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History of Computing

We use computer and computer services in daily life. It is

used in homes, schools, offices, departmental stores,
communication centers, e.t.c., for various purposes. We
use it for learning, communicating, playing and several
purposes. But many of us may be unknown about its
history, invention, process, parts, functioning etc.
What actually is a computer?
• A computer is a machine that manipulates data
according to a set of instructions. (
• A computer is an electronic machine that can be
programmed to accept data (input), process it into
useful information (output), and store it in a storage
media for future use.
In my view computer is an electronic device that runs on a
programmed platform, operating mathematical or logical
operations as given by the user in a very high speed and
resulting a softcopy or hardcopy output.

A modern
used today
Invention of Computers…..
There are many visions of analysts about the time of
invention of computer. The computers that we use today
are digital and electrical. They run upon electrical data
inputs. It is not so long time that we are using digital
computers. Previously, the computers were manual and
analog. They used to compute upon the analog signals in a
manual way. They were not so automatic, versatile, and
reliable as they are today. Analysts say that the invention
of computer started upon invention of ABACUS-the first
ever properly made counting machine. It is said that The
abacus may have been invented in Babylonia (now
Iraq) in the fourth century B.C.
As the human civilization was continuing then,
development of counting and calculating machines were
increasing day by day. During the mid 17th centuries there
were many inventions like Pascaline machine by Blaise
Pascal that was capable of adding, subtracting, multiplying
and dividing simple algebraic calculations. Those machines
were manual and not programmable.
Later in the 19th century an English mathematician, Charles
Babbage built the first ever programmable machine in the
world. He invented two engines, namely Analytical
Engine, and the Difference Engine. Because of his great
commitment in computing technology he is rewarded as
Father of Computer.
analytical engine differential engine

Gradually by the advancement of technology, computers

were made more electrically and automatically operated.
Those computers were quiet programmable, faster and
reliable than that of previous time. There were changes in
size, components, speed, power consumption and versatile
nature. Then after they were used in many different
purposes like weather forecasting, military purpose, etc.

A brief time table and inventions in computing

Computer History Computer History Computer History
Year/Enter Inventors/Inventions Description of Event

1936 Konrad Zuse - Z1 Computer First freely programmable computer.

1942 John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry Who was first in the computing biz is
ABC Computer not always as easy as ABC.

1944 Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper The Harvard Mark 1 computer.
Harvard Mark I Computer

1946 John Presper Eckert & John W. 20,000 vacuum tubes later...
ENIAC 1 Computer

1948 Frederic Williams & Tom Baby and the Williams Tube turn on
Kilburn the memories.
Manchester Baby Computer
& The Williams Tube
1947/48 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain No, a transistor is not a computer, but
& Wiliam Shockley this invention greatly affected the
The Transistor history of computers.

1951 John Presper Eckert & John W. First commercial computer & able to
Mauchly pick presidential winners.
UNIVAC Computer

1953 International Business IBM enters into 'The History of

Machines Computers'.
IBM 701 EDPM Computer

1954 John Backus & IBM The first successful high level
FORTRAN Computer programming language.
Programming Language

1955 Stanford Research Institute, The first bank industry computer -

(In Use 1959) Bank of America, and General also MICR (magnetic ink character
Electric recognition) for reading checks.

1958 Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce Otherwise known as 'The Chip'
The Integrated Circuit

1962 Steve Russell & MIT The first computer game invented.
Spacewar Computer Game

1964 Douglas Engelbart Nicknamed the mouse because the

Computer Mouse & tail came out the end.

1969 ARPAnet The original Internet.

1970 Intel 1103 Computer The world's first available dynamic

Memory RAM chip.

1971 Faggin, Hoff & Mazor The first microprocessor.

Intel 4004 Computer

1971 Alan Shugart &IBM Nicknamed the "Floppy" for its

The "Floppy" Disk flexibility.

1973 Robert Metcalfe & Xerox Networking.

The Ethernet Computer

1974/75 Scelbi & Mark-8 Altair & The first consumer computers.
IBM 5100 Computers
1976/77 Apple I, II & TRS-80 & More first consumer computers.
Commodore Pet Computers

1978 Dan Bricklin & Bob Frankston Any product that pays for itself in two
VisiCalc Spreadsheet weeks is a surefire winner.

1979 Seymour Rubenstein & Rob Word Processors.

WordStar Software

1981 IBM From an "Acorn" grows a personal

The IBM PC - Home computer revolution

1981 Microsoft From "Quick And Dirty" comes the

MS-DOS Computer operating system of the century.
Operating System

1983 Apple Lisa Computer The first home computer with a GUI,
graphical user interface.

1984 Apple Macintosh Computer The more affordable home computer

with a GUI.

1985 Microsoft Windows Microsoft begins the friendly war with


After 1985 there have been much more advancement daily

going on.

Basic structure of computer and its processing

Central Processing Unit

Processess arithmetic or Logical

Input given operations Output after
by the User. processing-
soft or hard
Storage Unit copy

Stores Data and Information for future

Types of Computers derived from the History
A microcomputer is a computer with
a microprocessor as its central rocessing unit.
Another general characteristic of these computers is
that they occupy physically small amounts of space
when compared to mainframe and minicomputers.
Many microcomputers (when equipped with a
keyboard and screen for input and output) are
also personal computers (in the generic sense).
Microcomputers or PC's as they are often called, are
abundant on our desks, tables, offices, suitcases,
everywhere. This is the most visible form of computers
in the present world and comes in all forms and


A minicomputer is a class of multi-user computers

that lies in the middle range of the computing
spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems
(mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user
systems (microcomputers or personal computers). The
class at one time formed a distinct group with its own
hardware and operating systems, but the
contemporary term for this class of system is midrange
computer, such as the higher-end SPARC, POWER and

3.Mainframe computer
Mainframes are computers used mainly by large
organizations for critical applications, typically bulk
data processing such as census, industry and
consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and
financial transaction processing.
Mainframes are designed to handle very high volume
input and output (I/O) and emphasize throughput
Some pictuers of historical computers
mainframe computers Abacus-the first number

pascaline machine by Blaise Pascal micro-computer

or pc
ENIAC by John W. Mauchley