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nts in TiO~
ast year we published an article in this
magazine on using polymeric hiding lcch-
nologies as a means of reducing dependence
on Ti02 in paint formulations.
1 R O P A Q U E TM
, opaque polymer and E VO Q U E
posite polymer were shown as effective means to partially
replace TiO 2, reduce formulation cost, and maintain or
improve performance properties in architectural coat-
ings. R O P A Q U E , a light-scattering pigment, has been a
raw material in pabats for the last 30 years and its use has
steadily grown as the technology has advanced through
several generations of development. The recent price
surge in TiO 2 and high forecast price through 201 5 (Fig-
ure 1 ) have sparked a renewed interest, and formulators
are revisiting its use in a wider range of formulations as
well as increasing its use in current opaque polymer-con-
taining formulatinns. Last year, E VO Q U E pre-composite
polymer was a newly introduced technology for TiO 2
reduction, which increased both the wet and dry lighi-
scattering efficiency of Ti02. In this article we focus on
the advances made in the past year with this exciting new
technology hom its initial launch in early 201 1 to its full
commercialization in 201 2,
FIGURE1 [ North America historical average and forecast price of TiO2
through 2015.
History (IClS
P ricing, R eed
B usiness
Information Ltd.)
$0,00 ~, ~1~1~
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
R eference
TiO2 Crowding and Loss of Scattering
Belbre we talk about pre-composite polymer, lets discuss
one of the fundamen tel problems in using TiO a in white and
pastel formulations - crowding.
Crowding occurs when
the spacing of TiO 2 particles decreases to the point where
the light scattering becomes dependent on the concentra-
tion offiO z. Crowding reduces the scattering efficiency of
TiO 2, causing formulators to use lnore of this expensive
raw material. In practice, this effect begins well below
1 0 P VC of TiO a, leading to inefficient use of TiO 2 in most
architectural coatings. To date, there was little that could
be done to overcome the crowding effect. U sing sufficiently
low levels of TiO a is not an option in white and pastel paints,
Small-particle-size extenders and binders can reduce, but
not elilninate, crowding. So forlnulators are forced to use
higher levels of Tit)~ cud incur the associated higher raw
material cost. With the rising cost of TiO a over the past 1 8
months, the inefficient use of TiO ~ is no longer sustainable
in the coatings industry, E VO Q U E pre-composite polymer
provides a new and practical solution to this old problem
by offering a more uniform distribution of TiO a in the paint
film, resulting in improved scattering efficiency.
How EVOQUE Works
O ne way of describing the crowding effect is by dependant
~is theory describes the effective scattering
diameter, or scattering zones, of TiO 2 particles as being
greater than their actual diameter. These scattering zones
overlap as the concentration of TiO 2 increases, reducing
scattering efficiency, and resulting in the crowding effect,
The E VO Q U E polymer strongly interacts with the TiO 2 sur-
lhce to forth a pigment-polymer composite. This composite
maintains a greater separation between the TiO 2 particles,
resulting in a more unfform distribution of TiO 2, which in
turn reduces the overlap of the scattering zones, thus result-
ing in greater scattering efficiency, as shown in Figure 2.
Factors Affecting Ti02 Crowding
Lets look more closely at TiO a crowding and the factors
that can affect it. A s the use level of conventional TiO 2
B y David Fasano, Ph.D., Senior Scientist; and Linda Adamson, Architectural Technical SerMce Manager I The Dow
Chemical Company, Spring House, P A
Technicians and scientists nccd data to verify tcst outcomes
and validate their research, A s the need for additional testing
increases, more data will be generated. Therelbre, the data infor-
mation system becomes increasingly important, Data created
IYom testing or other process steps needs to bc integrated into the
Automation Solution for Rheology
Being a global market leader in the fields of density and theology
measurements. A nion P aar has seen the increased need far lab
automation and the benefits it brings. Together with key customers,
we have iraplemented automated rhealogical measurement solu-
tions, The HTR (Highthroughput R heomcter) is a customized solu-
tion that fits company individual processes. For an HTI1 proicct, the
existing procedures arc analyzed and adequate automation solu-
tions provided. A cooperative approach and the customized solution
to an existing need are key factors for successful automation.
The HTR automates the process of sample preparation, mea-
surenrent, measurement device cleaning and measurement data
storage. The first step in such a prolect with the HTI/is to analyze
the theological measurement processes. Typically, this shows
that there are more routine processes than customers often think
of. R heological measurements on a small number of samples can
take more than half a day, leaving less tbne for analysis and inter-
pretation of the data. Subsequently, there is a lack of motivation for
increased testing due to the large amount of work involved,
E xisting HTR customers say that they can build more complex
analysis due to the high throughput offercd by the HTR solution.
A further nmior advantage is that measurements will be analyzed
during the night or weekend. Management consulting companies
these days send their draft to india overnight and get a well-
prepared analysis the next day. In the case of rheological mea-
surement, an automated solution is capable of doing the stone.
Customers have the data needed in their data rile the next day and
can start right away with important research.
Successful automation can increase throughput, help drive
innovation faster and reduce cost. O nce installed, fast return on
investment and other benefits can bc easily achieved. A key factor
in the successful implementatfan of automated solutions is the
choice of the partner or automation company. The combination of
application knowledge with automation knowledge is an essential
step towards successful automation.
An Important Factor in
Technological Leadership
A ccording to Markus Bodlos, Head of A ntomalion & R obotics,
"Demand has increased since the recession because companies
are willing to invest to set themselves apart from the intense
competition within the coatings industry." In the coming
years, many cmnpanics worldwide will invest in various auto-
motion solniions, The decision for automation will not just be
made for cost savings and increase in efficiency, but also to
have the capability of additional testing, one important factor
in technological leadership.
For more information, visit www.antonpaarx om.
De~eisko Corporation Ogdensb u~g, N ew Y oi~k ~
!~ 27
increases in a paint formulation, the amount of incremen-
tal scattering decreases, and tbus scattering efficiency
decreases, as indicated by the dashed blue line in Figure
3. A s the concentration of TiO 2 increases, the separation
between the particles decreases dramatically, as schemab
ically shown in Figures 4a and 4b. Many formulators use
small-particle-size extenders in an attempt to decrease
crowding. In fact, small-parficle-size extenders still crowd
TiO 2 but to a lesser degree than large-particle-size extend-
ers, as schematically shown in Figures 4c and 4d. qhe
effect this has on scattering is shown in Figure 5, The
horizontal reference line indicates the scattering of the
control formulation with 1 90 pounds of TiO x,
E leven extenders of different composition and particle
si~e were used to formulate at 1 5 P VC while maintain-
ing TiO x level and volmne solids. The control formulation
and one extender formulation are given in Table 1 . It is
clear that the largest extenders had the most negative
effect on scattering, A s much as 20% of the scattering
efficiency was lost with the 1 2 Itm calcium carbonate
extender, More surprisingly, even the smallest sub-micron
extenders do not increase the scattering above that of the
control formulatiom indicating some degree of crowding.
While small-par ticle-si~e extenders crowd less than large-
partide-si~e extenders, they do not space TiO x and they
do not increase its scattering efficiency. By comparison,
R O P A Q U E should minbnally crowd ~ri02 as a similar sized
extender, but we observe an increase in the overall scat-
tering of the paint. The increase in scattering is the result
of the encapsulated air void, which acts as a light-scatter-
ing pigtnent. The comhination of scatterit~g and minimal
crowding has led to the common use of this raw material
in paint forlnulations and, with todays rising TiO x price,
it is producing new value in a wider range of formulations
at increased use levels.
Like extenders, latexbinders are also particles. A s such,
they can crowd TiO x and reduce its scattering efficiency,
as shown in Figure 6. Several commercial latex binders
were substituted into an extender-containing forcnulation
similar to that shown in Table 1 : the extender P VC was
adjusted to 6 P VC. Scattering decreases with increasing
particle si~e with two exceptions, In the case of the styrene
acrylic latex binder, scattering is less than anticipated
based on its particle size because the refiactive index of
the styrene acrylic latex is greater than that of the other
latex binders. Scattering is proportional to the difference
in refractive index squared between the pigment and the
surrounding medium. So increases in the latex refractive
index decrease that difference relative to the high refiac-
ti~e index of TiO 2 (~2,8). The uniquely high refractive
index orTiO ~ is what makes it such a good hiding pigment,
The second exception is E VO Q U E pre-composite polymer.
It has much higher scattering than at~ticipated for both
its particle size and refractive index, The improvement in
scatterit~g is due to a more uniform distribution of TiO 2 in
the paint film. The effect on scattering over a broad range
of TiO 2 levels is shown by the solid red line in Figure 3.
Scalming dectron micrographs of paints made with
conventional latex binders and E VO Q U F~ are shown in
Figures 7a and 7b, respectively. The more uniform dis-
tribution of TiO 2 is seet~ in Figure 7b. A nother l?ature of
FI(]UR E 2 I Scattering zone depictions for Ti02 and EVOQUE. Scattel-
ing efficiency of Ti02 decreases at high use Levels because of crowding.
EVOQUE limits how close Ti02 particles can approach each other.
particle with its
scattering zone
composite polymer
FISUR E ] Scattering efficiency of conventional TiO~ compared to com-
posite Ti02,
l ~ Conventional TiOz
FISURE4 ! Schematic depiction of TiO2 particle distribution and separa
Lion at a) low use level, b) high use level, c) high use level with large parti
de size extender, and d) high use level with small particle-size extender,
Advancements in Ti02 Composite Technology
FIGUR E 5 ~ Effect of various particle sizes on light scattering compared
to the control (no extender). R OP AQUE opaque polymer offers a further
advantage as a light-scattering pigment.
1.0 10.0
~ No Extender (190 Ib TiO~)
R OP AQUE Opaque
P olymer 15 P VC
CaCO, , 15 P VC
Particle Size (um)
FIGR R E 6 I Scattering efficiency compared to particle size for various
latex binders.
= 6
0, 1
Particle Size (u m)
~* Acrylic ~1.50
Styrenic ~1.55

EVOQUE Pre-Composite
T/IB LE1 I Formulations with and without extender.
TAMOU" 731A dispersant
Dry universal Ti02
Grind subtotal
binder (50%)
P ropylene glycol
Ammonia (28%)
R M-2020 NP R
rheology modifier
ACR Y SOL R M-8W theology
0, 0
3 2 3 . 8
408 . 8
50, 0
4 36.7
4 .4
4 8.4
the micrographs is the brightness of the TiO 2 particles in
Figure 7a, indicating that the TiO 2 particles are at the very
surface of the fihn, while in Figure 7b the TiO 2 particles
are less defined, indicating that they are covered with
polymer, the pre-colnposite polymer that is forming the
pigment-polymer composite. The more uniform distribu-
tion of TiO 2 particles and the fact they are below the film
surface infers that a tighter film structure is possible.
Scattering and Color/Tint Strength
When reformulating for reduced Ti02 levels, matching the
scattering properties is important to ensure that the opacity
remains the same. Just as important is lnatching the tint
strength properties. Most refornmlations need to be accom-
plished while maintaining the same color palette as the
original paint. With both polymeric hiding technologies,
ff the scattering of reformulated paint matches that of the
original paint and there are no color acceptance issues, the
color palette can be well matched. E xamples of relbrmula-
tions using R O P A Q U E and E VO Q U E tinted with 2 ounces or
the CO LO R TR E ND 888 line without any adjustments to the
formulations are shown hr Figure 8, The formulations are
giveu in Tables 2 and 3. E VO Q U E pre-composite polymer
relbrmula~ions have a A E (CIE Lab color space) less than
1 . The A E for all of the R O P A Q U E opaque polymer cam-
parisons are less than or equal to 2, the greater A E coming
mainly From the yellowness (+A b) of the flatting extender
used in this reformulation. E xcellent color matching and
tint strength are possible with both polymeric hiding tech-
nologies, even with significant TiO 2 reductions.
TAB !.E 2 I Control and E~OP AQUE formulations used in the
color examples in Figure 8.
Cellulosic thickener (2.5%)
TAMOL 165A dispersant
CF-IO surfactant
De foamer
Dry universal Ti02
Nepheline syenite
Diatomacous silica
Grind subtotal
R HOP LEX acrylic binder (4 5, 5%)
R OP AQUE Ultra (30%)
De foamer
theology modlfier
100, 0
2, 0
224 .2
224 .2
6 8 4, 2
2, 0
5 46 , 3
Full Commercial Status
When we first launched the E VO Q U E pre-composite poly-
mer technology platform in early 201 1 , we were complet-
ing the final stages of product development and manu-
facturing scale-up, Commcrcial production began in the
Iattcr part of 2Bll. We now have three commercial prod-
ucts designed for the needs of the North A merican market
(Table 4). Co]nmercial paints containing E VO Q U E arc
being soId in North A merica. In other parts of the world,
paints made with E VO Q U E designcd for their specific
needs are enjoying similar commercial success.
Formulating Protocol
When formulating architectural house p~ints with
E VO Q U E , we have deveIoped a protocol that is highlighted
in Table 5. In the high-quality fiat formulation in Table
6, we started with an existing conventional control paint
that already contained I~.O P A Q U E . P ocusing on the main
ingredients that contribute to the overall P VC of the
paint, we removed 1 5% of the TiO 2 and replaced it with
R O P A Q U E to keep tfie P VC constant. You could choose
to use more economical extenders or a combhaatio~ of
R O P A Q U E and extenders to maintain P VC in the corn-
TAB LE 31 Control and EVOQUE formulations used in the
color examples in Figure 8.
EVOQUE pre-composite
Slurry TiOa
Grind subtotal
Cellulosic thickener (100%)
TAMOL 1124 dispersant
Nepheline syenite
Grind subtotal
Slurry TiO2
R HOP LEX acrylic binder (53.5%)
R OP AQUE opaque polymer
P ropylene glycol
AMP -95 additive
ACR Y SOL R M-3000
rheology modifier
ACR Y SOL R M-895 theology
2, 5
13Z 5
306, 2
1114 .6
47 2 . 7
3, 0
posite pahat, but we fiud that using R O P A Q U E is the best
method when re-formulating, especially since these two
biding technologies work complementary to each other.
For the addition of E VO Q U E , we would recommend adding
the pre-composite polymer at a level of ~ ~.4 wet pounds
(46.5% solids) for every dry pound of TiO 2 remainhag to
fully saturate the surface of TiO 2 and facilitate good stabi-
lization of the pigment-polymer composite,
A s for dispersant level, it is best to keep the level constant
based on the total amount of mineral-based pigments and
extenders in the formulation. A s for coalescent demand,
again it is important to keep the level constant based on
total polymer solids in the formulation to facilitate good
film formation. A dditionally, most composite pahats require
less thickener since the hydrodynamic volume of the pig-
meat-polymer composite hacreases the inherent viscosity
of the paint due to the bound water at the surface.
Depending upon what test you use to determine paint
opacity or that strength, lurther adiustment of TiO 2 level
may be required. A lso, flatting materials may be added
or adjusted based upou your sheen requirements. A s for
other performance features, the composite paint was
FIGURE5 7a AN D 7b I Scanning electron micrographs show a more uniform
distribution of Ti02 in paints made with EVOQUE pre composite polymer
(b) compared to conventional binder (a). The brightness of the Ti02 in
conventional binder indicates that much of the Ti02 i5 at or above the
polymer surface.
FIGUR E 81 Tint strength and color matches over the entire color palette.
Control A (left) and R OP AQUE
Opaque P olymer (right)
Control B (left) and EVOQUE
P re~Composite P olymer (right)
Titanium White
R ed Oxide
Fast R ed
Medium Y ellow
Y ellow Oxide
P hthalo Green
P hthalo B lue
R aw U tuber
Lamp B lack
t 31
Advancements in TiO2 Composite Technology
TAB LE4 I Commercial EVOQUE pre-composite polymers in North America.
114 0 No
P remium Int/Ext
1180 Y es
P remium Int/Ext Flat-Gloss
1133 No
Quality Int/Ext Flat-SG
T~B LE5 J R eformulating protocol for EVOQUE pre composite polymer paints.
Conttol and Two Formulations
8racket TiO2 level to determine a hiding match
R emove 12% and 20% (suggested);
if only I paint is desired, remove 15%
K eep total dry binder weight constant
Add 1.4 wet pounds of pro-composite polymer (4 6.5%) for
every dry pound of TiO2 remaining
R educe the current binder to maintain total dry
binder weight
K eep Total P VC and VS constant
Add extender or, preferably, R OP AQUE
Adjust additives
Dispersant at constant % on mineral pigment and
extender solids
Coalescent at constant % on total polymer solids
(binder and R OP AQUE)
Thickener level is generally lower
TAB LE6 I R eformulation of a conventional paint with EVOQUE.
R OP AQUE opaque polymer
Total P VC
EVOQUE pre-composite
Scattering (S/rail)
Contrast ratio
Tint strength (Y , LB )
Gloss (60/85

Abrasive scrub (cycles)
Nousehold stain removal
Adhesion (gloss alkyd)
5 7 . 6
3 / 7
4 1 4
4 7 %
9 9
4 93
FIGURE 9 I Manufacturing process for composite paints with EVOQUE
pre-composite polymen
approximately cgual to, or slightly better than, the con-
ventional paint for abrasive scrub, stain removal and
alkyd adhesinn.
The Paint Making Process
P aint manufacturing with E VO Q U E pte-composite tech-
nology is nearly identical to the conventional point-mak-
ing process, Several paint lnanufacturing options have
been identified for E VO Q U E , using dry and sinny grades
of titanium dioxides.
We worked with a paint manufacturer to run several
250-gallon paint batch trials. Commercial quantities of
both a high-quality fiat and semigloss formulation were
made using E VO Q U E and universal-grade dry TiO 2 fol~
lowing the process outlined in Figure 9. The formation
of the composite - which is the combination of E VO Q U E
pro-composite poly~ner and Ti02 - is critical in the paint
making process.
In our paint plant trial, a grind was made in a separate
dispersion tank under normal conditions. A ll liquid mill
base materials were added first while mixing at 1 000
rpm. Dry extender pigments were added next and mixing
speed was increased to 1 500 rpln. Dry TiO 2 was added
while adjusting the mixing speed to 1 500-2000 rpm and
mixing lbr at least 1 5 rain. In a separate vessel or mixing
tank, we charged the E VO Q U E pre-colnposite polymer.
water and defoamer under agitation. The grind was
then added to the mixing tank with sufficient agitation
for at least 1 0 min. It is during this stage whereby the
TiO 2 is being added to E VO Q U E pro-composite polymer
that the composite is being formed and that the 1 0 rain
mix tinre ensures the composite reaction is complete.
The rest of the letdown materials were then added to the
batch while mixing at I000-1 500 rpm and adjusted with
water and thickeners to the desired high-and low-shear
viscosities of the final paint.
Performance Features
While the key advantage of E VO Q U E is hiding efficiency,
there are other possible performance benefits with this
technology due to its improved pigment distribution, Inte-
rior paint properties such as household stain resistance
1 0% Ti02 in a high-quality semigloss and 1 5% TiO 2 in a
high-quality flat when reformulating with E VO Q U E pre-
composite polymer. A side-by-side drawdown of the con-
ventional paint vs, the reformulated composite version of
the same paint is shown, Tea, coffee and grape juice were
applied to the dried paint fihn and allowed to penetrate
the fibn For 60 rain before they were rinsed with tap water.
The test panel was then washed with a non-abrasive
cleaner for 200 cycles using a Gardner Scrub Machine.
A s seen in the exalnple, the composite paint looks cleaner
compared to the conventional control paint.
O ther notable improvements have been seen with
E VO Q U E in our exterior durability testing, such as tan-
nin stain blacking and rust staining resistance. The
same high-quality fiat paints used in the stain remaval
examined after 1 8 months on our test fences located
in Spring House, P A . For tannin stain blocking testing,
we applied two coats of the test paints directly on a red-
wood panel. The panel was then placed horizontally face
down on the exposure rack. A s seen in the photo from
Figure 1 1 , the composite paint, while slightly yellow
in color due to some tannin bleeding, looks much bet
ter thml its conventional controh the same two paints
were also drawn down on a cold rolled steel panel, dried
overnight and then exposed on a north vertical rack.
A fter 1 8 months, the composite paint shows some slight
rust spots, but is much better tbau its conventional
control counterpart. These performance enhancelnents
observed with E VO Q U E can be attributed to the tighter
films that are formed because of the better distribution of
the Ti02 particles in the paint fihn. A s for other exterior
properties, we continue to monitor but expect equal to
improved performance over tinle.
Life Cycle Assessment and
Environmental Impact
We performed a comparative Life Cycle A ssessment (LCA )
of waterborne paints for interior and exterior wall protec-
tion and decoration in the context of the E uropean paint
market in order to better understand the environmental
impact arising lbom the use of R O P A Q U E and E Vt/Q IJE , The
goal of the LCA was to obtain an objective assessment of
the environmental perfornlance of the waterborne paints
produced with our opaque polymer and pre-composite
technologies and many pre existing conventional binder
technologies aml compare the results to help advance our
indusixys understanding of the situation.
The LCA was performed in compliance with the require-
meats of International Standards (ISO 1 4040 aml IS()
1 4044). A third party review and peel: reviews were per
formed by LCA and indust:ry experts to provide independent
opinions on this shldy, Several waterborne paint tbrmula-
tions reflecting typical P VCs were assessed in this LCA .
Both R O P A Q U E and E VO Q U E technologies offered a
better E co-P rofile due to the reduction of Ti02 levels in
the formulating paint systems tested. In general, paints
based on both R O P A Q U E opaque polymer and E VO Q U E
pre-composite polymer yiehted the lmvest impacls across
the categories studied in the life cycle stages P roduction,
A pplication, Maintenance and E nd-of Life.
FIGUR EIO I Household stain removal of convenlional vs.
composite paints.
Stain R emoval
High-Quality Semigloss
(26% P VC/36% VS)
Conventional Composite P aint
Stain R emoval
High-Quality Flat
{45% P VC/36% VS)
Conventional Composite P aint
FIGUR E 11 I Exterior durability off conventional vs. composite paints.
High-Quality Ex terior Flat
(4 5% P VC/36% VS)
Tannin Stain Blocking
1 8 Months
199 Ib TiO
Conventional Paint
12.5% TiO~ Reduction
Composite Paint
RUSt Staining ~es~sta nce
" Ovel~ ~old R~lled Steel
199 Ib 1;i0
; ; "
12.5% TiO~ Reduction
c~nventio~nal paint ~
Composite Paint
Left: High-quality flat made with conventional polymer
technology, R ight: High quality flat made with EVOQUE
pre-composite polymer technology.
R O P A Q IiE opaque polymer and E VO Q [IE pre-composite
polylner offer two distinct and complimentary approaches
to reducing the use levels of TiO
in interior and exterior
formulations, while maintaining equal hiding. A lterna
tively, they can also be used to significantly improve hid-
ing at equal TiO 2 levels. O ther benefits, such as reduced
formulation cost, improvements in barrier fi[lll properties,
and better E co-P rofile of both interior and exterior water~
borne paints, are also possible,
"Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company ("Dow") or an affiliated com-
he fihn formation process of one-compo-
nent waterborne formulations involves a
sequence of water evaporation, coales-
cence and further solidification. The
length of this process determines when
the coated substrate can be further processed or used, A
long drying time lengthens the total coating process until
finished parts can be used, further processed or stacked.
A ccelerating the development of a coatings early perfor-
mance characteristics allows for increased productivity
if a coating line can run faster, or if the interval between
nmlti-layer coatings can be shortened or if it can extend
the application period of a seasonally applied coating.
Waterborne coatings have several benefits. Stricter
regulations drive the need for lower V0C emissions, and
thus the use of waterborne solutions. In addition, water-
borne coatings are less hazardous in the application pro-
cess, are not fiammable, and equipment is safely cleaned.
Maior R &D efibrts on waterborne systems have resulted
in significant progress and broader availability of water-
borne solutions. Todays customers expect and demand
FIGUR E 1 I P roposed crosslinking mechanism of the nanoaddltive.
~ functionality
the availability of waterborne products that are perceived
as nmre green than solventborne alternatives.
Technically, waterborne coatings are high-tech prod-
ucts that are complex and delicate to fornmlate. This
situation increases the demand for a mare comprehensive
toolbox to balance the various performance and handling
requirements of watethorne coatings. Nanoparficles have
been used as functional ingredients in coatings for more
than 1 0 years, even though utilization was sometimes
hindered by handling constraints. A queous dispersion
additives based on inorganic nmaoparticles conlprise a
further advanced class of materials that extend the formu-
Iators toolbox for waterborne coatings.
N anoparticle-Based Dispersion Additives
Dispersions of inorganic particles are well established
in coatings, e.g., as pigment preparations. From geo-
metrical considerations it is well known that the specific
surface area increases drastically (I/x) as the particle
size decreases? Benefits that rely on the surface area of
active ingredients are therefore greatly enhanced when
nanoparticlcs are used. Small amounts of such active
ingredients can be very effective, which allows the use of
such materials as an additive in the lower percentage or
even sub-percentage range. In addition, these materials
can be used in clear and glossy coatings, as the visual
appearance remains unchanged.
When using laanoparticles, the dispersion qual-
ity provides a malor hurdle, as the particles need to
B y Steffen P ilotek, B usiness Development Director Nanotechnology I B uhler Inc. (Nanotechnology), Austin, TX ; and
I(lau$ Steingriiver, Head of R &D/lechnical Sales, and Mar~ Herold, Senior R esearch Chemist I B ONer P AR TEC GmbH,
Saarbr~Jcken, Germany