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**High Energy Density Conditions
**

Fran De Aquino

Professor Emeritus of Physics, Maranhao State University, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.

Copyright © 2014 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved.

It was recently detected an unidentified emission line in the stacked X-ray spectrum of galaxy clusters.

Since this line is not catalogued as being the emission of a known chemical element, several hypotheses

have been proposed, for example that it is of a known chemical element but with an emissivity of 10 or

20 times the expected theoretical value. Here we show that there is a divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann

equation at high energy density conditions. This divergence is related to the correlation between

gravitational mass and inertial mass, and it can explain the increment in the observed emissivity.

Key words: Stefan-Boltzmann law, Thermal radiation, Emissivity, gravitational mass and inertial mass.

1. Introduction

The recent detection of an unidentified

emission line in the stacked X-ray spectrum

of galaxy clusters [1] originated several

explanations for the phenomenon. It was

proposed, for example that the unidentified

emission line, spite to be non-catalogued, it

is of a known chemical element but with

intensity (emissivity) of 10 to 20 times the

expected value.

Here we show that there is a

divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann

equation at high energy density conditions.

This divergence is related to the correlation

between gravitational mass and inertial

mass, and it can explain the increment in the

observed emissivity.

2. Theory

The quantization of gravity shows that

the gravitational mass m

g

and inertial mass

m

i

are not equivalents, but correlated by

means of a factor χ , which, under certain

circumstances can be negative. The

correlation equation is [2]

( ) 1

0 i g

m m χ =

where is the rest inertial mass of the

particle.

0 i

m

The expression of χ can be put in the

following forms [2]:

( ) 2 1 1 2 1

2

2

0 ⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − = =

r

i

g

n

c

W

m

m

ρ

χ

( ) 3 1 1 2 1

2

3

2

0 ⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − = =

c

n D

m

m

r

i

g

ρ

χ

where is the density of electromagnetic

energy on the particle( ;

W

) kg J / D is the

radiation power density; ρ is the matter

density of the particle ( )

3

m kg ; is the

index of refraction, and is the speed of

light.

r

n

c

Equations (2) and (3) show that only

for 0 = W or 0 = D the gravitational mass is

equivalent to the inertial mass ( 1 = ) χ . Also,

these equations show that the gravitational

mass of a particle can be significtively

reduced or made strongly negative when the

particle is subjected to high-densities of

electromagnetic energy.

Another important equations obtained

in the quantization theory of gravity is the

new expression for the kinetic energy of a

particle with gravitational mass m

g

and

velocity V, which is given by [2]

( ) 4

2

0

2

1

2

2

1

V m V m E

i g kinetic

χ = =

Only for 1 = χ the equation above reduces to

the well-known expression

2

0

2

1

V m E

i kinetic

= .

The thermal energy for a single

particle calculated starting from this equation

is

2

0 2

1

V m T k

i B

= [3], where the line over the

velocity term indicates that the average value

2

is calculated over the entire ensemble;

is the Boltzmann

constant.

K J k

B

/ 10 38 . 1

23 −

× =

Now, this expression can be rewritten

as follows ( )

2

2

1

2

0

2

1

V m V m T k

g i B

= = χ χ . We

have put χ because is always positive,

and

T k

B

χ can be positive and negative. Thus,

we can write that

( ) ( ) 5

2

0 2

1

2

2

1

T k V m V m E

B i g thermal

χ χ = = =

Only for 1 = χ the expression of

reduces to .

thermal

E

T k

B

In the derivation of the Rayleigh-Jeans

law, the assumption that , and

that each radiation mode can have any energy

T k E

B thermal

=

E led to a wrong expression for the

electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black

body in thermal equilibrium at a definite

temperature, i.e., Since the continuous

Boltzmann probability distribution shows

that

( ) ( ) ( ) 6 exp exp

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

∝ =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

∝

T k

E

E P

E

E

E P

B thermal

One can conclude that the average energy per

mode is

( )

( )

( ) 7

0

0

T k

dE E P

dE E EP

E

B

= =

∫

∫

∞

∞

This result was later corrected for Planck,

which postulated that the mode energies are

not continuously distributed, but rather they

are quantized and given by

, where is the number

of photons in that mode. Thus

,... 3 , 2 , 1 , = = n nhf E n

( ) ( ) ( ) 8 exp

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

∝ =

T k

nhf

nhf P E P

B

and the average energy per mode can be

calculated assuming over only the discrete

energies permitted instead integrating over

all energies, i.e.,

( )

( )

∑

∑

∑

∑

∞

=

∞

=

∞

=

∞

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

= =

0

0

0

0

exp

exp

n

B

n

B

n

n

T k

nhf

T k

nhf

nhf

nhf P

nhf P nhf

E

whose result is

1 −

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

T k

hf

B

e

hf

E

or

( ) 9

1 −

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

T k

hf

B

B

B

e

T k hf

T k

E

Note that only for , this expression

reduces to

T k hf

B

<<

T k E

B

= (the classical

assumption that breaks down at high

frequencies). Equation (9) is therefore the

quantum correction factor, which transforms

the Rayleigh-Jeans equation( )

2 2

2 c kTf into

the Planck’s equation, i.e.,

( ) ( ) 10

1

1 2

1

2

,

2

3

2

2

−

=

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

T k

hf

T k

hf

B

B

B

e

c

hf

e

T k hf

c

kTf

T f I

However, in the derivation of the Planck’s

law the wrong assumption that T k E

B thermal

=

was maintained. Now, Eq. (5) tells us that we

must replace for T k

B

T k

B

χ . Then the

Planck’s equation must be rewritten as

( ) ( ) 11

1

1 2

,

2

3

−

=

T k

hf

B

e

c

hf

T f I

χ

( ) T f I , is the amount of energy per unit

surface area per unit time per unit solid angle

emitted at a frequency by a black body at

temperature T.

f

Starting from Eq. (11) we can write the

expression of the power density D

(watts/m

2

) for emitted radiation

( ) (12 ,

0

∫ ∫

Ω = =

∞

d df T f I

A

P

D )

To derive the Stefan–Boltzmann law, we

must integrate Ω over the half-sphere and

integrate from 0 to ∞. Furthermore, f

3

because black bodies are Lambertian (i.e.

they obey Lambert's cosine law), the

intensity observed along the sphere will be

the actual intensity times the cosine of the

zenith angle ϕ , and in spherical coordinates,

. Thus, θ ϕ ϕ d d d sin = Ω

( )

( ) ( ) 13

2

,

sin cos ,

0

1

3

2

0

0

2

0 0

2

df

e

f

c

h

df T f I

d d df T f I

A

P

D

T k

hf

B

∫ ∫

∫ ∫ ∫

∞

−

∞

∞

= =

= = =

χ

π

π

π

ϕ ϕ ϕ θ

π

Then, by making

T k

hf

u

B

χ

=

df

T k

h

du

B

χ

=

Then Eq. (13) gives

43 42 1

15

0

3

4

2

4

4

1

2

π

π

χ du

e

u

h

T k

c

h

D

u

B

∫

∞

−

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

The integral above can be done in several

ways. The result is, 15

4

π [4]. Thus, we get

( ) 14

15

2

4 4 4

3 2

4 5

4

T T

h c

k

D

B

B

σ χ

π

χ =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

where is the

Stefan-Boltzmann’s constant.

4 2 8

10 67 5 K m watts

B

° × =

−

/ . σ

Note that, for 1 = χ (gravitational mass

equal to inertial mass), Eq. (14) reduces to

the well-known Stefan-Boltzmann’s equation.

However, at high energy density conditions

the factor can become much greater than

1 (See Eqs. (2) and (3)). This divergence,

which is related to the

4

χ

correlation between

gravitational mass and inertial mass, can

explain the increment of 10 to 20 times in the

recently observed emissivity [1]. In this case,

we would have 20 10

4

to = χ 2 ≅ → − χ .

If we put 2 − ≅ χ and

0

2

μ B W = into

Eq. (2) the result is

( ) 15 10 1 . 5

2

21

5

2

0

r

r

n

n

c

B ρ

ρ μ

× = =

For example, in the case of a intergalactic

plasma with and

3

. 1

−

<< m kg ρ 1 ≅

r

n , Eq.

(15) gives

( ) 16 10 3 . 5

5

Tesla B × <<

Magnetic fields with these intensities are

relatively common in the Universe, and even

much more intense as for example, the

magnetic field of neutron stars ( to

Tesla) and of the magnetars ( to

Tesla) [

6

10

8

10

8

10

11

10 5, 6, 7].

In the case of Thermal radiation,

considering Eq. (14), we can put Eq. (3) in

the following form

( ) 17 1 1 2 1

2

3

2 4 4

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

c

n T

r B

ρ

σ χ

χ

For 2 − ≅ χ , we get

( ) 18 10 08 . 9 4

2

7

r

n

T

ρ

× =

For and Eq. (18) gives

3

. 1

−

<< m kg ρ 1 ≅

r

n

( ) 19 10 08 . 9

7

K T × <<

Temperatures are relatively

common in the Universe (close to a star, for

example).

K T

6

10 ≈

Thus, we can conclude that there are

several ways to produce 2 − ≅ χ in an

intergalactic plasma (or interstellar plasma)

in the Universe.

4

Equation (14) describes the power

density radiated from a blackbody. For

objects other than blackbodies, the

expression is

( ) 20

4 4

T e D

B

σ χ =

∗

where is the emissivity of the object.

Emissivity is therefore the ratio of energy

radiated by a particular material to energy

radiated by a blackbody at the same

temperature, i.e.,

e

D D e

∗

= . According to

Kirchhoff law of thermal radiation, at

thermal equilibrium (that is, at a constant

temperature) the emissivity of a material

equals its absorptivity.

Note that, according to Eq. (14), the

emissivity of a blackbody is not one, but

equal to , only in the case of

4

χ 1 = χ is that

the emissivity of the blackbody becomes

equal to 1. Similarly, the emissivity of

objects other than blackbodies, is given by

, and only in the case of e

4

χ 1 = χ is that the

emissivity of the object becomes equal to

(usual emissivity). Thus, at high energy

density conditions

e

( 1 > χ ) the emissivities of

the objects can surpass their usual values.

This fact, observed in the recent detection of

an unidentified emission line in the stacked

X-ray spectrum of galaxy clusters [1], has

also been observed in an experiment which

reveals that, under certain circumstances, the

emissivity of metamaterials can surpass its

usual emissivity [8].

5

References

[1] Bulbul E. et al. (2014) Detection of an Unidentified

Emission Line in the Stacked X-Ray Spectrum of Galaxy

Clusters ApJ 789, 13.

[2] De Aquino, F. (2010) Mathematical Foundations of

the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity, Pacific

Journal of Science and Technology, 11 (1), pp. 173-232.

[3] Schoeder, D. V. (1999) An introduction to Thermal

Physics, Addison-Wesley, p.15.

[4] Spiegel, M. R. (1973) Mathematical Handbook of

Formulas and Tables, McGraw-Hill, p.98.

[5] Mereghetti, S. (2008). The strongest cosmic

magnets: soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous

X-ray pulsars. Astronomy and Astrophysics Review

15 (4): 225–287, arXiv 0804.0250.

[6] Olausen, S. A. and Kaspi, V. M. (2014) McGill

SGR/AXP Online Catalog, The Astrophysical

Journal Supplement, Volume 212, Issue 1, article

id. 6, p. 22.

[7] Kouveliotou, C.; Duncan, R. C.; Thompson, C. (2003).

Magnetars, Scientific American, p. 35.

[8] Liu, X., et al (2011) Taming the Blackbody with

Metamaterials, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901.

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