btu
LHV = Lower (or net) Heating Value in million Btu per gallon
CH4 = Tailpipe CO2 equivalent methane in grams per mile
N2O = Tailpipe CO2 equivalent nitrous oxide in grams per mile

Note: The Environmental Protection Agency publishes tailpipe emissions in the Light-Duty Automotive
Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 through 2012,
www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1113

The carbon footprint for all classifications of cars declined between 1975 and 2012.
experienced the greatest reduction in carbon footprint with a decrease of 76%.

Midsize wagons have

Table 11.8
Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class,
Model Years 19752012a
(short tons of CO2)
Sales period
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Small
10.2
7.2
6.6
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.2
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.0
6.0
5.9
5.9
5.6
5.5
5.7
5.1

19752012
20022012

-1.9%
-1.8%

Cars
Midsize
13.7
8.6
8.1
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.5
7.2
7.2
7.0
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.1
7.0
6.9
6.9
6.9
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.5
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.0
5.8
5.5
5.6
5.4
-2.5%
-2.3%

Large
14.2
9.8
9.1
9.0
9.2
9.1
8.4
7.8
7.8
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.7
7.8
7.6
7.7
7.6
7.6
7.5
7.3
7.3
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.1
7.2
7.2
6.9
6.6
6.6
6.3
6.2
-2.2%
-1.5%

Wagons
Small
Midsize Large
8.4
14.1
15.6
6.5
8.8
9.8
6.2
8.1
9.4
6.1
7.9
9.7
5.8
7.7
9.5
5.9
7.5
9.4
5.8
7.4
8.9
6.0
7.2
8.5
6.1
7.3
8.4
6.0
7.1
8.2
5.9
7.3
8.3
6.3
7.4
8.2
6.1
7.2
8.2
6.2
7.1
8.2
5.8
7.1
8.3
5.7
7.2
8.2
5.6
7.0
8.2
5.9
7.1
8.1
b
5.8
7.1
b
5.8
7.1
b
5.9
7.1
b
6.4
6.9
b
6.9
7.0
b
7.2
6.8
b
6.2
6.9
6.0
7.1
8.5
5.8
7.2
8.4
6.0
7.1
8.5
5.9
6.8
8.5
5.8
7.0
8.6
5.6
6.7
8.7
b
5.5
6.5
b
5.4
7.6
b
5.3
5.3
Average annual percentage change
-1.2%
-1.3%

-3.8%
-7.0%

Non-truck SUVs
Small
Midsize
Large
b
15.5
12.2
b
b
10.9
b
b
10.8
b
7.9
8.5
b
8.1
7.5
b
8.3
8.3
b
b
8.0
b
8.0
8.4
b
8.0
8.2
b
8.1
8.3
b
8.1
8.3
b
8.0
8.6
b
8.2
8.7
b
8.0
8.9
b
8.1
9.2
b
7.5
8.8
b
6.4
9.0
b
6.4
8.7
b
6.7
8.8
b
7.3
8.6
6.9
8.4
8.4
8.0
8.6
8.8
7.0
8.2
8.9
7.0
8.0
7.3
6.4
7.6
7.7
6.3
7.5
8.1
6.1
7.3
7.7
b
7.1
7.7
8.3
7.0
7.7
b
6.8
7.7
b
6.5
7.4
b
6.3
6.7
b
6.1
6.5
b
6.1
6.2

-1.9%
-2.7%

-1.6%

Source:
Calculated using fuel economy from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive
Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2012, March 2013. See
page 11-12 for details. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)
a

Annual carbon footprint is based on 15,000 miles of annual driving. Includes tailpipe plus upstream
emissions.
b
No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.
c
Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1114

The annual carbon footprint of light trucks decreased for all classes of light trucks between 1975 and 2012. In the
last ten years, midsize truck SUVs experienced the greatest decline with about 23%.

Table 11.9
Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class,
Model Years 19752012a
(short tons of CO2)
Sales period
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
19752012
20022012

Small
8.3
7.7
6.6
6.8
6.9
7.2
7.0
7.2
7.2
7.5
7.8
7.5
7.5
7.6
7.1
7.5
7.7
7.6
7.5
7.6
8.0
7.1
7.1
8.1
8.0
8.3
7.2
7.0
b
b
b
b
b
b
c
c

Pickups
Midsize
8.9
7.2
7.1
7.0
7.1
7.3
7.3
7.2
7.4
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.6
7.9
7.9
7.8
7.6
7.5
7.7
7.8
8.3
8.2
8.6
8.9
8.2
8.6
7.9
7.8
8.0
7.8
7.6
7.5
6.9
6.9
-0.7%
-2.5%

Large
14.2
10.8
10.0
10.0
10.3
10.5
10.6
10.2
10.5
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.2
10.2
10.0
10.2
10.4
10.2
9.9
10.0
10.1
9.7
9.9
10.0
9.9
9.8
9.6
9.5
9.5
9.4
9.2
9.1
8.8
8.7
-1.3%
-1.4%

Vans
Midsize
Large
14.0
14.8
11.1
11.7
10.4
11.1
10.4
11.6
10.0
11.5
9.7
11.4
9.4
11.6
9.0
10.6
8.8
11.0
8.6
11.0
8.6
11.1
8.6
11.3
8.5
11.2
8.6
11.0
8.4
11.0
8.5
11.0
8.4
10.9
8.2
10.9
b
8.3
10.0
b
8.0
10.2
b
8.1
10.4
b
8.0
10.4
b
7.8
10.5
b
7.9
10.4
b
7.8
10.0
b
7.8
9.6
b
7.7
9.6
b
7.6
9.6
b
7.7
9.4
6.1
7.6
9.3
6.2
7.5
9.3
6.1
7.5
9.3
b
7.0
9.8
b
7.0
9.8
Average annual percentage change
c
-1.9%
-1.1%
c
-1.2%
-0.6%
Small
9.1
9.8
10.1
8.6
9.5
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.7
7.6
7.5
7.8
7.8
6.9
6.6
6.9
7.1
7.1

Small
11.1
9.9
9.2
9.5
8.9
8.7
8.5
7.9
7.7
7.7
8.2
8.0
7.8
7.9
8.0
7.9
7.9
6.7
8.9
8.0
8.0
8.4
7.8
7.8
7.7
7.9
8.1
8.7
8.3
8.2
9.0
8.6
b
b
c
c

Truck SUVs
Midsize
Large
15.5
15.3
13.0
13.0
11.9
12.2
11.4
9.9
10.2
10.6
10.1
11.0
9.7
11.0
9.6
11.1
9.6
11.0
9.7
11.2
9.7
11.2
9.9
11.2
9.4
11.5
9.6
11.9
9.4
11.4
9.6
11.4
9.6
11.2
9.4
10.8
9.2
10.6
9.1
10.7
9.0
10.8
9.0
10.6
8.8
10.1
8.7
9.8
8.5
10.0
8.5
10.0
8.4
9.7
8.2
9.5
7.8
9.1
7.6
9.0
7.2
8.4
7.0
8.3
7.0
8.2
6.7
8.0
-2.2%
-2.6%

-1.7%
-2.0%

Source:
Calculated using fuel economy from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive
Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2012, March 2013. See
page 11-12 for details. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)
Note: Includes light trucks of 8,500 lbs. or less.
a

Annual carbon footprint is based on 15,000 miles of annual driving. Includes tailpipe plus upstream
emissions.
b
No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.
c
Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1115

Between 1975 and 2012, the carbon footprint for light vehicles sold in the United States dropped dramatically. Cars
experienced the greatest decrease at 54.0% while the carbon footprint for light trucks decreased by 43.4%.

Table 11.10
Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2012a
(short tons of CO2)
Fuel
Small
Midsize
Large
Small wagon
Midsize wagon
Large wagon
Small non-truck SUV
Midsize non-truck SUV
Large non-truck SUV
Total cars
Small van
Midsize van
Large van
Small truck SUV
Midsize truck SUV
Large truck SUV
Small pickup
Midsize pickup
Large pickup
Total light trucks

Market share
1975
2012
Cars
40.0%
25.1%
16.0%
21.7%
15.2%
6.2%
4.7%
3.6%
2.8%
0.3%
b
1.9%
b
0.1%
0.0%
4.0%
b
2.9%
80.7%
63.9%
Light trucks
b
0.0%
3.0%
4.9%
1.5%
0.2%
b
0.5%
1.2%
10.3%
0.1%
10.6%
b
1.6%
0.5%
0.2%
11.0%
9.8%
19.3%
36.1%

Carbon footprint
1975
2012
10.2
13.7
14.2
8.4
14.1
15.6
15.5
12.2
b

11.8
9.1
14.0
14.8
11.1
15.5
15.3
8.3
8.9
14.2
13.6

Percent change
1975 - 2012

5.1
5.4
6.2
5.3
3.3

-49.9%
-60.7%
-56.1%
-37.1%
-76.3%

6.1
6.2
5.4

-50.5%
-54.0%

7.0
9.8

-50.0%
-33.8%

6.7
8.0

-56.6%
-47.9%

6.9
8.7
7.7

-21.6%
-38.8%
-43.4%

Source:
Calculated using fuel economy from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive
Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2012, March 2013. See
page 11-10 for details. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)
a

Annual carbon footprint is based on 15,000 miles of annual driving. Includes tailpipe and upstream
emissions.
b
Data are not available.
c
Not applicable.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1116

The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by a vehicle is primarily determined by the carbon
content of the fuel. However, there is a small portion of the fuel that is not oxidized into carbon dioxide when the
fuel is burned. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published information on carbon dioxide emissions
from gasoline and diesel which takes the oxidation factor into account and is based on the carbon content used in
EPAs fuel economy analyses. The other fuels listed come from the Energy Information Administration.

Table 11.11
Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Gallon of Fuel

Gasoline
Diesel
LPG
Propane
Aviation gasoline
Jet fuel
Kerosene
Residual fuel

Grams
per gallon
8,788
10,084
5,805
5,760
8,345
9,569
9,751
11,791

Kilograms
per gallon
8.8
10.1
5.8
5.8
8.3
9.6
9.8
11.8

Pounds
per gallon
19.4
22.2
12.8
12.7
18.4
21.1
21.5
26.0

Sources:
Gasoline and Diesel: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Facts: Average Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Resulting from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel, February 2009. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/OMS)
All others: Energy Information Administration, Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, Fuel and
Energy Source Codes and Emission Coefficients.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

121

Chapter 12
Criteria Air Pollutants
Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source
Table 12.1

Transportations share of U.S. emissions, 2012


CO

56.1%

NOX

56.2%

VOC

22.8%

PM-2.5

5.9%

PM-10

2.2%

SO2

0.5%

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

122

Transportation accounts for the majority of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. Highway vehicles are
responsible for the largest share of transportation emissions.

Table 12.1
Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, 2012
(millions of short tons/percentage)
Sector
Highway vehicles
Other off-highway
Transportation total
Stationary source fuel combustion
Industrial processes
Waste disposal and recycling total
Miscellaneous
Total of all sources

CO
24.77
38.3%
11.52
17.8%
36.28
56.1%
4.32
6.7%
1.73
2.7%
1.38
2.1%
20.96
32.4%
64.68
100.0%

NOx
3.96
34.7%
2.45
21.5%
6.40
56.2%
3.65
32.0%
0.98
8.6%
0.10
0.9%
0.26
2.3%
11.40
100.0%

VOC
1.97
12.6%
1.60
10.2%
3.57
22.8%
0.53
3.4%
6.69
42.7%
0.19
1.2%
4.69
30.0%
15.67
100.0%

PM-10
0.29
1.3%
0.19
0.9%
0.48
2.2%
0.97
4.5%
1.27
5.9%
0.24
1.1%
18.48
86.2%
21.44
100.0%

PM-2.5
0.17
2.9%
0.18
3.0%
0.35
5.9%
0.82
14.0%
0.48
8.2%
0.21
3.5%
4.01
68.4%
5.86
100.0%

SO2
0.01
0.3%
0.01
0.2%
0.03
0.5%
4.56
82.7%
0.77
13.9%
0.02
0.4%
0.14
2.5%
5.51
100.0%

Source:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends website
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/ttn/chief)
Note: CO = Carbon monoxide. NOx = Nitrogen oxides. VOC = Volatile organic compounds. PM-10 = Particulate
matter less than 10 microns. PM-2.5 = Particulate matter less than 2.5 microns. SO2 = Sulfur dioxide.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

123

The transportation sector accounted for more than 56% of the nations carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in 2012.
Highway vehicles are by far the source of the greatest amount of CO. For details on the highway emissions of CO,
see Table 12.3.

Table 12.2
Total National Emissions of Carbon Monoxide, 19702012a
(million short tons)

Source category
Highway vehicles
Other off-highway
Transportation total
Stationary fuel combustion total
Industrial processes total
Waste disposal and recycling total
Miscellaneous total
Total of all sources

1970
163.23
11.37
174.60
4.63
9.84
7.06
7.91
204.04

1980
143.83
16.69
160.51
7.30
6.95
2.30
8.34
185.41

1990
110.26
21.45
131.70
5.51
4.77
1.08
11.12
154.19

2000
68.06
24.18
92.24
4.78
2.63
1.85
12.96
114.47

2010
32.00
15.83
47.83
4.32
1.73
1.38
20.96
76.22

2012
24.77
11.52
36.28
4.32
1.73
1.38
20.96
64.68

Percent
of total,
2012
38.3%
17.8%
56.1%
6.7%
2.7%
2.1%
32.4%
100.0%

Source:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends website
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/ttn/chief)
a

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

124

Though gasoline-powered light vehicles continue to be responsible for the majority of carbon monoxide emissions
from highway vehicles, the total pollution from light vehicles in 2005 is about a third of what it was in 1970. This is
despite the fact that there were many more light vehicles on the road in 2005.

Table 12.3
Emissions of Carbon Monoxide from Highway Vehicles, 19702005a
(million short tons)

Source category

1970

Light vehicles &


motorcycles
Light trucksb
Heavy vehicles
Total

119.14
22.27
21.27
162.68

Light vehicles
Light trucksb
Heavy vehicles
Total
Highway vehicle total
Percent diesel

0.01
0.06
0.49
0.56
163.23
0.3%

1980
1990
Gasoline powered
98.21
67.24
28.83
32.23
15.35
8.92
142.39
108.39
Diesel powered
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.03
1.36
1.81
1.43
1.87
Total
143.83
110.26
1.0%
1.7%

1995

2000

2005

Percent of
total,
2005

46.54
29.81
5.96
82.31

36.40
27.04
3.42
66.86

24.19
21.19
1.97
47.35

50.2%
43.9%
4.1%
98.2%

0.02
0.02
1.53
1.57

0.01
0.01
1.19
1.20

0.01
0.01
0.85
0.87

0.0%
0.0%
1.8%
1.8%

83.88
1.9%

68.06
1.8%

48.22
1.8%

100.0%

Source:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends website
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps)
Note: Data beyond 2005 are not available.
a
b

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding.


Less than 8,500 pounds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

125

The transportation sector accounted for over half of the nations nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in 2012, with
the majority coming from highway vehicles. For details on the highway emissions of NOx, see Table 12.5.

Table 12.4
Total National Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides, 19702012a
(million short tons)

Source category
Highway vehicles
Other off-highway
Transportation total
Stationary fuel combustion total
Industrial processes total
Waste disposal and recycling total
Miscellaneous total
Total of all sources

1970
12.62
2.65
15.28
10.06
0.78
0.44
0.33
26.88

1980
11.49
3.35
14.85
11.32
0.56
0.11
0.25
27.08

1990
9.59
3.78
13.37
10.89
0.80
0.09
0.37
25.53

2000
8.39
4.17
12.56
8.82
0.81
0.13
0.28
22.60

2010
5.95
3.34
9.30
4.08
0.98
0.10
0.26
14.72

2012
3.96
2.45
6.40
3.65
0.98
0.10
0.26
11.40

Percent
of total,
2012
34.7%
21.5%
56.2%
32.0%
8.6%
0.9%
2.3%
100.0%

Source:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends website
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/ttn/chief)
a

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

126

Heavy diesel-powered vehicles were responsible for nearly one-half (44.1%) of highway vehicle nitrogen oxide
emissions in 2005, while light gasoline vehicles were responsible for the rest.

Table 12.5
Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Highway Vehicles, 19702005a
(million short tons)

Source category

1970

Light vehicles & motorcycles


Light trucksb
Heavy vehicles
Total

8.54
1.54
0.72
10.81

Light vehicles
Light trucksb
Heavy vehicles
Total
Highway vehicle total
Percent diesel

0.00
0.07
1.76
1.83
12.64
14.5%

1980
1990
Gasoline powered
6.63
4.26
1.58
1.50
0.62
0.57
8.83
6.33
Diesel powered
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.02
2.59
3.19
2.66
3.26
Total
11.49
9.59
23.1%
34.0%

1995

2000

2005

Percent
of total,
2005

3.05
1.46
0.52
5.03

2.31
1.44
0.45
4.20

1.63
1.56
0.38
3.57

25.5%
24.4%
5.9%
55.9%

0.02
0.01
3.82
3.85

0.01
0.01
4.18
4.19

0.00
0.01
2.81
2.82

0.0%
0.2%
44.0%
44.1%

8.88
43.4%

8.39
49.9%

6.39
44.1%

100.0%

Source:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends website
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps)
Note: Data beyond 2005 are not available.
a
b

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding.


Less than 8,500 pounds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

127

The transportation sector accounted for over 22% of the nations volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in
2012, with the majority coming from highway vehicles. For details on the highway emissions of VOC, see
Table 12.7.

Table 12.6
Total National Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, 19702012a
(million short tons)

Source category
Highway vehicles
Off-highway
Transportation total
Stationary fuel combustion total
Industrial processes total
Waste disposal and recycling total
Miscellaneous total
Total of all sources

1970
16.91
1.62
18.53
0.72
12.33
1.98
1.10
34.66

1980
13.87
2.19
16.06
1.05
12.10
0.76
1.13
31.11

1990
9.39
2.66
12.05
1.01
9.01
0.99
1.06
24.11

2000
5.33
2.64
7.97
1.18
7.21
0.42
0.73
17.51

2010
2.66
2.26
4.92
0.53
6.69
0.19
4.69
17.02

2012
1.97
1.60
3.57
0.53
6.69
0.19
4.69
15.67

Percent
of total,
2012
12.6%
10.2%
22.8%
3.4%
42.7%
1.2%
30.0%
100.0%

Source:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends website
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/ttn/chief)
a

The sum of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding. The EPA's definition of volatile organic
compounds excludes methane, ethane, and certain other nonphotochemically reactive organic compounds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

128

Gasoline-powered vehicles are responsible for over 95% of highway vehicle emissions of volatile organic
compounds. VOC emissions from highway vehicles in 2005 were about one-quarter of the 1990 level.

Table 12.7
Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Highway Vehicles, 19702005a
(thousand short tons)

Source category

1970

Light vehicles & motorcycles


Light trucksb
Heavy vehicles
Total
Light vehicles
Light trucksb
Heavy vehicles
Total
Highway vehicle total
Percent diesel

11,996
2,776
1,679
16,451
8
41
411
460
16,911
2.7%

1980
1990
Gasoline powered
9,304
5,690
2,864
2,617
1,198
633
13,366
8,940
Diesel powered
16
18
28
15
459
415
503
448
Total
13,869
9,388
3.6%
4.8%

Percent of
total,
2005

1995

2000

2005

3,768
2,225
421
6,414

2,903
1,929
256
5,088

2,111
1,629
171
3,911

51.8%
39.9%
4.2%
95.9%

9
10
315
335

3
4
230
238

2
6
159
167

0.0%
0.1%
3.9%
4.1%

6,749
5.0%

5,326
4.5%

4,078
4.1%

100.0%

Source:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends website
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps)
Note: Data beyond 2005 are not available.
a
b

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding.


Less than 8,500 pounds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

129

The transportation sector accounted for more than 2% of the nations particulate matter (PM-10) emissions in
2012. For details on the highway emissions of PM-10, see Table 12.9.

Table 12.8
Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-10), 19702012a
(million short tons)
Source category
Highway vehicles
Off-highway
Transportation total
Stationary fuel combustion total
Industrial processes total
Waste disposal and recycling total
Miscellaneous total

1970
0.48
0.16
0.64
2.87
7.67
1.00
0.84

1980
0.43
0.26
0.69
2.45
2.75
0.27
0.85

1990
0.39
0.33
0.72
1.20
1.04
0.27
24.54

2000
0.23
0.32
0.55
1.47
0.71
0.36
20.65

2010
0.34
0.24
0.58
0.97
1.27
0.24
18.48

2012
0.29
0.19
0.48
0.97
1.27
0.24
18.48

Percent of
total, 2012
1.3%
0.9%
2.2%
4.5%
5.9%
1.1%
86.2%

Total of all sources

13.02

7.01

27.75

23.75

21.54

21.44

100.0%

Source:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends website
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/ttn/chief)
Note: Because PM-10 is fine particle matter less than 10 microns, it also includes PM-2.5. Specific data for PM-2.5
are shown on Tables 12.10 and 12.11.
a

Fine particle matter less than 10 microns. The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1210

Since the mid-1980's, diesel-powered vehicles have been responsible for more than half of highway vehicle
emissions of particulate matter (PM-10). Heavy vehicles are clearly the main source.

Table 12.9
Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-10) from Highway Vehicles, 19702005a
(thousand short tons)
Source category

1970

Light vehicles & motorcycles


Light trucksb
Heavy vehicles
Total

249
74
44
367

Light vehicles
Light trucksb
Heavy vehicles
Total

2
19
92
113

Highway vehicle total


Percent diesel

480
23.5%

1980
1990
1995
Gasoline powered
141
56
53
49
31
32
30
17
13
220
104
98
Diesel powered
9
11
4
12
5
3
191
268
199
212
284
206
Total
432
387
304
49.1%
73.4%
67.8%

Percent of total,
2005

2000

2005

51
31
10
92

46
35
8
89

25.1%
19.1%
4.4%
48.6%

1
1
135
137

1
1
92
94

0.5%
0.5%
50.3%
51.4%

230
59.6%

183
51.4%

100.0%

Source:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends website
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps)
Note: Because PM-10 is fine particle matter less than 10 microns, it also includes PM-2.5. Specific data for PM-2.5
are shown on Tables 12.10 and 12.11. Data beyond 2005 are not available.
a
b

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding.


Less than 8,500 pounds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1211

The transportation sector accounted for almost 6% of the nations particulate matter (PM-2.5) emissions in 2012.
For details on the highway emissions of PM-2.5, see Table 12.11.

Table 12.10
Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5), 19902012
(million short tons)

Source category
Highway vehicles
Off-highway
Transportation total
Stationary fuel combustion total
Industrial processes total
Waste disposal and recycling total
Miscellaneous total
Total of all sources

1990
0.32
0.30
0.62
0.91
0.56
0.23
5.23
7.56

1995
0.25
0.31
0.56
0.90
0.50
0.25
4.73
6.93

2000
0.17
0.30
0.47
1.29
0.50
0.33
4.69
7.29

2005
0.14
0.32
0.46
1.13
0.53
0.27
3.07
5.45

2010
0.25
0.22
0.47
0.82
0.48
0.21
4.01
5.99

2012
0.17
0.18
0.35
0.82
0.48
0.21
4.01
5.86

Percent
of total,
2012
2.9%
3.0%
5.9%
14.0%
8.2%
3.5%
68.4%
100.0%

Source:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends website
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/ttn/chief)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1212

Diesel vehicles are responsible for the majority of highway vehicle PM-2.5 emissions. Nearly two-thirds of the
highway vehicles PM-2.5 emissions are from heavy diesel trucks.

Table 12.11
Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5) from Highway Vehicles, 19902005a
(thousand short tons)
Source category
Light vehicles & motorcycles
Light trucksb
Heavy vehicles
Total
Light vehicles
Light trucksb
Heavy vehicles
Total
Highway vehicle total
Percent diesel

1990
1995
Gasoline powered
35
30
21
20
11
9
67
59
Diesel powered
9
4
4
2
243
179
256
185
Total
323
244
79.3%
75.8%

2000

2005

Percent of
total, 2005

27
18
7
52

23
18
6
47

18.0%
14.1%
4.7%
36.7%

1
1
119
121

1
1
79
81

0.8%
0.8%
61.7%
63.3%

173
69.9%

128
63.3%

100.0%

Source:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends website
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps)
Note: Data beyond 2005 are not available.
a
b

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding.


Less than 8,500 pounds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1213

EMISSION STANDARDS
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates emissions from mobile sources
including vehicles, engines, and motorized equipment that produce exhaust and evaporative emissions.
Mobile sources contribute to four main air pollutants: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides,
and particulate matter. The EPA not only sets standards for the vehicles, engines, and equipment, but also
the fuels that they use. Tables 12.12 through 12.25 contain summaries of the current standards.

Acronyms Used on Tables 12.12 through 12.25


bhp
CI
CO
DE
g
g/kN
g/mi
GVW
HC
HCHO
HLDT
Hp-hr
kW
kW-hr
LDT
LDV
LEV
LLDT
LVW
MDPV
NMHC
NMOG
NOx
PM
ppm
rPR
SI
SULEV
ULEV
ZEV

Brake horsepower-hour
Compression-ignition
Carbon Monoxide
Diesel engine
Gram
Grams per kilonewton
Grams per mile
Gross vehicle weight
Hydrocarbons
Formaldehyde
Heavy light-duty truck
Horsepower-hour
Kilowatt
Kilowatt-hour
Light-duty truck
Light-duty vehicle
Low-emission vehicle
Light light-duty truck
Loaded vehicle weight
Medium-duty passenger vehicle
(8,500-10,000 lbs. GVWR)
Non-methane hydrocarbon
Non-methane organic gases
Nitrogen oxides
Particulate matter
Parts per million
Rated pressure ratio
Spark-ignition
Super-ultra-low-emission vehicle
Ultra-low-emission vehicle
Zero-emission vehicle

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1214

These exhaust emission standards were phased-in from 2004 to 2010.

Table 12.12
Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle Tier 2 Exhaust
Emission Standards

Standard

Federal

Emission limits at 50,000 miles


NOx
NMOG
CO
PM
HCHO
(g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi)

Emission limits at full useful life


(120,000 miles)a
NOx
NMOG
CO
PM
HCHO
(g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi)

Bin 1

Bin 2

0.02

0.01

2.1

0.01

0.004

Bin 3

0.03

0.055

2.1

0.01

0.011

Bin 4

0.04

0.07

2.1

0.01

0.011

Bin 5

0.05

0.075

3.4

0.015

0.07

0.09

4.2

0.01

0.018

Bin 6

0.08

0.075

3.4

0.015

0.1

0.09

4.2

0.01

0.018

Bin 7

0.11

0.075

3.4

0.015

0.15

0.09

4.2

0.02

0.018

Bin 8

0.14

0.100 /
0.125c

3.4

0.015

0.2

0.125 /
0.156

4.2

0.02

0.018

Bin 9b

0.2

0.075 /
0.140

3.4

0.015

0.3

0.090 /
0.180

4.2

0.06

0.018

Bin 10b

0.4

0.125 /
0.160

3.4 /
4.4

0.015 /
0.018

0.6

0.156 /
0.230

4.2 /
6.4

0.08

0.018 /
0.027

Bin 11b

0.6

0.195

0.022

0.9

0.28

7.3

0.12

0.032

Source:
40 CR 86 Subpart S. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)
Note: Tests Covered: Federal Test Procedure (FTP), cold carbon monoxide, highway, and idle. Definitions of
acronyms are on page 12-13.

In lieu of intermediate useful life standards (50,000 miles) or to gain additional nitrogen oxides credit,
manufacturers may optionally certify to the Tier 2 exhaust emission standards with a useful life of 150,000 miles.
b
Bins 9-11 expired in 2006 for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks and 2008 for heavy light-duty
trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.
c
Pollutants with two numbers have a separate certification standard (1st number) and in-use standard (2nd
number).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1215

Table 12.13
Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle Tier 2 Evaporative
Emission Standards

Federal

Vehicle type
LDV/LLDTsa
HLDTsb
MDPVsa, b
LDVa
LLDTa
HLDTb
MDPVa, b

Model
year
2004
2004
2004
2009
2009
2010
2010

3 Day diurnal
+ hot soak
(g/test)
0.95
1.20
1.40
0.50
0.65
0.90
1.00

Supplemental
2 day diurnal
+ hot soak
(g/test)
1.20
1.50
1.75
0.65
0.85
1.15
1.25

Running
loss
(g/mi)
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

Source:
40 CR 86 Subpart S. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)
Note: Multi-fuel vehicle phase-in applies. Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13.

For liquefied petroleum gas-fueled light-duty vehicles (LDV), light-duty trucks (LDT), and medium-duty
passenger vehicles (MDPV): 0.15 grams hydrocarbon per gallon (0.04 grams per liter) of fuel dispensed.
b
Refueling standards for heavy light-duty trucks (HLDT) are subject to phase-in requirements. MDPVs must
also comply with the phase-in requirement and must be grouped with HLDTs to determine phase-in compliance.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1216

Table 12.14
Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses Exhaust
Emission Standards
HC
(g/bhphr)

NMHC
(g/bhphr)

NMHC + NOx
(g/bhphr)

NOx
(g/bhphr)

PM
(g/bhphr)

CO
(g/bhphr)

Idle CO
(percent
Exhaust
gas flow)

Smokea
(percentage)

1974-78

16

40

20 / 15 / 50

1979-84

1.5

10

25

20 / 15 / 50

1985-87

1.3

10.7

15.5

20 / 15 / 50

MHDDE: - / 8 / 185,000

1988-89

1.3

10.7

0.6

1990

1.3d

6.0

0.6

1991-93

1.3

5.0 [ABT]

Year

Useful life
(hours/years/miles)

LHDDE: - / 8 / 110,000
HHDDE: - / 8 / 290,000

1994-97

1.3

5.0 [ABT]

0.25 [ABT]
0.10e

0.5

20 / 15 / 50

15.5

0.5c

20 / 15 / 50

15.5

0.5

20 / 15 / 50

MHDDE: - / 8 / 185,000

20 / 15 / 50

1994+ urban buses for PM


only:

1990-97 and 1998+ for


HC, CO, and PM:
LHDDE: - / 8 / 110,000
HHDDE: - / 8 / 290,000

0.1 [ABT]
0.07 ,0.05

15.5

15.5

0.5c

LHDDE: - / 10 / 110,000

Federal

1998+ for NOx:


LHDDE: - / 10 / 110,000
1998-2003

1.3

4.0 [ABT]

2004-2006h

2.4 (or 2.5


with a limit of
0.5 on
NMHC)o
[ABTi,j]

2.4 (or 2.5


with a limit of
0.5 on NMHC)
[ABT]

0.2o

2007+h,k,l,m,n

0.14o

0.1 [ABT]
0.05g

0.1
0.05g

15.5

0.5

20 / 15 / 50

15.5

0.5

20 / 15 / 50

MHDDE: - / 10 / 185,000
HHDDE: - / 10 / 290,000

For all pollutants:p


LHDDE: - / 10 / 110,000
MHDDE: - / 10 / 185,000

0.01

15.5

0.5

20 / 15 / 50

HHDDE: 22,000 / 10 /
435,000

Sources:
40 CFR 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.
40 CFR 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.
40 CFR 86.007-11 Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavyduty engines and vehicles. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)
Note: The test procedures are the EPA Transient Test Procedure and the EPA Smoke Test Procedure. Definitions
of acronyms are on page 12-13.

Percentages apply to smoke opacity at acceleration/lug/peak modes.


Standards for 1990 apply only to diesel-fueled heavy-duty engines (HDE). Standards for 1991+ apply to
both diesel- and methanol-fueled HDEs. Standards that apply to urban buses specifically are footnoted.
c
This standard applies to the following fueled engines for the following model years: methanol - 1990+,
natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) - 1994+.
d
For petroleum-fueled engines, the standard is for hydrocarbons (HC). For methanol-fueled engines, the
standard is for total hydrocarbon equivalent (THCE).
e
Certification standard for urban buses for 1993.
f
Certification standard for urban buses from 1994-95.
g
Certification standard for urban buses from 1996 and later. The in-use standard is 0.07.
h
Load Response Test certification data submittal requirements take effect for heavy-duty diesel engines
beginning in model year 2004. The following requirements take effect with the 2007 model year: steady-state test
requirement and Not-to-Exceed (NTE) test procedures for testing of in-use engines. On-board diagnostic
requirements applicable to heavy-duty diesel vehicles and engines up to 14,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating
(GVWR) phase in from the 2005 through 2007 model years.
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1217

Table 12.14 (continued)


Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses Exhaust
Emission Standards

The modified averaging, banking, and trading program for 1998 and later model year engines applies only to
diesel cycle engines. Credits generated under the modified program may be used only in 2004 and later model years.
j
For heavy-duty diesel engines, there are three options to the measurement procedures currently in place for
alternative fueled engines: (1) use a THC measurement in place of an non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC)
measurement; (2) use a measurement procedure specified by the manufacturer with prior approval of the
Administrator; or (3) subtract two percent from the measured THC value to obtain an NMHC value. The
methodology must be specified at time of certification and will remain the same for the engine family throughout the
engines' useful life. For natural gas vehicles, EPA allows the option of measuring NMHC through direct
quantification of individual species by gas chromatography.
k
Starting in 2006, refiners must begin producing highway diesel fuel that meets a maximum sulfur standard
of 15 parts per million (ppm).
l
Subject to a Supplemental Emission Test (1.0 x Federal Test Procedure [FTP] standard (or Family Emission
Limit [FEL]) for nitrogen oxides [NOx], NMHC, and particulate matter [PM]) and a NTE test (1.5 x FTP standard
[or FEL] for NOx, NMHC, and PM).
m
EPA adopted the lab-testing and field-testing specifications in 40 CFR Part 1065 for heavy-duty highway
engines, including both diesel and Otto-cycle engines. These procedures replace those previously published in 40
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 86, Subpart N. Any new testing for 2010 and later model years must be
done using the 40 CFR Part 1065 procedures.
n
Two-phase in-use NTE testing program for heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The program begins with the 2007
model year for gaseous pollutants and 2008 for PM. The requirements apply to diesel engines certified for use in
heavy-duty vehicles (including buses) with GVWRs greater than 8,500 pounds. However, the requirements do not
apply to any heavy-duty diesel vehicle that was certified using a chassis dynamometer, including medium-duty
passenger vehicles with GVWRs of between 8,500 and 10,000 pounds.
o
NOx and NMHC standards will be phased in together between 2007 and 2010. The phase-in will be on a
percent-of-sales basis: 50 percent from 2007 to 2009 and 100 percent in 2010.
p
Note that for an individual engine, if the useful life hours interval is reached before the engine reaches 10
years or 100,000 miles, the useful life shall become 10 years or 100,000 miles, whichever occurs first, as required
under Clean Air Act section 202(d).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1218

Table 12.15
Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines Exhaust Emission Standards

Engine or
vehicle

Gross
vehicle
weight
(lbs)

HCa
(g/bhp-hr)

NMHCb
(g/bhphr)

NOx
(g/bhp-hr)

NOx +
NMHCc
(g/bhp-hr)

PM
(g/bhphr)

CO
(g/bhp-hr)

Idle CO
(% exhaust
gas flow)

Formaldehyde

12.7

6.86

155

1970-73

275 ppm

1.50%

1974-78

16

40

1979-84

1.5

10

25

1985-86

1.9

10.6

37.1

14,000

1.1

10.6

14.4

Year
Prior to
Control

1987

Heavy
duty
enginesd

1988-90

1990e

1991-97f

Federal

19982004f
20052007f
2008+

20052007
Complete
heavy-duty
vehiclesn, q

0.5

1.9

10.6

37.1

14,000

1.1

6.0

14.4

> 14,000

1.9

6.0

37.1

14,000

1.1

6.0

14.4

> 14,000

1.9

6.0

37.1

14,000

1.1g

5.0

14.4

> 14,000

1.9

5.0

37.1

14,000

1.1g

14.4

> 14,000

1.9h

37.1

14,000

1.1g

> 14,000

1.9h

All

0.14

8,500 10,000

10,000 14,000

14.4

37.1

0.2

0.01

14.4

0.280m

0.9

7.3

0.330m

1.0

8.1

8,500 10,000

0.195o

0.2

0.02

7.3

0.032

10,000 14,000

0.230o

0.4

0.02

8.1

0.04

1.0l

5 / 50,000

> 14,000

4.0i

Useful life
(years /
miles)

8 / 110,000k

0.5

10 / 110,000

11 / 110,000
2008+p

Sources:
40 CFR 86.1816-05, 86.1816-08 Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles
40 CFR 86.1806-01, 86.1806-04, 86.1806-05 Onboard diagnostics requirements
40 CFR 86.1817-05, 86.1817-08 Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, banking, and trading program
40 CFR 86.091-10 Heavy-duty engine averaging, banking, and trading program for 1991 and later - Not available in
the e-CFR
40 CFR Part 86 Subpart B Vehicle test procedures (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)
Note: Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13.

For methanol-fueled engines, the standard is for total hydrocarbon equivalent (THCE).
For methanol and alcohol fueled vehicles the standard is for non-methane hydrocarbon equivalent
(NMHCE).
c
For methanol fueled engines the standard is for nitrogen oxides (NOx) plus NMHCE.
d
Standards for heavy-duty engines are expressed in grams per brake horsepower-hour (g/bhp-hr). Starting
with the 1998 model year, crankcase emissions are not allowed.
e
Standards for 1990 apply to gasoline and methanol-fueled engines.
f
Standards for 1991 and later apply to gasoline and methanol engines and are optional for natural gas and
Liquefied Petroleum Gas-fueled engines through the 1996 model year.
g
For natural gas fueled engines the standard is 0.9 g/bhp-hr non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC).
b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1219

Table 12.15 (continued)


Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines Exhaust Emission Standards

For natural gas fueled engines the standard is 1.7 g/bhp-hr NMHC.
The NOx standard is 5.0 for all natural gas-fueled engines.
j
This standard applies to the following engines utilizing aftertreatment technology (except for methanol) for
the following model years: gasoline/1990+; natural gas and LPG/1991+; methanol/1990+. Starting in 2005, engines
certified to on-board diagnostics requirements are not required to meet the idle carbon monoxide (CO) standard.
k
Useful life is expressed in years or miles, whichever comes first. Useful life for the 1998 and later NOx
standard and for all 2004 standards is 10 years or 110,000 miles, whichever comes first.
l
Manufacturers can choose this standard or one of the following options: (1) a standard of 1.5 g/bhp-hr
NMHC+NOX that applies to the 2004 through 2007 model years, with complete heavy-duty vehicle standards
taking effect in 2005; or (2) a standard of 1.5 g/bhp-hr NMHC + NOX that would apply to the 2003 through 2007
heavy-duty engines and optionally to 2003 through 2006 complete heavy-duty vehicles.
m
Standard is expressed as non-methane organic gas, but compliance can optionally be shown using
measurement of NMHC or total hydrocarbon (THC).
n
Complete heavy-duty vehicles have the primary load-carrying container or device attached. Incomplete
heavy-duty vehicles are certified to heavy-duty engine standards. Standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles are
expressed in grams per mile (g/mi). Starting in 2005 (or 2003 or 2004 depending on the selected phase in option; see
footnote l), complete heavy-duty vehicles under 14,000 lbs gross vehicle weight are tested on chassis-based rather
than engine-based procedures and must meet these complete heavy-duty vehicle standards.
o
Although expressed as NMHC, compliance can optionally be shown using measurement of NMOG or THC.
p
At least 50 percent of a manufacturer's sales must meet these standards in 2008, with 100 percent required in
2009.
q
Gross vehicle weight ranges are more accurately specified as follows: 8,500 GVW 10,000 and 10,000 <
GVW < 14,000.
i

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1220

Table 12.16
Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines Evaporative Emission
Standards

Enginet
ype

Year
1991-95

SI

1996-2007
(Enhanced)f
2008+
(Enhanced)

Federal

1996-97
CI
1998+
(Enhanced)g

Gross vehicle
weight (lbs)

Conventional
diurnal + hot
soak (g/test)a

Three-diurnal
test sequence
(g/test)b

Supplemental
two-diurnal
test sequence
(g/test)c

Running
loss
(gpm)c

Spitback
(g/test)c

14,000

3.0

> 14,000e

4.0

14,000

3.0

3.5

1.0

> 14,000

4.0

4.5

8500-14,000

1.4

1.75

> 14,000e

1.9

2.3

14,000

3.0

> 14,000

4.0

14,000

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

> 14,000

0.05

1.0
-

0.05

1.0

Useful lifed
8 / 110,000

10 / 120,000

11 / 110,000

MHDDE: 8 / 185,000
HHDDE: 8 / 290,000
MHDDE: 8 / 185,000
HHDDE: 8 / 290,000

Sources:
40 CFR 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.
40 CFR 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.
CFR 86.007-11 Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty
engines and vehicles. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)
Note: Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13.
a

Applies to gasoline and methanol engines. Standard is hydrocarbon (HC) for gasoline engines, total
hydrocarbon equivalent (THCE) for methanol engines.
b
For spark-ignition (SI) engines, standard applies to gasoline, methanol, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum
gas engines. For compression-ignition (CI) engines, standard applies to methanol, natural gas, and liquefied
petroleum gas engines. Standard is THCE for methanol engines, HC for others.
c
For SI engines, standard applies to gasoline and methanol engines. For CI engines, standard applies to
methanol engines. Standard is THCE for methanol engines, HC for others.
d
Useful life is expressed in years or miles, whichever comes first.
e
Vehicles over 26,000 pounds gross vehicle weight may demonstrate compliance with an engineering design
evaluation in lieu of testing.
f
A new enhanced evaporative test procedure applies, which is considerably more stringent than the previous
test procedure despite the fact that the standard values do not change from prior years. Gasoline and methanol
engines are phased in at the following rates of a manufacturer's sales for the specified model year: 1996: 20 percent;
1997: 40 percent; 1998: 90 percent; 1999: 100 percent.
g
A new enhanced evaporative test procedure applies, which is considerably more stringent than the previous
test procedure despite the fact that the standard values do not change from prior years. Methanol-fueled vehicles are
phased in at a rate of 90 percent of a manufacturer's production in 1998 and 100 percent in 1999.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1221

Table 12.17
California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards

Vehicle type
All passenger cars;
LDTs 8,500 lbs GVW or
less
Vehicles in this category
are tested at their loaded
vehicle weight

Durability
vehicle
basis (mi)
50,000

120,000

150,000
(Optional)

MDVs
8,501-10,000 lbs GVW
Vehicles in this category
are tested at their
adjusted loaded vehicle
weight
MDVs
10,000-14,000 lbs GVW
Vehicles in this category
are tested at their
adjusted loaded vehicle
weight

120,000

150,000
(Optional)

120,000

150,000
(Optional)

Vehicle
emission
category

NMOG
(g/mi)

Carbon
monoxide
(g/mi)

Oxides of
nitrogen
(g/mi)

Formaldehyde
(mg/mi)

Particulates
(g/mi)

LEV

0.075

3.4

0.05

15

n/a

LEV, Option 1

0.075

3.4

0.07

15

n/a

ULEV

0.040

1.7

0.05

n/a

LEV

0.090

4.2

0.07

18

0.01

LEV, Option 1

0.090

4.2

0.10

18

0.01

ULEV

0.055

2.1

0.07

11

0.01

SULEV

0.010

1.0

0.02

0.01

LEV

0.090

4.2

0.07

18

0.01

LEV, Option 1

0.090

4.2

0.10

18

0.01

ULEV

0.055

2.1

0.07

11

0.01

SULEV

0.010

1.0

0.02

0.01

LEV

0.195

6.4

0.2

32

0.12

ULEV

0.143

6.4

0.2

16

0.06

SULEV

0.100

3.2

0.1

0.06

LEV

0.195

6.4

0.2

32

0.12

ULEV

0.143

6.4

0.2

16

0.06

SULEV

0.100

3.2

0.1

0.06

LEV

0.230

7.3

0.4

40

0.12

ULEV

0.167

7.3

0.4

21

0.06

SULEV

0.117

3.7

0.2

10

0.06

LEV

0.230

7.3

0.4

40

0.12

ULEV

0.167

7.3

0.4

21

0.06

SULEV

0.117

3.7

0.2

10

0.06

Source:
California LEV Regulations with amendments effective 12/8/10. (Additional resources: www.arb.ca.gov)
Note: Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1222

These exhaust emission standards apply to commercial aircraft engines.

Table 12.18
Aircraft Exhaust Emission Standards
Applicabilitya

HC (g/kN)

NOx

1974+
1976+
1978+

Pressure
ratio (PR)
-

T8
TF with rOc 129 kN
T3d

CO
(g/kN)
-

1983+

TF with rO < 26.7 kN

T3, T8, TF with rO 26.7


kN

19.6

TSS

140(.92)rPR

TSS with rO 26.7 kN

140(.92)rPR

TP with rO 1,000 kW
T3, T8, TF with rO > 26.7
kN
T3, T8, TF newly
certified with rO > 26.7
kN
T3, T8, TF newly
manufactured with rO >
26.7 kN
T3, T8, TF newly
certified with rO > 89 kN
T3, T8, TF newly
certified with 26.7 kN <
rO 89 kN
T3, T8, TF newly
certified with rO>89 kN
T3, T8, TF newly
certified with 26.7kN < r0
89kN
T3, T8, TF

19.6

40+2(rPR)

118

19.6

32+1.6(rPR)

118

83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE
max of SN=50

19.6

32+1.6(rPR)

118

83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE
max of SN=50

19+1.6(rPR)

37.572+1.6(rPR)0.2087(rO)

7+2.0(rPR)

Year

1984+

Federalb

1997+
-

2000+

PR 30

2005+
30 < PR <
62.5
PR 62.5

42.71+1.4286(rPR)0.4013(rO)+0.00642(rP
R)(rO)
32+1.6(rPR)

Smoke
30
83.6(rO)-0.274
25
83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE
max of SN=50
83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE
max of SN=50
83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE
max of SN=50
83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE
max of SN=50
187(rO)-0.168
83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE
max of SN=50

Source:
40 CFR Part 87, Aircraft emission standards, test procedures, certification requirements (Additional resources:
www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)
Note: The test procedures are the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Smoke Emission Test
Procedure and the ICAO Gaseous Emissions Test Procedure. There is no useful life or warranty period for purposes
of compliance with aircraft emissions standards. Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13.

T8=all aircraft gas turbine engines of the JT8D model family


TF=all turbofan and turbojet aircraft engines except engines of Class T3, T8, and TSS
T3=all aircraft gas turbine engines of the JT3D model family
TSS=all aircraft gas turbine engines for aircraft operations at supersonic flight speeds
TP=all aircraft turboprop engines
b
Federal standards apply to planes operating in the United States, regardless of where they were
manufactured.
c
Rated output (rO) is the maximum power/thrust available for takeoff.
d
T3 engines are no longer manufactured but are in the existing fleet.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1223

These standards apply to construction and agricultural equipment, such as excavators, paving equipment, tractors,
combines, bulldozers, and skidders.

Table 12.19
Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines Exhaust Emission Standards
Rated
power
(kW)
kW < 8

8 kW < 19

19 kW < 37

Tier
1
2
4
1
2
4
1
2
4

37 kW < 56

56 kW < 75

1
2
3e
4 (Option 1)f
4 (Option 2)f
4
1
2
3
4

Federal
75 kW < 130

1
2
3
4

130 kW <
225

1
2
3
4

225 kW <
450

1
2
3
4

450 kW <
560

1
2
3
4

560 kW <
900

1
2
4

Model
year
2000-2004
2005-2007
2008+
2000-2004
2005-2007
2008+
1999-2003
2004-2007
2008-2012
2013+
1998-2003
2004-2007
2008-2011
2008-2012
2012
2013+
1998-2003
2004-2007
2008-2011
2012-2103g
2014+h
1997-2002
2003-2006
2007-2011
2012-2013g
2014+
1996-2002
2003-2005
2006-2010
2011-2013g
2014+h
1996-2000
2001-2005
2006-2010
2011-2013g
2014+h
1996-2001
2002-2005
2006-2010
2011-2013g
2014+h
2000-2005
2006-2010
2011-2014
2015+h

NMHC
(g/kW
-hr)
--------------------0.19
----0.19
1.3i
---0.19
1.3i
---0.19
1.3i
---0.19
1.3i
-0.4
0.19

NMHC
+ NOx
(g/kW
-hr)
10.5
7.5
7.5
9.5
7.5
7.5
9.5
7.5
7.5
4.7
-7.5
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
-7.5
4.7
4.7
--6.6
4.0
4.0
--6.6
4.0
4.0
--6.4
4.0
4.0
--6.4
4.0
4.0
--6.4
---

NOx
(g/kW
-hr)
----------9.2
-----9.2
---0.4
9.2
---0.4
9.2
---0.4
9.2
---0.4
9.2
---0.4
9.2
-3.5
3.5j

PM
(g/kW
-hr)
1.0
0.80
0.40c
0.80
0.80
0.40
0.80
0.60
0.30
0.03
-0.40
0.40
0.30
0.03
0.03
-0.40
0.40
0.02
0.02
-0.3
0.3
0.02
0.02
0.54
0.20
0.20
0.02
0.02
0.54
0.20
0.20
0.02
0.02
0.54
0.20
0.20
0.02
0.02
0.54
0.20
0.10
0.04k

CO
(g/kW
-hr)
8.0
8.0
8.0
6.6
6.6
6.6
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
-5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
-5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
-5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
11.4
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
11.4
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
11.4
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
11.4
3.5
3.5
3.5

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

Smokea
percentage

Useful life
(hours/years)b
3,000 / 5

3,000 / 5

5,000 / 7d

20 / 15 / 50

8,000 / 10

1224

Table 12.19 (continued)


Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines Exhaust Emission Standards
Rated
power
(kW)

Federal

kW > 900

Tier
1
2
4

Model
year

NMHC
(g/kW
-hr)

2000-2005
2006-2010
2011-2014
2015+h

1.3i
-0.4
0.19

NMHC
+ NOx
(g/kW
-hr)
-6.4
---

NOx
(g/kW
-hr)

PM
(g/kW
-hr)

CO
(g/kW
-hr)

Smokea
percentage

Useful life
(hours/years)b

9.2
-3.5j
3.5j

0.54
0.20
0.10
0.04k

11.4
3.5
3.5
3.5

20 / 15 / 50

8,000 / 10

Source:
40 CFR 98.112 = Exhaust emission standards
40 CFR 1039.101 = Exhaust emission standards for after 2014 model year
40 CFR 1039.102 = Exhaust emission standards for model year 2014 and earlier
40 CFR 1039 Subpart F = Exhaust emissions transient and steady state test procedures
40 CFR Part 86 Subpart I = Smoke emission test procedures
40 CFR Part 1065 = Test equipment and emissions measurement procedures (Additional resources:
www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)
Note: Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13.
a

Smoke emissions may not exceed 20 percent during the acceleration mode, 15 percent during the
lugging mode, and 50 percent during the peaks in either mode. Smoke emission standards do not apply to
single-cylinder engines, constant-speed engines, or engines certified to a PM emission standard of 0.07
grams per kilowatt-hour (g/kW-hr) or lower. Smoke emissions are measured using procedures in 40 CFR
Part 86 Subpart I.
b
Useful life and warranty period are expressed hours and years, whichever comes first.
c
Hand-startable air-cooled direct injection engines may optionally meet a PM standard of 0.60 g/kWhr. These engines may optionally meet Tier 2 standards through the 2009 model years. In 2010 these engines
are required to meet a PM standard of 0.60 g/kW-hr.
d
Useful life for constant speed engines with rated speed 3,000 revolutions per minute (rpm) or higher
is 5 years or 3,000 hours, whichever comes first.
e
These Tier 3 standards apply only to manufacturers selecting Tier 4 Option 2. Manufacturers
selecting Tier 4 Option 1 will be meeting those standards in lieu of Tier 3 standards.
f
A manufacturer may certify all their engines to either Option 1 or Option 2 sets of standards starting
in the indicated model year. Manufacturers selecting Option 2 must meet Tier 3 standards in the 2008-2011
model years.
g
These standards are phase-out standards. Not more than 50 percent of a manufacturer's engine
production is allowed to meet these standards in each model year of the phase out period. Engines not
meeting these standards must meet the final Tier 4 standards.
h
These standards are phased in during the indicated years. At least 50 percent of a manufacturer's
engine production must meet these standards during each year of the phase in. Engines not meeting these
standards must meet the applicable phase-out standards.
i
For Tier 1 engines the standard is for total hydrocarbons.
j
The NOx standard for generator sets is 0.67 g/kW-hr.
k
The PM standard for generator sets is 0.03 g/kW-hr.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1225

These standards apply to gasoline and propane industrial equipment such as forklifts, generators, airport service
equipment, compressors and ice-grooming machines.

Table 12.20
Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards

Federal b

Tier
1c

Year
2004-2006

2f

2007+

General duty-cycle
Alternative standards for
standards
severe-duty engines
Field testing standards
CO
HC+NOxa
CO
CO
HC+NOxa
Useful life
HC+NOxa
(years/hours)
(g/kW-hr)
(g/kW-hr)
(g/kW-hr)
(g/kW-hr)
(g/kW-hr)
(g/kW-hr)
4.0d
50.0
4.0d
130.0
7 / 5,000e
2.7f
4.4f
2.7
130.0
3.8f
6.5f
7 / 5,000e
Evaporative emission standards (for engines fueled by a volatile liquid fuel)
Fuel line
Nonmetallic fuel lines must meet the permeation specifications of SAE
permeation
J2260 (November 1996)
Diurnal
Evaporative HC emissions may not exceed 0.2 grams per gallon of fuel tank
5/emissions
capacity
Liquid fuel in the fuel tank may not reach boiling during continuous engine
Running loss
operation in the final installation at an ambient temperature of 30C

Sources:
40 CFR 1048.101 = Exhaust emission standards
40 CFR 1048.105 = Evaporative emission standards
40 CFR 1048.110 = Engine diagnostic requirements (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)

The numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons (HC) must be met based on the following types of
hydrocarbon emissions for engines powered by the following fuels: (1) non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) for
natural gas; (2) total hydrocarbon equivalent (THCE) for alcohol; and (3) total hydrocarbons (THC) for other fuels.
b
Voluntary Blue Sky standards for large spark-ignition (SI) engines are available. Engines with displacement
at or below 1,000 cubic centimeters (cc) and maximum power at or below 30 kilowatts (kW) may be certified under
the program for small SI engines.
c
Emission standards are based on testing over a steady-state duty-cycle.
d
The Tier 1 HC plus nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission standard for in-use testing is 5.4 grams per kW-hour
(g/kW-hr).
e
Useful life is expressed in years and hours, whichever comes first. These are the minimum useful life
requirements. For severe-duty engines, the minimum useful life is seven years or 1,500 hours of operation,
whichever comes first. A longer useful life in hours is required if: (a) the engine is designed to operate longer than
the minimum useful life based on the recommended rebuild interval; or (b) the basic mechanical warranty is longer
than the minimum useful life.
f
Optional engine certification is allowed according to the following formula: (HC+NOx) CO0.784 8.57.
The HC+NOx and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels selected to satisfy this formula, rounded to the nearest 0.1
g/kW-hr, become the emission standards that apply for those engines. One may not select an HC+NOx emission
standard higher than 2.7 g/kW-hr or a CO emission standard higher than 20.6 g/kW-hr.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1226

Table 12.21
Locomotives Exhaust Emission Standards
Dutycycleb

Tier
Tier 0
Tier 1

Linehaul

Tier 2
Tier 3

Federal

Tier 4
Tier 0
Tier 1
Switch

Tier 2
Tier 3
Tier 4

Yearc
19731992d,e
19932004d,e
20052011d
20122014f
2015+g
19732001
20022004h
20052010h
20112014
2015+

HCi
(g/hp-hr)

NOx
(g/bhp-hr)

PM
(g/bhp-hr)

CO
(g/bhp-hr)

Smoke
(percentage)m

1.0

9.5 [ABT]

0.22 [ABT]

5.0

30 / 40 / 50

0.55

7.4 [ABT]

0.22 [ABT]

2.2

25 / 40 / 50

0.30

5.5 [ABT]

0.10k [ABT]

1.5

20 / 40 / 50

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

0.30

5.5 [ABT]

0.10 [ABT]

1.5

20 / 40 / 50

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

0.14

1.3 [ABT]

0.03 [ABT]

1.5

2.10

11.8 [ABT]

0.26 [ABT]

8.0

30 / 40 / 50

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / (7.5 x hp) / 10 /


750,000o

1.20

11.0 [ABT]

0.26 [ABT]

2.5

25 / 40 / 50

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

0.60

8.1 [ABT]

0.13l [ABT]

2.4

20 / 40 / 50

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

0.60

5.0 [ABT]

0.10 [ABT]

2.4

20 / 40 / 50

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

0.03 [ABT]

2.4

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

0.14

1.3 [ABT]

Minimum useful life


(hours / years / miles)n
(7.5 x hp) / 10 /
750,000o
(7.5 x hp) / 10 /
750,000o
(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

Sources:
40 CFR 1033.101 = Emission Standards and Useful Life

These standards apply to locomotives that are propelled by engines with total rated horsepower (hp) of 750
kilowatts (kW) (1006 hp) or more, unless the owner chooses to have the equipment certified to meet the
requirements of locomotives. This does not include vehicles propelled by engines with total rated horsepower of less
than 750 kW (1006 hp); see the requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 86, 89 and 1039. The
test procedures specify chassis-based testing of locomotives. These test procedures include certification testing,
production line testing, and in-use testing using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) when the locomotive has reached
between 50-70 percent of its useful life.
b
Line-haul locomotives are powered by an engine with a maximum rated power (or a combination of engines
having a total rated power) greater than 2300 hp. Switch locomotives are powered by an engine with a maximum
rated power (or a combination of engines having a total rated power) of 2300 hp or less.
c
The Tier 0 standards apply to locomotives manufactured after 1972 when they are manufactured or
remanufactured. Note that interim standards may apply for Tier 0 or Tier 1 locomotives remanufactured in 2008 or
2009, or for Tier 2 locomotives manufactured or remanufactured in 2008-2012.
d Line-haul locomotives subject to the Tier 0 through Tier 2 emission standards must also meet switch
standards of the same tier.
e
The Tier 0 standards apply for 1993-2001 locomotives not originally manufactured with a separate loop
intake air cooling system.
f
Tier 3 line-haul locomotives must also meet Tier 2 switch standards.
g
Manufacturers using credits may elect to meet a combined nitrogen oxides (NOx) plus hydrocarbon (HC)
standard of 1.4 grams per brakehorsepower-hour (g/bhp-hr) instead of the otherwise applicable Tier 4 NOx and HC
standards.
h
Tier 1 and Tier 2 switch locomotives must also meet line-haul standards of the same tier.
i
The numerical emission standards for HC must be met based on the following types of hydrocarbon
emissions for locomotives powered by the following fuels: (1) alcohol: total hydrocarbon equivalent (THCE)
emissions for Tier 3 and earlier locomotives, and non-methane hydrocarbon equivalent (NMHCE) for Tier 4; (2)
natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas: non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions; and (3) diesel: total
hydrocarbon (THC) emissions for Tier 3 and earlier locomotives, and NMHC for Tier 4.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1227

Table 12.21 (continued)


Locomotives Exhaust Emission Standards

Manufacturers may elect to meet a combined NOx+HC standard of 1.4 g/bhp-hr instead of the otherwise
applicable Tier 4 NOx and HC standards.
k
The line-haul particulate matter (PM) standard for newly remanufactured Tier 2 locomotives is 0.20 g/bhphr until January 1, 2013, except as specified in 40 CFR Part 1033.150(a).
l
The switch PM standard for new Tier 2 locomotives is 0.24 g/bhp-hr until January 1, 2013, except as
specified in 40 CFR Part 1033.150(a).
m
The smoke opacity standards apply only for locomotives certified to one or more PM standards or Family
Emission Limits (FEL) greater than 0.05 g/bhp-hr. Percentages apply to smoke opacity at steady state/30-second
peak/3-second peak, as measured continuously during testing.
n
Useful life and warranty period are expressed in megawatt-hours (mw-hr), years, or miles, whichever comes
first. Manufacturers are required to certify to longer useful lives if their locomotives are designed to last longer
between overhauls than the minimum useful life value.
o
For locomotives originally manufactured before January 1, 2000, and not equipped with mw-hr meters.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1228

These standards apply to auxiliary and propulsion engines used by all types of recreational and commercial vessels,
from small fishing boats to ocean-going ships.

Table 12.22
Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines Exhaust Emission Standards
Category a, b

Tier

Displacem ent
(L/cylinder)

Pow er
(kW)

Speed
(rpm)

Model
Year

rpm < 130


1

2.5

disp. < 0.9

C1
Commercial

37

37

0.9 disp < 1.2


2

1.2 disp < 2.5

all

2.5 disp < 5.0

2.5

37

130 rpm <


2000

disp < 0.9

37

0.9 disp < 1.2


2

1.2 disp < 2.5

all

2.5 disp < 5.0

Federalg

C1
Commercial &
Recreational
< 75 kW

C1
Commercial
Engines w ith
35 kW/L
pow er
density k

45.0 x N

2004h

9.8

2005h

7.5 (ABT)

0.40 (ABT)

5.0

2004 h

7.2 (ABT)

0.30 (ABT)

5.0

2004 h

7.2 (ABT)

0.20 (ABT)

5.0

2007 h

5.0

-0.20 i

7.2 (ABT)

0.20 (ABT)

rpm < 130

17.0

130 rpm <


2000

45.0 x N-0.20 i

2004

9.8

2007

7.5 (ABT)

0.40 (ABT)

5.0

2006

7.2 (ABT)

0.30 (ABT)

5.0

2006

7.2 (ABT)

0.20 (ABT)

5.0
5.0

2009

7.2 (ABT)

0.20 (ABT)

2009+

7.5 (ABT)

0.40 (ABT)

8.0

8 kW < 19

2009+

7.5 (ABT)

0.40 (ABT)

6.6

19 kW <
37

2009-2013

7.5 j (ABT) 0.30 j (ABT)

5.5

2014+

4.7 j (ABT)

5.0

37 kW <
75

2009-2013

7.5 j (ABT)

2014+

4.7 j (ABT)

< 0.9

2012+

5.4 (ABT)

0.9 disp < 1.2

All

2013+

5.4 (ABT)

2014-2017

5.6 (ABT)

2018+

5.6 (ABT)

1.2 disp < 2.5

< 600

600

3l

2014+

2013-2017

2018+

2013+

2012-2017

2018+

600

2012+

75

< 600

0.20 (ABT)
0.30 (ABT)
j

5.8 (ABT)

5.8 (ABT)

0.11 (ABT)

2012+

5.8 (ABT)

0.15 (ABT)

2013+

5.8 (ABT)

2014+

5.8 (ABT)

2.5 disp < 3.5

2013+

5.8 (ABT)

3.5 disp < 7.0

2012+

5.8 (ABT)

0.9 disp < 1.2


1.2 disp < 2.5
All

10/ 1,000

10 / 1,000

5 / 3,000

7 / 5,000

10 / 1,000 for
CI
Recreational

5.0
5.0

10 / 10,000

0.11 (ABT)

5.6 (ABT)

< 0.9

10 / 10,000

0.11 (ABT)

< 600

10 / 10,000

8.0 for < 8


5 / 3,000 for commercial
kW
engines < 19 kW
6.6 for 8 7 / 5,000 for commercial
0.12 (ABT)
kW < 19
engines 19 kW < 37
5.5 for 19
10 / 10,000 for C1
0.11 (ABT)
kW < 37
Commercial 37 kW
5.0 for 37
0.10 (ABT)
kW

5.6 (ABT)

3.5 disp < 7.0

Useful Life e
(years/hours)

0.14 (ABT)

2.5 disp < 3.5

17.0

PM (g/kW- CO (g/kWhr)
hr)

< 0.9

HC+NOx d
(g/kW-hr)

<8

600

C1
Commercial
engines w ith
> 35 kW/L
pow er
density & All
Recreational
Engines k

HC (g/kWhr)

rpm 2000

rpm 2000
C1
Commercial &
Recreational

NOx (g/kWhr)

0.10 (ABT)
0.11 (ABT)
0.11 (ABT)
0.10 (ABT)
8.0 for < 8
5 / 3,000 for commercial
kW
engines < 19 kW
6.6 for 8 7 / 5,000 for commercial
0.14 (ABT)
kW < 19
engines 19 kW < 37
5.5 for 19
10 / 10,000 for C1
0.14 (ABT)
kW < 37
Commercial 37 kW
5.0 for 37
10 / 1,000 for CI
0.12 (ABT)
kW
Recreational
0.11 (ABT)

(Continued on next page)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1229

Table 12.22 (continued)


Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines Exhaust Emission Standards
Category a, b

Tier

Displacem ent
(L/cylinder)
All

C1
Commercial >
600 kW

All
4m

All
< 7.0

Speed
(rpm)

Model
Year

NOx (g/kWhr)

HC (g/kWhr)

HC+NOx d
(g/kW-hr)

2017+

1.8 (ABT)

0.19 HCn

0.04 (ABT)

2016+

1.8 (ABT)

0.19 HC

0.04 (ABT)

2014+

1.8 (ABT)

0.19 HCn

0.04 (ABT)

2014-2015

1.8 (ABT)

0.19 HCn

0.12 (ABT)

2016+

1.8 (ABT)

0.19 HCn

0.06 (ABT)

17.0

45.0 x N-0.20 i

rpm 2,000

9.8

all

7.8 (ABT)

0.27 (ABT)

5.0

< 3,300

8.7 (ABT)

0.50 (ABT)

5.0

3,300

9.8 (ABT)

0.50 (ABT)

5.0

all

9.8 (ABT)

0.50 (ABT)

5.0
5.0

Pow er
(kW)

600 kW <
1,400
1,400 kW
< 2,000
2,000 kW
< 3,700
3,700

rpm < 130


1

5.0 disp <


15.0
15.0 disp <
20.0
15.0 disp <
20.0
20.0 disp <
25.0
25.0 disp <
30.0
7.0 disp <
15.0

C2
3o,p

Federalg

2.5

15.0 disp <


20.0
20.0 disp <
25.0
25.0 disp <
30.0
All
All

4m,p

All

37

2004

2007

11.0 (ABT)

0.50 (ABT)

6.2 (ABT)

0.14 (ABT)

5.0

2,000 kW
< 3,700

7.8 (ABT)

0.14 (ABT)

5.0

< 2,000

7.0 (ABT)

0.34 (ABT)

5.0

< 2,000

9.8 (ABT)

0.27 (ABT)

5.0

< 2,000

11.0 (ABT)

0.27 (ABT)

5.0

600 kW <
1,400
1400 kW
< 2,000
2,000 kW
< 3,700q

3,700

2013+

2014+

2017+

1.8 (ABT)

0.19 HC

0.04 (ABT)

2016+

1.8 (ABT)

0.19 HC

0.04 (ABT)

2014+

1.8 (ABT)

0.19 HCn

0.04 (ABT)

2014-2015

1.8 (ABT)

0.19 HC

0.12 (ABT)

2014-2015

1.8 (ABT)

0.19 HCn

0.25 (ABT)

2016+

1.8 (ABT)

0.19 HCn

0.06 (ABT)

17.0

45.0 N-0.20 i

9.8

rpm < 130


30.0

All

130 rpm <


2,000

2004

rpm 2,000
rpm < 130
C3

30.0

All

130 rpm <


2,000

14.4
2011

rpm 2,000

30.0

All

130 rpm <


2,000
rpm 2,000

2.0

7.7

rpm < 130


3

44.0 N-0.23 i

3.4
2016

9.0 N-0.20 i
2.0

2.0

Useful Life e
(years/hours)

10 / 10,000

all

All

5.0

< 2,000

< 15.0
15.0 disp <
30.0

130 rpm <


2,000

PM (g/kW- CO (g/kWhr)
hr)

10 / 20,000

10 / 20,000

10 / 20,000

10 / 20,000

5.0

3 / 10,000

5.0

3 / 10,000

5.0

3 / 10,000

Sources:
40 CFR 89.104 = Tiers 1 and 2 useful life & warranty period for marine CI engines less than 37 kW
40 CFR 89.112 = Tiers 1 and 2 emission standards for marine CI engines less than 37 kW
40 CFR 89 Subpart E = Tiers 1 and 2 test procedures for marine CI engines less than 37 kW
40 CFR 94.8 = Tiers 1 and 2 emission standards for C1 (both commercial & recreational), C2 and C3 engines
40 CFR 94.9 = Tiers 1 and 2 useful life for C1 (both commercial & recreational), C2 and C3 engines
40 CFR 94 Subpart B = Tiers 1 and 2 test procedures for C1 (both commercial & recreational), C2 and C3 engines
40 CFR 1042.101 = Tiers 3 and 4 exhaust emission standards and useful life

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1230

Table 12.22 (continued)


Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines Exhaust Emission Standards
Sources (continued):
40 CFR 1042.107 = Tiers 3 and 4 evaporative emission standards engines using a volatile liquid fuel (e.g.,
methanol)
40 CFR 1042.120 = Tiers 3 and 4 warranty period
40 CFR 1042 Subpart F = Tiers 3 and 4 test procedures (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)

For Tiers 1 and 2, Category 1 marine engines are greater than or equal to 37 kilowatts (kW) and have a
displacement less than 5.0 liters per cylinder (L/cylinder); Category 2 marine engines have a displacement greater
than or equal to 5.0 L/cylinder and less than 30 L/cylinder; and Category 3 marine engines have a displacement
greater than or equal to 30.0 L/cylinder. For Tiers 3 and 4, Category 1 represents engines up to 7 L/cylinder
displacement; and Category 2 includes engines from 7 to 30 L/cylinder. The definition of Category 3 marine
engines remains the same.
b
Tiers 1 and 2 for marine engines less than 37 kW are subject to the same emission standards as for landbased engines. See Table 1 in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 89.112 and 40 CFR Part 89.104.
c
For Tiers 1 and 2, this refers to the rated power; for Tiers 3 and 4, this refers to the maximum engine power.
d
Total hydrocarbon (THC) plus nitrogen oxides (NOx) for Tier 2 standards.
e
Useful life is expressed in hours or years, whichever comes first. For Tiers 3 and 4, a longer useful life in
hours for an engine family must be specified if either:1) the engine is designed, advertised, or marketed to operate
longer than the minimum useful life; or 2) the basic mechanical warranty is longer than the minimum useful life.
f
Warranty period is expressed in years and hours, whichever comes first.
g
For Tiers 3 and 4, there are no evaporative emission standards for diesel-fueled engines, or engines using
other nonvolatile or nonliquid fuels (e.g., natural gas). If an engine uses a volatile liquid fuel, such as methanol, the
engine's fuel system and the vessel in which the engine is installed must meet the evaporative emission requirements
of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1045 that apply with respect to spark-ignition engines. Manufacturers
subject to evaporative emission standards must meet the requirements of 40 CFR 1045.112 as described in 40 CFR
1060.1(a)(2).
h
Indicates the model years for which the specified standards start.
i
N is the maximum test speed of the engine in revolutions per minute (rpm).
j
Manufacturers of Tier 3 engines greater than or equal to 19 kW and less than 75 kW with displacement
below 0.9 L/cylinder may alternatively certify some or all of their engine families to a particulate matter (PM)
emission standard of 0.20 grams per kilowatt-hour (g/kW-hr) and a NOx+HC emission standard fo 5.8 g/kW-hr for
2014 and later model years.
k
The applicable Tier 2 NOx+HC standards continue to apply instead of the Tier 3 values for engines at or
above 2000 kW.
l
These Tier 3 standards apply to Category 1 engines below 3700 kW except for recreational marine engines at
or above 3700 kW (with any displacement), which must meet the Tier 3 standards specified for recreational marine
engines with a displacement of 3.5 to 7.0 L/cylinder.
m
The following provisions are optional: 1)Manufacturers may use NOx credits to certify Tier 4 engines to a
NOX+HC emission standard of 1.9 g/kW-hr instead of the NOX and HC standards. See 40 CFR 1042.101(a)(8)(i)
for more details. 2) For engines below 1000 kW, manufacturers may delay complying with the Tier 4 standards until
October 1, 2017. 3) For engines at or above 3700 kW, manufacturers may delay complying with the Tier 4 standards
until December 31, 2016.
n
The Tier 4 standard is for HC (not HC+NOx) in g/kW-hr.
o
These Tier 3 standards apply to Category 2 engines below 3700 kW; no Tier 3 standards apply for Category
2 engines at or above 3700 kW, although there are Tier 4 standards that apply.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1231

Table 12.22 (continued)


Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines Exhaust Emission Standards

An alternative set of Tier 3 and Tier 4 standards for PM, NOx, and HC are available for Category 2 engines
at or above 1400 kW, but must be applied to all of a manufacturer's engines in a given displacement category in
model years 2012 through 2015.

Tier
3
4

Maximum
engine
power
kW 1400
1400 kW < 3700
kW 3700

Model
year
2012-2014
2015
2015

PM
(g/kW-hr)
0.14
0.04
0.06

NOx
HC
(g/kW-hr)
(g/kW-hr)
7.8 NOx+HC
1.8
0.19
1.8
0.19

Interim Tier 4 PM standards apply for 2014 and 2015 model year Category 2 engines with per-cylinder
displacement at or above 15.0 liters: 0.34 g/kW-hr for engines 2000 = kW < 3000, and 0.27 g/kW-hr for engines
3300 = kW < 3700.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1232

These standards apply to gasoline boats and personal watercraft, such as pleasure boats, jet-skis, outboard engines
and sterndrive/inboard engines.

Table 12.23
Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels Exhaust Emission Standards
HC + NOxa
(g/KW-hr)
Engine type

Model
year
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

Personal watercraft &


outboard marine engines
Federale

2003
2004
2005
20062009

2010 +g

P 4.3 kWb
278 ABT
253 ABT
228 ABT
204 ABT
179 ABT
155 ABT
130 ABT
105 ABT
81 ABT

30 ABT

P > 4.3 kWb


(0.917 x (151 +
557/P0.9 + 2.44)
[ABT]
(0.833 x (151 +
557/P0.9 + 2.89)
[ABT]
(0.750 x (151 +
557/P0.9) + 3.33
[ABT]
(0.667 x (151 +
557/P0.9) + 3.78
[ABT]
(0.583 x (151 +
557/P0.9) + 4.22
[ABT]
(0.500 x (151 +
557/P0.9) + 4.67
[ABT]
(0.417 x (151 +
557/P0.9) + 5.11
[ABT]
(0.333 x (151 +
557/P0.9) + 5.56
[ABT]
(0.250 x (151 +
557/P0.9) + 6.00
[ABT]
2.1 + 0.09 x
(151 +
557/P0.9)

[ABT]
Conventional
enginesg
Sterndrive/
inboard
engines

Highperformance
engines

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

500 - 5.0
xP

[ABT]
5.0
[ABT]

2010 +

COc
(g/KW-hr)
P 4.3
P > 4.3
kWb
kWb

75
[ABT]

P kWb

P > 485 kWb

2010

20.0

25.0

2011+

16.0

22.0

350

300

Useful life
(hours/years)d

350 / 5

Personal
Watercraft: 350
/ 5h
Outboard: 350
/ 10h
480 / 10i
P 485 kW:
150 / 3
P > 485 kW:
50 / 1

Sources:
40 CFR 91.104 = Outboard and personal watercraft (PWC) exhaust emission standards (1998-2009)
40 CFR 91.105 = Outboard and PWC useful life (1998-2009)
40 CFR 1045.103 = Outboard and PWC exhaust emission standards (2010+)
40 CFR 1045.105 = Sterndrive/Inboard exhaust emission standards
40 CFR 1045.107 = Not-to-exceed exhaust emission standards (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)

The numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons (HC) must be met based on the following types of HC
emissions for engines powered by the following fuels: (1) total hydrocarbon equivalent for alcohol; (2) non-methane
hydrocarbon for natural gas; and (3) total hydrocarbons for other fuels.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1233

Table 12.23 (continued)


Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels Exhaust Emission Standards

P stands for the maximum engine power in kilowatts.


Manufacturers may generate or use emission credits for averaging, but not for banking or trading.
d
Useful life and warranty period are expressed hours or years of operation (unless otherwise indicated),
whichever comes first.
e
The test procedure for federal standards uses the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 8178
E4 5-Mode Steady-State Test Cycle.
f
Also applies to model year (MY) 1997 engine families certified pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR) 91.205.
g
Not-to-exceed emission standards specified in 40 CFR 1045.107 also apply.
h
A longer useful life in terms of hours must be specified for the engine family if the average service life is
longer than the minimum value as described in 40 CFR 1045.103(e)(3).
i
The useful life may not be shorter than: (1) 150 hours of operation; (2) the recommended overhaul interval;
or (3) the engine's mechanical warranty. A longer useful life must be specified in terms of hours if the average
service life is longer than the minimum value as described in 40 CFR 1045.105(e)(3).
c

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1234

These standards apply to land-based recreational vehicles, such as snowmobiles, dirt bikes, all-terrain vehicles and
go-karts.

Table 12.24
Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles Exhaust Emission Standards

Vehicle

Snowmobilesc

Phase

Year

1d

2006+

20102011

75 [ABT]

2012+

150
[ABT]

3e

Federal

HCa
g/kW-hr
100
[ABT]
f

HC +
NOx
g/km
-

CO
g/kW-hr
275
[ABT]
275
[ABT]
400 f
[ABT]

g/km

Minimum useful life


(hours/years/km)b

400 / 5 / 8,000

Off-highway
motorcyclesg

1d

2006+

2.0h, i
[ABT]

25h, i
[ABT]

ATVsg

1d

2006+

1.5j, k
[ABT]

35k
[ABT]

> 70 cc
Displacement: - / 5 /
10,000
70 cc
Displacement: - / 5 /
5,000
100 cc
Displacement: 1000 /
5 / 10,000
< 100 cc
Displacement: 500 /
5 / 5,000

Sources:
40 CFR 1051.101-115 = Emission standards (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)

The numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons (HC) must be met based on the following types of
hydrocarbon emissions for recreational engines and vehicles powered by the following fuels: (1) non-methane
hydrocarbons for natural gas; (2) total hydrocarbon equivalent for alcohol; and (3) total hydrocarbons for other fuels.
b
Useful life is expressed in hours, years, or kilometers, whichever comes first; warranty period is expressed
in hours, months, or kilometers (km), whichever comes first. Nonroad recreational engines and vehicles must meet
emission standards over their full useful life. A longer useful life in terms of km and hours must be specified for the
engine family if the average service life is longer than the minimum value as described in 40 Code of Federal
Regulations (CFR) 1051 Subpart B.
c
Test procedures for snowmobiles use the equipment and procedures for spark-ignition engines in 40 CFR
Part 1065.
d
Phase 1 standards will be phased in: 50 percent by 2006, 100 percent by 2007.
e
Litigation on the November 2002 final rule resulted in a court decision that requires EPA to clarify the
evidence and analysis upon which the Phase 3 carbon monoxide (CO) and HC standards were based. EPA will
address this in a future rulemaking.
f
These are the maximum allowable family emission limits (FEL). The HC and CO standards are defined by a
functional relationship as described in 40 CFR 1051.103(a)(2).
g
For off-highway motorcycles and ATVs, chassis dynamometer emissions test procedures are specified in 40
CFR Part 86, Subpart F and engine dynamometer emissions test procedures are specified in 40 CFR Part 1065.
h
Maximum allowable FEL: 20.0 grams per kilometer (g/km) for HC plus nitrogen oxides (NOx) and 50 g/km
for CO.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1235

Table 12.24 (continued)


Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles Exhaust Emission Standards

Manufacturers may certify off-highway motorcycles with engines that have total displacement of 70 cubic
centimeters (cc) or less to an HC+NOx standard of 16.1 grams per kilowatt-hour (g/kW-hr) (with an FEL cap of
32.2 g/kW-hr) and a CO standard of 519 g/kW-hr.
j
Maximum allowable FEL for HC+NOx is 20.0 g/km.
k
Manufacturers may certify all-terrain vehicles with engines that have total displacement of less than 100 cc
to an HC+NOx standard of 25.0 g/KW-hr (with an FEL cap of 40.0 g/kW-hr) and a CO standard of 500 g/kW-hr.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1236

These standards were established in conjunction with the Tier 2 light vehicle standards to maintain the performance
of catalytic converters.

Table 12.25
Gasoline Sulfur Standards
Regulated entity
Large refiners /
importersa
GPA
refiners d, e
Small
refiners f, g, h
Downstream
standards i, j

Federal

Refinery average and per-gallon cap by year (ppm)


2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

2004
b

120 / 300

2010

2010

30 / 90 / 300

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

150 / 300c

150 / 300

150 / 300

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

378

326

95

95

95

95

95

95

Source:
40 CFR Part 80 Subpart H (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)

Standards effective January 1 at the refinery gate.


No Refinery Average Standard applies in 2004; Corporate Average Standard applies in 2004 (120 ppm) and
2005 (90 ppm).
c
Cap exceedances up to 50 ppm in 2004 must be made up in 2005.
d
Geographic Phase-in Area (GPA) refiners must also comply with the corporate average standards in 2004
and 2005 if less than 50% of the refiner's gasoline is designated as GPA gasoline in a given compliance period.
e
GPA refiners may receive an additional two years (i.e., through 2008) to comply with the 30 / 80 ppm
gasoline sulfur standards in exchange for producing 95% of their highway diesel fuel at the 15 ppm sulfur standard
by June 1, 2006.
f
Small refiners may receive an additional two years (i.e., through 2009) to comply with the 30 / 80 ppm
gasoline sulfur standards via a hardship demonstration.
g
Small refiners may receive an additional three years (i.e., through 2010) to comply with the 30 / 80 ppm
gasoline sulfur standards in exchange for producing 95% of their highway diesel fuel at the 15 ppm sulfur standard
by June 1, 2006.
h
Small refiners may receive a 20% increase in their annual average and per-gallon cap standards in exchange
for producing 95% of their highway, nonroad, locomotive, and marine diesel fuel at the 15 ppm sulfur standard by
June 1, 2006.
i
Downstream standards are effective February 1 at any downstream location other than at a retail outlet or
wholesale purchaser-consumer (e.g., pipelines and terminals) and March 1 at any downstream location.
j
Downstream standards for gasoline that is not blended with small refiner gasoline are shown. Refer to the
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the downstream standards that apply when a gasoline blend includes small
refiner gasoline.
b

1997-98 Refinery
baseline sulfur level
(ppm)
0 to 30
31 to 200
201 to 400
401 to 600
601 and above

Small refiner interim gasoline sulfur standards


(ppm) 2004 - 2007
Average
Cap
30
300
baseline level
300
200
300
50% of baseline
1.5 x avg. standard
300
450

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1237

Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel is necessary for new advanced emission control technologies. It also reduces
particulate matter in the existing fleet of nonroad engines and equipment.

Table 12.26
Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) Diesel Fuel Sulfur Standards

Regulated entity
Large refiners &
importers
Small refiners
Large refiners &
importers

Federal

Small refiners
Transmix
processor & in-use

Covered
fuel

2006a

Highway
Highway
NR
LM
NRLM
with
creditse
NRLMf
NRe
LMe

Per-gallon maximum sulfur level by year (ppm)


2007b
2008
2009
2010c,d 2011 2012
80% 15
20% 500
15
500
500
500
500
15
15
15
500
500
500
500
500
15

2013

2014

15
15

15
15

HS

HS

HS

500

500

500

500

15

HS
HS
HS

HS
HS
HS

HS
HS
HS

500
500
500

500
500
500

500
500
500

500
500
500

15
15
500

Source:
40 CFR Part 80 Subpart I (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)

For highway diesel fuel, standards are effective June 1 for refiners/importers, September 1 for pipelines and
terminals, and October 15 for retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. Anti-downgrading provisions effective
October 16, 2006.
b
For Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) diesel fuel, standards are effective June 1 for refiners;
downstream requirements apply for Northeast/Mid-Atlantic area only (August 1 for terminals, October 1 for retailers
and wholesale purchaser-consumers, and December 1 for in-use).
c
For highway diesel fuel, standards are effective June 1 for refiners/importers, October 1 for pipelines and
terminals, and December 1 for retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.
d
For NRLM diesel fuel, standards are effective June 1 for refiners, August 1 for terminals, October 1 for
retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers, and December 1 for in-use.
e
Excluding the Northeast and Alaska.
f
Excluding the Northeast, with approval in Alaska.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1238

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A1

APPENDIX A
SOURCES & METHODOLOGIES

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A2

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A3

SOURCES & METHODOLOGIES


This appendix contains documentation of the estimation procedures used by ORNL. The reader
can examine the methodology behind the estimates and form an opinion as to their utility. The appendix
is arranged by subject heading.

Only tables which contain ORNL estimations are documented in

Appendix A; all other tables have sources listed at the bottom of the table. Since abbreviations are used
throughout the appendix, a list of abbreviations is also included.

Contents of Appendix A
List of Abbreviations Used in Appendix A ............................................................................................. A4
Energy Use Sources ................................................................................................................................. A5
Highway energy use ....................................................................................................................... A5
Off-highway energy use ............................................................................................................... A14
Nonhighway energy use ............................................................................................................... A14
Passenger Travel and Energy Use .......................................................................................................... A24
Highway Passenger Mode Energy Intensities ........................................................................................ A28
Nonhighway Mode Energy Intensities................................................................................................... A31
Freight Mode Energy Intensities ............................................................................................................ A32
Car/Light Truck Shares .......................................................................................................................... A33

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A4

List of Abbreviations Used in Appendix A


AAMA

American Automobile Manufacturers Association

AAR

Association of American Railroads

APTA

American Public Transportation Association

Amtrak

National Railroad Passenger Corporation

Btu

British thermal unit

DOC

Department of Commerce

DOE

Department of Energy

DOT

Department of Transportation

EIA

Energy Information Administration

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FHWA

Federal Highway Administration

GSA

General Services Administration

gvw

gross vehicle weight

lpg

liquefied petroleum gas

mpg

miles per gallon

NHTS

National Household Travel Survey

NHTSA

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

NPTS

Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey

NVPP

National Vehicle Population Profile

ORNL

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

pmt

passenger-miles traveled

RECS

Residential Energy Consumption Survey

RTECS

Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey

TIUS

Truck Inventory and Use Survey

TSC

Transportation Systems Center

VIUS

Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey

vmt

vehicle-miles traveled

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A5

Energy Use Sources


Highway energy use
Cars
Fuel use in gallons (1970-2008) DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2008, Table VM-1 and
annual editions back to 1996; DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995.
Fuel use in gallons (2009 2011) See Appendix A for Car/Light Truck Shares.
Fuel type distribution Fuel use was distributed among fuel types using the percentages shown
in Table A.1. The FHWA discontinued gasohol data in 2005. Therefore, data from EIA,
Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels, 2006-2011, Table C1 were used.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A6

Table A.1
Car Fuel Use and Fuel Type Shares for Calculation of Energy Use
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Fuel use
(million gallons)
67,820
71,346
75,937
78,233
74,229
74,140
78,297
79,060
80,652
76,588
69,981
69,112
69,116
70,322
70,663
71,518
73,174
73,308
73,345
73,913
69,568
64,318
65,436
67,047
67,874
68,072
69,221
69,892
71,695
73,283
73,065
73,559
75,471
74,590
75,402
77,418
75,009
74,377
a
71,497
68,418
64,990
66,194

Source for
Gasohol shares

FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
EIA, C1
EIA, C1
EIA, C1
EIA, C1
EIA, C1
EIA, C1

Source for
gasoline/diesel shares
1984 NVPP
interpolated
interpolated
interpolated
interpolated
interpolated
interpolated
interpolated
interpolated
1979 RTECS
interpolated
1981 RTECS
interpolated
1983 RTECS
interpolated
1985 RTECS
interpolated
interpolated
1988 RTECS
interpolated
interpolated
1991 RTECS
interpolated
interpolated
1994 RTECS
interpolated
interpolated
interpolated
interpolated
interpolated
2000 NVPP
2001 NVPP
2001 NVPP
2001 NVPP
2001 NVPP
2001 NVPP
2001 NVPP
2001 NVPP
2001 NVPP
2001 NVPP
2001 NVPP
2001 NVPP

Heat content used for conversion to btu:

Shares by fuel type


Gasoline
Gasohol
Diesel
99.8%
0.0%
0.2%
99.2%
0.0%
0.8%
98.7%
0.0%
1.3%
98.1%
0.0%
1.9%
97.5%
0.0%
2.5%
97.0%
0.0%
3.0%
96.4%
0.0%
3.6%
95.8%
0.0%
4.2%
95.3%
0.0%
4.7%
94.7%
0.0%
5.3%
93.9%
0.5%
5.6%
93.4%
0.7%
5.9%
93.5%
2.3%
4.2%
93.2%
4.3%
2.5%
92.7%
5.3%
2.0%
90.8%
7.7%
1.5%
91.0%
7.6%
1.4%
92.4%
6.3%
1.3%
91.4%
7.4%
1.2%
92.6%
6.2%
1.2%
92.0%
6.8%
1.2%
90.8%
8.0%
1.2%
90.8%
7.9%
1.2%
89.7%
9.1%
1.3%
89.1%
9.6%
1.3%
87.6%
11.2%
1.2%
88.8%
10.1%
1.0%
86.9%
12.2%
0.9%
88.0%
11.2%
0.8%
88.3%
11.0%
0.6%
86.9%
12.6%
0.5%
86.5%
13.0%
0.5%
83.9%
15.6%
0.5%
75.3%
24.2%
0.5%
67.2%
32.3%
0.5%
66.9%
32.6%
0.5%
71.8%
27.7%
0.5%
72.9%
26.6%
0.5%
61.8%
37.7%
0.5%
55.8%
43.7%
0.5%
49.5%
50.0%
0.5%
48.7%
50.8%
0.5%
125,000
120,900
138,700
btu/gallon
btu/gallon
btu/gallon

Data are not continuous between 2008 and 2009 due to changes in source.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A7

Motorcycles
DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2011, Table VM-1, and annual editions. The FHWA made
methodology changes for Highway Statistics 2009-10. At that time, they published historical data back to
2007 which do not match the previous data.
Table A.2
Motorcycle Fuel Use
Fuel use
Year
(thousand gallons)
Year
1970
59,580
1991
1971
72,140
1992
1972
86,620
1993
1973
103,880
1994
1974
108,900
1995
1975
112,580
1996
1976
120,060
1997
1977
126,980
1998
1978
143,160
1999
1979
172,740
2000
1980
204,280
2001
1981
213,800
2002
1982
198,200
2003
1983
175,200
2004
1984
175,680
2005
1985
181,720
2006
1986
187,940
2007
1987
190,120
2008
1988
200,480
2009
1989
207,420
2010
1990
191,140
2011
Heat content used for conversion to btu:

Fuel use
(thousand gallons)
183,560
191,140
198,120
204,800
198,262
195,940
201,620
205,660
211,680
209,380
192,780
191,040
190,780
202,447
189,495
221,030
474,923
489,417
482,290
426,732
425,410
125,000 btu/gallon

Data are not continuous between 2006 and 2007 due to changes in estimation methodology. See source
document for details.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A8

Buses
Transit:
APTA, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2013. Includes motorbus and
trolley bus data.
Table A.3
Transit Bus Fuel Use

Year
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Heat content used
for conversion
to btu:

LNG
(million
gallons)
1.1
1.7
2.3
3.3
3.1
5.3
10.5
11.7
16.8
14.2
16.5
18.3
19.6
18.3
17.9
25.5
23.0
21.6

LPG
(million
gallons)
0.2
0.3
0.6
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
1.2
1.8
1.8
1.7
2.0
1.6

84,800
btu/gallon

91,300
btu/gallon

a
a
a
a
a

CNG
(million
gallons)
3.1
10.0
11.5
20.0
32.6
39.9
50.4
60.9
77.8
94.9
106.7
117.2
138.8
129.1
135.5
141.6
126.2
131.1

Gasoline
(million
gallons)
2.1
2.3
1.8
2.7
2.0
1.4
1.3
1.5
1.3
1.1
1.8
1.0
2.3
2.5
3.8
6.7
8.1
8.9

Diesel
fuel
(million
gallons)
565.1
563.8
577.7
597.6
606.6
618.0
635.2
587.2
559.0
536.0
550.5
533.8
536.7
494.1
493.3
455.5
435.4
455.1

Electricity
(thousand
kilowatt
hours)
102.9
100.0
69.0
78.0
74.0
75.0
77.0
74.0
73.0
69.0
68.0
67.0
62.0
61.0
62.2
69.5
66.0
61.0

138,700
btu/gallon

125,000
btu/gallon

138,700
btu/gallon

64,600
btu/gallon

Note: CNG is reported in diesel-gallon equivalents.


a

Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

Biodiesel
(million
gallons)

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

20.5
25.8
41.8
40.6
43.5
51.1

Methanol
(million
gallons)
12.5
12.0
11.6
8.7
5.0
2.7
0.8
0.8
1.8
1.9
4.7
8.1
0.9
1.3
0.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
10,339
but/kWhr

A9

Intercity and School:


Eno Transportation Foundation, Transportation in America, 2001, Nineteenth Edition, 2003,
Washington, DC, pp. 2023. School bus fuel was assumed to be 90% diesel fuel and 10%
gasoline based on estimates from the National Association of State Directors of Pupil
Transportation Services. Intercity bus fuel was assumed to be 100% diesel.
Table A.4
Intercity and School Bus Fuel Use
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Intercity
(million gallons)
305.34
296.73
288.12
252.42
216.72
181.02
182.28
181.86
180.18
205.38
213.78
205.38
227.22
237.30
169.26
165.48
148.68
155.82
160.44
166.74
159.60
160.44
157.08
171.36
195.30
195.30
199.92
212.52
220.08
241.08
233.10
217.35*
210.22*
208.32*
208.87*
214.37*
208.32*
214.37*
218.48*
224.58*
214.95*
214.95*

Fuel type shares

100% diesel

Heat content used for


conversion to btu:

138,700
btu/gallon

School
(million gallons)
299.88
309.75
319.62
327.04
334.46
341.88
389.76
401.52
406.98
404.88
379.68
386.82
398.58
400.68
375.06
425.04
462.42
487.20
511.14
498.12
472.08
533.40
546.00
533.40
546.00
545.16
545.16
544.74
550.20
555.66
577.08
538.08*
520.44*
515.72*
517.09*
530.70*
515.72*
530.70*
540.89*
556.00*
532.15*
532.65*
90% diesel
10% gasoline
138,700 btu/gallon
125,000 btu/gallon

*Estimated using the rate of change of bus vehicle-miles traveled from FHWA
Highway Statistics, Table VM-1 (recently revised).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A10

Trucks
Light Trucks:
Fuel use in gallons (1970-2007) DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2008, Table VM-1
and annual editions back to 1996 and DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary
to 1995.
Fuel use in gallons (2008 2010) Results of a model developed by ORNL to estimate
data for cars and light trucks since the FHWA discontinued their VM-1 series
showing cars and light trucks separately. The model uses data from FHWA
Highway Statistics 2010, EPA Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon
Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, and R.L.
Polk to estimate the number of vehicles, vehicle-miles of travel, energy use, and
fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks. Documentation of the model will be
published in an ORNL report, forthcoming.
Fuel type distribution Fuel use was distributed among fuel types using the percentages
shown in Table A.1. The FHWA discontinued gasohol data in 2005. Therefore,
data from EIA, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels, 2006-2010,
Table C1 were used.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A11

Table A.5
Light Truck Fuel Use and Fuel Type Shares for Calculation of Energy Use
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Fuel use
(million
gallons)
12,313
13,484
15,150
16,828
16,657
19,081
20,828
22,383
24,162
24,445
23,796
23,697
22,702
23,945
25,604
27,363
29,074
30,598
32,653
33,271
35,611
38,217
40,929
42,851
44,112
45,605
47,354
49,388
50,462
52,859
52,939
53,522
55,220
60,758
63,417
58,869
60,685
61,836
61,199
62,733
60,942
61,926

Source for
gasohol shares

FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
FHWA, MF-33e
EIA, C1
EIA, C1
EIA, C1
EIA, C1
EIA, C1
EIA, C1

Source for
gasoline/diesel
/lpg shares
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
1982 TIUS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
1987 TIUS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
1992 TIUS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
1997 VIUS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS

Heat content used for conversion to btu:

Shares by fuel type


Gasoline
97.6%
97.6%
97.6%
97.6%
97.6%
97.6%
97.6%
97.6%
97.1%
96.7%
95.7%
95.1%
93.0%
91.0%
90.0%
87.6%
87.7%
89.0%
88.2%
89.5%
89.2%
88.1%
88.5%
87.3%
86.8%
85.1%
86.2%
84.2%
85.0%
84.9%
83.1%
82.4%
79.6%
71.0%
62.9%
62.6%
67.5%
68.6%
57.5%
51.5%
45.2%
44.4%
125,000
btu/gallon

Gasohol
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.5%
0.7%
2.3%
4.3%
5.3%
7.7%
7.6%
6.3%
7.4%
6.2%
6.8%
8.0%
7.9%
9.1%
9.6%
11.2%
10.1%
12.2%
11.2%
11.0%
12.6%
13.0%
15.6%
24.2%
32.3%
32.6%
27.7%
26.6%
37.7%
43.7%
50.0%
50.8%
120,900
btu/gallon

Data are not continuous between 2008 and 2009 due to changes in source.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

Diesel
1.6%
1.6%
1.6%
1.6%
1.6%
1.6%
1.6%
1.6%
2.0%
2.4%
2.7%
3.1%
3.5%
3.5%
3.5%
3.5%
3.5%
3.5%
3.5%
3.4%
3.4%
3.3%
3.3%
3.3%
3.3%
3.4%
3.4%
3.4%
3.5%
3.6%
3.8%
3.9%
4.0%
4.0%
4.0%
4.0%
4.0%
4.0%
4.0%
4.0%
4.0%
4.0%
138,700
btu/gallon

Lpg
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.9%
1.0%
1.0%
1.1%
1.2%
1.2%
1.2%
1.2%
1.2%
1.2%
1.0%
0.8%
0.7%
0.5%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.2%
0.3%
0.4%
0.6%
0.7%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
90,800
btu/gallon

A12

Medium/Heavy Trucks:
DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2011, Table VM-1 and annual editions back to 1996 and DOT,
FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995. The FHWA made methodology changes for
Highway Statistics 2009. At that time, they published historical data back to 2007 which
do not match the previous data. Total gallons for medium/heavy trucks are the sum of
single-unit trucks and combination trucks.
Table A.6
Medium/Heavy Truck Fuel Use and Fuel Type Shares for Calculation of Energy Use
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Fuel use
(million gallons)
11,316
11,812
12,964
14,320
14,341
14,598
15,408
17,082
19,121
19,913
19,960
20,376
20,386
20,761
21,428
21,405
21,861
22,513
22,925
23,512
24,490
24,981
25,453
26,236
27,685
28,828
29,601
29,878
30,841
33,909
35,229
35,179
36,800
35,775
33,150
37,190
37,959
47,218
47,705
44,303
45,024
42,376

Source for
fuel type shares
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
1977 TIUS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
1982 TIUS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
1987 TIUS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
1992 TIUS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
1997 VIUS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS
2002 VIUS

Heat content used for conversion to btu:

Gasoline
10.4%
10.4%
10.4%
10.4%
10.4%
10.4%
10.4%
10.4%
16.2%
22.1%
27.9%
33.8%
39.6%
35.6%
31.5%
27.5%
23.4%
19.4%
18.8%
18.1%
17.5%
16.8%
16.2%
15.4%
14.7%
13.9%
13.2%
12.4%
12.1%
11.8%
11.6%
11.3%
11.0%
11.0%
11.0%
11.0%
11.0%
11.0%
11.0%
11.0%
11.0%
11.0%
125,000
btu/gallon

Shares by fuel type


Diesel
89.5%
89.5%
89.5%
89.5%
89.5%
89.5%
89.5%
89.5%
83.5%
77.5%
71.4%
65.4%
59.4%
63.6%
67.8%
72.0%
76.2%
80.4%
81.0%
81.6%
82.1%
82.7%
83.3%
84.1%
84.8%
85.6%
86.3%
87.1%
87.4%
87.6%
87.9%
88.1%
88.4%
88.4%
88.4%
88.4%
88.4%
88.4%
88.4%
88.4%
88.4%
88.4%
138,700
btu/gallon

Lpg
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.5%
0.6%
0.8%
1.0%
0.8%
0.7%
0.5%
0.4%
0.2%
0.3%
0.3%
0.4%
0.4%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
90,800
btu/gallon

Data are not continuous between 2006 and 2007 due to changes in methodology. See source for details.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A13

Shares of Class 3-6 and 7-8 energy use by fuel type were calculated from the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and
Use Survey (VIUS) and applied to all years 1970-2011.
Table A.7
Share of Medium and Heavy Truck Energy Use

Fuel type
Gasoline
Diesel
LPG

Share of energy use


Class 3-6
Class 7-8
92%
8%
14%
86%
99%
1%

Total
100%
100%
100%

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A14

Off-highway energy use


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NONROAD2008a model, results generated May 2013.
Gallons of fuel by fuel type were produced for agricultural equipment, airport equipment, construction
and mining equipment, industrial equipment, lawn and garden equipment, logging equipment, railroad
maintenance equipment, and recreational equipment. Some non-transportation-related equipment, such as
generators, chain saws, compressors, and pumps, were excluded from the data.

Nonhighway energy use


Air
General Aviation:
DOT, FAA, General Aviation Activity and Avionics Survey: Annual Summary Report
Calendar Year 2010, Table 5.1, and annual. 2011 Data: Aviation Forecasts, Tables
28 and 29, May 2013.
Table A.8
General Aviation Fuel Use
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
Heat content used for
conversion to btu:

Jet fuel
(million gallons)
208.0
226.0
245.0
304.0
357.0
453.0
495.0
536.0
763.0
736.0
766.0
759.0
887.0
613.0
738.9
691.0
732.1
672.7
746.0
688.0
662.0

Aviation gasoline
(million gallons)
551.0
508.0
584.0
411.0
443.0
412.0
432.0
456.0
518.0
570.0
520.0
489.0
448.0
428.0
462.4
421.0
408.6
401.8
398.0
342.8
353.0

135,000 btu/gallon

Year
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Jet fuel
(million gallons)
579.0
496.0
454.1
470.8
544.0
567.5
639.4
814.6
967.2
998.1
938.7
815.5
820.0
1,075.2
1,507.4
1,636.3
1,516.3
1,688.6
1,350.6
1,451.5
1,490.7
120,200
btu/gallon

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

Aviation gasoline
(million gallons)
348.0
306.0
268.4
264.1
276.0
286.5
289.7
311.4
345.4
336.3
319.3
261.4
255.5
256.1
323.6
294.7
314.8
306.3
226.6
210.3
215.5

A15

Domestic and International Air Carrier:


DOT, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, "Fuel Cost and Consumption Tables,"
www.transtats.bts.gov/fuel.asp. The table below shows all international fuel use. Because the data
for international include fuel purchased abroad, for the tables in Chapter 2, the international total
was divided in half to estimate domestic fuel use for international flights.
Table A.9
Air Carrier Fuel Use
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Heat content used for
conversion to btu:

Domestic
(thousand gallons)

International
(thousand gallons)

Separate estimates for domestic


and international are not available
from 1970-1976.
8,202,051
8,446,117
8,865,885
8,519,233
8,555,249
8,432,465
8,672,574
9,625,958
10,115,007
11,137,331
11,586,838
11,917,904
11,905,144
12,429,305
11,506,477
11,762,852
11,958,663
12,475,549
12,811,717
13,187,305
13,659,581
13,876,971
14,402,127
14,844,592
14,017,461
12,848,329
12,958,581
13,622,603
13,778,869
13,694,437
13,681,664
12,666,911
11,339,220
11,255,800
11,071,500
135,000
btu/gallon

1,708,376
1,741,918
1,828,435
1,747,306
2,032,520
1,967,733
1,998,289
2,286,407
2,487,929
2,544,996
2,893,617
3,262,824
3,557,294
3,963,081
3,939,666
4,120,132
4,113,321
4,310,879
4,511,418
4,658,093
4,964,181
5,185,562
5,250,492
5,474,685
5,237,487
4,990,798
4,836,356
4,931,546
5,520,889
6,017,638
6,204,502
6,186,747
5,721,298
6,027,900
6,523,300
135,000
btu/gallon

Total
(thousand gallons)
10,085,000
10,140,000
10,302,000
10,671,000
10,417,260
10,412,640
10,400,040
9,910,427
10,188,035
10,694,320
10,266,539
10,587,769
10,400,198
10,670,863
11,912,365
12,602,936
13,682,327
14,480,455
15,180,728
15,462,438
16,392,386
15,446,144
15,882,983
16,071,984
16,786,428
17,323,135
17,845,398
18,623,762
19,062,533
19,652,619
20,319,277
19,254,948
17,839,127
17,794,936
18,554,149
19,309,758
19,712,075
19,886,165
18,853,658
17,060,517
17,283,700
17,594,800
135,000
btu/gallon

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A16

Water
Freight:
Total DOE, EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids Database, May 2013. Adjusted sales of
distillate and residual fuel oil for vessel bunkering. (This may include some
amounts of bunker fuels used for recreational purposes.)
Table A.10
Diesel and Residual Fuel Oil for Vessel Bunkering
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Heat content used for
conversion to btu:
Domestic share of total
fuel use

Distillate fuel oil


(thousand gallons)
819,000
880,000
1,013,000
1,125,000
1,018,920
1,097,880
1,220,100
1,407,420
1,578,822
1,630,858
717,376
1,723,143
1,423,216
1,418,890
1,692,045
1,894,265
2,034,215
2,223,258
2,310,367
2,356,444
2,197,004
2,167,640
2,240,170
2,043,745
2,026,899
1,978,105
2,177,608
2,107,561
2,125,568
2,064,590
2,041,433
2,099,011
2,056,465
1,863,150
2,313,448
2,115,381
2,206,690
2,158,930
1,980,729
2,139,164
2,424,539
2,623,095
138,700
btu/gallon

Residual fuel oil


(thousand gallons)
3,774,120
3,307,000
3,273,000
3,859,000
3,827,040
4,060,140
4,977,000
5,416,740
6,614,790
8,002,672
7,454,242
7,922,512
6,408,818
5,724,115
5,688,931
5,269,733
5,690,250
5,869,154
6,025,511
6,621,100
6,248,095
6,786,055
7,199,078
6,269,882
5,944,383
6,431,238
5,804,977
4,789,861
4,640,153
5,598,630
6,192,294
4,345,284
4,783,956
3,801,425
4,886,978
5,533,552
6,000,434
6,773,950
6,274,047
5,331,657
6,032,367
5,206,160
149,700
btu/gallon

77.5%

9.3%

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A17

Recreational Boating:
Fuel use by recreational boating comes from the EPAs NONROAD2008A model.
Table A.11
Recreational Boating Fuel Use
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Heat content used for
conversion to btu:

Diesel use
(gallons)
39,589,953
47,130,906
54,671,856
62,212,803
69,753,735
77,294,680
84,835,632
92,376,573
99,917,523
107,458,470
114,999,421
122,540,357
130,081,302
137,622,248
145,163,202
152,704,140
160,245,074
167,786,030
175,326,970
182,867,916
190,408,869
197,949,808
205,490,749
213,031,707
220,572,649
228,113,596
235,654,521
243,195,481
250,736,414
258,159,525
265,582,657
273,547,835
281,512,965
289,478,093
297,443,197
305,408,463
313,420,594
321,432,801
329,445,068
337,457,287
345,469,668
353,434,754
138,700
btu/gallon

Gasoline use
(gallons)
1,213,397,311
1,220,995,448
1,228,593,572
1,236,191,635
1,243,789,752
1,251,387,972
1,258,986,070
1,266,584,111
1,274,182,341
1,281,780,460
1,289,378,532
1,296,976,672
1,304,574,832
1,312,172,890
1,319,771,007
1,327,369,146
1,334,967,322
1,342,565,455
1,362,856,034
1,383,146,636
1,403,437,194
1,429,688,292
1,455,939,504
1,482,190,597
1,539,794,180
1,597,269,921
1,654,446,069
1,657,737,628
1,659,056,085
1,657,198,161
1,652,906,973
1,655,303,922
1,653,583,696
1,648,070,959
1,639,713,127
1,629,873,278
1,619,603,593
1,609,567,873
1,599,830,522
1,590,749,216
1,578,405,558
1,566,937,275
125,000
btu/gallon

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A18

Pipeline
The sum of natural gas, crude petroleum and petroleum product, and coal slurry and water.
Natural Gas:
The amount of natural gas used to transport natural gas was defined as "pipeline fuel" as
reported in DOE, EIA, Natural Gas Annual 2013, Table 1. Cubic feet were converted to
Btu using 1,031 Btu/ft3. Electricity use was estimated using the following procedure as
reported on p. 5-110 of J. N. Hooker et al., End Use Energy Consumption DataBase:
Transportation Sector. The energy consumption of a natural gas pipeline was taken to be
the energy content of the fuel used to drive the pumps. Some 94% of the installed
pumping horsepower was supplied by natural gas. The remaining 6% of the horsepower
was generated more efficiently, mostly by electric motors. The energy consumed by
natural gas pipeline pumps that were electrically powered was not known. In order to
estimate the electricity consumed, the Btu of natural gas pipeline fuel consumed was
multiplied by a factor of 0.015. From this computed value, electricity efficiency and
generation loss must be taken into account. The electricity energy use in Btu must be
converted to kWhr, using the conversion factor 29.305 x 10-5 kWhr/Btu. Electricity
generation and distribution efficiency was 29%. When generation and distribution
efficiency are taken into account, 1 kWhr equals 10,339 Btu.
Crude petroleum and petroleum product:
J. N. Hooker, Oil Pipeline Energy Consumption and Efficiency, ORNL-5697, ORNL,
Oak Ridge, TN, 1981. (Data held constant; Latest available data.)
Coal slurry and water:
W. F. Banks, Systems, Science and Software, Energy Consumption in the Pipeline
Industry, LaJolla, CA, October 1977. (Data held constant; Latest available data.)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A19

Table A.12
Pipeline Fuel Use

Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Heat content used for
conversion to btu:

Natural gas
(million cubic
feet)
722,166
742,592
766,156
728,177
668,792
582,963
548,323
532,669
530,451
600,964
634,622
642,325
596,411
490,042
528,754
503,766
485,041
519,170
613,912
629,308
659,816
601,305
587,710
624,308
685,362
700,335
711,446
751,470
635,477
645,319
642,210
624,964
666,920
591,492
566,187
584,026
584,213
621,364
647,956
670,174
674,124
683,715
1,031
btu/cubic foot

Estimated natural
gas pipeline
electricity use
(million kWhr)
3,272.9
3,365.4
3,472.2
3,300.1
3,031.0
2,642.0
2,485.0
2,414.1
2,404.0
2,723.6
2,876.1
2,911.0
2,703.0
2,220.9
2,396.3
2,283.1
2,198.2
2,352.9
2,782.3
2,852.0
2,990.3
2,725.1
2,663.5
2,829.4
3,106.1
3,173.9
3,224.3
3,405.7
2,880.0
2,924.6
2,910.5
2,832.3
3,022.5
2,680.7
2,566.0
2,646.8
2,647.7
2,816.0
2,936.6
3,037.2
3,055.1
3,098.6
10,339
Btu/kWhr

Electricity
constant
(trillion btu)
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1
212.1

Note: Formula for estimating electricity use for natural gas pipelines is:
Natural gas use (in million cubic ft) 1,031 btu/cubic ft 0.015 29.305 10-5 kWhr/btu

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A20

Rail
Freight:
AAR, Railroad Facts, 2012 Edition, Washington, DC, 2012.
Table A.13
Class I Freight Railroad Fuel Use
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Heat content used for
conversion to btu:

Diesel fuel
(thousand gallons)
3,807,663
3,822,907
3,996,985
4,160,730
4,175,375
3,736,484
3,895,542
3,985,069
3,968,007
4,072,187
3,955,996
3,756,439
3,178,116
3,137,295
3,388,173
3,144,190
3,039,069
3,102,227
3,182,267
3,190,815
3,134,446
2,925,970
3,022,108
3,111,981
3,355,802
3,503,096
3,600,649
3,602,793
3,619,341
3,749,428
3,720,107
3,729,985
3,751,413
3,849,229
4,082,236
4,119,879
4,214,459
4,087,405
3,911,178
3,220,059
3,519,021
3,710,485
138,700
Btu/gallon

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A21

Passenger:
Commuter - APTA, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2013.
Table A.14
Commuter Rail Fuel Use
Year
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Heat content used for
conversion to btu:

Diesel
(thousand gallons)
58,320
55,372
54,608
51,594
53,054
52,516
52,681
54,315
54,951
59,766
61,900
63,064
61,888
63,195
69,200
73,005
70,818
72,204
72,847
72,264
71,999
76,714
78,600
80,700
83,500
95,000
93,200
95,000
138,700
Btu/gallon

Electricity
(million kWhr)
901
1,043
1,170
1,155
1,195
1,293
1,226
1,239
1,124
1,196
1,244
1,253
1,255
1,270
1,299
1,322
1,370
1,354
1,334
1,383
1,449
1,484
1,478
1,763
1,718
1,780
1,797
1,813
10,339
Btu/kWhr

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A22

Transit APTA, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2013.
Includes light rail and heavy rail.
Table A.15
Transit Rail Fuel Use

Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Heat content used for
conversion to btu:

Electricity (million kWhr)


Heavy rail
Total
2,561
2,556
2,428
2,331
2,630
2,646
Light rail and heavy rail data are
2,576
not available separately from
2,303
1970 to 1985.
2,223
2,473
2,446
2,655
2,722
2,930
3,092
2,928
173
3,066
3,239
191
3,219
3,410
243
3,256
3,499
242
3,286
3,528
239
3,284
3,523
274
3,248
3,522
297
3,193
3,490
281
3,287
3,568
282
3,431
3,713
288
3,401
3,689
321
3,322
3,643
363
3,253
3,616
382
3,280
3,662
416
3,385
3,801
563
3,549
4,112
587
3,646
4,233
510
3,683
4,193
507
3,632
4,138
553
3,684
4,237
571
3,769
4,339
634
3,709
4,343
687
3,817
4,505
721
3,898
4,619
738
3,866
4,624
749
3,780
4,529
789
3,859
4,648
10,339
10,339
10,339
Btu/kWhr
Btu/kWhr
Btu/kWhr
Light rail

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A23

Intercity Personal communication with Amtrak, Washington, DC, 2013.


Table A.16
Intercity Rail Fuel Use

Year
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Heat content used for
conversion to Btu

Diesel fuel
(thousand
gallons)
73,516
72,371
71,226
75,656
75,999
79,173
94,968
96,846
84,432
74,621
68,605
65,477
62,463
61,824
63,428
61,704
63,474
63,450
138,700
Btu/gallon

Electricity
(thousand kWhr)
308,948
335,818
362,689
389,559
416,429
443,300
470,170
455,703
518,306
536,950
550,695
531,377
548,856
577,864
582,022
564,968
558,662
555,425
10,339
Btu/kWhr

Calculation of
Million Barrels per Day
Crude Oil Equivalent
One gallon of gasoline, diesel fuel, or lpg is estimated to be the equivalent of one gallon of crude oil.
Petroleum used for electricity was calculated using the following formula:
({[(BTU*S)/G ]/P }/365)/1000
BTU
S

=
=

G
P

=
=

Btus of electricity from Table 2.5


Share of petroleum used in making primary electricity (Calculated from Table 2.6 from the
EIA, Monthly Energy Review)
Electricity generation and distribution (assumed 29%)
Btus per barrel of petroleum product (Table A3 from the EIA, Monthly Energy Review).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A24

Passenger Travel and Energy Use


Cars
Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles Results of a model developed by ORNL to estimate data for cars
and light trucks since the FHWA discontinued their VM-1 series showing cars and light trucks
separately. The model uses data from FHWA Highway Statistics 2011, EPA Light-Duty
Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through
2012, and R.L. Polk to estimate the number of vehicles, vehicle-miles of travel, energy use, and
fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks. Documentation of the model will be published in an
ORNL report, forthcoming.
Passenger-miles Vehicle-miles multiplied by an average load factor.
Load factor 2009 NHTS shows car load factor as 1.55 persons per vehicle.
Energy intensities
Btu per vehicle-mile Car energy use divided by vehicle-miles.
Btu per passenger-mile Car energy use divided by passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-5. Data series shown in Table 2.7.

Light Trucks
Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles Results of a model developed by ORNL to estimate data for cars
and light trucks since the FHWA discontinued their VM-1 series showing cars and light trucks
separately. The model uses data from FHWA Highway Statistics 2011, EPA Light-Duty
Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through
2012, and R.L. Polk to estimate the number of vehicles, vehicle-miles of travel, energy use, and
fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks. Documentation of the model will be published in an
ORNL report, forthcoming. Data by truck type were multiplied by the shares of trucks/truck
travel which are for personal use (Table A.17).
Passenger-miles Vehicle-miles multiplied by an average load factor.
Load factor 2009 NHTS shows personal light truck load factor as 1.84 persons per vehicle.
Energy intensities Btu per vehicle-mile Personal light truck energy use divided by personal light truck vehicle-miles.
Btu per passenger-mile Personal light truck energy use divided by personal light truck passengermiles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-10, A-12 (light trucks, medium/heavy trucks). Data by truck
type were multiplied by the shares of truck fuel use which are for personal use (Table A.17) which
were derived by ORNL from the 2002 VIUS Micro Data File on CD.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A25

Table A.17
Share of Trucks, Truck Travel,
and Fuel Use for Personal Travel
Personal trucks
85.6%
26.9%
Personal truck travel
80.9%
13.1%
Personal truck fuel use
78.0%
6.0%

2-axle, 4-tire trucks


Other single-unit and combination trucks
2-axle, 4-tire trucks
Other single-unit and combination trucks
2-axle, 4-tire trucks
Other single-unit and combination trucks

Note: Since these shares come from the 2002 VIUS, they may
underestimate the amount of personal trucks, truck travel, and
energy use for 2011.

Motorcycles
Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2011, Table VM-1.
Passenger-miles Vehicle-miles multiplied by an average load factor.
Load factor - 2009 NHTS shows motorcycle load factor as 1.16 persons per vehicle.
Energy intensities
Btu per vehicle-mile Motorcycle energy use divided by vehicle-miles.
Btu per passenger-mile Motorcycle energy use divided by passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-7. Data series shown in Table 2.7.

Demand Response
Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles, passenger-miles APTA, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book,
Washington, DC, 2013.
Load factor Passenger-miles divided by vehicle-miles.
Energy intensities
Btu per vehicle-mile Energy use divided by vehicle-miles.
Btu per passenger-mile Energy use divided by passenger-miles.
Energy use APTA, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2013.

Buses
Transit
Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles, passenger-miles APTA, 2013 Public Transportation Fact
Book, Washington, DC, 2013. Data series shown on Table 5.16.
Load factor Passenger-miles divided by vehicle-miles.
Energy intensities
Btu per vehicle-mile Transit bus energy use divided by transit bus vehicle-miles.
Btu per passenger-mile Transit bus energy use divided by transit bus passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-8. Data series shown in Table 5.16.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A26

Intercity
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-9. Because the data past 2000 are not available, the rate
of change in bus VMT from FHWA, Highway Statistics 2011, was used to estimate the change in
energy use.
School
Number of vehicles DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2011, Table MV-10.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-9. Because the data past 2000 are not available, the rate
of change in bus VMT from FHWA, Highway Statistics 2011, was used to estimate the change in
energy use.

Air
Certificated air carriers
Aircraft-miles, passenger-miles DOT, BTS, U.S. Air Traffic Statistics Through March 2013,
www.bts.gov/xml/air_traffic/src/index.xml#customizeTable, Washington, DC.
Load factor Passenger-miles divided by aircraft-miles.
Energy intensities
Btu per passenger-mile Certificated air carrier energy use divided by passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-15. All of domestic fuel use and half of international
fuel use was considered to be domestic use.
Note: These data differ from the data in Table 9.2 because that table contains data on ALL domestic
AND international air carrier energy use and passenger-miles.
General aviation
Number of vehicles DOT, FAA, General Aviation and Part 135 Activity Surveys - CY 2010. 2011
Data: Aviation Forecasts, Tables 28 and 29, May 2013. Data series shown in Table 9.3.
Energy intensities
Btu per passenger-mile General aviation energy use divided by passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-14. Data series shown in Table 9.3.

Recreational boating
Number of vehicles and energy use U.S. EPA, NONROAD2008a model.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A27

Rail
Intercity
Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles, passenger-miles AAR, Railroad Facts, 2012 Edition,
Washington, DC, 2012.
Load factor Passenger-miles divided by vehicle-miles.
Energy Intensities
Btu per vehicle-mile Intercity rail energy use divided by vehicle-miles.
Btu per passenger-mile Intercity rail energy use divided by passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-23. Data series shown in Table 9.10.
Transit
Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles, passenger-miles APTA, 2013 Public Transportation Fact
Book, Washington, DC, 2013. Sum of light and heavy rail transit. Data series shown on
Table 9.12.
Load factor Passenger-miles divided by vehicle-miles.
Energy intensities
Btu per vehicle-mile Light and heavy transit rail energy use divided by vehicle-miles.
Btu per passenger-mile Light and heavy transit rail energy use divided by passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-22. Data series shown in Table 9.12.
Commuter
Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles, passenger-miles APTA, 2013 Public Transportation Fact
Book, Washington, DC, 2013. Data series shown on Table 9.11.
Load factor Passenger-miles divided by vehicle-miles.
Energy intensities
Btu per vehicle-mile Commuter rail energy use divided by vehicle-miles.
Btu per passenger-mile Commuter rail energy use divided by passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-21. Data series shown in Table 9.11.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A28

Highway Passenger Mode Energy Intensities


Cars
Btu per vehicle-mile Car energy use divided by car vehicle miles of travel.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-5. Data series shown in Table 2.7.
Vehicle-miles 1970-2008: DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2008, Table VM-1 and annual
editions back to 1996 and DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995. Data series
shown in Table 4.1.
2009-2011: See Appendix A for Car/Light Truck Shares.
Btu per passenger-mile Car energy use divided by car passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-5. Data series shown in Table 2.7.
Passenger miles Vehicle miles multiplied by an average load factor.
Vehicle-miles DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2009, Table VM-1 and annual editions back to
1996 and DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995. Data series shown in
Table 4.1.
Load factor NPTS 1969, 1977, 1983/84, 1990, and 1995; NHTS 2001 and 2009. Data series
shown in Table A.18.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A29

Table A.18
Car Load Factor used to Calculate Passenger-Miles
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Source
1969 NPTS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
1977 NPTS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
1983/84 NPTS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
1990 NPTS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
1995 NPTS
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
Interpolated
2001 NHTS
2001 NHTS
2001 NHTS
2001 NHTS
2001 NHTS
2001 NHTS
2001 NHTS
2009 NHTS
2009 NHTS
2009 NHTS
2009 NHTS

Load Factor
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.88
1.87
1.85
1.83
1.82
1.80
1.77
1.74
1.71
1.69
1.66
1.63
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.59
1.59
1.58
1.58
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.55
1.55
1.55
1.55

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A30

Light trucks
Btu per vehicle-mile Light truck energy use divided by light truck vehicle miles of travel.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-10. Data series shown in Table 2.7.
Vehicle-miles 1970-2008: DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2008, Table VM-1 and annual
editions back to 1996 and DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995. Data series shown
in Table 4.2. 2009-2011: See Appendix A for Car/Light Truck Shares.

Buses
Transit
Btu per vehicle-mile Transit bus energy use divided by transit bus vehicle-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-8. Data series shown in Table 5.16.
Vehicle-miles APTA, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2013. Data
series shown on Table 5.16.
Btu per passenger-mile Transit bus energy use divided by transit bus passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-8. Data series shown in Table 5.16.
Passenger-miles APTA, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2013. Data
series shown on Table 5.16.
Intercity
Btu per passenger-mile Data are not available.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-9. Because the data past 2000 are not available, the
rate of change in bus VMT from FHWA, Highway Statistics 2011, was used to estimate the
change in energy use.
Passenger-miles Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A31

Nonhighway Mode Energy Intensities


Air
Certificated air carriers
Btu per passenger-mile Certificated air carrier energy use divided by passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-15. All of domestic fuel use and half of international
fuel use was considered to be domestic use.
Passenger-miles DOT, BTS, Air Carrier Traffic Statistics, Washington, DC,
ww.bts.gov/programs/airline_information/air_carrier_traffic_statistics. Pre-1994 data are
from various editions of the FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation (no longer published).
Scheduled service passenger-miles of domestic air carriers and half of international air
carriers were used to coincide with fuel use.
Note: These data differ from the data in Table 9.2 because that table contains data on ALL
domestic AND international air carrier energy use and passenger-miles.
General aviation
Btu per passenger-mile Data are not available.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-14. Data series shown in Table 9.3.
Passenger-miles Data are not available.
Rail
Intercity
Btu per passenger-mile Intercity rail energy use divided by passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-23. Data series shown in Table 9.10.
Passenger-miles AAR, Railroad Facts, 2012 Edition, and previous annual editions.
Transit
Btu per passenger-mile Transit rail energy use divided by passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-22. Data series shown in Table 9.12.
Passenger-miles APTA, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2013. Data
series shown on Table 9.12.
Commuter
Btu per passenger-mile Commuter rail energy use divided by passenger-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-21. Data series shown in Table 9.11.
Passenger-miles APTA, 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2013. Data
series shown on Table 9.11.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A32

Freight Mode Energy Intensities


Truck
Btu per vehicle-mile Heavy single-unit and combination truck energy use divided by vehicle miles
Energy use See Energy Use Sources (medium/heavy trucks), p. A-11.
Vehicle-miles DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2011, Table VM-1 and annual editions back to
1996 and DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995. Data series is the total of vehicle
travel data on Tables 5.1 and 5.2.

Rail
Btu per freight car-mile Class I rail energy use divided by freight car-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-20. Data series shown in Table 9.8.
Freight car miles AAR, Railroad Facts, 2012 Edition, Washington, DC, 2012. Data series
shown in Table 9.8.
Btu per ton-mile Class I rail energy use divided by ton-miles.
Energy use See Energy Use Sources, p. A-20. Data series shown in Table 9.8.
Ton-miles AAR, Railroad Facts, 2012 Edition, Washington, DC, 2012. Data series shown in
Table 9.8.

Water
Btu per ton-mile Domestic waterborne commerce energy use on taxable waterways divided by tonmiles on taxable waterways.
Energy use Modeled by Chrisman A. Dager, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, using Waterborne
Commerce Statistics Center detail records and annual IRS reports on the Inland Waterway Trust
Fund tax on diesel fuel used on the inland waterway.
Ton-miles Based on detailed records from the U.S. Department of the Army, Army Corps of
Engineers, Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center. Includes only ton-miles on taxable
waterways.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A33

Car and Light Truck Shares


In 2011, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) changed the methodology for producing the
data on the VM-1 Table in the annual Highway Statistics publication. Historically, VM-1 included
individual categories for passenger cars and 2-axle, 4-tire trucks. VM-1 included the vehicle miles of
travel (VMT), registrations, fuel use, and fuel economy of passenger cars and 2-axle, 4-tire trucks. After
the methodology change, the categories of light vehicles on VM-1 changed to Light-Duty Vehicles with
Short wheelbase (less than or equal to 121 inches) and Light-Duty Vehicles with Long Wheelbase (over
121 inches). As some passenger cars have long wheelbases and some 2-axle, 4-tire trucks have short
wheelbases, the categories of cars and 2-axle, 4-tire trucks are no longer available. Despite these changes,
there are many transportation analysts who require information on cars and 2-axle, 4-tire trucks. Thus, a
new methodology to estimate the data in these categories was developed for years 2009 through 2011.

Cars
Registrations DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2011, Table MV-1 and annual editions back to 2009.
Vehicle travel
Total for all light vehicles DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2011, Table VM-1 and annual editions
back to 2009; sum of light-duty short wheelbase and light-duty long wheelbase VMT.
Cars Using historical shares of passenger cars/2-axle, 4-tire trucks from the Highway Statistics, the
percent of light vehicle travel attributable to cars was estimated for 2009-2011, keeping in mind
the economic conditions present in those years and the general trend in total light vehicle VMT.
The estimated share was applied to total VMT as shown in Table A.19.
Table A.19. Estimated Car VMT
Total Light Vehicle
Share Attributable to
VMT (billions)
Cars
2,633.2
59.5%
2,647.7
59.0%
2,646.6
59.0%

Year
2009
2010
2011

Total Car
VMT (billions)
1,566.8
1,562.1
1,561.5

Miles per Vehicle Vehicle travel divided by registrations.


Fuel Use Vehicle travel divided by fuel economy.
Fuel Economy DOE, EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, April 2013.

2-axle, 4-tire Trucks


Registrations DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2011, Table MV-1 and annual editions back to 2009.
Vehicle travel
Total for all light vehicles DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2011, Table VM-1 and annual editions
back to 2009; sum of light-duty short wheelbase and light-duty long wheelbase VMT.
2-axle, 4-tire truck VMT Using historical shares of passenger cars/2-axle, 4-tire trucks from the
Highway Statistics, the percent of light vehicle travel attributable to cars was estimated for 20092011, keeping in mind the economic conditions present in those years and the general trend in
total light vehicle VMT. The estimated share was applied to total VMT as shown in Table A.20.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

A34

Year
2009
2010
2011

Table A.20. Estimated 2-axle, 4-tire Truck VMT


Total Light Vehicle
Share Attributable to
Total 2-axle, 4-tire
VMT (billions)
2-axle, 4-tire Trucks
Truck VMT (billions)
2,633.2
40.5%
1,066.4
2,647.7
41.0%
1,085.6
2,646.6
41.0%
1,085.1

Miles per Vehicle Vehicle travel divided by registrations.


Fuel Use Vehicle travel divided by fuel economy.
Fuel Economy DOE, EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, April 2013.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B1

APPENDIX B
CONVERSIONS

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B2

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B3

CONVERSIONS

A Note about Heating Values

The heat content of a fuel is the quantity of energy released by burning a unit amount of that fuel.
However, this value is not absolute and can vary according to several factors. For example, empirical
formulae for determining the heating value of liquid fuels depend on the fuels' American Petroleum
Institute (API) gravity. The API gravity varies depending on the percent by weight of the chemical
constituents and impurities in the fuel, both of which are affected by the combination of raw materials
used to produce the fuel and by the type of manufacturing process. Temperature and climatic conditions
are also factors.
Because of these variations, the heating values in Table B.4 may differ from values in other
publications. The figures in this report are representative or average values, not absolute ones. The gross
(higher) heating values used here agree with those used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).
Heating values fall into two categories, usually referred to as higher (or gross) and lower (or
net). If the products of fuel combustion are cooled back to the initial fuel-air or fuel-oxidizer mixture
temperature and the water formed during combustion is condensed, the energy released by the process is
the higher (gross) heating value.

If the products of combustion are cooled to the initial fuel-air

temperature, but the water is considered to remain as a vapor, the energy released by the process is the
lower (net) heating value. Usually the difference between the gross and net heating values for fuels used
in transportation is around 5 to 8 percent; however, it is important to be consistent in their use.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B4

Table B.1
Hydrogen Heat Content
1 kilogram hydrogen =
Higher heating value
Lower heating value
134,200 Btu
113,400 Btu
39.3 kWhr
33.2 kWhr
141,600 kJ
119,600 kJ
33,800 kCal
28,560 kCal

Table B.2
Hydrogen Conversions
Weight

1 lb
1 kg
1 SCF gas
1 Nm3 gas
1 gal liquid
1 L liquid

Pounds
(lb)
1.0
2.205
0.005209
0.19815
0.5906
0.15604

Gas

Kilograms
(kg)
0.4536
1.0
0.002363
0.08988
0.2679
0.07078

Standard
cubic feet
(SCF)
192.00
423.3
1.0
38.04
113.41
29.99

Normal
cubic meter
(Nm3)
5.047
11.126
0.02628
1.0
2.981
0.77881

Liquid
Gallons
(gal)
1.6928
3.733
0.00882
0.3355
1.0
0.2642

Liters
(L)
6.408
14.128
0.0339
1.2699
3.785
1.0

Table B.3
Pressure Conversions

Bar
Atmosphere
lb/in2 (or psi)

Bar
1.0
1.013
0.0689

Atmosphere
0.987
1.0
0.0680

lb/in2 (or psi)


14.5
14.696
1.0

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B5

Table B.4
Heat Content for Various Fuels
Conventional gasoline

125,000 Btu/gal (gross) = 115,400 Btu/gal (net)

E10

120,900 Btu/gal (gross) = 112,400 Btu/gal (net)

E15

119,000 Btu/gal (gross) = 109,400 Btu/gal (net)

Hydrogen

134,200 Btu/kg (gross) = 113,400 Btu/kg (net)

Diesel motor fuel

138,700 Btu/gal (gross) = 128,700 Btu/gal (net)

Biodiesel

126,200 Btu/gal (gross) = 117,100 Btu/gal (net)

Methanol

64,600 Btu/gal (gross) = 56,600 Btu/gal (net)

Ethanol

84,600 Btu/gal (gross) = 75,700 Btu/gal (net)

E85

90,700 Btu/gal (gross) = 81,600 Btu/gal (net)

Aviation gasoline

120,200 Btu/gal (gross) = 112,000 Btu/gal (net)

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

91,300 Btu/gal (gross) = 83,500 Btu/gal (net)

Butane

103,000 Btu/gal (gross) = 93,000 Btu/gal (net)

Jet fuel (naphtha)

127,500 Btu/gal (gross) = 118,700 Btu/gal (net)

Jet fuel (kerosene)

135,000 Btu/gal (gross) = 128,100 Btu/gal (net)

Lubricants

144,400 Btu/gal (gross) = 130,900 Btu/gal (net)

Waxes

131,800 Btu/gal (gross) = 120,200 Btu/gal (net)

Asphalt and road oil

158,000 Btu/gal (gross) = 157,700 Btu/gal (net)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG)

84,800 Btu/gal (gross) = 74,700 Btu/gal (net)

Compressed natural gas (CNG)

22,500 Btu/lb (gross) = 20,300 Btu/lb (net)

Crude petroleum

138,100 Btu/gal (gross) = 131,800 Btu/gal (net)

Fuel Oils
Residual

149,700 Btu/gal (gross) = 138,400 Btu/gal (net)

Distillate

138,700 Btu/gal (gross) = 131,800 Btu/gal (net)

Production average

20.192 x 106 Btu/short ton

Consumption average

19.612 x 106 Btu/short ton

Coal

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B6

Table B.5
Fuel Equivalents
1 million bbl crude oil/day

=
=
=
=
=
=

0.365 billion bbl crude oil/year


2.117 quadrillion Btu/year
107.944 million short tons coal/year
97.927 million metric tons coal/year
2.067 trillion ft3 natural gas/year
2,233 petajoules/year

1 billion bbl crude oil/year

=
=
=
=
=
=

2.740 million bbl crude oil/day


5.800 quadrillion Btu/year
295.737 million short tons coal/year
268.293 million metric tons coal/year
5.644 trillion ft3 natural gas/year
6,119 petajoules/year

1 quadrillion Btu/year

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.5219 gasoline gallon equivalents


0.472 million bbl crude oil/day
172.414 million bbl crude oil/year
50.989 million short tons coal/year
46.257 million metric tons coal/year
976.563 billion ft3 natural gas/year
1,055 petajoules/year

1 billion short tons coal/year

=
=
=
=
=
=

0.907 billion metric tons coal/year


9.264 million bbl crude oil/day
3.381 billion bbl crude oil/year
19.612 quadrillion Btu/year
19.152 trillion ft3 natural gas/year
20,691 petajoules/year

1 billion metric tons coal/year

=
=
=
=
=
=

1.102 billion short tons coal/year


8.404 million bbl crude oil/day
3.068 billion bbl crude oil/year
17.792 quadrillion btu/year
17.375 trillion ft3 natural gas/year
18,771 petajoules/year

1 trillion ft3 natural gas/year

=
=
=
=
=
=

0.484 million bbl crude oil/day


0.177 billion bbl crude oil/year
1.024 quadrillion Btu/year
52.213 million short tons coal/year
47.368 million metric tons coal/year
1,080 petajoules/year

1 petajoule/year

=
=
=
=
=
=

447.741 bbl crude oil/day


163.425 thousand bbl crude oil/year
0.948 trillion Btu/year
48.331 thousand short tons coal/year
43.846 thousand metric tons coal/year
0.926 billion ft3 natural gas/year

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B7

Table B.6
Energy Unit Conversions
778.2 ft-lb
107.6 kg-m
1055 J
39.30 x 10-5 hp-h
39.85 x 10-5 metric hp-h
29.31 x 10-5 kWhr

1 kWhr =
=
=
=
=
=

3412 Btua
2.655 x 106 ft-lb
3.671 x 105 kg-m
3.600 x 106 J
1.341 hp-h
1.360 metric hp-h

1 kg-m

= 92.95 x 10-4 Btu


= 7.233 ft-lb
= 9.806 J
= 36.53 x 10-7 hp-h
= 37.04 x 10-7 metric hp-h
= 27.24 x 10-7 kWhr

1 Joule =
=
=
=
=
=

94.78 x 10-5 Btu


0.7376 ft-lb
0.1020 kg-m
37.25 x 10-8 hp-h
37.77 x 10-8 metric hp-h
27.78 x 10-8 kWhr

1 hp-h

=
=
=
=
=
=

1 Btu =
=
=
=
=
=

1 metric hp-h =
=
=
=
=
=

2544 Btu
1.98 x 106 ft-lb
2.738 x 106 kgm
2.685 x 106 J
1.014 metric hp-h
0.7475 kWhr

2510 Btu
1.953 x 106 ft-lb
27.00 x 104 kg-m
2.648 x 106 J
0.9863 hp-h
0.7355 kWhr

This figure does not take into account the fact that electricity generation and distribution efficiency is
approximately 33%. If generation and distribution efficiency are taken into account, 1 kWhr = 10,339 Btu.

Table B.7
International Energy Conversions

Gigacalories

Million
tonnes of oil
equivalent

Million
Btu

Gigawatthours

238.8 x 103

2.388 x 10-2

947.8 x 103

277.8

4.1868 x 10-6

10-7

3.968

1.163 x 10-3

41.868

107

3.968 x 107

11,630

1.0551 x 10-6

0.252

2.52 X 10-8

2.931 x 10-4

3.6 x 10-3

860

8.6 x 10-5

3412

To:

Petajoules

From:

multiply by:

Petajoules
Gigacalories
Million tonnes
of oil equivalent
Million Btu
Gigawatthours

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B8

Table B.8
Distance and Velocity Conversions
1 in. = 83.33 x 10-3 ft

1 ft = 12.0 in.

-3

= 27.78 x 10 yd

= 0.33 yd

= 15.78 x 10-6 mile

= 189.4 x 10-3 mile

= 25.40 x 10-3 m

= 0.3048 m

-6

= 0.3048 x 10-3 km

= 0.2540 x 10 km
1 mile

= 63360 in.

1 km = 39370 in.

= 5280 ft

= 3281 ft

= 1760 yd

= 1093.6 yd

= 1609 m

= 0.6214 mile

= 1.609 km

= 1000 m

1 ft/sec = 0.3048 m/s = 0.6818 mph = 1.0972 km/h


1 m/sec = 3.281 ft/s = 2.237 mph = 3.600 km/h
1 km/h = 0.9114 ft/s = 0.2778 m/s = 0.6214 mph
1 mph = 1.467 ft/s = 0.4469 m/s = 1.609 km/h

Table B.9
Alternative Measures of Greenhouse Gases
1 pound methane, measured in carbon units
(CH4)

1.333 pounds methane, measured at full


molecular weight (CH4)

1 pound carbon dioxide, measured in carbon


units (CO2-C)

3.6667 pounds carbon dioxide, measured at full


molecular weight (CO2)

1 pound carbon monoxide, measured in


carbon units (CO-C)

2.333 pounds carbon monoxide, measured at


full molecular weight (CO)

1 pound nitrous oxide, measured in nitrogen


units (N2O-N)

1.571 pounds nitrous oxide, measured at full


molecular weight (N2O)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B9

Table B.10
Volume and Flow Rate Conversionsa
1 U.S. gal

= 231 in.3

1 liter

= 61.02 in.3

= 0.1337 ft3

= 3.531 x 10-2 ft3

= 3.785 liters

= 0.2624 U.S. gal

= 0.8321 imperial gal

= 0.2200 imperial gal

= 0.0238 bbl

= 6.29 x 10-3 bbl

= 0.003785 m3

= 0.001 m3

A U.S. gallon of gasoline weighs 6.2 pounds


1 imperial gal

= 277.4 in.3

1 bbl

= 0.1606 ft3

= 5.615 ft3

= 4.545 liters

= 158.97 liters

= 1.201 U.S. gal

= 42 U.S. gal

= 0.0286 bbl

= 34.97 imperial gal


3

1 U.S. gal/hr

= 9702 in.3

= 0.004546 m

= 0.15897 m3

= 3.209 ft3/day

= 1171 ft3/year

= 90.84 liter/day

= 33157 liter/year

= 19.97 imperial gal/day

= 7289 imperial gal/year

= 0.5712 bbl/day

= 207.92 bbl/year

For Imperial gallons, multiply above values by 1.201


1 liter/hr

1 bbl/hr

= 0.8474 ft3/day

= 309.3 ft3/year

= 6.298 U.S. gal/day

= 2299 U.S. gal/year

= 5.28 imperial gal/day

= 1927 imperial gal/year

= 0.1510 bbl/day

= 55.10 bbl/year

= 137.8 ft /year

= 49187 ft3 year

= 1008 U.S. gal/day

= 3.679 x 105 U.S. gal/year

= 839.3 imperial gal/day

= 3.063 x 105 imperial gal/year

= 3815 liter/day

= 1.393 x 106 liter/day

The conversions for flow rates are identical to those for volume measures, if the time units are identical.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B10

Table B.11
Power Conversions
TO
FROM

Horsepower

Kilowatts

Metric
horsepower

Ft-lb per sec

Kilocalories
per sec

Btu per sec

Horsepower

0.7457

1.014

550

0.1781

0.7068

Kilowatts

1.341

1.360

737.6

0.239

0.9478

Metric
horsepower

0.9863

0.7355

542.5

0.1757

0.6971

Ft-lb per sec

1.36 x 10-3

1.356 x 10-3

1.84 x 10-3

0.3238 x 10-3

1.285 x 10-3

Kilocalories
per sec

5.615

4.184

5.692

3088

3.968

Btu per sec

1.415

1.055

1.434

778.2

0.2520

Table B.12
Mass Conversions
TO
FROM

Pound

Kilogram

Short ton
-4

Long ton

Metric ton
-4

4.5362 x 10-4

Pound

0.4536

5.0 x 10

4.4643 x 10

Kilogram

2.205

1.1023 x 10-3

9.8425 x 10-4

1.0 x 10-3

Short ton

2,000

907.2

0.8929

0.9072

Long ton

2,240

1,106

1.12

1.016

Metric ton

2,205

1,000

1.102

0.9842

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B11

Table B.13
Fuel Efficiency Conversions

MPG

Miles/liter

Kilometers/L

L/100
kilometers

Grams of
CO2
per milea

Pounds of CO2
per milea

10

2.64

4.25

23.52

877.80

1.94

15

3.96

6.38

15.68

585.20

1.29

20

5.28

8.50

11.76

438.90

0.97

25
30

6.60
7.92

10.63
12.75

9.41
7.84

351.12
292.60

0.78
0.65

35

9.25

14.88

6.72

250.80

0.55

40

10.57

17.00

5.88

219.45

0.49

45
50

11.89
13.21

19.13
21.25

5.23
4.70

195.07
175.56

0.43
0.39

55

14.53

23.38

4.28

159.60

0.35

60

15.85

25.51

3.92

146.30

0.32

65
70

17.17
18.49

27.63
29.76

3.62
3.36

135.05
125.40

0.30
0.28

75

19.81

31.88

3.14

117.04

0.26

80

21.13

34.01

2.94

109.73

0.24

85
90

22.45
23.77

36.13
38.26

2.77
2.61

103.27
97.53

0.23
0.22

95

25.09

40.38

2.48

92.40

0.20

100

26.42

42.51

2.35

87.78

0.19

105
110

27.74
29.06

44.64
46.76

2.24
2.14

83.60
79.80

0.18
0.18

115

30.38

48.89

2.05

76.33

0.17

120
125

31.70
33.02

51.01
53.14

1.96
1.88

73.15
70.22

0.16
0.16

130

34.34

55.26

1.81

67.52

0.15

135

35.66

57.39

1.74

65.02

0.14

140

36.98

59.51

1.68

62.70

0.14

145

38.30

61.64

1.62

60.54

0.13

150

39.62

63.76

1.57

58.52

0.13

8,778/MPG

19.4/MPG

Formula

MPG/3.785

MPG/[3.785/1.609]

235.24/MPG

For gasoline-fueled vehicles.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B12

Table B.14
SI Prefixes and Their Values

One million million millionth


One thousand million millionth
One million millionth
One thousand millionth
One millionth
One thousandth
One hundredth
One tenth
One
Ten
One hundred
One thousand
One million
One billiona
One trilliona
One quadrilliona
One quintilliona

Value
10-18
10-15
10-12
10-9
10-6
10-3
10-2
10-1
100
101
102
103
106
109
1012
1015
1018

Prefix
atto
femto
pico
nano
micro
milli
centi
deci

Symbol
a
f
p
n

m
c

deca
hecto
kilo
mega
giga
tera
peta
exa

k
M
G
T
P
E

Care should be exercised in the use of this nomenclature, especially in foreign correspondence, as it is
either unknown or carries a different value in other countries. A "billion," for example, signifies a value of 1012 in
most other countries.

Table B.15
Metric Units and Abbreviations
Quantity
Energy
Specific energy
Specific energy consumption
Energy consumption
Energy economy
Power
Specific power
Power density
Speed
Acceleration
Range (distance)
Weight
Torque
Volume
Mass; payload
Length; width
Brake specific fuel consumption
Fuel economy (heat engine)

Unit name
joule
joule/kilogram
joule/kilogramkilometer
joule/kilometer
kilometer/kilojoule
kilowatt
watt/kilogram
watt/meter3
kilometer/hour
meter/second2
kilometer
kilogram
newtonmeter
meter3
kilogram
meter
kilogram/joule
liters/100 km

Symbol
J
J/kg
J/(kgkm)
J/km
km/kJ
kW
W/kg
W/m3
km/h
m/s2
km
kg
Nm
m3
kg
m
kg/J
L/100 km

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B13

Table B.16
Carbon Coefficients, 2002
(Million metric tons carbon per quadrillion Btu)
Fuel Type
Coal
Coal (residential)
Coal (commercial)
Coal (industrial coking)
Coal (industrial other)
Coal (electric utility)
Natural gas
Natural gas (pipeline)
Natural gas (flared)
Petroleum
Asphalt and road oil
Aviation gasoline
Crude oil
Distillate fuel
Jet fuel
Kerosene
LPG
Lubricants
Motor gasoline
Petrochemical feed
Petroleum coke
Residual fuel
Waxes

26.04
26.04
25.63
25.74
25.98
14.47
14.92
20.62
18.87
20.30
19.95
19.33
19.72
16.99
20.24
19.34
19.37
27.85
21.49
19.81

Note: All coefficients based on Higher Heating (Gross


Calorific) Value and assume 100 percent combustion.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B14

Conversion of Constant Dollar Values


Many types of information in this data book are expressed in dollars. Generally, constant dollars
are usedthat is, dollars of a fixed value for a specific year, such as 1990 dollars. Converting current
dollars to constant dollars, or converting constant dollars for one year to constant dollars for another year,
requires conversion factors (Table B.17 and B.18).

Table B.17 shows conversion factors for the

Consumer Price Index inflation factors. Table B.18 shows conversion factors using the Gross National
Product inflation factors.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B15

Table B.17
Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) Index
From:
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

1970
1.000
0.958
0.928
0.874
0.787
0.721
0.682
0.640
0.595
0.534
0.471
0.427
0.402
0.390
0.373
0.361
0.354
0.342
0.328
0.313
0.297
0.285
0.277
0.269
0.262
0.255
0.247
0.242
0.238
0.233
0.225
0.219
0.216
0.211
0.205
0.199
0.192
0.187
0.180
0.181
0.178
0.172
0.169

1971
1.044
1.000
0.969
0.912
0.822
0.753
0.712
0.668
0.621
0.558
0.492
0.446
0.420
0.407
0.390
0.376
0.370
0.357
0.342
0.327
0.310
0.297
0.289
0.280
0.273
0.266
0.258
0.252
0.248
0.243
0.235
0.229
0.225
0.220
0.214
0.207
0.201
0.195
0.188
0.189
0.186
0.180
0.176

1972
1.077
1.032
1.000
0.941
0.848
0.777
0.735
0.690
0.641
0.576
0.507
0.460
0.433
0.420
0.402
0.388
0.381
0.368
0.353
0.337
0.320
0.307
0.298
0.289
0.282
0.274
0.266
0.260
0.256
0.251
0.243
0.236
0.232
0.227
0.221
0.214
0.207
0.202
0.194
0.195
0.192
0.186
0.182

1973
1.144
1.096
1.062
1.000
0.901
0.825
0.780
0.733
0.681
0.612
0.539
0.488
0.460
0.446
0.427
0.413
0.405
0.391
0.375
0.358
0.340
0.326
0.316
0.307
0.300
0.291
0.283
0.277
0.272
0.267
0.258
0.251
0.247
0.241
0.235
0.227
0.220
0.214
0.206
0.207
0.204
0.197
0.193

1974
1.271
1.217
1.179
1.110
1.000
0.916
0.866
0.814
0.756
0.679
0.598
0.542
0.511
0.495
0.474
0.458
0.450
0.434
0.417
0.398
0.377
0.362
0.351
0.341
0.333
0.323
0.314
0.307
0.302
0.296
0.286
0.278
0.274
0.268
0.261
0.252
0.245
0.238
0.229
0.230
0.226
0.219
0.215

1975
1.387
1.328
1.287
1.212
1.091
1.000
0.946
0.888
0.825
0.741
0.653
0.592
0.558
0.540
0.518
0.500
0.491
0.474
0.455
0.434
0.412
0.395
0.383
0.372
0.363
0.353
0.343
0.335
0.330
0.323
0.312
0.304
0.299
0.292
0.285
0.275
0.267
0.259
0.250
0.251
0.247
0.239
0.234

1976
1.466
1.405
1.361
1.282
1.154
1.058
1.000
0.939
0.873
0.784
0.691
0.626
0.590
0.571
0.548
0.529
0.519
0.501
0.481
0.459
0.435
0.418
0.406
0.394
0.384
0.373
0.363
0.355
0.349
0.342
0.330
0.321
0.316
0.309
0.301
0.291
0.282
0.274
0.264
0.265
0.261
0.253
0.248

1977
1.562
1.496
1.450
1.365
1.229
1.126
1.065
1.000
0.929
0.835
0.735
0.667
0.628
0.608
0.583
0.563
0.553
0.533
0.512
0.489
0.464
0.445
0.432
0.419
0.409
0.398
0.386
0.378
0.372
0.364
0.352
0.342
0.337
0.329
0.321
0.310
0.301
0.292
0.281
0.282
0.278
0.269
0.264

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1978
1.680
1.610
1.560
1.468
1.323
1.212
1.146
1.076
1.000
0.898
0.791
0.717
0.676
0.655
0.628
0.606
0.595
0.574
0.551
0.526
0.499
0.479
0.465
0.451
0.440
0.428
0.416
0.406
0.400
0.391
0.379
0.368
0.362
0.354
0.345
0.334
0.323
0.314
0.303
0.304
0.299
0.290
0.284

1979
1.871
1.793
1.737
1.635
1.473
1.349
1.276
1.198
1.113
1.000
0.881
0.799
0.752
0.729
0.699
0.675
0.662
0.639
0.614
0.585
0.555
0.533
0.517
0.502
0.490
0.476
0.463
0.452
0.445
0.436
0.422
0.410
0.404
0.395
0.384
0.372
0.360
0.350
0.337
0.338
0.333
0.323
0.316

B16

Table B.17
Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) Index (Continued)
From:
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

1980
2.124
2.035
1.971
1.856
1.671
1.532
1.448
1.360
1.264
1.135
1.000
0.906
0.854
0.827
0.793
0.766
0.752
0.725
0.697
0.665
0.630
0.605
0.587
0.570
0.556
0.541
0.525
0.513
0.506
0.495
0.479
0.465
0.458
0.448
0.436
0.422
0.409
0.397
0.383
0.384
0.378
0.366
0.359

1981
2.343
2.244
2.175
2.047
1.844
1.690
1.598
1.500
1.394
1.252
1.103
1.000
0.942
0.913
0.875
0.845
0.829
0.800
0.768
0.733
0.695
0.667
0.648
0.629
0.613
0.596
0.579
0.566
0.558
0.546
0.528
0.513
0.505
0.494
0.481
0.465
0.451
0.438
0.422
0.424
0.417
0.404
0.396

1982
2.487
2.383
2.309
2.173
1.957
1.794
1.696
1.592
1.480
1.329
1.171
1.062
1.000
0.969
0.929
0.897
0.880
0.849
0.816
0.778
0.738
0.709
0.688
0.668
0.651
0.633
0.615
0.601
0.592
0.579
0.560
0.545
0.536
0.524
0.511
0.494
0.479
0.465
0.448
0.450
0.443
0.429
0.420

1983
2.567
2.459
2.383
2.243
2.020
1.851
1.750
1.644
1.528
1.372
1.209
1.096
1.032
1.000
0.959
0.926
0.909
0.877
0.842
0.803
0.762
0.731
0.710
0.689
0.672
0.654
0.635
0.621
0.611
0.598
0.578
0.562
0.554
0.541
0.527
0.510
0.494
0.480
0.463
0.464
0.457
0.443
0.434

1984
2.678
2.565
2.486
2.340
2.108
1.931
1.826
1.715
1.594
1.431
1.261
1.143
1.077
1.043
1.000
0.966
0.948
0.915
0.878
0.838
0.795
0.763
0.741
0.719
0.701
0.682
0.662
0.647
0.637
0.624
0.603
0.587
0.578
0.565
0.550
0.532
0.515
0.501
0.483
0.484
0.476
0.462
0.453

1985
2.773
2.657
2.574
2.423
2.183
2.000
1.891
1.776
1.650
1.482
1.306
1.184
1.115
1.080
1.036
1.000
0.982
0.947
0.910
0.868
0.823
0.790
0.767
0.745
0.726
0.706
0.686
0.670
0.660
0.646
0.625
0.608
0.598
0.585
0.570
0.551
0.534
0.519
0.500
0.502
0.493
0.478
0.469

1986
2.825
2.706
2.622
2.468
2.223
2.037
1.926
1.809
1.681
1.510
1.330
1.206
1.136
1.100
1.055
1.019
1.000
0.965
0.926
0.884
0.839
0.805
0.781
0.758
0.740
0.719
0.699
0.683
0.672
0.658
0.636
0.619
0.609
0.596
0.580
0.561
0.544
0.529
0.509
0.511
0.503
0.487
0.477

1987
2.928
2.805
2.718
2.559
2.304
2.112
1.996
1.875
1.742
1.565
1.379
1.250
1.177
1.141
1.093
1.056
1.036
1.000
0.960
0.916
0.869
0.834
0.810
0.786
0.767
0.745
0.724
0.708
0.697
0.682
0.660
0.641
0.631
0.617
0.601
0.582
0.563
0.548
0.528
0.530
0.521
0.505
0.495

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1988
3.049
2.921
2.830
2.664
2.400
2.199
2.079
1.952
1.814
1.629
1.436
1.301
1.226
1.188
1.139
1.099
1.079
1.041
1.000
0.954
0.905
0.869
0.843
0.819
0.798
0.776
0.754
0.737
0.726
0.710
0.687
0.668
0.658
0.643
0.626
0.606
0.587
0.571
0.549
0.551
0.543
0.526
0.515

1989
3.196
3.062
2.967
2.793
2.515
2.305
2.179
2.046
1.902
1.708
1.505
1.364
1.285
1.245
1.193
1.152
1.131
1.092
1.048
1.000
0.949
0.910
0.884
0.858
0.837
0.814
0.790
0.773
0.761
0.744
0.720
0.700
0.689
0.674
0.656
0.635
0.615
0.598
0.576
0.578
0.569
0.551
0.540

B17

Table B.17
Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) Index (Continued)
From:
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

1990
3.369
3.227
3.127
2.944
2.651
2.429
2.297
2.157
2.005
1.800
1.586
1.438
1.354
1.312
1.258
1.215
1.193
1.151
1.105
1.054
1.000
0.960
0.932
0.904
0.882
0.858
0.833
0.814
0.802
0.785
0.759
0.738
0.727
0.710
0.692
0.669
0.648
0.630
0.607
0.602
0.599
0.581
0.569

1991
3.510
3.363
3.258
3.068
2.763
2.532
2.394
2.248
2.089
1.876
1.653
1.498
1.411
1.367
1.311
1.266
1.243
1.199
1.151
1.098
1.042
1.000
0.971
0.943
0.919
0.894
0.868
0.849
0.836
0.818
0.791
0.769
0.757
0.740
0.721
0.697
0.676
0.657
0.633
0.635
0.625
0.605
0.593

1992
3.616
3.464
3.356
3.160
2.846
2.608
2.466
2.315
2.152
1.933
1.703
1.543
1.454
1.409
1.350
1.304
1.280
1.235
1.186
1.131
1.073
1.030
1.000
0.971
0.947
0.921
0.894
0.874
0.861
0.842
0.815
0.792
0.780
0.763
0.743
0.718
0.696
0.677
0.652
0.654
0.643
0.624
0.611

1993
3.724
3.568
3.457
3.255
2.931
2.686
2.540
2.384
2.216
1.990
1.754
1.590
1.497
1.451
1.391
1.343
1.318
1.272
1.221
1.165
1.106
1.061
1.030
1.000
0.975
0.948
0.921
0.900
0.887
0.867
0.839
0.816
0.803
0.785
0.765
0.740
0.717
0.697
0.671
0.674
0.663
0.642
0.629

1994
3.820
3.659
3.545
3.338
3.006
2.755
2.605
2.446
2.273
2.041
1.799
1.630
1.536
1.488
1.426
1.377
1.352
1.305
1.253
1.195
1.134
1.088
1.056
1.026
1.000
0.972
0.945
0.923
0.909
0.890
0.861
0.837
0.824
0.805
0.785
0.759
0.735
0.715
0.688
0.691
0.680
0.659
0.645

1995
3.928
3.763
3.646
3.432
3.091
2.833
2.678
2.515
2.337
2.099
1.850
1.677
1.579
1.530
1.467
1.416
1.391
1.342
1.288
1.229
1.166
1.119
1.086
1.055
1.028
1.000
0.971
0.950
0.935
0.915
0.885
0.861
0.847
0.828
0.807
0.780
0.756
0.735
0.708
0.710
0.699
0.678
0.664

1996
4.044
3.874
3.754
3.534
3.183
2.916
2.757
2.589
2.406
2.161
1.904
1.726
1.626
1.575
1.510
1.458
1.432
1.381
1.326
1.265
1.200
1.152
1.118
1.086
1.059
1.030
1.000
0.978
0.963
0.942
0.911
0.886
0.872
0.853
0.831
0.803
0.778
0.757
0.729
0.731
0.720
0.698
0.683

1997
4.137
3.963
3.840
3.615
3.256
2.983
2.821
2.649
2.462
2.211
1.948
1.766
1.663
1.611
1.545
1.492
1.464
1.413
1.357
1.294
1.228
1.178
1.144
1.111
1.083
1.053
1.023
1.000
0.985
0.963
0.932
0.906
0.892
0.872
0.850
0.822
0.796
0.774
0.745
0.748
0.736
0.714
0.699

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1998
4.201
4.025
3.900
3.671
3.306
3.030
2.865
2.690
2.500
2.245
1.978
1.793
1.689
1.637
1.569
1.515
1.487
1.435
1.378
1.315
1.247
1.197
1.162
1.128
1.100
1.070
1.039
1.016
1.000
0.978
0.947
0.920
0.906
0.886
0.863
0.835
0.809
0.786
0.757
0.760
0.748
0.725
0.710

1999
4.294
4.114
3.986
3.752
3.379
3.097
2.928
2.749
2.555
2.295
2.022
1.833
1.726
1.673
1.603
1.548
1.520
1.467
1.408
1.344
1.275
1.223
1.187
1.153
1.124
1.093
1.062
1.038
1.022
1.000
0.967
0.941
0.926
0.905
0.882
0.853
0.826
0.804
0.774
0.777
0.764
0.741
0.726

B18

Table B.17
Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) Index (Continued)
From:
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

2000
4.438
4.252
4.120
3.878
3.493
3.201
3.026
2.842
2.641
2.372
2.090
1.894
1.784
1.729
1.657
1.600
1.571
1.516
1.456
1.389
1.318
1.264
1.227
1.192
1.162
1.130
1.098
1.073
1.056
1.034
1.000
0.972
0.957
0.936
0.912
0.882
0.854
0.831
0.800
0.803
0.790
0.766
0.750

2001
4.564
4.373
4.237
3.989
3.592
3.292
3.112
2.922
2.716
2.439
2.149
1.948
1.835
1.778
1.705
1.646
1.616
1.559
1.497
1.428
1.355
1.300
1.262
1.226
1.195
1.162
1.129
1.103
1.087
1.063
1.028
1.000
0.984
0.963
0.938
0.907
0.878
0.854
0.823
0.825
0.812
0.787
0.771

2002
4.637
4.442
4.304
4.052
3.649
3.344
3.162
2.969
2.759
2.478
2.183
1.979
1.864
1.806
1.731
1.672
1.641
1.584
1.521
1.451
1.376
1.321
1.282
1.245
1.214
1.180
1.147
1.121
1.104
1.080
1.045
1.016
1.000
0.978
0.952
0.921
0.892
0.868
0.836
0.839
0.825
0.800
0.784

2003
4.742
4.543
4.402
4.144
3.732
3.420
3.234
3.036
2.822
2.534
2.233
2.024
1.907
1.847
1.771
1.710
1.679
1.620
1.555
1.484
1.408
1.351
1.311
1.273
1.242
1.207
1.173
1.146
1.129
1.104
1.069
1.039
1.023
1.000
0.974
0.942
0.913
0.887
0.855
0.858
0.844
0.818
0.801

2004
4.869
4.664
4.519
4.255
3.832
3.511
3.320
3.117
2.897
2.602
2.292
2.078
1.958
1.897
1.818
1.756
1.724
1.663
1.597
1.523
1.445
1.387
1.346
1.307
1.275
1.240
1.204
1.177
1.159
1.134
1.097
1.067
1.050
1.027
1.000
0.967
0.937
0.911
0.877
0.881
0.866
0.840
0.823

2005
5.034
4.822
4.672
4.399
3.961
3.630
3.432
3.223
2.995
2.690
2.370
2.149
2.024
1.961
1.880
1.815
1.782
1.719
1.651
1.575
1.494
1.434
1.392
1.352
1.318
1.281
1.245
1.217
1.198
1.172
1.134
1.103
1.086
1.061
1.034
1.000
0.969
0.942
0.907
0.910
0.896
0.868
0.851

2006
5.196
4.978
4.823
4.541
4.089
3.747
3.543
3.327
3.092
2.777
2.447
2.218
2.089
2.024
1.940
1.874
1.839
1.775
1.704
1.626
1.542
1.480
1.437
1.395
1.360
1.323
1.285
1.256
1.237
1.210
1.171
1.138
1.121
1.096
1.067
1.032
1.000
0.972
0.936
0.940
0.925
0.896
0.878

2007
5.344
5.120
4.960
4.670
4.206
3.854
3.644
3.421
3.180
2.856
2.516
2.281
2.149
2.082
1.996
1.927
1.892
1.825
1.753
1.672
1.586
1.522
1.478
1.435
1.399
1.360
1.321
1.292
1.272
1.245
1.204
1.171
1.153
1.127
1.098
1.062
1.028
1.000
0.963
0.966
0.951
0.922
0.903

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

2008
5.549
5.316
5.151
4.849
4.367
4.002
3.784
3.553
3.302
2.966
2.613
2.369
2.231
2.162
2.072
2.001
1.964
1.895
1.820
1.736
1.647
1.581
1.535
1.490
1.453
1.413
1.372
1.341
1.321
1.292
1.250
1.216
1.197
1.170
1.140
1.102
1.068
1.038
1.000
1.004
0.987
0.957
0.938

2009
5.529
5.297
5.132
4.832
4.352
3.988
3.770
3.540
3.290
2.955
2.604
2.360
2.223
2.154
2.065
1.994
1.957
1.889
1.813
1.730
1.641
1.575
1.529
1.485
1.448
1.408
1.367
1.337
1.316
1.288
1.246
1.211
1.193
1.166
1.136
1.098
1.064
1.035
0.996
1.000
0.984
0.954
0.934

B19

Table B.17
Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) Index (Continued)
From:
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

2010
5.620
5.384
5.217
4.911
4.423
4.053
3.832
3.598
3.344
3.004
2.646
2.399
2.260
2.189
2.099
2.027
1.990
1.920
1.843
1.759
1.668
1.601
1.554
1.509
1.471
1.431
1.390
1.359
1.338
1.309
1.266
1.231
1.212
1.185
1.154
1.117
1.082
1.052
1.013
1.016
1.000
0.969
0.950

2011
5.797
5.554
5.381
5.066
4.563
4.181
3.953
3.712
3.450
3.098
2.730
2.475
2.331
2.258
2.165
2.091
2.052
1.980
1.901
1.814
1.721
1.652
1.603
1.557
1.518
1.476
1.434
1.401
1.380
1.350
1.306
1.270
1.250
1.222
1.191
1.152
1.116
1.085
1.045
1.048
1.032
1.000
0.980

2012
5.917
5.669
5.493
5.171
4.657
4.268
4.035
3.789
3.521
3.162
2.786
2.526
2.379
2.305
2.210
2.134
2.095
2.021
1.941
1.852
1.757
1.686
1.636
1.589
1.549
1.507
1.463
1.430
1.409
1.378
1.333
1.296
1.276
1.248
1.215
1.176
1.139
1.107
1.066
1.070
1.053
1.021
1.000

Source:
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

B20

Table B.18
Gross National Product Implicit Price Deflator
From:
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

1970
1.000
0.952
0.913
0.864
0.793
0.724
0.685
0.644
0.602
0.555
0.509
0.466
0.439
0.422
0.407
0.395
0.386
0.376
0.364
0.350
0.337
0.326
0.319
0.311
0.305
0.299
0.293
0.288
0.285
0.281
0.275
0.269
0.264
0.259
0.251
0.244
0.236
0.230
0.225
0.221
0.220
0.215
0.210

1971
1.050
1.000
0.958
0.908
0.833
0.761
0.719
0.676
0.632
0.583
0.535
0.489
0.461
0.443
0.427
0.415
0.406
0.395
0.382
0.368
0.354
0.342
0.334
0.327
0.320
0.314
0.308
0.303
0.299
0.295
0.289
0.282
0.277
0.272
0.264
0.256
0.248
0.241
0.236
0.232
0.231
0.225
0.220

1972
1.096
1.043
1.000
0.947
0.869
0.794
0.750
0.705
0.659
0.609
0.558
0.510
0.481
0.462
0.446
0.433
0.423
0.412
0.398
0.384
0.369
0.357
0.349
0.341
0.334
0.327
0.321
0.316
0.312
0.308
0.301
0.294
0.289
0.283
0.276
0.267
0.259
0.252
0.246
0.242
0.241
0.235
0.230

1973
1.157
1.102
1.056
1.000
0.917
0.838
0.792
0.745
0.696
0.643
0.589
0.539
0.508
0.488
0.471
0.457
0.447
0.435
0.421
0.405
0.390
0.377
0.369
0.360
0.353
0.346
0.339
0.334
0.330
0.325
0.318
0.311
0.306
0.299
0.291
0.282
0.273
0.266
0.260
0.256
0.254
0.248
0.242

1974
1.261
1.201
1.151
1.090
1.000
0.914
0.864
0.812
0.759
0.701
0.642
0.587
0.553
0.532
0.513
0.498
0.487
0.747
0.459
0.442
0.425
0.411
0.402
0.393
0.384
0.377
0.370
0.364
0.360
0.355
0.347
0.339
0.333
0.326
0.317
0.308
0.298
0.290
0.283
0.279
0.277
0.271
0.264

1975
1.380
1.315
1.260
1.193
1.094
1.000
0.945
0.889
0.830
0.767
0.703
0.643
0.606
0.583
0.562
0.545
0.533
0.519
0.502
0.483
0.465
0.450
0.440
0.430
0.421
0.412
0.405
0.398
0.394
0.388
0.380
0.371
0.365
0.357
0.347
0.337
0.326
0.317
0.310
0.306
0.303
0.296
0.289

1976
1.460
1.391
1.333
1.262
1.158
1.058
1.000
0.940
0.878
0.811
0.744
0.680
0.641
0.616
0.594
0.576
0.564
0.549
0.531
0.511
0.492
0.476
0.465
0.455
0.445
0.436
0.428
0.421
0.416
0.410
0.402
0.392
0.386
0.378
0.367
0.356
0.345
0.335
0.328
0.323
0.321
0.313
0.306

1977
1.553
1.479
1.418
1.342
1.231
1.125
1.064
1.000
0.934
0.863
0.791
0.723
0.682
0.656
0.632
0.613
0.600
0.584
0.565
0.544
0.524
0.506
0.495
0.483
0.473
0.464
0.455
0.448
0.443
0.437
0.427
0.417
0.410
0.402
0.391
0.379
0.367
0.357
0.349
0.344
0.341
0.333
0.325

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1978
1.662
1.583
1.517
1.437
1.318
1.204
1.138
1.070
1.000
0.923
0.847
0.774
0.729
0.702
0.676
0.656
0.642
0.625
0.604
0.582
0.561
0.542
0.530
0.517
0.507
0.497
0.487
0.479
0.474
0.467
0.457
0.447
0.439
0.430
0.418
0.406
0.392
0.382
0.374
0.368
0.365
0.357
0.348

1979
1.800
1.714
1.643
1.556
1.427
1.304
1.233
1.159
1.083
1.000
0.917
0.838
0.790
0.760
0.732
0.711
0.695
0.677
0.654
0.631
0.607
0.587
0.573
0.560
0.549
0.538
0.528
0.519
0.513
0.506
0.495
0.484
0.475
0.465
0.453
0.439
0.425
0.413
0.405
0.399
0.395
0.386
0.377

B21

Table B.18
Gross National Product Implicit Price Deflator (Continued)
From:
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

1980
1.963
1.870
1.792
1.697
1.557
1.422
1.344
1.264
1.181
1.091
1.000
0.914
0.861
0.829
0.799
0.775
0.758
0.738
0.714
0.688
0.662
0.640
0.625
0.611
0.598
0.586
0.575
0.566
0.560
0.552
0.540
0.528
0.518
0.508
0.494
0.479
0.463
0.451
0.441
0.435
0.431
0.422
0.412

1981
2.148
2.046
1.960
1.857
1.703
1.556
1.471
1.383
1.292
1.193
1.094
1.000
0.943
0.907
0.874
0.848
0.830
0.808
0.781
0.752
0.724
0.700
0.684
0.669
0.655
0.642
0.630
0.619
0.613
0.604
0.591
0.577
0.567
0.555
0.540
0.524
0.507
0.493
0.483
0.476
0.472
0.461
0.450

1982
2.279
2.170
2.080
1.970
1.807
1.651
1.561
1.467
1.371
1.266
1.161
1.061
1.000
0.962
0.927
0.900
0.880
0.857
0.828
0.798
0.768
0.743
0.726
0.709
0.695
0.681
0.668
0.657
0.650
0.641
0.627
0.612
0.602
0.589
0.573
0.556
0.538
0.523
0.512
0.505
0.501
0.489
0.478

1983
2.369
2.256
2.162
2.048
1.879
1.716
1.623
1.525
1.425
1.316
1.207
1.103
1.040
1.000
0.964
0.935
0.915
0.891
0.861
0.830
0.799
0.772
0.755
0.738
0.722
0.708
0.694
0.683
0.676
0.666
0.652
0.637
0.626
0.613
0.596
0.578
0.559
0.544
0.533
0.525
0.520
0.509
0.497

1984
2.458
2.341
2.244
2.125
1.949
1.781
1.683
1.583
1.479
1.366
1.252
1.144
1.079
1.038
1.000
0.970
0.950
0.924
0.894
0.861
0.829
0.801
0.783
0.765
0.749
0.734
0.721
0.709
0.701
0.691
0.676
0.660
0.649
0.636
0.618
0.600
0.580
0.564
0.533
0.544
0.540
0.528
0.515

1985
2.533
2.413
2.312
2.190
2.009
1.835
1.735
1.631
1.524
1.407
1.290
1.179
1.112
1.069
1.031
1.000
0.978
0.952
0.921
0.887
0.854
0.825
0.807
0.789
0.772
0.757
0.743
0.730
0.722
0.712
0.697
0.681
0.669
0.655
0.637
0.618
0.598
0.582
0.569
0.561
0.556
0.544
0.531

1986
2.589
2.466
2.363
2.238
2.053
1.876
1.773
1.667
1.557
1.438
1.319
1.205
1.136
1.093
1.053
1.022
1.000
0.973
0.941
0.907
0.873
0.844
0.825
0.806
0.789
0.773
0.759
0.746
0.738
0.728
0.712
0.696
0.684
0.669
0.651
0.632
0.611
0.594
0.582
0.573
0.569
0.556
0.543

1987
2.660
2.533
2.428
2.299
2.109
1.927
1.822
1.713
1.600
1.478
1.355
1.238
1.167
1.123
1.082
1.050
1.027
1.000
0.967
0.932
0.897
0.867
0.847
0.828
0.811
0.794
0.780
0.767
0.759
0.748
0.732
0.715
0.702
0.688
0.669
0.649
0.628
0.611
0.598
0.590
0.585
0.572
0.558

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1988
2.751
2.620
2.510
2.378
2.181
1.993
1.884
1.771
1.655
1.528
1.401
1.281
1.207
1.161
1.119
1.086
1.063
1.034
1.000
0.963
0.928
0.896
0.876
0.856
0.838
0.822
0.806
0.793
0.784
0.773
0.757
0.739
0.726
0.711
0.692
0.671
0.649
0.632
0.618
0.610
0.605
0.591
0.578

1989
2.855
2.719
2.606
2.468
2.264
2.068
1.955
1.838
1.717
1.586
1.454
1.329
1.253
1.205
1.161
1.127
1.103
1.073
1.038
1.000
0.963
0.930
0.909
0.889
0.870
0.853
0.837
0.823
0.814
0.803
0.785
0.767
0.754
0.738
0.718
0.697
0.674
0.656
0.642
0.633
0.628
0.614
0.599

B22

Table B.18
Gross National Product Implicit Price Deflator (Continued)
From:
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

1990
2.966
2.824
2.707
2.563
2.351
2.148
2.031
1.909
1.784
1.647
1.510
1.381
1.301
1.252
1.206
1.171
1.145
1.115
1.078
1.039
1.000
0.966
0.945
0.923
0.904
0.886
0.869
0.855
0.846
0.834
0.816
0.797
0.783
0.767
0.746
0.724
0.700
0.681
0.667
0.658
0.652
0.637
0.622

1991
3.069
2.923
2.801
2.653
2.433
2.224
2.102
1.976
1.846
1.705
1.563
1.429
1.347
1.295
1.249
1.212
1.186
1.154
1.116
1.075
1.035
1.000
0.978
0.955
0.935
0.917
0.900
0.885
0.875
0.863
0.844
0.825
0.811
0.794
0.772
0.749
0.724
0.705
0.690
0.681
0.676
0.660
0.645

1992
3.140
2.990
2.865
2.714
2.489
2.274
2.150
2.021
1.889
1.744
1.599
1.462
1.378
1.325
1.277
1.239
1.213
1.180
1.141
1.100
1.059
1.023
1.000
0.977
0.957
0.938
0.920
0.905
0.895
0.883
0.864
0.844
0.829
0.812
0.789
0.766
0.741
0.721
0.706
0.697
0.692
0.676
0.660

1993
3.212
3.059
2.932
2.777
2.547
2.327
2.200
2.068
1.932
1.785
1.636
1.496
1.410
1.356
1.307
1.268
1.241
1.208
1.168
1.125
1.083
1.047
1.023
1.000
0.979
0.959
0.942
0.926
0.916
0.903
0.884
0.863
0.848
0.831
0.808
0.784
0.758
0.738
0.722
0.713
0.707
0.691
0.674

1994
3.281
3.124
2.994
2.836
2.601
2.377
2.247
2.112
1.974
1.822
1.671
1.527
1.440
1.385
1.335
1.295
1.267
1.233
1.193
1.149
1.106
1.069
1.045
1.021
1.000
0.980
0.962
0.946
0.936
0.922
0.903
0.882
0.866
0.848
0.825
0.801
0.774
0.753
0.737
0.728
0.722
0.705
0.689

1995
3.348
3.189
3.056
2.894
2.655
2.426
2.293
2.156
2.014
1.860
1.705
1.559
1.469
1.413
1.362
1.322
1.293
1.259
1.217
1.173
1.129
1.091
1.066
1.042
1.021
1.000
0.981
0.965
0.955
0.941
0.921
0.900
0.884
0.866
0.842
0.817
0.790
0.769
0.753
0.743
0.737
0.720
0.703

1996
3.412
3.249
3.114
2.949
2.705
2.472
2.336
2.197
2.052
1.895
1.738
1.588
1.497
1.440
1.388
1.347
1.318
1.283
1.240
1.195
1.150
1.112
1.087
1.062
1.040
1.019
1.000
0.984
0.973
0.959
0.939
0.917
0.901
0.882
0.858
0.833
0.805
0.783
0.767
0.757
0.751
0.734
0.716

1997
3.468
3.303
3.165
2.998
2.750
2.513
2.375
2.233
2.086
1.927
1.767
1.615
1.522
1.464
1.411
1.369
1.340
1.304
1.261
1.215
1.170
1.130
1.105
1.080
1.057
1.036
1.017
1.000
0.989
0.975
0.954
0.932
0.916
0.897
0.872
0.846
0.819
0.796
0.780
0.770
0.764
0.747
0.729

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

1998
3.507
3.340
3.200
3.031
2.780
2.540
2.401
2.258
2.109
1.948
1.786
1.633
1.539
1.480
1.426
1.384
1.354
1.318
1.275
1.228
1.182
1.143
1.117
1.092
1.069
1.047
1.028
1.011
1.000
0.986
0.965
0.942
0.926
0.907
0.882
0.856
0.828
0.805
0.788
0.779
0.773
0.755
0.737

1999
3.557
3.388
3.247
3.075
2.821
2.577
2.436
2.290
2.140
1.976
1.812
1.656
1.561
1.501
1.447
1.404
1.374
1.337
1.293
1.246
1.200
1.159
1.133
1.107
1.084
1.062
1.043
1.026
1.014
1.000
0.979
0.956
0.939
0.920
0.894
0.868
0.840
0.817
0.800
0.790
0.784
0.766
0.748

B23

Table B.18
Gross National Product Implicit Price Deflator (Continued)
From:
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

2000
3.635
3.462
3.317
3.142
2.882
2.633
2.489
2.340
2.186
2.019
1.851
1.692
1.595
1.534
1.479
1.435
1.404
1.366
1.321
1.273
1.226
1.184
1.158
1.131
1.108
1.086
1.065
1.048
1.037
1.022
1.000
0.977
0.960
0.940
0.914
0.887
0.858
0.835
0.817
0.808
0.801
0.783
0.764

2001
3.722
3.544
3.397
3.217
2.951
2.696
2.549
2.396
2.239
2.067
1.896
1.733
1.633
1.571
1.514
1.469
1.438
1.399
1.353
1.304
1.255
1.213
1.185
1.159
1.134
1.112
1.091
1.073
1.061
1.046
1.024
1.000
0.983
0.962
0.936
0.908
0.878
0.855
0.837
0.826
0.819
0.800
0.782

2002
3.787
3.606
3.456
3.273
3.002
2.743
2.593
2.438
2.278
2.103
1.929
1.763
1.662
1.598
1.540
1.495
1.463
1.424
1.377
1.326
1.277
1.234
1.206
1.179
1.154
1.131
1.110
1.092
1.080
1.064
1.042
1.017
1.000
0.979
0.952
0.924
0.894
0.870
0.851
0.839
0.832
0.813
0.794

2003
3.867
3.683
3.529
3.343
3.066
2.802
2.648
2.490
2.326
2.148
1.970
1.800
1.697
1.632
1.573
1.527
1.494
1.454
1.406
1.355
1.304
1.260
1.232
1.204
1.179
1.155
1.134
1.115
1.103
1.087
1.064
1.039
1.021
1.000
0.972
0.944
0.913
0.888
0.869
0.857
0.850
0.830
0.811

2004
3.977
3.787
3.630
3.438
3.153
2.881
2.723
2.561
2.392
2.209
2.026
1.852
1.745
1.679
1.618
1.570
1.536
1.495
1.446
1.393
1.341
1.296
1.267
1.238
1.212
1.188
1.166
1.147
1.134
1.118
1.094
1.069
1.050
1.028
1.000
0.970
0.939
0.914
0.894
0.882
0.875
0.854
0.834

2005
4.097
3.902
3.739
3.542
3.249
2.968
2.806
2.638
2.465
2.276
2.087
1.908
1.798
1.729
1.667
1.617
1.583
1.540
1.490
1.435
1.382
1.335
1.305
1.275
1.249
1.224
1.201
1.181
1.168
1.152
1.127
1.101
1.082
1.059
1.030
1.000
0.969
0.943
0.923
0.911
0.904
0.882
0.8611

2006
4.237
4.035
3.867
3.662
3.359
3.069
2.901
2.728
2.548
2.353
2.158
1.972
1.859
1.788
1.723
1.672
1.636
1.593
1.540
1.484
1.429
1.380
1.349
1.319
1.291
1.265
1.242
1.222
1.208
1.191
1.166
1.138
1.119
1.096
1.065
1.031
1.000
0.974
0.953
0.941
0.933
0.911
0.889

2007
4.355
4.147
3.975
3.764
3.453
3.155
2.982
2.804
2.620
2.419
2.218
2.027
1.911
1.838
1.772
1.719
1.682
1.637
1.583
1.525
1.468
1.419
1.387
1.356
1.327
1.301
1.276
1.256
1.242
1.224
1.198
1.170
1.150
1.126
1.095
1.060
1.027
1.000
0.979
0.968
0.961
0.937
0.915

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

2008
4.449
4.237
4.061
3.846
3.528
3.223
3.047
2.865
2.676
2.472
2.266
2.071
1.952
1.878
1.810
1.756
1.719
1.673
1.617
1.558
1.500
1.450
1.417
1.385
1.356
1.329
1.304
1.283
1.269
1.251
1.224
1.195
1.175
1.150
1.118
1.083
1.049
1.022
1.000
0.988
0.982
0.958
0.935

2009
4.517
4.302
4.124
3.907
3.582
3.273
3.094
2.909
2.718
2.509
2.300
2.103
1.982
1.906
1.837
1.783
1.745
1.695
1.639
1.579
1.520
1.468
1.434
1.403
1.374
1.346
1.321
1.298
1.284
1.265
1.238
1.211
1.192
1.167
1.134
1.098
1.063
1.033
1.012
1.000
0.991
0.968
0.945

B24

Table B.18
Gross National Product Implicit Price Deflator (Continued)
From:
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

2010
4.554
4.337
4.157
3.938
3.611
3.299
3.119
2.932
2.740
2.530
2.318
2.120
1.998
1.922
1.852
1.797
1.759
1.709
1.652
1.592
1.533
1.480
1.446
1.415
1.385
1.357
1.332
1.309
1.294
1.275
1.248
1.221
1.201
1.176
1.144
1.107
1.072
1.041
1.019
1.010
1.000
0.979
0.956

2011
4.658
4.436
4.253
4.029
3.694
3.375
3.192
3.000
2.804
2.588
2.372
2.169
2.044
1.966
1.895
1.839
1.800
1.749
1.691
1.629
1.569
1.515
1.480
1.448
1.418
1.389
1.363
1.340
1.325
1.305
1.278
1.249
1.230
1.204
1.171
1.134
1.098
1.067
1.044
1.033
1.021
1.000
0.982

2012
4.770
4.543
4.355
4.126
3.783
3.456
3.268
3.073
2.871
2.651
2.429
2.221
2.093
2.014
1.941
1.884
1.843
1.791
1.731
1.669
1.607
1.552
1.516
1.483
1.452
1.423
1.396
1.372
1.356
1.337
1.308
1.280
1.259
1.233
1.199
1.161
1.125
1.093
1.069
1.058
1.046
1.018
1.000

Source:
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, Washington, DC,
monthly.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

C1

APPENDIX C
MAPS

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

C2

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

C3

Table C.1
Census Regions and Divisions
Northeast Region
New Jersey
New York

Mid-Atlantic division
Pennsylvania

New England division


New Hampshire
Connecticut
Rhode Island
Maine
Vermont
Massachusetts

South Region
West South Central
East South Central
South Atlantic
division
division
division
South Carolina
Delaware
Alabama
Arkansas
Virginia
Florida
Kentucky
Louisiana
Washington, DC
Georgia
Mississippi
Oklahoma
West Virginia
Maryland
Tennessee
Texas
North Carolina
West Region
Pacific division
Mountain division
Nevada
Oregon
Arizona
Alaska
New Mexico
Washington
Colorado
California
Utah
Idaho
Hawaii
Wyoming
Montana
Midwest Region
West North Central division
East North Central division
Ohio
Illinois
Nebraska
Iowa
Wisconsin
Indiana
North Dakota
Kansas
Michigan
South Dakota
Minnesota
Missouri
Source:
U.S. Census Bureau.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

C4

Figure C1. Census Regions and Divisions

Source:
See Table C.1.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

C5

Table C.2
Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD)
District

Subdistrict

States

PAD District 1
East Coast

Subdistrict 1X
New England

Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New


Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont

Subdistrict 1Y
Central Atlantic

Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New


Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania

Subdistrict 1Z
Lower Atlantic

Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina,


Virginia, West Virginia

PAD District 2
Midwest

Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky,


Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North
Dakota, South Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma,
Tennessee, Wisconsin

PAD District 3
Gulf Coast

Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New


Mexico, Texas

PAD District 4
Rocky Mountains

Colorado Idaho, Montana, Utah, Wyoming

PAD District 5
West Coast

Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada,


Oregon, Washington

Source:
Energy Information Administration web site: http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/oog/info/twip/padddef.html

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

C6

Figure C.2. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts

Source:
See Table C.2.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

C7

Figure C.3. Map of Places where Reformulated Gasoline is Sold

Source:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, www.epa.gov/otaq/rfg/areas.htm.
Note: Reformulated gasoline is a motor gasoline specially formulated to achieve significant reductions in vehicle
emissions of ozone-forming and toxic air pollutants. The Clean Air Act of 1990 mandates reformulated gasoline use
in areas with ozone-air pollution problems.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

C8

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G1

GLOSSARY
Acceleration power Measured in kilowatts. Pulse power obtainable from a battery used to accelerate a
vehicle. This is based on a constant current pulse for 30 seconds at no less than 2/3 of the
maximum open-circuit-voltage, at 80% depth-of-discharge relative to the battery's rated capacity
and at 20 C ambient temperature.
Air Carrier The commercial system of air transportation consisting of certificated air carriers, air taxis
(including commuters), supplemental air carriers, commercial operators of large aircraft, and air travel
clubs.
Certificated route air carrier: An air carrier holding a Certificate of Public Convenience and
Necessity issued by the Department of Transportation to conduct scheduled interstate services.
Nonscheduled or charter operations may also be conducted by these carriers. These carriers
operate large aircraft (30 seats or more, or a maximum payload capacity of 7,500 pounds or more)
in accordance with Federal Aviation Regulation part 121.
Domestic air operator: Commercial air transportation within and between the 50 States and the
District of Columbia. Includes operations of certificated route air carriers, Pan American, local
service, helicopter, intra-Alaska, intra-Hawaii, all-cargo carriers and other carriers. Also included
are transborder operations conducted on the domestic route segments of U.S. air carriers.
Domestic operators are classified based on their operating revenue as follows:
Majors - over $1 billion
Nationals - $100-1,000 million
Large Regionals - $10-99.9 million
Medium Regionals - $0-9.99 million
International air operator: Commercial air transportation outside the territory of the United
States, including operations between the U.S. and foreign countries and between the U.S. and its
territories and possessions.
Supplemental air carrier: A class of air carriers which hold certificates authorizing them to
perform passenger and cargo charter services supplementing the scheduled service of the
certificated route air carriers. Supplemental air carriers are often referred to as nonscheduled air
carriers or "nonskeds."
Alcohol The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen,
and oxygen. The molecules in the series vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon
plus a hydroxyl group. Alcohol includes methanol and ethanol.
Alternative fuel For transportation applications, includes the following: methanol; denatured ethanol,
and other alcohols; fuel mixtures containing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol,
denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied
petroleum gas (propane); hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived
from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); and electricity (including electricity
from solar energy). The term "alternative fuel" does not include alcohol or other blended portions
of primarily petroleum-based fuels used as oxygenates or extenders, i.e. MTBE, ETBE, other
ethers, and the 10-percent ethanol portion of gasohol.
Amtrak See Rail.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G2

Anthropogenic Human made. Usually used in the context of emissions that are produced as the result
of human activities.
Aviation See General aviation.
Aviation gasoline All special grades of gasoline for use in aviation reciprocating engines, as given in
the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Specification D 910. Includes all
refinery products within the gasoline range that are to be marketed straight or in blends as
aviation gasoline without further processing (any refinery operation except mechanical blending).
Also included are finished components in the gasoline range which will be used for blending or
compounding into aviation gasoline.
Barges Shallow, nonself-propelled vessels used to carry bulk commodities on the rivers and the Great
Lakes.
Battery efficiency Measured in percentage. Net DC energy delivered on discharge, as a percentage of
the total DC energy required to restore the initial state-of-charge. The efficiency value must
include energy losses resulting from self-discharge, cell equalization, thermal loss compensation,
and all battery-specific auxiliary equipment.
Btu British thermal unit. The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water
1 degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit. An average Btu content of fuel is the heat
value per quantity of fuel as determined from tests of fuel samples.
Bunker A storage tank.
Bunkering fuels Fuels stored in ship bunkers.
Bus A mode of transit service characterized by roadway vehicles powered by diesel, gasoline, battery, or
alternative fuel engines contained within the vehicle.
Intercity bus: A standard size bus equipped with front doors only, high backed seats, luggage
compartments separate from the passenger compartment and usually with restroom facilities, for
high-speed long distance service.
Motor bus: Rubber-tired, self-propelled, manually-steered bus with fuel supply on board the
vehicle. Motor bus types include intercity, school, and transit.
School and other nonrevenue bus: Bus services for which passengers are not directly charged
for transportation, either on a per passenger or per vehicle basis.
Transit bus: A bus designed for frequent stop service with front and center doors, normally with
a rear-mounted diesel engine, low-back seating, and without luggage storage compartments or
restroom facilities.
Trolley coach: Rubber-tired electric transit vehicle, manually-steered, propelled by a motor
drawing current, normally through overhead wires, from a central power source not on board the
vehicle.
Calendar year The period of time between January 1 and December 31 of any given year.
Captive imports Products produced overseas specifically for domestic manufacturers.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G3

Car size classifications Size classifications of cars are established by the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) as follows:
Minicompact less than 85 cubic feet of passenger and luggage volume.
Subcompact between 85 to 100 cubic feet of passenger and luggage volume.
Compact between 100 to 110 cubic feet of passenger and luggage volume.
Midsize between 110 to 120 cubic feet of passenger and luggage volume.
Large more than 120 cubic feet of passenger and luggage volume.
Two seater cars designed primarily to seat only two adults.
Station wagons are included with the size class for the sedan of the same name.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of the ambient air.
Carbon dioxide is a product of fossil fuel combustion.
Carbon monoxide (CO) A colorless, odorless, highly toxic gas that is a by-product of incomplete
fossil fuel combustion. Carbon monoxide, one of the major air pollutants, can be harmful in
small amounts if breathed over a certain period of time.
Car-mile (railroad) A single railroad car moved a distance of one mile.
Cargo ton-mile See Ton-mile.
Certificated route air carriers See Air carriers.
Class I freight railroad See Rail.
Coal slurry Finely crushed coal mixed with sufficient water to form a fluid.
Combination trucks Consist of a power unit (a truck tractor) and one or more trailing units (a semitrailer or trailer). The most frequently used combination is popularly referred to as a "tractorsemitrailer" or "tractor trailer".
Commercial sector An energy-consuming sector that consists of service-providing facilities of:
businesses; Federal, State, and local governments; and other private and public organizations,
such as religious, social or fraternal groups. Includes institutional living quarters.
Commuter rail A mode of transit service (also called metropolitan rail, regional rail, or suburban rail)
characterized by an electric or diesel propelled railway for urban passenger train service
consisting of local short distance travel operating between a central city and adjacent suburbs.
Compact car See car size classifications.
Compression ignition The form of ignition that initiates combustion in a diesel engine. The rapid
compression of air within the cylinders generates the heat required to ignite the fuel as it is
injected.
Constant dollars A time series of monetary figures is expressed in constant dollars when the effect of
change over time in the purchasing power of the dollar has been removed. Usually the data are
expressed in terms of dollars of a selected year or the average of a set of years.
Consumer Price Index (CPI) A measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban
consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G4

Continuous discharge capacity Measured as percent of rated energy capacity. Energy delivered in a
constant power discharge required by an electric vehicle for hill climbing and/or high-speed
cruise, specified as the percent of its rated energy capacity delivered in a one hour constant-power
discharge.
Conventional Refueling Station An establishment for refueling motor vehicles with traditional
transportation fuels, such as gasoline and diesel fuel.
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards CAFE standards were originally established
by Congress for new cars, and later for light trucks, in Title V of the Motor Vehicle Information
and Cost Savings Act (15 U.S.C.1901, et seq.) with subsequent amendments. Under CAFE, car
manufacturers are required by law to produce vehicle fleets with a composite sales-weighted fuel
economy which cannot be lower than the CAFE standards in a given year, or for every vehicle
which does not meet the standard, a fine of $5.00 is paid for every one-tenth of a mpg below the
standard.
Criteria pollutant A pollutant determined to be hazardous to human health and regulated under EPA's
National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The 1970 amendments to the Clean Air Act require
EPA to describe the health and welfare impacts of a pollutant as the "criteria" for inclusion in the
regulatory regime.
Crude oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in the liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs
and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities.
Crude oil production is measured at the wellhead and includes lease condensate.
Crude oil imports The volume of crude oil imported into the 50 States and the District of Columbia,
including imports from U.S. territories, but excluding imports of crude oil into the Hawaiian
Foreign Trade Zone.
Curb weight The weight of a vehicle including all standard equipment, spare tire and wheel, all fluids
and lubricants to capacity, full tank of fuel, and the weight of major optional accessories normally
found on the vehicle.
Current dollars Represents dollars current at the time designated or at the time of the transaction. In
most contexts, the same meaning would be conveyed by the use of the term "dollars." See also
constant dollars.
Demand Response A transit mode that includes passenger cars, vans, and small buses operating in
response to calls from passengers to the transit operator who dispatches the vehicles. The
vehicles do not operate over a fixed route on a fixed schedule. Can also be known as paratransit
or dial-a-ride.
Diesel fuel See Distillate fuel oil.
Disposable personal income See Income.
Distillate fuel oil The lighter fuel oils distilled off during the refining process. Included are products
known as ASTM grades numbers 1 and 2 heating oils, diesel fuels, and number 4 fuel oil. The
major uses of distillate fuel oils include heating, fuel for on-and off-highway diesel engines, and
railroad diesel fuel.
Domestic air operator See Air carrier.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G5

Domestic water transportation See Internal water transportation.


E85 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.
E95 95% ethanol and 5% gasoline.
Electric utilities sector Consists of privately and publicly owned establishments which generate
electricity primarily for resale.
Emission standards Limits or ranges established for pollution levels emitted by vehicles as well as
stationary sources. The first standards were established under the 1963 Clean Air Act.
End-use sector See Sector.
Energy capacity Measured in kilowatt hours. The energy delivered by the battery, when tested at C/3
discharge rate, up to termination of discharge specified by the battery manufacturer. The required
acceleration power must be delivered by the battery at any point up to 80% of the battery's energy
capacity rating.
Energy efficiency In reference to transportation, the inverse of energy intensiveness: the ratio of
outputs from a process to the energy inputs; for example, miles traveled per gallon of fuel (mpg).
Energy intensity In reference to transportation, the ratio of energy inputs to a process to the useful
outputs from that process; for example, gallons of fuel per passenger-mile or Btu per ton-mile.
Ethanol (C2H5OH) Otherwise known as ethyl alcohol, alcohol, or grain-spirit. A clear, colorless,
flammable oxygenated hydrocarbon with a boiling point of 78.5 degrees Celsius in the anhydrous
state. In transportation, ethanol is used as a vehicle fuel by itself (E100 100% ethanol by
volume), blended with gasoline (E85 85% ethanol by volume), or as a gasoline octane enhancer
and oxygenate (10% by volume).
Excise tax Paid when purchases are made on a specific good, such as gasoline. Excise taxes are often
included in the price of the product. There are also excise taxes on activities, such as highway
usage by trucks.
Ferry boat A transit mode comprising vessels carrying passengers and in some cases vehicles over a
body of water, and that are generally steam or diesel-powered.
Fixed operating cost See Operating cost.
Fleet vehicles
Private fleet vehicles: Ideally, a vehicle could be classified as a member of a fleet if it is:
a) operated in mass by a corporation or institution,
b) operated under unified control, or
c) used for non-personal activities.
However, the definition of a fleet is not consistent throughout the fleet industry. Some companies
make a distinction between cars that were bought in bulk rather than singularly, or whether they
are operated in bulk, as well as the minimum number of vehicles that constitute a fleet (i.e. 4 or
10).
Government fleet vehicles: Includes vehicles owned by all Federal, state,
county, city, and metro units of government, including toll road operations.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G6

Foreign freight Movements between the United States and foreign countries and between Puerto Rico,
the Virgin Islands, and foreign countries. Trade between U.S. territories and possessions (e.g.
Guam, Wake, American Samoa) and foreign countries is excluded. Traffic to or from the Panama
Canal Zone is included.
Gas Guzzler Tax Originates from the 1978 Energy Tax Act (Public Law 95-618). A new car purchaser
is required to pay the tax if the car purchased has a combined city/highway fuel economy rating
that is below the standard for that year. For model years 1986 and later, the standard is 22.5 mpg.
Gasohol A mixture of 10% anhydrous ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume; 7.5% anhydrous ethanol
and 92.5% gasoline by volume; or 5.5% anhydrous ethanol and 94.5% gasoline by volume. There
are other fuels that contain methanol and gasoline, but these fuels are not referred to as gasohol.
Gasoline See Motor gasoline.
General aviation That portion of civil aviation which encompasses all facets of aviation except air
carriers. It includes any air taxis, commuter air carriers, and air travel clubs which do not hold
Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity.
Global warming potential (GWP) An index used to compare the relative radiative forcing of different
gases without directly calculating the changes in atmospheric concentrations. GWPs are
calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing that would result from the emission of one kilogram
of a greenhouse gas to that from the emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a fixed
period of time, such as 100 years.
Greenhouse gases Those gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane,
hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride, that are
transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus
preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping
of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet's surface.
Gross National Product A measure of monetary value of the goods and services becoming available to
the nation from economic activity. Total value at market prices of all goods and services
produced by the nation's economy. Calculated quarterly by the Department of Commerce, the
Gross National Product is the broadest available measure of the level of economic activity.
Gross vehicle weight (gvw) The weight of the empty truck plus the maximum anticipated load weight.
Gross vehicle weight rating (gvwr) The gross vehicle weight which is assigned to each new truck by
the manufacturer. This rating may be different for trucks of the same model because of certain
features, such as heavy-duty suspension. Passenger cars do not have gross vehicle weight ratings.
Heavy-heavy truck See Truck size classifications.
Heavy rail A mode of transit service (also called metro, subway, rapid transit, or rapid rail) operating
on an electric railway with the capacity for a heavy volume of traffic. Characterized by high
speed and rapid acceleration of passenger rail cars.
Household Consists of all persons who occupy a housing unit, including the related family members
and all unrelated persons, if any, who share the housing unit.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G7

Housing unit A house, apartment, a group of rooms, or a single room occupied or intended for
occupancy as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants
do not live and eat with any other persons in the structure and which have either (1) direct access
from the outside of the building or through a common hallway intended to be used by the
occupants of another unit or by the general public, or (2) complete kitchen facilities for the
exclusive use of the occupants. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone,
two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share
living arrangements.
Hybrid-electric vehicles Combines the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors and can be
configured to obtain different objectives, such as improved fuel economy, increased power, or
additional auxiliary power for electronic devices and power tools.
Hydrocarbon (HC) A compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon. The simplest and lightest
forms of hydrocarbon are gaseous. With greater molecular weights they are liquid, while the
heaviest are solids.
Income
Disposable personal income: Personal income less personal tax and non-tax payments.
National income: The aggregate earnings of labor and property which arise in the current
production of goods and services by the nation's economy.
Personal income: The current income received by persons from all sources, net of contributions
for social insurance.
Industrial sector Construction, manufacturing, agricultural and mining establishments.
Inertia weight The curb weight of a vehicle plus 300 pounds.
Intercity bus See Bus.
Intermodal Transportation activities involving more than one mode of transportation, including
transportation connections and coordination of various modes.
Internal water transportation Includes all local (intraport) traffic and traffic between ports or landings
wherein the entire movement takes place on inland waterways. Also termed internal are
movements involving carriage on both inland waterways and the water of the Great Lakes, and
inland movements that cross short stretches of open water that link inland systems.
International air operator See Air carrier.
International freight See Foreign freight.
Jet fuel Includes both naphtha-type and kerosene-type fuels meeting standards for use in aircraft turbine
engines. Although most jet fuel is used in aircraft, some is used for other purposes such as
generating electricity in gas turbines.
Kerosene-type jet fuel: A quality kerosene product with an average gravity of 40.7 degrees API
and 10% to 90% distillation temperatures of 217 to 261 degrees centigrade. Used primarily as
fuel for commercial turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines. It is a relatively low freezing point
distillate of the kerosene type.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G8

Naphtha-type jet fuel: A fuel in the heavy naphtha boiling range with an average gravity of
52.8 degrees API and 10% to 90% distillation temperatures of 117 to 233 degrees centigrade used
for turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines, primarily by the military. Excludes ramjet and
petroleum.
Kerosene A petroleum distillate in the 300 to 500 degrees Fahrenheit boiling range and generally
having a flash point higher than 100 degrees Fahrenheit by the American Society of Testing and
Material (ASTM) Method D56, a gravity range from 40 to 46 degrees API, and a burning point in
the range of 150 to 175 degrees Fahrenheit. It is a clean-burning product suitable for use as an
illuminant when burned in wick lamps. Includes grades of kerosene called range oil having
properties similar to Number 1 fuel oil, but with a gravity of about 43 degrees API and an end
point of 625 degrees Fahrenheit. Used in space heaters, cooking stoves, and water heaters.
Kerosene-type jet fuel See Jet fuel.
Large car See Car size classifications.
Lease Condensate A liquid recovered from natural gas at the well or at small gas/oil separators in the
field. Consists primarily of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons (also called field condensate).
Light duty vehicles Cars and light trucks combined.
Light truck Unless otherwise noted, light trucks are defined in this publication as two-axle, four-tire
trucks. The U.S. Bureau of Census classifies all trucks with a gross vehicle weight less than
10,000 pounds as light trucks (See Truck size classifications).
Light-heavy truck See Truck size classifications.
Light rail Mode of transit service (also called streetcar, tramway or trolley) operating passenger rail
cars singly (or in short, usually two-car or three-car trains) on fixed rails in right-of-way that is
often separated from other traffic for part or much of the way.
Liquified petroleum gas (lpg) Consists of propane and butane and is usually derived from natural gas.
In locations where there is no natural gas and the gasoline consumption is low, naphtha is
converted to lpg by catalytic reforming.
Load factor Total passenger miles divided by total vehicle miles.
Low emission vehicle Any vehicle certified to the low emission standards which are set by the Federal
government and/or the state of California.
M85 85% methanol and 15% gasoline.
M100 100% methanol.
Medium truck See Truck size classifications.
Methanol (CH3OH) A colorless highly toxic liquid with essentially no odor and very little taste. It is
the simplest alcohol and boils at 64.7 degrees Celsius. In transportation, methanol is used as a
vehicle fuel by itself (M100), or blended with gasoline (M85).
Midsize car See Car size classifications.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G9

Minicompact car See Car size classifications.


Model year In this publication, model year is referring to the "sales" model year, the period from
October 1 to the next September 31.
Motor bus See Bus.
Motor gasoline A mixture of volatile hydrocarbons suitable for operation of an internal combustion
engine whose major components are hydrocarbons with boiling points ranging from 78 to 217
degrees centigrade and whose source is distillation of petroleum and cracking, polymerization,
and other chemical reactions by which the naturally occurring petroleum hydrocarbons are
converted into those that have superior fuel properties.
Regular gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal
to 85 and less than 88. Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude.
Midgrade gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal
to 88 and less than or equal to 90. Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude.
Premium gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than 90.
Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude.
Reformulated gasoline: Finished motor gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the
composition and properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline
regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Section 211(k) of
the Clean Air Act. For details on this clean fuel program see www.epa.gov/otaq/rfg.htm. Note:
This category includes oxygenated fuels program reformulated gasoline (OPRG) but excludes
reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB).
MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ethera colorless, flammable, liquid oxygenated hydrocarbon containing
18.15 percent oxygen.
Naphtha-type jet fuel See Jet fuel.
National income See Income.
Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) A nationwide survey of households that
provides information on the characteristics and personal travel patterns of the U.S. population.
Surveys were conducted in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, and 1995 by the U.S. Bureau of Census for
the U.S. Department of Transportation.
Natural gas A mixture of hydrocarbon compounds and small quantities of various non-hydrocarbons
existing in the gaseous phase or in solution with crude oil in natural underground reservoirs at
reservoir conditions.
Natural gas, dry: Natural gas which remains after: 1) the liquefiable hydrocarbon portion has
been removed from the gas stream; and 2) any volumes of nonhydrocarbon gases have been
removed where they occur in sufficient quantity to render the gas unmarketable. Dry natural gas
is also known as consumer-grade natural gas. The parameters for measurement are cubic feet at
60 degrees Fahrenheit and 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute.
Natural gas, wet: The volume of natural gas remaining after removal of lease condensate in lease
and/or field separation facilities, if any, and after exclusion of nonhydrocarbon gases where they
TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G10

occur in sufficient quantity to render the gas unmarketable. Natural gas liquids may be recovered
from volumes of natural gas, wet after lease separation, at natural gas processing plants.
Natural gas plant liquids: Natural gas liquids recovered from natural gas in processing plants
and from natural gas field facilities and fractionators. Products obtained include ethane, propane,
normal butane, isobutane, pentanes plus, and other products from natural gas processing plants.
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) A product of combustion of fossil fuels whose production increases with the
temperature of the process. It can become an air pollutant if concentrations are excessive.
Nonattainment area Any area that does not meet the national primary or secondary ambient air quality
standard established by the Environmental Protection Agency for designated pollutants, such as
carbon monoxide and ozone.
Oil Stocks Oil stocks include crude oil (including strategic reserves), unfinished oils, natural gas plant
liquids, and refined petroleum products.
Operating cost
Fixed operating cost: In reference to passenger car operating cost, refers to those expenditures
that are independent of the amount of use of the car, such as insurance costs, fees for license and
registration, depreciation and finance charges.
Variable operating cost: In reference to passenger car operating cost, expenditures which are
dependent on the amount of use of the car, such as the cost of gas and oil, tires, and other
maintenance.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Consists of Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States.
Total OECD includes the United States Territories (Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin
Islands). Total OECD excludes data for Czech Republic, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, and South
Korea which are not yet available.
OECD Europe: Consists of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and United Kingdom. OECD Europe excludes
data for Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland which are not yet available.
OECD Pacific: Consists of Australia, Japan, and New Zealand.
Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Includes Saudi Arabia, Iran, Venezuela,
Libya, Indonesia, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Iraq, Kuwait, and
Qatar. Data for Saudi Arabia and Kuwait include their shares from the Partitioned Zone
(formerly the Neutral Zone). Angola joined OPEC in December 2006, thus, beginning in 2007,
data on OPEC will include Angola.
Arab OPEC Consists of Algeria, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab
Emirates.
Other single-unit truck See Single-unit truck.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G11

Oxygenate A substance which, when added to gasoline, increases the amount of oxygen in that gasoline
blend. Includes fuel ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE).
Paratransit Mode of transit service (also called demand response or dial-a-ride) characterized by the
use of passenger cars, vans or small buses operating in response to calls from passengers or their
agents to the transit operator, who then dispatches a vehicle to pick up the passengers and
transport them to their destinations.
Particulates Carbon particles formed by partial oxidation and reduction of the hydrocarbon fuel. Also
included are trace quantities of metal oxides and nitrides, originating from engine wear,
component degradation, and inorganic fuel additives. In the transportation sector, particulates are
emitted mainly from diesel engines.
Passenger-miles traveled (PMT) One person traveling the distance of one mile. Total passenger-miles
traveled, thus, give the total mileage traveled by all persons.
Passenger rail See Rail, "Amtrak" and "Transit Railroad".
Persian Gulf countries Consists of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United
Emirates.
Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE) As used in the national accounts, the market value of
purchases of goods and services by individuals and nonprofit institutions and the value of food,
clothing, housing, and financial services received by them as income in kind. It includes the
rental value of owner-occupied houses but excludes purchases of dwellings, which are classified
as capital goods (investment).
Personal income See Income.
Petroleum A generic term applied to oil and oil products in all forms, such as crude oil, lease
condensate, unfinished oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas plant liquids, and nonhydrocarbon compounds blended into finished petroleum products.
Petroleum consumption: A calculated demand for petroleum products obtained by summing
domestic production, imports of crude petroleum and natural gas liquids, imports of petroleum
products, and the primary stocks at the beginning of the period and then subtracting the exports
and the primary stocks at the end of the period.
Petroleum exports: Shipments of petroleum products from the 50 States and the District of
Columbia to foreign countries, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U.S. possessions and
territories.
Petroleum imports: All imports of crude petroleum, natural gas liquids, and petroleum products
from foreign countries and receipts from Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the
Hawaiian Trade Zone. The commodities included are crude oil, unfinished oils, plant condensate,
and refined petroleum products.
Petroleum inventories: The amounts of crude oil, unfinished oil, petroleum products, and
natural gas liquids held at refineries, at natural gas processing plants, in pipelines, at bulk
terminals operated by refining and pipeline companies, and at independent bulk terminals. Crude
oil held in storage on leases is also included; these stocks are known as primary stocks.
Secondary stocksthose held by jobbers dealers, service station operators, and consumersare
TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G12

excluded. Prior to 1975, stock held at independent bulk terminals were classified as secondary
stocks.
Petroleum products supplied: For each petroleum product, the amount supplied is calculated
by summing production, crude oil burned directly, imports, and net withdrawals from primary
stocks and subtracting exports.
Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs) Hybrid-electric vehicles with high capacity batteries that
can be charged by plugging them into an electrical outlet or charging station. There are two basic
PHEV configurations:
Parallel or Blended PHEV: Both the engine and electric motor are mechanically connected to
the wheels, and both propel the vehicle under most driving conditions. Electric-only operation
usually occurs only at low speeds.
Series PHEVs, also called Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs): Only the electric
motor turns the wheels; the gasoline engine is only used to generate electricity. Series PHEVs can
run solely on electricity until the battery needs to be recharged. The gasoline engine will then
generate the electricity needed to power the electric motor. For shorter trips, these vehicles might
use no gasoline at all.
Processing Gain The amount by which the total volume of refinery output is greater than the volume of
input for given period of time. The processing gain arises when crude oil and other hydrocarbons
are processed into products that are, on average, less dense than the input.
Processing Loss The amount by which the total volume of refinery output is less than the volume of
input for given period of time. The processing loss arises when crude oil and other hydrocarbons
are processed into products that are, on average, more dense than the input.
Proved Reserves of Crude Oil The estimated quantities of all liquids defined as crude oil, which
geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future
years from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.
Quad Quadrillion, 1015. In this publication, a Quad refers to Quadrillion Btu.
Rail
Amtrak (American Railroad Tracks): Operated by the National Railroad Passenger
Corporation of Washington, DC. This rail system was created by President Nixon in 1970, and
was given the responsibility for the operation of intercity, as distinct from suburban, passenger
trains between points designated by the Secretary of Transportation.
Class I freight railroad: Defined by the Interstate Commerce Commission each year based
on annual operating revenue. A railroad is dropped from the Class I list if it fails to meet the
annual earnings threshold for three consecutive years.
Commuter railroad: Those portions of mainline railroad (not electric railway) transportation
operations which encompass urban passenger train service for local travel between a central city
and adjacent suburbs. Commuter railroad serviceusing both locomotive-hauled and selfpropelled railroad passenger carsis characterized by multi-trip tickets, specific station-to-station
fares, and usually only one or two stations in the central business district. Also known as
suburban railroad.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G13

Transit railroad: Includes "heavy" and "light" transit rail. Heavy transit rail is characterized
by exclusive rights-of-way, multi-car trains, high speed rapid acceleration, sophisticated
signaling, and high platform loading. Also known as subway, elevated railway, or metropolitan
railway (metro). Light transit rail may be on exclusive or shared rights-of-way, high or low
platform loading, multi-car trains or single cars, automated or manually operated. In generic
usage, light rail includes streetcars, trolley cars, and tramways.
Refiner sales price Sales from the refinery made directly to ultimate consumers, including bulk
consumers (such as agriculture, industry, and electric utilities) and residential and commercial
consumers.
Reformulated gasoline (RFG) See Motor gasoline.
RFG area An ozone nonattainment area designated by the Environmental Protection Agency which
requires the use of reformulated gasoline.
Residential sector An energy consuming sector that consists of living quarters for private households.
Excludes institutional living quarters.
Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS) This survey was designed by the
Energy Information Administration of the Department of Energy to provide information on how
energy is used by households for personal vehicles. It has been conducted five times since 1979,
the most recent being 1991.
Residual fuel oil The heavier oils that remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter hydrocarbons are
boiled off in refinery operations. Included are products know as ASTM grade numbers 5 and 6
oil, heavy diesel oil, Navy Special Fuel Oil, Bunker C oil, and acid sludge and pitch used as
refinery fuels. Residual fuel oil is used for the production of electric power, for heating, and for
various industrial purposes.
Rural Usually refers to areas with population less than 5,000.
Sales period October 1 of the previous year to September 30 of the given year. Approximately the
same as a model year.
Sales-weighted miles per gallon (mpg) Calculation of a composite vehicle fuel economy based on the
distribution of vehicle sales.
Scrappage rate As applied to motor vehicles, it is usually expressed as the percentage of vehicles of a
certain type in a given age class that are retired from use (lacking registration) in a given year.
School and other nonrevenue bus See Bus.
Sector A group of major energy-consuming components of U.S. society developed to measure and
analyze energy use. The sectors most commonly referred to are: residential, commercial,
industrial, transportation, and electric power.
Single-unit truck Includes two-axle, four-tire trucks and other single-unit trucks.
Two-axle, four-tire truck: A motor vehicle consisting primarily of a single motorized device
with two axles and four tires.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G14

Other single-unit truck: A motor vehicle consisting primarily of a single motorized device with
more than two axles or more than four tires.
Spark ignition engine An internal combustion engine in which the charge is ignited electrically (e.g.,
with a spark plug).
Special fuels Consist primarily of diesel fuel with small amount of liquified petroleum gas, as defined
by the Federal Highway Administration.
Specific acceleration power Measured in watts per kilogram. Acceleration power divided by the
battery system weight. Weight must include the total battery system.
Specific energy Measured in watt hours per kilogram. The rated energy capacity of the battery divided
by the total battery system weight.
Subcompact car See Car size classifications.
Supplemental air carrier See Air carrier.
Survival rate As applied to motor vehicles, it is usually expressed as the percentage of vehicles of a
certain type in a given age class that will be in use at the end of a given year.
Tax incentives In general, a means of employing the tax code to stimulate investment in or
development of a socially desirable economic objective without direct expenditure from the
budget of a given unit of government. Such incentives can take the form of tax exemptions or
credits.
Test weight The weight setting at which a vehicle is tested on a dynomometer by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This weight is determined by the EPA using the inertia
weight of the vehicle.
Ton-mile The movement of one ton of freight the distance of one mile. Ton-miles are computed by
multiplying the weight in tons of each shipment transported by the distance hauled.
Transmission types
A3 Automatic three speed
A4 Automatic four speed
A5 Automatic five speed
L4 Automatic lockup four speed
M5 Manual five speed
Transit bus See Bus.
Transit railroad See Rail.
Transportation sector Consists of both private and public passenger and freight transportation, as well
as government transportation, including military operations.
Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) Survey designed to collect data on the characteristics and
operational use of the nation's truck population. It is conducted every five years by the U.S.
Bureau of the Census. Surveys were conducted in 1963, 1967, 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, and
1992. For the 1997 survey, it was renamed the Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey in anticipation

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G15

of including additional vehicle types. However, no additional vehicle types were added to the
1997 survey.
Trolleybus Mode of transit service (also called transit coach) using vehicles propelled by a motor
drawing current from overhead wires via connecting poles called a trolley pole, from a central
power source not onboard the vehicle.
Truck size classifications U.S. Bureau of the Census has categorized trucks by gross vehicle weight
(gvw) as follows:
Light Less than 10,000 pounds gvw (Also see Light Truck.)
Medium 10,001 to 20,000 pounds gvw
Light-heavy 20,001 to 26,000 pounds gvw
Heavy-heavy 26,001 pounds gvw or more.
Two-axle, four-tire truck See Single-unit truck.
Two seater car See Car size classifications.
Ultra-low emission vehicle Any vehicle certified to the ultra-low emission standards which are set by
the Federal government and/or the state of California.
Urban Usually refers to areas with population of 5,000 or greater.
Vanpool: A ridesharing prearrangement using vans or small buses providing round-trip transportation
between the participantss prearranged boarding points and a common and regular destination.
Variable operating cost See Operating cost.
Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey See Truck Inventory and Use Survey.
Vehicle-miles traveled (vmt) One vehicle traveling the distance of one mile. Total vehicle miles, thus,
is the total mileage traveled by all vehicles.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Organic compounds that participate in atmospheric
photochemical reactions.
Waterborne Commerce
Coastwise: Domestic traffic receiving a carriage over the ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Traffic
between Great Lakes ports and seacoast ports, when having a carriage over the ocean, is also
termed Coastwise.
Domestic: Includes coastwise, lakewise, and internal waterborne movements.
Foreign: Waterborne import, export, and in-transit traffic between the United States, Puerto Rico
and the Virgin Islands and any foreign country.
Internal: Vessel movements (origin and destination) which take place solely on inland
waterways. An inland waterway is one geographically located within the boundaries of the
contiguous 48 states or within the boundaries of the State of Alaska.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

G16

Lakewise: Waterborne traffic between the United States ports on the Great Lakes System. The
Great Lakes System is treated as a separate waterway system rather than as a part of the inland
waterway system. In comparing historical data for the Great Lakes System, one should note that
prior to calendar year 1990, marine products, sand and gravel being moved from the Great Lakes
to Great Lake destinations were classified as local traffic. From 1990-on, these activities are
classified as lakewise traffic.
Well-to-wheel A life cycle analysis used in transportation to consider the entire energy cycle for a
given mode, rather than just tailpipe emissions. The analysis starts at the oil well and ends with
the turning wheels of the vehicle.
Zero-emission vehicle Any vehicle certified to the zero emission standards which are set by the Federal
government and/or the state of California. These standards apply to the vehicle emissions only.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

I1

TITLE INDEX

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

I2

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

I3

Acquisitions
Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions by Fuel Type, FY 2002 2011.................................................. 76
Advanced
Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles and Characteristics ...................................... 61
Federal and State Advanced Technology Incentives, 2013 .......................................................... 1013
Age
Cars in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 ...................................................... 312
Trucks in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 .................................................. 313
U.S. Average Vehicle Age, 19952011 .......................................................................................... 314
Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age .................................................... 813
Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS ............................... 816
Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a
Household, 2009 NHTS ............................................................................................................. 818
Agency
Federal Government Vehicles by Agency, FY 2011 ........................................................................ 77
Air
Air Conditioning (SC03) Driving Cycle ......................................................................................... 434
Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers
(Combined Totals), 19702012 ................................................................................................... 93
Criteria Air Pollutants ..................................................................................................................... 121
Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, 2012 ....................................... 122
Aircraft
Aircraft Exhaust Emission Standards ........................................................................................ 1222
All
All Highway Vehicles and Characteristics ....................................................................................... 31
Alternative
Alternative Fuel and Oxygenate Consumption, 20052011 ............................................................. 25
Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles and Characteristics ...................................... 61
Estimates of Alternative Fuel Highway Vehicles in Use, 19952011.............................................. 63
Alternative Fuel Transit Vehicles, 2011 ........................................................................................... 64
Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 ....................................... 65
Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2013................................................ 610
Properties of Conventional and Alternative Fuels .......................................................................... 612
Federal and State Alternative Fuel Incentives, 2013 .................................................................... 1012
Amtrak
Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak),
19712011 ................................................................................................................................. 911
Annual
Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles, 2011 ............................ 73
Average Annual Expenditures of Households by Income, 2011 ...................................................... 84
Annual Household Expenditures for Transportation, 1985-2011 ..................................................... 85
Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977,
1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS.......................................................................... 88
Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age .................................................... 813
TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

I4

Annual (continued)
Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and 2001 NHTS ...................... 814
Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS ............................... 816
Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a
Household, 2009 NHTS ............................................................................................................. 818
Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ........................... 819
Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by
Size Class, Model Years 1975-2012 ........................................................................................ 1113
Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by
Size Class, Model Years 1975-2012 ........................................................................................ 1114
Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2012 ............................ 1115
Attributes
Driving Cycle Attributes................................................................................................................. 432
Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycle Attributes........................................ 438
Available
Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 ....................................... 65
Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2013........................................... 68
Average
U.S. Average Vehicle Age, 19952011 .......................................................................................... 314
Average Material Consumption for a Light Vehicle, Model Years 1995, 2000, and 2011 ............ 417
Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted
Fuel Economy Estimates, 19782012........................................................................................ 422
Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted
Fuel Economy Estimates, 19782012........................................................................................ 423
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 19832011 ...................................... 424
Average Length of Time Commercial Fleet Vehicles are in Service, 2011 ..................................... 73
Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles, 2011 ............................ 73
Average Miles per Domestic Federal Vehicle by Vehicle Type, 2011 ............................................ 74
Average Annual Expenditures of Households by Income, 2011 ...................................................... 84
Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, ............... 1977,
1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS.......................................................................... 88
Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household, 1990 NPTS and 2001
and 2009 NHTS ........................................................................................................................... 89
Average Vehicle Occupancy by Vehicle Type, 1995 NPTS and 2009 NHTS ............................... 811
Average Vehicle Occupancy by Trip Purpose, 1977 NPTS and 2009 NHTS ................................ 812
Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age .................................................... 813
Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and 2001 NHTS ...................... 814
Average Daily Miles Driven (per Driver), 2009 NHTS ................................................................. 817
Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a
Household, 2009 NHTS ............................................................................................................. 818
Average Price of a New Car, 19132011 ..................................................................................... 1014
Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), 19702011 ................................................ 1015
Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2012 ............................ 1115
Aviation
Summary Statistics for General Aviation, 19702011 ..................................................................... 94
Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, 19782012 .......................................... 1010
Barrel
Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil, 1978-2012 ............................. 115
TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

I5

Barrel (continued)
Prices for a Barrel of Crude Oil and a Gallon of Gasoline, 19782012 ......................................... 107
Bicycle
Bicycle Sales, 1981-2011 ............................................................................................................... 823
Bike
Walk and Bike Trips by Trip Purpose, 2009 NHTS ....................................................................... 824
Boat
Recreational Boat Energy Use, 19702011 ...................................................................................... 97
Bus
Truck and Bus Registrations for Selected Countries, 19602011 .................................................... 34
Buses
Summary Statistics on Transit Buses and Trolleybuses, 19942011 ............................................. 524
Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses Exhaust
Emission Standards .................................................................................................................. 1216
CAFE
Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel
Economy Estimates, 19782012 ................................................................................................ 422
Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted
Fuel Economy Estimates, 19782012........................................................................................ 423
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 19832011 ...................................... 424
California
California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards ..................... 1221
Capita
Vehicles and Vehicle-Miles per Capita, 19502011 ........................................................................ 83
Car
Car Registrations for Selected Countries, 19602011 ...................................................................... 33
Car Scrappage and Survival Rates, 1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years ........................................ 316
New Retail Car Sales in the United States, 19702012 .................................................................... 45
Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel
Economy Estimates, 19782012 ................................................................................................ 422
Average Price of a New Car, 19132011 ..................................................................................... 1014
Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), 19702011 ................................................ 1015
Car Operating Cost per Mile, 19852012 ..................................................................................... 1016
Fixed Car Operating Costs per Year, 19752012 ......................................................................... 1017
California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards ..................... 1221
Carbon
Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, MY 20122025 .................................. 420
Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year 2025 ................................................ 421
U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by End-Use Sector, 19902011 .............. 116
U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector............. 117
Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by
Size Class, Model Years 1975-2012 ........................................................................................ 1113

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

I6

Carbon (continued)
Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by
Size Class, Model Years 1975-2012 ........................................................................................ 1114
Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2012 ............................ 1115
Carbon Dioxide
World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990 and 2012 ........................................................................ 112
Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide .................. 113
Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Gallon of Fuel........................................................................ 1116
Carbon Monoxide
Total National Emissions of Carbon Monoxide, 19702012 ......................................................... 123
Emissions of Carbon Monoxide from Highway Vehicles, 19702005 .......................................... 124
Carriers
Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers
(Combined Totals), 19702012 ................................................................................................... 93
Cars
World Production of Cars and Trucks, 2000-2011 ........................................................................... 32
U.S. Cars and Trucks in Use, 19702011 ......................................................................................... 36
Cars in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 ...................................................... 312
Summary Statistics for Cars, 19702011 ......................................................................................... 42
Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and
Import Cars, Selected Model Years 19752012 .......................................................................... 47
Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class,
Model Years 19752012 ............................................................................................................ 413
Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class,
Model Years 19752012 ............................................................................................................ 415
Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class,
Model Years 19772012 ............................................................................................................ 416
The Gas Guzzler Tax on New Cars ................................................................................................ 425
List of Model Year 2012 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes ................................................................. 426
Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by
Size Class, Model Years 1975-2012 ........................................................................................ 1113
Census
Household Vehicle Ownership, 19602011 Census ......................................................................... 86
Certificated
Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers
(Combined Totals), 19702012 ................................................................................................... 93
Certification
California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards ..................... 1221
Characteristics
All Highway Vehicles and Characteristics ....................................................................................... 31
Light Vehicles and Characteristics ................................................................................................... 41
Heavy Vehicles and Characteristics ................................................................................................. 51
Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles and Characteristics ...................................... 61
Fleet Vehicles and Characteristics .................................................................................................... 71
Household Vehicles and Characteristics........................................................................................... 81
TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

I7

Characteristics (continued)
Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density............... 821
Housing Unit Characteristics, 2010 ................................................................................................ 821
Long-Distance Trip Characteristics, 2001 NHTS........................................................................... 826
Cities
Clean Cities Coalitions ................................................................................................................... 611
City
City Driving Cycle .......................................................................................................................... 433
New York City Driving Cycle ........................................................................................................ 436
Class
Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 19752012 .......................................... 411
Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class,
Model Years 19752012 ............................................................................................................ 413
Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class,
Model Years 19752012 ............................................................................................................ 414
Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class,
Model Years 19752012 ............................................................................................................ 415
Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class,
Model Years 19772012 ............................................................................................................ 416
Truck Statistics by Gross Vehicle Weight Class, 2002 .................................................................... 56
Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997, and 2002 .................................. 56
Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by
Size Class, Model Years 1975-2012 ........................................................................................ 1113
Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by
Size Class, Model Years 1975-2012 ........................................................................................ 1114
Class 1
Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks .............................................. 44
Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 19891999 ................................. 44
Class 2a
Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks .............................................. 44
Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 19891999 ................................. 44
Class 2b
Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks .............................................. 44
Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 19891999 ................................. 44
Class 3-8
Summary Statistics for Class 3-8 Single-Unit Trucks, 19702011 .................................................. 52
Class 7-8
Summary Statistics for Class 7-8 Combination Trucks, 19702011 ................................................ 53
Class 8
Effect of Terrain on Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy ......................................................................... 514
Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer
Tire Combination ....................................................................................................................... 515
Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination
and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .......................................... 516
TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

I8

Class 8 (continued)
Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer
Tire Combination ....................................................................................................................... 517
Class 8 Truck Weight by Component ............................................................................................. 518
Distribution of Class 8 Trucks by On-Road Vehicle Weight, 2008 ............................................... 520
Class I
Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue
TonMiles, 2011 .......................................................................................................................... 98
Summary Statistics for Class I Freight Railroads, 19702011 ......................................................... 99
Classification
Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2012 ............................ 1115
Clean
Clean Cities Coalitions ................................................................................................................... 611
Coalitions
Clean Cities Coalitions ................................................................................................................... 611
Cold
Cold Temperature (Cold FTP) Driving Cycle ................................................................................ 434
Collected
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 19832011 ...................................... 424
Combination
Summary Statistics for Class 7-8 Combination Trucks, 19702011 ................................................ 53
Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer
Tire Combination ....................................................................................................................... 515
Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination
and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .......................................... 516
Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer
Tire Combination ....................................................................................................................... 517
Combined
Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers
(Combined Totals), 19702012 ................................................................................................... 93
U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector............. 117
Commerce
Tonnage Statistics for Domestic and International Waterborne Commerce, 19702011 ................. 95
Summary Statistics for Domestic Waterborne Commerce, 19702011 ........................................... 96
Commercial
Average Length of Time Commercial Fleet Vehicles are in Service, 2011 ..................................... 73
Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles, 2011 ............................ 73
Commodity
Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and
2007 Commodity Flow Surveys ................................................................................................ 522
Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and
2007 Commodity Flow Surveys ................................................................................................ 523
TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 322013

I9

Commute
Workers by Commute Time, 1990, 2000, and 2011 ....................................................................... 822
Commuter
Energy Intensity of Commuter Rail Systems, 2011........................................................................ 218
Summary Statistics for Commuter Rail Operations, 19842011.................................................... 912
Compared
Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries
(in 2001 and 2011) ....................................................................................................................... 37
Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide .................. 113
Comparison
Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycle Attributes........................................ 438
Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and
2007 Commodity Flow Surveys ................................................................................................ 522
Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and
2007 Commodity Flow Surveys ................................................................................................ 523
Component
Class 8 Truck Weight by Component ............................................................................................. 518
Compounds
Total National Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, 19702012........................................ 127
Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Highway Vehicles, 19702005 ........................ 128
Compression
Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses Exhaust
Emission Standards .................................................................................................................. 1216
Heavy-Duty Highway Compression Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines Evaporative
Emission Standards .................................................................................................................. 1220
Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines Exhaust Emission Standards ..................................... 1223
Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines Exhaust Emission Standards ................................ 1228
Conditioning
Air Conditioning (SC03) Driving Cycle ......................................................................................... 434
Consumed
Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer
Tire Combination ....................................................................................................................... 517
Fuel Consumed by Federal Government Fleets, FY 20002011 ...................................................... 76
Consumer
Consumer Price Indices, 19702012 ............................................................................................ 1018
Consumption
World Petroleum Consumption, 19602012 .................................................................................... 15
World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2011 ................................................................ 16
World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2011 .................................................. 17
Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in Context, 1950-2012 ......... 117
United S