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# Distillation

Alcohol-water solution is fed into a distilling still at the rate of 1000 kg per hour. The solution
analyzes 30% ethyl alcohol by weight, the distillate contains 90% ethyl alcohol and the bottom
8% ethyl alcohol, calculate (a) kg of distillate per hour (b)kg bottom per hour (c) % recovery of
alcohol.

Solution:

OMB: D + B = 1000

B= 1000-D

Ethyl Alcohol Balance:

300= 0.90D +0.080B

300=0.90D+0.080(1000-D)

(a) D = 268.29 kg/hr
(b) B= 731.7 kg/hr
(c) % recovery alcohol = (alcohol in D/alcohol in F) x 100
= (0.90 x268.290)/300
= 0.8049 x 100
= 89.49%

A distilling column is fed with a solution containing 0.45 mass fractions of benzene and 0.55
mass fraction toluene. If 95% of benzene must appear in the overhead product, while 92% of
toluene appears in the residue, calculate the composition of distillate and bottoms.

Solution:

Basis: 100 kg feed

OMB: 100= D + B

Benzene balance:

Benzene in D= 0.95(0.45)(100)

Benzene in D = 42.75 kg

Benzene in B= 0.45(0.08)(100)

Benzene in B=3.6 kg

Toluene Balance:

5 D + S = 219.035 (alcohol in F) 0.5%.95D + 0. a side stream containing 40% alcohol is removed.1115(1000) = 0.15% ethanol.005(780. The distillate contains 95% alcohol while the bottom contains 0.5kg .5 D + S = 1000 – 780.Toluene in B= 0.5 0.92(0.5% alcohol.55)(100) Toluene in B= 50.64 93.40S+ 0. As distillation proceeds.035(1000)(. Toluene % Benzene % Toluene D 42.95D + 0.6 50.4 kg Wt.6 6.67 9.6= 0.5) 107.40S D = 36 kg S = 183. The total recovery of alcohol in the distillate and in the side stream is 96. 15kg B = 52. Solution: OMB: 1000= D + S + B Alcohol balance: Alcohol in B =0.6 kg Toluene in D= 4.4 90. distillate and the side stream.005B = 0.36 D = 47.75 4. On the basis of 1000 kg of feed.1115) B= 780. calculate the amounts of the bottom.85 kg Dilute alcohol from fermenting vats contains 11. Benzene Wt.33 B 3.

2-inches pipe. For cooling a stream of toluene amounting to 8600 lb/h at a temperature of 100 degrees Fahrenheit is available.545 BTU/lb-°F and Cp for toluene= 0. if flow is countercurrent.000 (0. The aniline flow rate is10.000 lb/h.77 x 10³ (T-100) = 27 x 10⁴ BTU T = 170 °F ΔTLM = (ΔT2-ΔTi)/ Ln (ΔT2/ΔT1) ΔTLM = (200-170)-(150-100)/ Ln ((200-170)/(150-100)) ΔTLM = 39°F Over-all Heat Transfer Coefficient: 10000(0.77 x 10³ (T-100) Solving simultaneously to get T: 3.438)(T.1 and ¼ inches pipe and Schedule 40. The exchanger consists of Schedule 40 . Solution: Aniline : Q= mCpΔT Q= 10.Flow of Fluids Aniline is to be cooled from 200 to 150 degrees Fahrenheit in a double-pipe heat exchanger having a total outside area of 70 ft². what are the toluene outlet temperature.545)(200-150)/(70 x 39) = 100 BTU/ ft²-hr -°F .545)(200-150) Q=27 x 10⁴ BTU Toluene: Q= 8600 (0. the LMTD and the overall heat transfer coefficient? Cp of Aniline=0.100) Q= 3.438 BTU/lb-°F.

01414 ft² for a 1 and 1/2 pipe. 0.7 x 55.2 m) (13. What is the pressure difference over the manometer in Newton per meter square? Solution: Pa-Pb= (g/gc)Rm (ρA-ρB) 1 kg wt. = 9.6 x 10³) ΔP = 2. the total volumetric flow rate is: q=30*607.8 m/s²/9. Solution: Density of the fluid = 0.0233 ft² for a 2-in pipe. The flow through pipe A and B is 30 gal/min. An equal quantity of liquid flows through pipe C.887. Pipe B (3-in Schedule 40) and Pipe C (1 and ½ in Schedule 40).48 gal in 1 ft³. The manometer reads 200mm. The dimension and cross-sectional areas of standard pipes needed are 0. and the liquid above the mercury is carbon tetrachloride (specific gravity of 1.7 ft³/hr The mass flow rate for pipes A and B is the product of the density and the volumetric flow rate: Mass flow rate = 240. Calculate the mass flow rate in each pipe.specific gravity 60°F/60°F = 0.0513 ft² for a 3-in pipe and 0.6 x 10³ -1.8N) (0. The manometer is filled with mercury( specific gravity= 13.4 x 10³ N/m² Crude oil.300 lb/h Mass flow rate in pipe C: 13.A simple U-tube manometer is installed across an orifice meter.8 N ΔP = (9.37 =55.6).300/ 2 = 6650 lb/hr Filtration . flows through the piping with Pipe A (2-in Schedule 40).887 x 62.48=240.3 = 13.3 lb/ft³ Since there are 7.6).

60 F F = 0. Calculate: (a) Original weight of the slurry (b) Water content of the filter cake Solution: OMB: F = W + Fc F = W + 600 Water balance: W = 0. Calculate: (a) Weight of the filtrate (b) Kg of dry salt recovered on drying the wet filter cake Solution: Wt.25 kg per kg of water.60F + 600 F = 1500 kg W = 900 kg Water in Fc= water in F – W = 0. If 80% of the original water is removed and 600 kg of filter cake is obtained. The salt is soluble to the extent of 0.75)F W = 0.40 kg of solution adheres to every kilogram of undissolved salt.Slurry of talc and water contains 75% water by weight. of dissolved salt = 1200 kg water x (0.75(1500) – 900 = 225 kg Saturated solution of a salt is made by agitating 600 kg of salt in 1200 kg of water. 0. On filtration.25 kg salt/1 kg water) = 300 kg .80 (0.

of saturated solution = 1200 kg water x (1.25 kg solution/1 kg water) = 1500 kg Wt.4 adhering sol’n/ 1 kg undissolved salt)= 120 kg Filter cake = Adhering solution + undissolved solution Fc = 120 + 300 = 420 kg FL = saturated solution – adhering solution FL = 1500 -120 FL = 1380 kg (filtrate) Balance at the Drier: Fc = W + P 420 = W + P Water balance: Water in Fc = W 120 adhering sol’n x (1 kg water/ 1. of adhering sol’n = 300 kg undis.Wt. of undissolved salt = 600 .25 adhering solution) = W W = 96 kg water P = 324 kg salt Screening The data below were obtained on the operation of a 6-mesh (square) hummer screen at the tipple of a coal mine. salt x (0.300 = 300 kg Wt. The screening was done to separate a very fine refuse from a fine coal stream so .

146 767 0.8 14 x 28 117 8 x14 6.45 tons/hr P = 124. 95% of F is dry F dry = (131 tons/hr)(0.8 Tons/hr) Dry Solids Size sample Wt.45 – 9.95) = 124.8 = 114.640 1006 0.55 2905 0.3 ¼ x 6 mesh 767 6x8 7. therefore Oversize= P Since 5% of F is moisture.Feed is 131tons/hr and approximately 5% moisture. Size % Sample +1’4 in 2905 grams 1/4x 6 11.that it could be reprocessed.3 48 x 0 62.6 48 x 0 278 28 x 48 3.65 tons/hr F Xi P Xi 3825 0.1 Solution: Very fine particles (coal) will be reprocess to fine coal.9 28 x 48 68 14 x 48 8.169 . Calculate (a) the recovery and rejection of each size fraction and (b) the screen effectiveness . Size Sample Weight +1/4 in 3825 grams ¼ x6 mesh 1006 6 x 14 750 14 x 28 303 28 x48 219 48 x 0 807 Overflow from screen Underflow from screen (9.

Solution: Dp1 = 2 in (25.089 303 0.015 807 0.4 mm/ 1 in) = 3.640 to 0.117 278 0.146 Desired size in P: 2905 to 767 at Xi = 0.74 kW-hr/ton.750 0. Wi =12.74) [(1/√3.175 mm P/m = 0.55 to 0.061 Desired size in F: 3825 to 1006 at Xi = 0.026 219 0.109 405 0.3162Wi [(1/√Dp2) – (1/√Dp1)] P = 100 tons/hr (0.8)] P = 169.6 kW or 227 HP .8 mm Dp2 = 1/8 in (25.175) – (1/√50.044 117 0.169 What is the power requirement to crush 100 tons per hour of limestone if 80% of the feed passes a 2-inch screen and 80% of the product passes a 1/8-inch screen? Use Bond’s law.032 68 0.3162 x 12.4mm/1 in) = 50.