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Batch: 2013-2014,
Enrollment No.:



I Ritika Pandey hereby declare that the project report entitled, A COMPERATIVE STUDY ON
INDIA under the guidance of Santosh Sir submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the award of degree of BBA is my original work - research study - carried out during VI

semester and not submitted for the award of any other degree/diploma/fellowship or other similar
titles or prizes to any other institution/organization or university by any other person.

Place :- Varanasi

Date :-




is the bonafide work of Ms. Ritika Pandey. (Enrollment No.- ), who carried out
the research under my supervision. I also certify further, that to the best of my knowledge the
work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of
which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any
other candidate.

Signature of the Faculty Guide
( )



As a part of my BBA Programmed I got the opportunity to make Comprehensive Project
practical course but the real challenge comes at field of work.
The practical training at BBA level is to develop the students a feel about industrial
environment of business practice in order to develop a practical bias in them as supplement to the
theoretical studies of the in general. The theoretical knowledge & concept ideas are the enough
background for this career development but the practical training is also having equal
contribution for the growth of career.
The BBA course is now a day in high demand. Administration is considered as a critical
element in the growth of any country. Indian industry is walking up to the challenges thrown in
by the market economy so, to survive in this highly competitive scenario practical studies are
gaining much more importance as compared to the critical knowledge and management students
have wide open space to fulfill their dreams. Students have an opportunity to make their career in
this field. The study of management is together with some practical knowledge such as industrial
visit makes the training, confident, capable and more component without any under stresses on
his mind.

So, it helps the student and given the theoretical knowledge to its real situation. As a result of
this research, I am trying my best to present an overlook about the organization as well as my
understanding business administration and indeed a matter of esteem honor itself.



I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind
support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere thanks
to all of them.
I have taken the opportunity to express the feeling of gratitude towards India Technological
University for keeping training project work as part of the BBA program.

I am highly indebted to Santosh Sir, faculty member and internal guide for motivating us and
keep Trust on us and also for help in our all problems. Their helpful solutions and comments
enriched by their experience for the betterment of the project. We sincerely acknowledge that
without her support this project would not have been feasible.
I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents & Professors and the Principal Dr. M.
R. Brahmachari of the Dhirendra Mahila College for their kind cooperation and
encouragement which help me in completion of this project.

My thanks and appreciations also go to my colleague and friends in developing the project and
people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.

Finally I would like to thank everyone who directly or indirectly helped me in the project.

With thanks to all.



The Concept of Opportunity and Constraints faced by women in Indian economy. Till the date
no study has been made on conducted thorough survey on the women opportunities which is
provided by government.
Till the date no study has been conducted on the women awareness regarding government gave
them opportunities and self development of her.
So, I have decided to make inferences through survey on finding out the Opportunity and
Constrains Faced by Women in Indian Economy in different areas.
So, the total population of the women in Varanasi area 5000. From the net based sample size
calculator of sampling size was decided as 135 samples to be surveyed of the women. And the
survey doing on Chitaipur , Lamhii, Shivpur.
The direct contacts were the methods of approaching the samples. Different methods were used
in collecting the information based on the questionnaire, general discussions & observation.
The survey was done through questionnaire and hence many of the findings, that majority of the
women are in aware of the Government Schemes.
I have done research about the women opportunities and constrains in a Varanasi (rural), and
nearby rural area. So many women have responded well, and hence my survey has responded
As per survey most of the women are agreed that the development of women & its schemes in
their day to day life and in the society that have made their life easier.


Ch. No. Particulars No Of Page
1. Part I - General Information
1.1 Overview of Women Opportunities
1.2 Overview of Indian Women Opportunities
1.3 Overview of Women Opportunities in India
2. Part II Primary Study
Introduction of The Study
2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Background Of The Study
2.3 Problem Statement
2.4 Objectives Of The Study
2.5 Hypothesis
3. Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Source Of Data
3.3 Data Collection Method
3.4 Population
3.5 Sampling Method
3.6 Sampling Frame
3.7 Sampling Procedure
3.8 Data Collection Instrument
4. Data Analysis And Interpretation
5. Result And Findings
6. Limitations
7. Conclusion




Women the word sounds so powerful. Since eternity, women have played a role more important
than men and that is no exaggeration. The world would not have been the same lovely adorable
and loveable place without wonderful contribution so selflessly made by women. It has been said
that, you teach a female and you build up a nation and truth cant be closer than that. Women
have always carried the burden of being a wife, mother, sister all on their own and we need not
to explain how magnificently they have carried this position.
In this dynamic world, women entrepreneurs are a significant part of the global expedition for
sustained economic development and social progress. Due to the growing industrialization,
urbanization, social legislation and along with the spread of higher education and awareness, the
emergence of Women owned businesses are highly increasing in the economies of
almost all countries.
In former days, for Women there were 3 Ks- Kitchen, Kids, Knitting, then came 3 Ps- Powder,
Pap pad, Pickles and now at present there are 4 Es- Electricity, Electronics, Energy, Engineering.
Indian women had undergone a long way and are becoming increasingly visible and successful
in all spheres and have shifted from kitchen to higher level of professional activities.
It's been over sixty years since our country gained independence, but Indian women are still not
allowed to move independently. Though woman is worshipped here as Goddess here, people
can't just restrain from committing atrocities against them. Women here experience many
hardships at various places right from home to working places.
I have heard some time ago that in developed countries like America, the couples do household
works together, but it is not the case in India. Here, women have to do the household works
alone while the husbands sit in front of the TV or read the newspaper slouching in a couch. After
about eight to twelve hours of work, a typical working woman in India has to return home
and make food for the rest of the family. There are, of course, husbands who help wives, but
majority of husbands fall into the other category.
I have heard some time ago that in developed countries like America, the couples do household
works together, but it is not the case in India. Here, women have to do the household works
alone while the husbands sit in front of the TV or read the newspaper slouching in a couch. After
about eight to twelve hours of work, a typical working woman in India has to return home

and make food for the rest of the family. There are, of course, husbands who help wives, but
majority of husbands fall into the other category.
Any strategy aimed at economic development will be lop-sided without involving women who
constitute half of the world population. Women entrepreneurship has gained momentum in the
last three decades with the increase in the number of women enterprises and their substantive
contribution to economic growth. The industrial performance of Asia-Pacific region propelled by
Foreign Direct Investment, technological innovations and manufactured exports has brought a
wide range of economic and social opportunities to women entrepreneurs.

India, with a population of 989 million, is the world's second most populous country. Of that
number, 120 million are women who live in poverty.
India has 16 percent of the world's population, but only 2.4 percent of its land, resulting in great
pressures on its natural resources.
Over 70 percent of India's populations currently derive their livelihood from land resources,
which includes 84 percent of the economically-active women.
India is one of the few countries where males significantly outnumber females, and this
imbalance has increased over time. India's maternal mortality rates in rural areas are among the
world's highest. From a global perspective, Indian accounts for 19 percent of all lives births and
27 percent of all maternal deaths. There seems to be a consensus that higher female mortality
between ages one and five and high maternal mortality rates result in a deficit of females in the
population. Chatterjee (1990) estimates that deaths of young girls in India exceed those of young
boys by over 300,000 each year, and every sixth infant death is specifically due to gender
discrimination." Of the 15 million baby girls born in India each year, nearly 25 percent will not
live to see their 15th birthday.
"Although India was the first country to announce an official family planning program in 1952,
its population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 844 million in 1991. India's total fertility rate of
3.8 births per woman can be considered moderate by world standards, but the sheer magnitude of
population increase has resulted in such a feeling of urgency that containment of population
growth is listed as one of the six most important objectives in the Eighth Five-Year Plan."
Since 1970, the use of modern contraceptive methods has risen from

10 percent to 40 percent, with great variance between northern and southern India. The most
striking aspect of contraceptive use in India is the predominance of sterilization, which accounts
for more than 85 percent of total modern contraception use, with female sterilization accounting
for 90 percent of all sterilizations.
The Indian constitution grants women equal rights with men, but strong patriarchal traditions
persist, with women's lives shaped by customs that are centuries old. In most Indian families, a
daughter is viewed as a liability, and she is conditioned to believe that she is inferior and
subordinate to men. Sons are idolized and celebrated. May you be the mother of a hundred sons
is a common Hindu wedding blessing.
The origin of the Indian idea of appropriate female behavior can be traced to the rules laid down
by Manu in 200 B.C.: "by a young girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing
must be done independently, even in her own house". "In childhood a female must be subject to
her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must
never be independent."
The Indian economy has been witnessing a drastic change since mid -1991, with new policies of
economic liberalization, globalization and privatization initiated by the Indian government. India
has great entrepreneurial potential. At present, women involvement in economic activities is
marked by a low work participation rate, excessive concentration in the unorganized sector and
employment in less skilled jobs.
There is a need for changing the mindset towards women so as to give equal rights as enshrined
in the constitution. The progress towards gender equality is slow and is partly due to the failure
to attach money to policy commitments. In the words of president APJ Abdul Kalam
"empowering women is a prerequisite for creating a good nation, when women are empowered,
society with stability is assured. Empowerment of women is essential as their thoughts and their
value systems lead to the development of a good family, good society and ultimately a good
When a woman is empowered it does not mean that another individual becomes powerless or is
having less power. On the contrary, if a women is empowered her competencies towards
decision- making will surely influence her family's behavior.


Pandit Jawaharlal Lal Nehru has remarked When women move forward, the family
moves, the village moves and the Nation moves.
It's been over sixty years since our country gained independence, but Indian women are still not
allowed to move independently. Though woman is worshipped here as Goddess here, people
can't just restrain from committing atrocities against them. Women here experience many
hardships at various places right from home to working places. Women played an important part
in India's independence struggle.
Some of the famous freedom fighters include Bhikaji Cama, Dr. Annie Besant, Pritilata
Waddedar, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Aruna Asaf Ali, Sucheta Kriplani and
Kasturba Gandhi. Other notable names include Muthulakshmi Reddy, Durgabai Deshmukh etc.
The Rani of Jhansi Regiment of Subhash Chandra Bose's Indian National Army consisted
entirely of women including Captain Lakshmi Sahgal. Sarojini Naidu, a poet and a freedom
fighter, was the first Indian woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress and
the first woman to become the governor of a state in India.
The womens movement and a wide-spread network of non- Government Organizations which
have strong grass-roots presence and deep insight into womens concerns have contributed in
inspiring initiatives for the empowerment of women.
In the words of president APJ Abdul Kalam "empowering women is a prerequisite for creating
a good nation, when women are empowered, society with stability is assured.

In the era of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization along with ongoing IT Revolution,
todays world is changing at a surprising pace. Political and Economic Transformations appear to
be taking place everywhere. These changes have created economic opportunities for women who
want to own and operate businesses.
The status of women in modern India is a sort of a paradox. If on one hand she is at the peak of
ladder of success, on the other hand she is mutely suffering the violence afflicted on her by her
own family members. As compared with past women in modern times have achieved a lot but in
reality they have to still travel a long way. Their path is full of roadblocks. The sex ratio of India
shows that the Indian society is still prejudiced against female.

There are 933 females per thousand males in India according to the census of 2001, which is
much below the world average of 990 females.
Women in India now participate in all activities such as education, sports, politics, media, art and
culture, service sectors, science and technology, etc.
Indira Gandhi, who served as Prime Minister of India for an aggregate period of fifteen years is
the world's longest serving woman Prime Minister.
The feminist activism in India picked up momentum during later 1970s.
One of the first national level issues that brought the women's groups together was the Mathura
rape case. The acquittal of policemen accused of raping a young girl Mathura in a police station,
led to a wide-scale protests in 19791980. The protests were widely covered in the national
media, and forced the Government to amend the Evidence Act, the Criminal Procedure Code and
the Indian Penal Code and introduce the category of custodial rape. Female activists united over
issues such as female infanticide, gender bias, women health, and female literacy.
The Government of India declared 2001 as the Year of Women's Empowerment (Swashakti).
The National Policy for the Empowerment of Women came was passed in 2001. In 2010 March
9, one day after International Women's day, Rajyasabha passed Women's Reservation Bill,
ensuring 33% reservation to women in Parliament and state legislative bodies.
The plight of women in medieval India and at the starting of modern India can be summed up in
the words of great poet Rabindranath Tagore: O Lord Why have you not given women the
right to conquer her destiny?
Why does she have to wait head bowed,
By the roadside, Waiting with tired patience,
Hoping for a miracle in the tomorrow"

The 21 Successful Leading Businesswomen in India
1. Akhila Srinivasan, Managing Director, Shriram Investments Ltd
2. Chanda Kocchar, Executive Director, ICICI Bank
3. Ekta Kapoor ,Creative Director, Balaji Telefilms
4. Jyoit Naik, President, Lijjat Papad
5. Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw, Chairman and Managing Director, Biocon
6. Lalita D Gupte, Joint Managing Director, ICICI Bank

7. Naina Lal Kidwai ,Deputy CEO, HSBC
8. Preetha Reddy, Managing Director, Apollo Hospitals
9. Priya Paul, Chairman, Apeejay Park Hotels
10. Rajshree Pathy, Chairman, Rajshree Sugars and Chemicals Ltd
11. Ranjana Kumar ,Chairman, NABARD
12. Ravina Raj Kohli, Media personality and ex-President, STAR News
13. Renuka Ramnath, CEO, ICICI Ventures
14. Ritu Kumar ,Fashion Designer
15. Ritu Nanda, CEO, Escolife
16. Shahnaz Hussain, CEO, Shahnaz Herbals
17. Sharan Apparao, Proprietor, Apparao Galleries
18. Simone Tata, Chairman, Trent Ltd
19. Sulajja Firodia Motwani, Joint MD, Kinetic Engineering
20. Tarjani Vakil, former Chairman and Managing Director, EXIM Bank
21. Zia Mody, Senior Partner, AZB & Partners

Some Bright Spots
India has world's largest number of professionally qualified women.
India has largest population of working women in the world.
Women Achiever:
With the help of these social reformers women of India slowly started recognizing her true
potential. She started questioning the rules laid down for her by the society. As a result, started
breaking barriers and earned a respectable position in the world. Today Indian women have
excelled in each and every field from social work to visiting space station. There is no arena,
which remained unconquered by Indian women. Whether it is politics, sports, entertainment,
literature, technology everywhere we can hear applauses for her.
Women of India are highly active today in this area. Sarojini Naidu, Vijaylakshami Pandit,
Sucheta Kriplani were the torchbearer for the women of India. Mrs.Vijay Lkshami Pandit was
the first Indian woman to hold a post in the cabinet. Thus paving the way for other women. The

most important name in the category of women politicians of recent times is Mrs Indira Gandhi.
She was the one who made world stop and notice the talent and potential of India women. She
was the first women Prime Minister of independent India. Today her daughter-in law Mrs Sonia
Gandhi is following her footsteps and leading the Indian National Congress.
Other women who have made their name in politics of India are Shiela Dixit, Uma Bharti,
Jayalalitha, Vasundhra Raje and Mamata Banerjee.
Indian women have achieved great laurels for the nation in every sport.
Whether it is cricket or hockey India have national women team for every game. Indian women
cricket team has won Asia Cup of 2004 and 2005 and made country proud. Some women sports
icons of India are:
P.T. Usha (Athletics)
Kunjarani Devi (Weight lifting)
Diana Edulji (Cricket)
Sania Mirza (Tennis)
Karnam Malleshwari (Weight lifting)
Art and Entertainment:
This arena is full of Indian women. We have many names to boast of like M.S.
Subbulakshmi, Indian Nightingale Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle as famous singers. Madhu
Bala, Rekha, Aishwarya Rai as Bollywood queens. Today Indian woman is a painter, an actor, a
singer, and a beauty queen.
In past women of India used to write, but their work did not get the recognition. Today they are
getting their dues. Arundhati Roy, Anita Desai, Kiran Desai, Shobhaa De, Jhumpa Lahiri are
famous names in Indian literature. Not just in India now these women are recognized all over the
world. Arundhati Roy has been awarded with the Booker Prize of 1997 for her work "God of
Small Things". Kiran Desai has been given Booker Prize of 2006 and Jhumpa Lahiri got
recognition in the form of Pulitzer Prize.
Corporate Divas:
Kiran Majumdar Shaw is the undisputed corporate queen of India. She is the richest Indian
woman. She is the MD of Biocon India. She is the wealthiest entrepreneur of India. Kiran

wanted to become a doctor but could not get admission in medical colleges but even then she did
not lose courage and went on to become India's first woman 'Brew Master' and subsequently
corporate queen. Another names in this list include Vidya Mohan Chhabaria, Chairperson of
Jumbo Group, Naina Lal Kidwai, Vice Chairperson and Managing Director of HSBC Securities
and Capital Market, Sullaijja Firodia Motwani and Mallika Srinivasan.
Social saints:
The Indian saint of today's times Mother Teresa is the name which every Indian whether rich or
poor is familiar with. She was the person who used to consider the smile of her countrymen as
her wealth. She worked for those whom even their own families have deserted. She did not care
whether she is in the company of a person suffering from communicable disease or whether it is
day or night. Whenever or wherever one needed her she was present.
She opened various homes for these people most famous of which is 'Nirmal Hriday". It is open
to everyone irrespective of caste, creed or religion.
Another important names working for the cause of people includes Aruna Roy who worked for
the save RTI Campaign and Medha Patekar who is associated with Narmada Bachao Andolan.
Universal Queens:
Indian women have not just made their mark on earth but they have engraved their name in the
whole universe by flying to space. Kalpana Chawla, who was the member of Colombia Space
Shuttle, which exploded on its way back, was the first Indian women astronaut who visited space
station. And now following on her footsteps and other women of Indian origin Sunita Williams
has become the second one to be the member of International Space Station
Indian women have mastered anything and everything which a woman can dream of. But she
still has to go a long way to achieve equal status in the minds of Indian men. The desire of Indian
women can be best summed up in the following lines of 'Song of an African Women':
I have only one request.
I do not ask for money
Although I have need of it,
I do not ask for meat . . .
I have only one request,
And all I ask is

That you remove
The road block
From my path.
Compared to their male counterparts, Indian women have had to face tougher challenges in
landing the perfect job in a male-dominated corporate scenario. However, nothing has stopped
them from pursuing and excelling in lucrative professional careers without compromising on
their multi-faceted roles on the domestic front. Here is a listing of the best career opportunities
for 2010 that women in India can prove their mettle in.
Writer / Editor
At a time when India is looked upon as the wordsmith for the rest of the world, women with an
excellent command over literature / language can write for a living as business/technical/medical
writers, web content developers, manuscript translators, magazine editors, copywriters, speech
writers and corporate communication professionals. The independence this career guarantees
makes it one of the top-notch jobs for women.
Ever since Cornelia Sorabji became the first woman to become a barrister in India, several others
have followed suit. Today, there is an All India Federation of Women Lawyers to boast of and
Indian courts are witnessing a substantial increase in the number of women lawyers.
I T Analyst
With computerization having permeated every sphere of life, the demand for software
professionals has gone up manifold, making this segment a much sought-after job for women.
There is a plethora of opportunities for Indian women to spearhead the segment as IT Analysts,
Database Administrators, Project Leaders and Software Programmers and much more.
Media Journalist
An increasing number of Indian women are making an impact in media journalism these days.
Though considered a challenging field, this is one job that has the most number of women,
making it one of the top 10 job opportunities for women in India. With numerous private news
and media channels in the fray, the scope of job opportunities as a media journalist is endless.
Women can choose to specialize as a reporter, freelance journalist, columnist or an expert on

diverse niches. A Bachelors degree in Mass Media / Journalism after completing 12 years of
schooling is what it takes to be a trained journalist.
Barkha Dutt one of the most noted and respected Indian journalists Corporate Trainer
The job of a corporate trainer is a specialized one, requiring the ability to help hard-core
professionals improve their soft skills. Modern Indian women are choosing to become
corporate trainers because of the creative satisfaction it gives. With more and more companies
requiring employees with above average Emotional/Spiritual Quotient to handle workplace
stress, corporatetraining is high on the agenda of every business.
Clinical Research Professional
Known in job circles as the career of tomorrow, 50,000 clinical researchers are being sought
by multi-national companies in 2010 alone. The job opportunities that await a trained clinical
research professional are multitudinous at government departments, pharmaceutical industry,
research and investigative institutes and hospitals. This sector is among the top 10 career options
for women because the number of job openings in India is plentiful and predicted to double
every year.
India and its female population can enjoy a lucrative career in clinical research.

Interior Designer
It takes a woman to transform a house into a home. Enchasing on this universal stand, interior
designing is a top work opportunity most women find appealing. Though some of the best
designers in the world are men, it is a little known fact that they derive inspiration from the
women around them. Since most interior designers specialize in a specific area, women are
finding to easier to carve a niche for themselves in home interiors while the men take a dig at
corporate settings.
Interior designers have always been and shall continue to be a womens favorite career path.

Event Manager:
Considering the ease with which most women can handle day-to-day events such as their little
ones birthday party, dinner with friends, and weekend get-togethers, event management is one
career path that screams out for a womans touch. The increasing number of corporate meetings,
training seminars, product exhibitions, musical concerts, fashion show, launches parties,

wedding celebrations and other events makes event management a top work opportunity for
women with substance.
The statistics testifies to the brutalities afflicted on women
Social Indicator India World
Infant Mortality Rate, per 1000 live births 73 60
Maternal Mortality Rate, per 100,000 live
570 430
Female Literacy, % 58 77.6
Female School Enrollment 47 62
Earned Income by females, % 26 58
Underweight Children, % 53 30
Total Fertility Rate 3.2 2.9
Women in Government, % 6 7
Contraception usage, % 44 56
Low birth weight babies, % 33 17
Though there are problems in the lives of Indian women but they are always
ready to fight all the odds and enjoy their life to the full they have their own
talent, hobbies, and they socialize according to Indian customs.
Sonia Gandhi, President, Congress Party
Sonia Gandhi was born in Italy, but this woman is part of our country in a way
that surpasses all. Coming from the controversial Gandhi family, and despite
the dangers involved, she joined Indian politics in 1998, taking charge of the
Congress party. In 2004, she gave up the position of Prime Minister to Dr.
Manmohan Singh, giving out a strong message to the opponents who wrote
her off as a foreigner.
Indra Nooyi, Chief Executive, Pepsi Co
PepsiCo's India-born chief Indra Nooyi schooled in Madras but later went on

to study at Yale University, USA. This corporate honcho started her career at Boston Consulting
Group and then moved on to Motorola and Asea Brown Boveri. When she joined Pepsi Co. in
1994, she fine-tuned the company with her bold risk-taking. Seven years later, her efforts paid of
and she became president of the company. Over the years, she has been featured on lists like
'World's 100 Most Powerful Women' and 'America's Best Leaders' as well.
Indu Jain, Chairperson (former), Times Group
The multi-faceted Indu Jain was the former chairman of the The Times Group, the biggest and
most powerful media house in India. Now, her two sons Samir and Vineet are running the
company. Indu, a humanist, addressed the United Nations in 2000 at the Millennium World
Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders, stressing the need for oneness among faiths.
Neelam Dhawan, Managing Director, Microsoft (India)
Neelam Dhawan is an iconic figure in the IT industry of India. She was rejected from two jobs as
they felt women were not cut out for marketing and sales. Having worked in the field for 20
years in companies like Microsoft, IBM and HCL, she is now the new Managing Director of HP.
Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw, Biocon
Encouraged by her father, Kiran became a Master Brewer, after studying brewery at Ballarat
University. From being a trainee brewer at Carlton & United Beverages in 1974 to setting up her
own company, Biocon, working from a garage, Kiran is quite a success story! At a time when
biotechnology was not known in India, she worked hard and turned Biocon into the biggest
biopharmaceutical firm in India. And here's something you probably didn't know about her: She
was Indias richest woman back in 2004.
Priya Paul, Apeejay Surendra Group
Straight after finishing her Bachelors in Economics from USA, Priya dove into her family
business at the age of 24. This was after her father Surendra Paul was assassinated in 1990. The
Apeejay Surendra Group that he founded has several subsidiaries such as tea, hotel, shipping,
retail, real estate and financial services. At present, Priya is the Chairperson of Apeejay Park
Vidya Manohar Chhabria, Chairman, Jumbo Group
Working for her husband's company Jumbo Group, Vidya has come a long way since his death
in 2002. She became chairperson of the company which is a $2 billion business conglomerate!

Whats more, her three daughters help mommy dearest in running the business. Vidya was been
featured a number
of times in Fortune magazine's List of Most Powerful Women
Simone Tata, Managing Director, Lakme
Simone Tata was instrumental in changing a small unknown cosmetics
company, one of the subsidiaries of Tata Oil Mills, into one of the leading
cosmetic companies in India. Her success earned her the title of Cosmetic
Czarina of India. She joined Lakme in 1961 and became Chairperson in 1982.
The company is now sold to Hindustan Lever, while Simone is head of Trent
Limited another subsidiary of the Tata Company.
Anu Aga, Chairperson (former), Thermax Group
Anu Aga was thrust into her role as chairperson of Thermax after her
husbands death. This left the company in a really bad state financially. But
taking stock of the situation, Anu brought in a consultant from abroad which
proved to be a blessing, getting the company back on its feet in no time. She
stepped down from the post of chairperson in 2004. Anu now gives her time to
social activities.
Sulajja Firodia Motwani, Kinetic Motor
With good looks and a genius understanding of the market, Sulajja worked in
a California-based Investment Company before coming to India to join her
grandfather's business. She travels a lot across the country and the key to her
success can be attributed to her people skills. She is the Joint Managing
Director of Kinetic Motors.


Economic Growth, Poverty and Gender Inequality
There exists a two-way link between economic growth and poverty, and gender
inequality. On one level, poverty and the lack of growth exacerbated gender disparities.
Inequalities between girls and boys in access to schooling or adequate health care were

more acute among poor people than among those with higher incomes. And while poor
people had less access to such productive resources as land and credit, poor women
generally had the least access of all. Similarly, girls and womens health and schooling
were more vulnerable to economic downturns than those of boys and men. On another
level, gender inequalities undermined the prospects for poverty reduction in fundamental
ways. While disparities in basic rights, access to schooling, credit and jobs, and the
ability to participate in public life took their most direct toll on women and girls, the
evidence showed that gender inequality ultimately hindered economic growth.
The rationale for economically empowering women is compelling for both for its
own sake (intrinsic) and for other spillover benefits (instrumental). Research indicates
that economic participation of womentheir presence in the workforce in quantitative
termsis important not only for lowering the disproportionate levels of poverty among
women, but also as an important step toward raising household income and encouraging
economic development in countries as a whole. Amartya Sen makes a compelling case
for the notion that societies need to see women less as passive recipients of help, and
more as dynamic promoters of social transformation, a view strongly buttressed by a
body of evidence suggesting that the education, employment and ownership rights of
women have a powerful influence on their ability to control their environment and
contribute to economic development.
However, participation alone is not enough, quality of womens work is critical. A
key challenge is to overcome a situation where women may gain employment with
relative ease, but where their employment is either concentrated in poorly paid or
unskilled job ghettos, characterized by the absence of upward mobility and
opportunity. For example: women are most often concentrated in feminized
professions, such as nursing and teaching, office work, care of the elderly and disabled
termed horizontal occupational segregationwhere they tend to remain in lower job
categories than men. Typically, because these functions are carried out by women, they
are the lowest paid, in addition to offering limited or no opportunity for advancement.
The term feminization of poverty is often used to illustrate the fact that a substantial
percentage of poor are women and that the gap between women and men in poverty has
not lessened, but may well have widened in the past decade.

Further, globalization has dramatically changed the conditions under which the work
for gender equality must be carried out, especially in high growth countries like India.
While globalization has generated opportunities for local producers and entrepreneurs to
reach international markets, it has at times intensified existing inequalities and
insecurities for many poor women, who already represent two-thirds of the worlds
poorest people. Since the gains of globalization are often concentrated in the hands of
those with higher educationthose who own resources and have access to capitalpoor
women are usually the least able to seize the longer term opportunities offered.
Womens Work in India -- Invisible, Unrecognized and Unremunerated
India has 397 million workers
123.9 million are women
106 million are in rural areas
18 million are in urban areas
Only 7% of Indias labour force is in the organized sector; 93% is in unorganized,
informal sector
96% of women workers are in unorganized sector
Female work participation rate (WPR) has increased from 19.7% in 1981 to 25.7% in
In rural areas female WPR has increased from 23.1 to 31%
In urban areas it has increased from 8.3 to 11.6%
But women reported as non workers in the census found to spending 4 hours a day
picking, sowing, grazing cattle, threshing, or working as domestic servants for 8-10 hours
a day!
ILO methodological studies indicate that measured female labour-force activity rates rose
radically with a wider definition of "economic activity" to cover informal sector and nonmarket
activities from 13% to 88% in India.
In last two decades, this disadvantage has been exacerbated as in most of the countries,
policies reflect a commitment to global norms of markets and social policy is
increasingly determined by market dynamics. Market friendly policies generate high
growth rates that fail to translate into improved standards of health, education and human
security. Feminist scholars have highlighted the gendered impact of such policies, many
of which increase womens job vulnerability, unpaid work burden, while reducing state

level resources that might be used to provide a social safety net. Owing to dissent voiced
by feminist scholars on the widespread assumption that gender inequality as a challenge
can be overcome with effective and sustained advocacy as it is more about mindsets and
less about policies, especially economic policies, there have been some attempts to
integrate economic and social policies but gender concerns have not been accorded
requisite attention. These disadvantages have led to a situation where gains in womens
economic opportunities lag behind those in womens capabilities. This is inefficient,
since increased womens labor force participation and earnings are associated with
reduced poverty and faster growth, women will benefit from economic empowerment but
so too will men, children and society as a whole. Womens lack of economic
empowerment, on the other hand, not only impedes growth and poverty reduction, but
also has a host of other negative impacts including less favorable education and health
outcomes for children and a more rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. Thus, it is extremely
important to ensure that women are economically empowered. There are various factors
that contribute to the economic empowerment of women. These factors operate at various

In the current scenario, one can identify the following characteristics of womens work in India:
1. Volatility of employment-- particularly export-oriented employment. In less then one
generation, there had been massive shifts of womens labour into the paid workforce and
then the subsequent ejection of older women and even younger counterparts into more
fragile and insecure forms of employment. Womens livelihoods in rural areas had been
affected by the agrarian crisis in most developing countries.
2. Changes in the nature of womens work -- including an increase in informal work,
characterized by greater reliance on casual contracts and an increase in service work.
There had been a substantial increase in self-employed low-end service work, especially
in domestic and retail trade.
3. Increase in unpaid work --The impact of the decline in the public provision of many
basic goods and services had meant a substantial increase in unpaid work.
4. Crisis of livelihoods in agriculture -- The effect of trade liberalization had been
accompanied by a decline in world agriculture prices. Agriculture constituted the main
employer of women in the developing world and the basic source of income for most of

the worlds poor.
5. Massive increase in womens migration for work --What was new historically was the
fact that women were moving alone. Cross-border migration had become a huge issue.
While it had become a source of macroeconomic stability, it was also a source of
exploitation. Internal migration had also increased. Migrant workers had few rights, and
governments rarely thought about ensuring their protection.
India Government transforms lives and follows the Gandhian
Principles. Gandhiji said, If one boy is educated, a child becomes literate but
if a girl is educated, the whole family gets literacy. The Government believes
in reforming lives and brings revolutionary change in the mindsets of people
for education-socio-economical growth.
The Word Bank has suggested that empowerment of women should be
a key aspect of social development programs (World Bank, 2001). India has
also ratified various international Conventions committed to securing equal
rights to women. The National Policy for The Empowerment of Women
(2000) states that The womens movement and a widespread network of
NGOs which have strong grassroots presence and deep insight into womens
concerns have contributed in inspiring initiatives for the empowerment of
women. However, the policy also speaks of a wide gap between the goals
enunciated in the Constitution, legislative Policies, plans, programs, and the
related mechanisms on the one hand and the situational reality of the status
of women in India, on the otherGender equality manifests itself in various
forms, the most obvious being the trend of continuously declining female ratio
in the population in the last few decades. Social stereotyping and violence at
the domestic and societal levels are some of the other manifestations.
In 1990s, grants from foreign donor agencies enabled the formation of
new women-oriented NGOs. Self-help groups and NGOs such as Self
Employed Women's Association (SEWA) have played a major role in
women's rights in India. Many women have emerged as leaders of local
movements. For example, Medha Patkar of the Narmada Bachao Andolan.
The WCD operates under important functionaries:

Gaurav Nari Niti - Womens Pride, Gender Equality
Swayamsidh Yojna Self Reliance and empowerment
Vidhva Sahay and Talim Yojna
Nari Adalat
Kunverbai nu Mameru scheme
Mahila Vrudh Ashram
Sakhi Mandal Yojna
Gaurav Nari Niti Womens Pride ,Gender Equality:
The Government decided to formulate the Nari Gaurav Niti
(GEP) in the year 2002. The State has sanctioned and announced the state
policy for Gender Equity as Nari Gaurav Niti. India Government formulated
the Nari Gaurav Niti Policy with a view to create awareness in all its
Administrative Departments on the socio-economic-educational and
developmental sector of women and benefit them through the policy by active
involvement of departments for timely modus operandi. It consists of action
plans and monitoring mechanisms and addresses public as well as private
sectors. The autonomous Gender Resource Centre provides technical inputs
in implementation and monitoring of the policy at State level. Working groups
are formed and a series of deliberations take place on all aspects of gender
equity and equality.
Swayamsidh Yojna Self Reliance and Empowerment:
Swayamsidha is an integrated project for the development and
empowerment of women. Swayamsiddha (swayam or self and siddha the
one who has proven capability or is empowered) project was introduced by
GOI during 2001 to 2002 replacing the erstwhile Indira Mahila Yojana. The
long term objective of the scheme is to achieve an all round empowerment of
women socio-economical-cultural empowerment by ensuring their direct
access to, and control over, resources through a sustained process of
mobilization and convergence of all ongoing sector programs.
The WCD of India implements the policy to help rural women be
self reliant, gain confidence and learn the art of savings. It also focus on

Community oriented innovations, working in groups, building team spirit,
mobilization of activities, gaining knowledge and awareness to empower
financially. This project is envisaged in 20 regions at 26 spots covering 1760
villages which include 43,200 women and 2700 initiating helpers. This project
has brought women into the mainstream of development in the rural areas of
Vidhva Sahay and TalimYojna:
The Department is sensitive towards women 18-40 years, who have
lost their husbands and initiates policy for their empowerment and economic
living condition. For their economical living, under Manav Garima Yojna, Rs.
3000/- margin money is given to help them stand on their feet on their own
and empower living. Women in the age group of 18-60 years are provided
monetary help by way of application. The applicant gets Rs.500/- and two
children gets Rs.80/- (per child) every month Through post office.
Nari Adalat:
The concept devised By women for women - the Nari Adalats is
operational for legal justice in over 19 regions in India. Women jurists
dispense justice in womens cases of divorce, abandonment, violence, rape
and dowry demands. These courts are set up for women empowerment and
gender justice. These courts are not recognized by the State as a legal forum.
However, the autonomous hybrid institutions are para legal authority that who
solve women cases faster than judicial courts. These courts are helping rural
women overcome problems encountered in the normal judicial system.
Inaccessibility, cost, time, unfamiliarity with legal procedures, inadequate
resources, and a traditional disregard of the needs of women all solutions
get speedy, efficacy, and cost effective.
Kunverbai nu Mameru scheme:
WCD makes provisions for monetary help to scheduled caste for their
daughters marriage under Kunverbai nu mameru scheme. Those who gets
an annual income of Rs.11,000/- can avail Rs.5000/- for their one daughters
marriage. For this, Rs.2000/- are given to girls parents/guardian and

Rs.3000/- is given to the girl in the form of Kisan Vikas Patra.
Mahila Vrudh Ashram:
Old Parents are day by day being neglected by the Youth. As a result,
the WCD has made special arrangements for uncared women and foster their
needs. State Government has set up Old Age Homes for such destitute.
Exclusive Women Old Age homes are structured with an exclusive existing
Home at Jamnagar

Sakhi Mandal Yojna
The Project is to enable the poor women, particularly in rural areas of
India to improve their access to resources and consequently strengthen
livelihoods and quality of life. Sakhi Mandals are formation of women self help
groups based on thrift and credit principles. It provides financial services to
accelerate the process of economic development and ensure welfare of
women. They are encouraged to foster decision skills and develop a
framework of wider range of participation in micro finance development. In
one year, the India Government aims for one lack Sakhi Mandals across
the state.
Project Objectives
Enable the poor women, particularly in rural areas of India to improve
their access to resources and consequently strengthen livelihoods and quality
of life.
Formation of women self help groups based on thrift and credit
Facilitating sustained access of poor to financial services and
consequently accelerate the process of economic development.
Promote human capital development and ensure welfare of women in
which they participate in making decisions.
Convergence of services and benefit of various government
department-thus develop a framework of a wider range partnership in
micro finance development.

Project Area
Entire State of India
Time Frame
Three Year - From 2006-07 to Janauary 2010
Total Budget
Rs.94 crore (inclusive of Rs.50 crore for Revolving Fund Grant
@ Rs.5000 per group) for three years.
Implementing Strategy
The implementing strategy would be broadly divided into two parts.
1. Tracking and Credit linkage of existing SM Groups
2. Formation, nurturing & linkage of new SM Groups
Formation of new Sakhi Mandal and revive the existing Sakhi
Mandal through ICDS (85%) and NGOs. (15%)
Goals Envisaged For Formation And Nurturing Of Sakhi Mandal
To track existing reported SHGs (1.44 lakh)
To credit link additional 25,000 existing SHGs (35,000 already
credit linked)
To form additional 1.40 lakh SHGs
To credit link 1 lakh new SHGs
Incentives: ICDS
Anganwadi Workers @ Rs.1500 per group
(SB a/c 300, Credit Linkage700, Repayment500)
Supervisors & ACDPOs @ Rs.3000 per 50 groups
(SB a/c 500, Credit Linkage1500, Repayment1000)
CDPOs @ Rs.6000 per 300 groups
(SB a/c 1000, Credit Linkage3000, Repayment2000)
Incentives: NGO
Incentives @ Rs.3000 per group to be paid in stages
On acceptance of Terms and Conditions Rs.300/- (10%)
Opening of SB a/c Rs.600/- (20%)

Credit linkage Rs.900/- (30%)
Repayment Rs.900/- (30%)
Evaluation Rs.300/- (10%)
250 social workers one per block & 1 per district (7500 per month
including Salary, TA, DA, Stationary & other office expenses)
Progress at a glance ( February 2010 ending)
New Sakhi Mandal
Sr. No Particulars Status
1 No. of Sakhi Mandal Formed 1,56,201
2 Total Members of Sakhi Mandals 19,74,890
3 Sakhi Mandal Saving (Rs. in Lakh) 9927.39
4 No. of Sakhi Mandal started
5 Amount Inter-loaned (Rs. in Lakh) 5008.18
6 Groups Linked with Banks 95460
7 Amount of Credit by Bank
(Rs. in Lakh)
8 No.of Sakhi Mandal engaged in
Income-generation activities
Existing Groups
Sr. No Particulars Status
1 No. of SHGs tracked 66431
2 No. of female groups 564834
3 Total Revived 5202
4 Total saving by SHGs(Rs. in Lakh) 832.62
5 No. of SHG given Revolving Fund 2964
6 Amount of Revolving Fund (


Self Employed Women's Association (SEWA), India, India
India is an arid and semi-arid state in the northwest of India and has been
frequently hit by climatic crises. The primary challenges in India are to
enhance literacy rates, especially among rural women, and to reduce the risks
to the rural poor resulting from crises (particularly climatic crises). SEWA is a
registered trade union with a remit to organize women workers for full
employment. Through its integrated approach to employment and selfreliance,
workers can obtain work, income, food and social security. The
organization now has 966,139 members across nine states in India, with the
majority (519,309) living in India. It currently runs nine campaigns (homebased
workers, vendors, clean Varanasi, water, forest workers, health
workers, childcare, informal economy and agriculture). Like all the
interventions studied, SEWA has taken a self-help group (SHG) approach to
womens empowerment.
Interviews and group discussions were held with groups from the villages of nagwa, susuwahi,
samne ghat.


Women at risk: indicators of social vulnerability
These and other indicators of women's life chances, social status,
and living conditions reduce the ability of girls and women to prepare
for, cope with, and recover from disasters.
A skewed sex ratio (934 women: 1000 men) in India reflects conditions
prevailing across India (927:1000);
An estimated 25 million women are "missing" due to sex-specific abortion,
femicide, high rates of violence against women, nutrition and health care
preferences disadvantaging girls, and other factors;
65% of all Indian women report having experienced some form of domestic
violence, with the highest rates reported among women employed as
agricultural laborers;
54% of Indiai women marry before the age of 18; marriages are often
arranged; widows rarely remarry, especially in rural areas;
The average Indian woman is younger than 22 when she bears her first child
and lacks control over her own fertility;
45 % of Indiai women need permission to go to the market and 49% to visit
friends and relatives; 29% are not involved in decisions even about their own
health and 10 % about what to cook; only one quarter have access to
household money;
Fewer women (48.6%) than men (73.13%) over six enjoy functional literacy;
literacy rates are lower among adavasi or tribal women (24.20%) and women
in the Scheduled Castes (45.5%);
One in four girls did not attend school in India even before the earthquake
destroyed their schools; many of these "nowhere children" are likely to be
working in the informal sector;
The vast majority of the nation's women earn income through informal work,
where working conditions are poor and few workers are organized;
Women hold fewer than 8% of parliamentary seats, 6% of cabinet positions,
and 3% of administrative and managerial positions in the nation;

Indian women earn an average of 30% less than men;
100,000-120,000 women across India die every year due to pregnancyrelated
problems; half of all married women suffer from anemia.
Most Indian women do not own any property in their own names and don't
inherit parental property; barely 2% of women claim their family property
Sources: Sen and Kumar, 2001; Government of India, 2000.




Todays women are taking more and more professional and technical
degrees to cope up with market need and are flourishing as de signers,
interior decorators, exporters, publishers, garment manufacturers and still
exploring new avenues of economic participation. It is perhaps for these
reasons that Government Bodies, NGOs, Social Scientists, Researchers and
International Agencies have started showing interest in the issues related to
entrepreneurship among women in India. Women entrepreneurs explore the
prospects of starting a new enterprise; undertake risks, introduction of new
innovations, coordinate administration & control of business & providing
Effective leadership in all aspects of business and have proved their footage
in the male dominated business arena.
What is Empowerment?
Empowerment has thus helped women to realize their identity,
capability, strengths and power. They also have greater self-confidence and
awareness of their rights, are more assertive and more vocal in mixed forums.
Empowerment for women also means being able to overcome shyness and to
talk and act confidently.
Empowering women has become a frequently cited goal of
development interventions. However, while there is now a significant body of
literature discussing how womens empowerment has been or might be
evaluated, there are still major difficulties in so doing. Furthermore many
projects and programmers which espouse the empowerment of women show
little if any evidence of attempts even to define what this means in their own
context let alone to assess whether and to what extent they have succeeded.
Instead traditional development goals, such as better health or increased
income, are cited as evidence of empowerment.

In such cases it is not clear what is added by using the word
empowerment. Despite its having identified empowerment as a primary
development assistance goal neither the World Bank nor any other major

development agency has developed a rigorous method for measuring and
tracking changes in levels of empowerment Different people use
empowerment to mean different things. However there are four aspects which
seem to be generally accepted in the literature on womens empowerment.
Firstly to be empowered one must have been disempowered. It is
relevant to speak of empowering women, for example, because, as a group,
they are disempowered relative to men.
Secondly empowerment cannot be bestowed by a third party. Rather
those who would become empowered must claim it. Development agencies
cannot therefore empower womenthe most they can achieve is to facilitate
women empowering themselves. They may be able to create conditions
favorable to empowerment but they cannot make it happen.
Thirdly, definitions of empowerment usually include a sense of people
making decisions on matters which are important in their lives and being able
to carry them out. Reflection, analysis and action are involved in this process
which may happen on an individual or a collective level. There is some
evidence that while womens own struggles for empowerment have tended to
be collective efforts, empowerment-orientated development interventions
often focus more on the level of the individual.
Finally empowerment is an ongoing process rather than a product.
There is no final goal. One does not arrive at a stage of being empowered in
some absolute sense. People are empowered, or disempowered, relative to
others or, importantly, relative to themselves at a previous time.

The extent of empowerment of women in the national hierarchy is determined
largely by the three factors her economic, social and political identity and their
weightage. These factors are deeply intertwined and interlinked with many cross cutting
linkages which imply that if efforts in even one dimension remain absent or weak,
outcomes and momentum generated by the other components cannot be sustained as they
will not be able to weather any changes or upheavals. It is only when all the three factors
are simultaneously addressed and made compatible with each other can the woman be

truly empowered. Therefore for holistic empowerment of the woman to happen - social,
economic and political aspects impacting a womans life must converge effectively.
Constitutional provisions
Women as an independent group constitute 48% of the countrys total population
as per the 2001 Census. The importance of women as a important human resource was
recognised by the Constitution of India which not only accorded equality to women but
also empowered the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in their favour. A
number of Articles of the Constitution specially reiterated the commitment of the
constitution towards the socio economic development of women and upholding their
political right and participation in decision making.
Drawing the strength from the constitutional commitments, the Government of
India has been engaged in the continuous endeavor of concretely translating all the rights,
commitments and safe guards incorporated in the Indian Constitution for women from de
jure to de facto status.
Box 1
Article 14 - Men and women to have equal rights and opportunities in the political,
economic and social spheres.
Article 15(1) - Prohibits discrimination against any citizen on the grounds of
religion, race, caste, sex etc.
Article 15(3) - Special provision enabling the State to make affirmative
discriminations in favour of women.
Article 16 - Equality of opportunities in matter of public appointments for all
Article 39(a) - The State shall direct its policy towards securing all citizens men
and women, equally, the right to means of livelihood.
Article 39(d) Equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
Article 42 - The State to make provision for ensuring just and humane conditions
of work and maternity relief.
Article 51 (A)(e) To renounce the practices derogatory to the dignity of women.


Legislations and laws for women
The State enacted several women-specific and women-related legislations to
protect women against social discrimination, violence and atrocities and also to prevent social
evils like child marriages, dowry, rape, practice of Sati etc. The recently notified
Prevention of Domestic Violence Act is a landmark law in acting as a deterrent as well as
providing legal recourse to the women who are victims of any form of domestic violence.
Apart from these, there are a number of laws which may not be gender specific but still
have ramifications on women.

Equal Remuneration Act of 1976 provides for equal pay to men and women for
equal work.
Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 amended in 1976 provides the right for girls to
repudiate a child marriage before attaining maturity whether the marriage has been
consummated or not.
The Marriage (Amendment) Act, 2001 amended the Hindu Marriage Act, Special
Marriage Act, Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, the Code of Criminal Procedure
providing for speedy disposal of applications for maintenance; the ceiling limit for
claiming maintenance has been deleted and a wide discretion has been given to the
Magistrate to award appropriate maintenance.
The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act of 1956 as amended and renamed in 1986
makes the sexual exploitation of male or female, a cognizable offence. It is being
amended to decriminalize the prostitutes and make the laws more stringent against
An amendment brought in 1984 to the Dowry Prohibition Act of 1961 made
womens subjection to cruelty a cognizable offence. The second amendment brought
in 1986 makes the husband or in-laws punishable, if a woman commits suicide within
7 years of her marriage and it has been proved that she has been subjected to cruelty.
Also a new criminal offence of Dowry Death has been incorporated in the Indian
Penal Code.
Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1976 raises the age for marriage of a girl to 18
years from 15 years and that of a boy to 21 years and makes offences under this Act

Medical Termination Pregnancy Act of 1971 legalises abortion by qualified
professional on humanitarian or medical grounds. The maximum punishment may go
upto life imprisonment. The Act has further been amended specifying the place and
persons authorized to perform abortion and provide for penal actions against the
unauthorized persons performing abortions.
Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act of 1986 and the
Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987 have been enacted to protect the dignity
of women and prevent violence against them as well as their exploitation.
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 provides for more
effective protection of the rights of women guaranteed under the Constitution who are
victims of violence of any kind occurring within the family and for matters connected
therewith or incidental thereto. It provides for immediate and emergent relief to
women in situations of violence of any kind in the home.

National Policies for women
The National Policy for Empowerment of Women 2001 has as its goal bringing
about advancement, development and empowerment of women in all spheres of life
through creation of a more responsive judicial and legal system sensitive to women and
mainstreaming a gender perspective in the development process. The strengthening and
formation of relevant institutional mechanisms and implementation of international
obligations/ commitments and co-operation at the international, regional and sub-regional
level was another commitment.
The present Government in their National Common Minimum Programme have
laid down
The objectives of this Policy include
(i) Creating an environment through positive economic and social policies for full
development of women to enable them to realize their full potential
(ii) The de-jure and de-facto enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedom

by women on equal basis with men in all spheres political, economic, social, cultural
and civil
(iii) Equal access to participation and decision making of women in social, political and
economic life of the nation
(iv) Equal access to women to health care, quality education at all levels, career and
vocational guidance, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and safety,
social security and public office etc.
(v) Strengthening legal systems aimed at elimination of all forms of discrimination
against women
(vi) Changing societal attitudes and community practices by active participation and
involvement of both men and women.
(vii) Mainstreaming a gender perspective in the development process.
(viii) Elimination of discrimination and all forms of violence against women and the
girl child; and
(ix) Building and strengthening partnerships with civil society, particularly womens
Commitments in the NCMP for Women
-third reservations for women in vidhan sabhas
and in the Lok Sabha.

-third of all funds flowing into panchayats will be earmarked for
programmes for the development of women and children.

responsibility for all development schemes relating to drinking water, sanitation,
primary education, health and nutrition.

reality, especially by removing discriminatory legislation and by enacting new
legislation that gives women, for instance, equal rights of ownership of assets
like houses and land.


12 Critical areas of concern
1. Women and Poverty
2. Education and training of
3. Women and health
4. Violence against women
5. Women in armed conflict
6. Women and economy
7. Women in power and
8. Institutional mechanisms for
the advancement of women
9. Human rights and women
10. Women and media
11. Women and environment
12. Girl child.

India has ratified various international conventions and human rights instrumentscommitting to
secure equal rights of women. Key among them is the ratification of the
Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
in 1993. India has ratified the convention with two declaratory statements and one
reservation. Both the declarations relate to marriage. We have declared that the
provisions on marriage and family relations in its Article 16(1) would be ensured in
conformity with our policy of non-interference in the personal affairs of any community
without its initiative and consent and that while agreeing to the principle of compulsory
registration of marriages, failure to get the marriage registered at the same time will not
invalidate the marriage. We did not agree to Article 29(1) of the Convention, which
establishes compulsory arbitration or adjudication by the International Court of Justice of
disputes concerning interpretation. The Mexico Plan of Action 1975), the Nairobi Forward
Looking Strategies (1985), the Beijing Declaration as well as the Platform for Action (1995) and
the Outcome Document adopted by the UNGA Session on Gender Equality and Development &
Peace for the 21
century, titled "Further actions and initiatives to implement the Beijing

Declaration and the Platform for Action" have been unreservedly endorsed by India for
appropriate follow up. The Beijing Platform for Action lays down critical areas of concern for
the women, which are listed in the box. The commitments made in the international conventions
are as far as possible reflected in the Plan documents and the National Policy for the
Empowerment of Women.

Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have been established in the
Millennium Declaration at the General Assembly of the United Nations in the year 2000.
These include promoting gender equality and empowerment of women and improving
maternal health. Though only these two are explicitly gender specific, gender equality is
at the core of achievement of MDGs from improving health and fighting disease, to
reducing poverty and mitigating hunger, to expanding education and lowering child
mortality, to increasing access to safe water, and to ensuring environmental sustainability.
Planning Process and gender
The planning process has evolved over the years from purely welfare oriented
approach where women were regarded as objects of charity to the development
programmes and currently to their empowerment. It was only from the Sixth Five Year
Plan onwards that women secured a special niche and space in the national plans and
planning process primarily with thrusts on health, education and employment of women.
A paradigm shift occurred in the Eighth Plan where empowerment of women was
recognized and accepted as a distinct strategy.
A further impetus for sectoral contribution to womens programmes was received
with the introduction of the concept of Womens Component Plan in the Ninth Plan
whereby identified Ministries were required to indicate the flow of funds to the womens
programs and schemes. However the Ninth Plan refrained from making any commitment
for achieving any specific goal or target. This was overcome to some extent in the Tenth
Plan where for the first time, monitorable targets were set for a few key indicators of
human development. The targets include, among other things, reduction in gender gaps in
literacy and wage rates and reduction in MMR.
The Tenth Five Year Plan(2002-07) called for the three pronged strategy of social
empowerment, economic empowerment and providing gender justice to create an

enabling environment of positive economic and social policies for women and
eliminating all forms of discrimination against them and thus advance gender equality

Social Empowerment - Create an enabling environment through adopting various
policies and programmes for development of women, besides providing them easy and
equal access to all the basic minimum services so as to enable them to realize their full
Economic Empowerment Ensure provision of training, employment and income
generation activities with both forward and backward linkages with the ultimate
objective of making all women economically independent and self reliant.
Gender Justice Eliminate all forms of gender discrimination and thus enable women
to enjoy not only de jure but also de facto rights and fundamental freedom on par with
men in all spheres, viz, political, economic, social, civil, cultural etc.
Status of women a situational analysis
Though the Constitutional commitments of the nation to women was translated
through the planning process , legislation , policies and programs over the last six
decades yet as the Eleventh plan approaches, a situational analysis of social and
economic status of women reflects less than satisfactory achievements in almost all
important human development indicators. The maternal mortality rate is estimated at 407
per 100,000 live births (2000) in India compared to figures of 92 in Sri Lanka, 56 in
China and 130 in Vietnam; the growing female face of HIV/AIDS is reflected in the fact
that the number of pregnant women (between 18-24 years) with HIV prevalence
comprise 0.86 % in 2003 of the total women pregnant compared to 0.74% in 2002.
The saga of missing daughters is vividly depicted in the growing incidence of
female feticide as a result of which the child sex ratio has declined from 945 in 1991 to
927 in 2001. While the literacy rates have shown an improvement from 39.3% to 54.3%
of the total female population between 1991 and 2001, yet much more needs to be done
especially for socially and economically backward regions and groups.
Economic empowerment as reflected by the work participation rate shows that the
percentage of women in the work force increased by only 3% (from 22.5% to 25.7%)

between 1991 and 2001. The average wage differential between men and women
showed a marked deterioration between 2000 and 2004 for both rural and urban areas. The
violence against women continued unabated with the absolute number of crimes against
women increasing from 1,28,320 in 2000 to 1,43,615 in 2004.
There are a number of generic reasons, which give rise to the dismal picture depicted above.
Poverty is increasingly becoming femininsed - mainly on account of the fact that with
globalization and liberalization, a paradigm shift in the countrys economy has taken place
skewed towards technology dominated sectors, rendering traditional sectors like agriculture
unviable and without any security cover. Unfortunately it is in these sectors that women
predominately eke out a sustenance livelihood. The lack of alternate employment, skill training,
or credit facilities for women who seek it, is another factor that keeps them in poverty.
Traditional patriarchal systems too play their part in keeping women at a lower
rung in the social and economic hierarchy by denying them basic rights to land, assets etc
and also placing a low value on their existence. The high prevalence of female feticide
and child marriage is a fall out of these factors.
The weak social infrastructure such as the lack of adequate schools or health
centers, drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facilities inhibits a very large section of
women from accessing these facilities. This is a major reason why women continue to
face problems as poor literacy rates, or health issues. It is also one of the reasons for the
high incidence of MMR and IMR.
The changing socio economic scenario and the phasing out of the joint family
system along with poor community based protection systems are some of the reasons
why women are becoming increasingly prone to violence and abuse. The weak law
enforcement and gender insensitivity of the various functionaries fail to check the
growing violence against women. At the same time, the extremely poor levels of
awareness amongst women themselves on their rights also perpetuate violence against
them. The lack of adequate rehabilitation and reintegration facilities is another crucial
factor that finds victimized women further victimized or ostracized by the community.
The media too does not reflect gender issues with sympathy and sensitivity; instead there
is a tendency to glorify patriarchal traditions or to depict women as objects of sexual

Hate (1978) in her book stated that there is positive change in the
political, economic and social status of middle class working and non-working
women living in four cities in Maharashtra with the advent of independence.
Kapur (1979) his shown that the twin roles of women cause tension
and conflict due to her social structure which is still more dominant .In her
study on working women in Delhi, she has shown that traditional
authoritarian set up of Hindu social structure continues to be the same
basically and hence. Women face problem of role conflict change in attitudes
of men and women according to the situation can help to overcome their
Pattanaik (2003) in her study reveals that SHGs are continuously
striving for a better future for tribal women as participants, decision-makers
and beneficiaries in the domestic, economic, social and cultural spheres of
life. But due to certain constraints like gender inequality, exploitation, women
torture for which various Self Help Groups are not organised properly and
M.R Wood (1979) in his study of middle class urban sanitary women
un India showed that some of the women is his sample including one
whose marriage was arranged, had established a give and take relationship
with their husbands, Women also take part in important decisions.
Sandhu and Singh(1979) reported that motivation factors viz. feeling
of achievement, ability utilization, recognition and rewards, creative work
freedom of expression and scope for professional growth contributed
comparatively more to job satisfaction than factors like behaviour of
immediate officers, job security and advancement, adequacy of salary,
administrative setup and social status attached to the job.
Heckman and Mercurdary (2004) women are coming forward to paid
employment outside home to supplement the income of husbands or parents
and to fill the gap between income and expenditure due to soaring prices of
essential goods.

Malhotra (2004) in her book has examined how women entrepreneurs
affect the global economy, why women start business, how womens business
associations promote entrepreneurs, and to what extent women contribute to
international trade. It explores potential of micro-finance programmes for
empowering and employing women and also discusses the opportunities and
challenges of using micro-finance to tackle the feminisation of poverty.
According to her, the micro-finance programmes are aimed to increase
womens income levels and control over income leading to greater levels of
economic independence. They enable womens access to networks and
markets, access to information and possibilities for development of other
social and political role. They also enhance perceptions of womens
contribution to household income and family welfare, increasing womens
participation in household decisions about expenditure and other issues
leading to greater expenditure on womens welfare.
Rowbotham (1980) in her book stated that movements of women, now
in the past provide more than criticism; they can be a basis for valuable
knowledge about needs and well being that have been theoretically
disregarded. They also enable us to think about society and the economy in
new ways and discover a great deal about the process of politics and culture.
Amaury de Riencourt (1982) in her book stated that It now becomes
easier to see that, even if women alone rarely prove to be intellectually or
artistically creative, man cannot create without her; hence, her part in the
cultural process, however indirect, is vital. The sexes together are to compare
male and female to the two poles of an elliptic field of magnetic forces. The
correlation between the two poles provides the creative power; no one pole,
male if female, can achieve anything without the contribution of the other.

Srilekha (2005) based states that developing countries are
characterized by low income illiteracy, unemployment and low standard of
living. In these countries extra income earned by women ids vital to cross the
poverty line , of the initiative in making the intended changes must come from

the government itself in the form of incentives to women who are bounded by
tradition and constrained by interest bent on preserving the status-quota
women in 15 to 59 age group if not in labour force are to be considered as
unused resources (except when they are sake or students) A change in the
attitude towards life is imperative to ensures that women gain confidence in
their own capable and a new value system is accepted.
Dwaraki and B.kumaresan (2005) asks that do women have a nice
in the of real of rural development working women have been in the nears in
the last 5-10 years like it is the want in the in rather confused world of rural
development those in the same by try to cling into anything new novel as if
they have found the phenomena what with the slogan of empowering women
especially rural women the grace for being associated with scavenger women
is spreading like mass hysteria in about last one year. So much as anyone in
the realm of rural development, today in any discussion on scavenger women
is an ignoramus. This is based on very small scale study conducted
exclusively for the purpose needs no justification. The authors in this study
have covered just 10 women scavenger from about four contiguous villages in
which three office bearers the President, Secretary and Treasurer were
personally interviewed on a very small list of question concentrating on the
aspect of self-sustenance for us contention of contention of authors that
women workers can find nice in the realm of rural development.
Alva Myrdar et als (1992) work on Womens two roles home and work
sought to present that would amid that would enable women for combine their
traditional family obligations with paid work in the employment market.
Interestingly these authors have gone further to capture multi-facted
dimensional role of women in the name of sequencing solutions besides the
dual role mentioned continues to hold as a strong base for further research in
this area.
Jennifer (2005) in his study about sanitary workers that economics
status showed a significant difference according to their age, marital status
duration of working, life and position at work.

The Times of India, Ahmadabad Friday, September 23, 2011
Vodafones India circle plans to include better women Friendly
policies and hire more number of women employees this year. At present,
women comprise 16% of the companys total employee strength.
Rahesh Dongre , chief executive officer, Vodafone Essar India, said
, Our target is to have an employees base consisting of at least 20%
women employees by March. We have an aim to make women friendly
organization with better policies and rules for instance, our reach home safe
police or flexible leave police for new mothers have been formed keeping in
mind the separate needs of our women employees.
Dongre feels that the need for having more women on board is also
due to the rising female subscriber base.


The project report is on The study opportunity and constraints faced by
women in Indian economy, that women awareness of the India
Government Schemes and Yojna towards available opportunities to develop
their self development.
The need arises as the topic is concerned that is now a days, women have a
many opportunities but they are not taking initiative or not taking any benefit
which is provided through government to rural women.
In rural areas women have many scope and opportunities of their self
development but there are some constraints are faced by them.
The data are showing that 50% of women are aware the India Government
Schemes and Yojna. Therefore, I want to conduct research for this topic.
So, the project helps the research process, that what are the expectations of
the India Government towards their women development schemes.


Research Problems
To identify the problem that women face though they have many opportunities
given by state and Central Government.


To study the various opportunities raised by the Indian govt. for the
betterment of women.
Examine the awareness about the various opportunities given by
To find out the level of opportunities taken by women.
To find out the factors that hinders women to take the opportunities & be
self dependent.
To examine the taking the decision power and information level in


A statistical hypothesis is an assumption about a population parameter.
This assumption may or may not be true.
There are two types of statistical hypotheses.
Null hypothesis. The null hypothesis, denoted by H0, is usually the
hypothesis that sample observations result purely from chance.
Alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis, denoted by H1 or Ha, is
the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by some non-random
Hypothesis Tests
Statisticians follow a formal process to determine whether to reject a null
hypothesis, based on sample data. This process, called hypothesis testing,
consists of four steps.
State the hypotheses. This involves stating the null and alternative
hypotheses. The hypotheses are stated in such a way that they are mutually
exclusive. That is, if one is true, the other must be false.
Formulate an analysis plan. The analysis plan describes how to use sample
data to evaluate the null hypothesis. The evaluation often focuses around a
single test statistic.
Analyze sample data. Find the value of the test statistic (mean score,
proportion, t-score, z-score, etc.) described in the analysis plan.
Interpret results. Apply the decision rule described in the analysis plan. If the
value of the test statistic is unlikely, based on the null hypothesis, reject the
null hypothesis.


Decision Errors:
Two types of errors can result from a hypothesis test.
Type I error. A Type I error occurs when the researcher rejects a null
hypothesis when it is true. The probability of committing a Type I error is
called the significance level. This probability is also called alpha, and is
often denoted by .
Type II error. A Type II error occurs when the researcher fails to reject a null
hypothesis that is false. The probability of committing a Type II error is called
Beta, and is often denoted by . The probability of not committing a Type II
error is called the Power of the test.
One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests
A test of a statistical hypothesis, where the region of rejection is on only one
side of the sampling distribution, is called a one-tailed test. For example,
suppose the null hypothesis states that the mean is less than or equal to 10.
The alternative hypothesis would be that the mean is greater than 10. The
region of rejection would consist of a range of numbers located on the right
side of sampling distribution; that is, a set of numbers greater than 10.
A test of a statistical hypothesis, where the region of rejection is on both sides
of the sampling distribution, is called a two-tailed test. For example, suppose
the null hypothesis states that the mean is equal to 10. The alternative
hypothesis would be that the mean is less than 10 or greater than 10. The
region of rejection would consist of a range of numbers located on both sides
of sampling distribution; that is, the region of rejection would consist partly of
numbers that were less than 10 and partly of numbers that were greater than


My sample size is 135 so, I used Z test.
1.) H0: 60% women are aware of India Government scheme.
H1: less than 60% women are aware of India Government scheme.
2.) H0: 60% women are aware from the different different Scheme which
provided by government.
H1: Greater than 60% women are aware from the different different Scheme
which provided by government.
3.) H0: 50% women are satisfied with the benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna.
H1: More than 50% women are satisfied with the benefit of Sakhi Mandal
4.) H0: 50% women are agreed that Government provided women opportunity
to work from home & earn.
H1: Greater than 50% women are agreed that Government provided women
opportunity to work from home & earn.




Research design is descriptive in nature. Quantitative research was carried
out through questionnaire in order to get the data into figurative terms for
analysis of women.
There are two types of data:
Primary data: The data which collect firstly is called primary data. In
my research Primary data have collect through questionnaire and
interview for further information.
Secondary data: the data which are already collected for some
purpose and exist are called secondary data. In my research I have
collect data from newspapers, journals and Internet.
I have selected the respondents - women from areas of Varanasi and near by rural area for
studying the opportunities and constrains.
From the population I have selected 135 Women for my Survey.
I have used the Convenience Sampling
My survey area is Varanasi (rural), and nearby rural area.
Page | 54
What margin of error can you accept?
5% is a common choice
10 % The margin of error is the amount of error that you can tolerate. If 90% of respondents
answer yes, while 10% answer no, you may be able to tolerate a
larger amount of error than if the respondents are split 50-50 or 45-55.
Lower margin of error requires a larger sample size.

What confidence level do you need?
Typical choices are 90%, 95%, or 99%
95 % - The confidence level is the amount of uncertainty you can tolerate. Suppose that
you have 20 yes-no questions in your survey. With a confidence level of 95%, you would expect
that for one of the questions (1 in 20), the percentage of people who
answer yes would be more than the margin of error away from the true answer.
The true answer is the percentage you would get ifyou exhaustively interviewed everyone.
Higher confidence level requires a larger sample size.

What is the population size?
If you don't know, use 20000
How many people are there to choose your random sample from? The sample size doesn't
change much for populations larger than 20,000.

What is the response distribution?
Leave this as 50%
For each question, what do you expect the results will be? If the sample is skewed highly one
way or the other, the population probably is, too. If you don't know, use 50%,
which gives the largest sample size. See below under More information if
this is confusing.
What is the response distribution?
Leave this as
For each question, what do you expect the results will be? If the sample is skewed highly one
way or the other, the population probably is, too. If you don't know, use 50%, which gives the

largest sample size. See below under More information if this is confusing. Your 135 This is the
minimum recommended size of your recommended
sample size is survey. If you create a sample of this many people and get responses from
everyone, you're more likely to get a correct answer than you would from a large sample where
only a small percentage of the sample responds to your survey.

There are main two types of Questionnaires:
Open ended: in which the respondent get the full option to answer the
Close ended: in which the respondent has to answer in pre determined
For making the research I used Close ended questionnaire in which I asked
the questions to women to know their awareness.
Page | 57




Q=1 Fill the following details.
Option Respondents Percentage
Marital Status 79 58.52%
Unmarried 23 17.04%
Divorce 7 5.19%
Widow 18 13.33%
Separate 8 5.93
135 100%

In above graph there are 79 Women were Marital Status.
23 women were Unmarried. 18 women were Widow.


Q=2 which Number of the members in the family?
Option Frequency Percentage
2 15 11.11%
3 to 5 71 52.59%
Above 5 49 36.29%
135 100%

Above graph show that, most of the family there are 3 to 5 members in
their family.
Page | 60

Option Yes NO

Q=3 Are you working women or not?
Option Respondent Percentage
Yes 53 39.26%
No 82 60.74%
135 100

In above graph 82 Women were i.e. 60.74% not working in any sector like
Government, Private, NGO, or self employed.
53 Women were i.e.39.26% working in any sector like Government, Private,
NGO or self employed.

Respondent Percentage

Q=4 If you are working, in which sector are you working?
Sector Respondent Percentage
Government 27 20%
Private 11 8.15%
NGO 12 8.89%
Self Employed 15 11.11%
None of these 70 51.86%
135 100%

In above chart 70 women i.e. 51.86% were not working or not earning.
27 women were working i.e. 20% in government sector.
15 women i.e. 11.11% were self employed.
Page | 62

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Q=5 what is your monthly income?
Income Respondent Percentage
Less than 1000 6 4.44%
1001 to 5000 25 18.52%
Above 5000 22 16.30%
None of these 82 60.74%
135 100%

In above graph 82 women i.e. 60.74% have not any income because they are
not working.
25 women i.e.18.52% have between 1001 to 5000 monthly income.
22 women i.e. 16.30 % that have monthly income above 5000.
Page | 63

1 2 3 4 5 6

Q=6 Being an employed women are you getting the freedom in the
decision making of your family?
Option Respondents Percentage
Yes 55 40.74%
No 32 23.70%
Some What 48 35.56%
135 100%

In above graph 55 women i.e. 40.74% was getting the freedom in decision
making in their family.
48 women i.e. 35.56% were sometimes getting freedom in decision making in
their family.
Page | 64

1 2 3 4 5

Q=7 Being an employed women are you getting leisure to look after your
family & your health?
Option Respondent Percentage
Yes 51 37.78%
No 45 33.33%
Some what 39 28.89%
135 100%

In above graph 51 women were getting the leisure to look after her family and
her health.
45 women were not doing the leisure to look after her family and her health.
39 women were sometimes doing the leisure to look after her family and her

1 2 3 4

Q=8 Are you aware India Government scheme for women?
Option Respondents Percentage
Yes 85 62.96%
No 50 37.04%
135 100%

In above graph 85 women i.e. 62.96% were aware about India Government
Scheme for women.
50 women i.e. 37.04% were not aware about India Government Scheme for

1 2 3

Q=9 Are you aware from the following Scheme/Yojna which provided by
government for women? (MCQ)
Scheme/Yojna Respondents
Saat Phera Samuh Yojna 37
Vidya Sahay & Talim Yojna 21
Swayam Sidh Yojna 28
Sakhi Mandal Yojna 61
Nari Adalat 50
Mahila Vrudh Ashram 31
Kunverbai nu Mameru Scheme 22
None of these 37

In above graph 61 women were aware about SAKHI MANDAL YOJNA
provided by Government for women.
51 women were aware about NARI ADALAT provided by Government for
37 women were aware about SAAT PHERA SAMUH YOJNA provided by
Government for women.

Q=10 Taking benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna are you satisfied with these?
Option Respondents Percentage
Highly Satisfied 29 21.48%
Satisfied 47 34.81%
Neutral 30 22.22%
Dissatisfied 12 8.89%
Highly Dissatisfied 17 12.59%
135 100%

In above graph 47 women i.e.34.81% were satisfied, taking benefit of Sakhi
Mandal Yojna.
30 women i.e.22.22% were neutral, taking benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna.
29 women i.e. 29.48% were highly satisfied, taking benefit of Sakhi Mandal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Q=11 Are you getting the proper facility of scheme of Govt.?
Option Respondents Percentage
Strongly Agree 27 20%
Agree 39 28.89%
Neutral 36 26.67%
Disagree 17 12.59%
Strongly Disagree 16 11.86%
135 100%

In above graph 39 women i.e. 28.89% were agreeing that they are getting the
proper facility of above scheme of Government.
36 women i.e. 26.67% were neutral that they are getting the proper facility of
above scheme of Government.
27 women i.e. 20% were strongly agreeing that they are getting the proper
facility of above scheme of Government.


Q=12 Do you Agree that development of women & its Schemes in day to
day life in the society has made your life easier?
Option Respondents Percentage
Strongly Agree 36 26.67%
Agree 42 31.11%
Neutral 35 25.93%
Disagree 17 12.59%
Strongly Disagree 5 3.70%
135 100%

In above graph 42 women i.e. 31.11% were agreeing that development of
women and its scheme in day to day life in the society has made their life
36 women i.e. 26.67% were strongly agreed that development of women and
its scheme in day to day life in the society has made their life easier.

Option Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Q=13 The government is giving sufficient support to education to the
women in your area?
Option Respondents Percentage
Strongly Agree 29 21.48%
Agree 70 51.85%
Neutral 20 14.81%
Disagree 9 6.67%
Strongly Disagree 7 5.19%
135 100%

In above graph 70 women i.e. 51.85%were agreeing that the Government is
giving sufficient support to education to the women in their area.
29 women i.e. 21.48% were strongly agreed that the Government is giving
sufficient support to education to the women in their area.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Hypothesis Testing
1. H0: 60% women are aware of India Government scheme.
H1: less than 60% women are aware of India Government scheme.
Test of p = 0.6 vs p < 0.6
Sample X N Sample P 95% Upper
Exact P
1 85 135 0.629630 0.699017 0.785

When the p value is more than 0.05 than accept our null hypothesis.
Here, p value is more than 0.05 so we accept our null hypothesis that is more
than 60% women were aware of India Government scheme.
2. H0: 60% women are aware from the different different Scheme which
provided by government.
H1: Greater than 60% women are aware from the different different Scheme
which provided by government.
Test of p = 0.6 vs p > 0.6
Sample X N Sample P 95% Lower
Exact P
1 61 135 0.451852 0.379037 1.000
When the p value is more than 0.05 than accept our null hypothesis
Here, the p value is more than 0.05 so we accept our null hypothesis this
indicate that 60% or less than 60% women are aware from the different
different Scheme which provided by government.
3. H0: 50% women are satisfied with the benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna.

H1: More than 50% women are satisfied with the benefit of Sakhi Mandal
Test of p = 0.5 vs p > 0.5
sample X N Sample p 95% lower
Exact PValue
1 76 135 0.562963 0.488521 0.084
When the p value is more than 0.05 than accept our null hypothesis
Here, the p value is more than 0.05 so we accept our null hypothesis this
indicate that 50% or less than 50% women are satisfied with the Sakhi
Mandal Yojna.
4. H0: 50% women are agreed that Government provided women opportunity
to work from home & earn.
H1: Greater than 50% women are agreed that Government provided women
opportunity to work from home & earn.
Test of p = 0.5 vs p > 0.5
Sample X N Sample P 95% Lower
Exact P
1 20 135 0.148148 0.1000393 1.000
When the p value is more than 0.05 than accept our null hypothesis Here, the p value is more
than 0.05 so we accept our null hypothesis so this indicate that 50% or less than 50% women are
agreed that Government provided women opportunity to work from home & earn.




Majority 59% of the women were married and only low per cent of them were unmarried (17%),
widows (13%) and divorces & separated (11%).
Most of the 60% women were not working in any Private, NGO or Government sector. And
other 40% women were working in above sector.
Majority 41% of the women were getting the freedom to take the decision in their family, and
some of them (36%) women were sometimes taken the decision for their family.
38% women were getting the leisure to look after their family and their health and 33% women
were not getting the leisure to look after their family and their health.
Most of the women (63%) were aware regarding India Government schemes because they were
initiative and also knowing the advertisement regarding schemes.
Most of the women were awareness about SAKHI MANDAL YOJNA which is provided by
Government for them because through word of mouth Aaganwadis women staff people were
gave them information and knowledge.
Only 50% of the women were wholly satisfied, taking the benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna.
Because they were gathered the (money) funds from each other and take care of their own self.
And become and self dependent.
68% women were agreed that they getting the proper facility of all Government schemes.
60% women were agreeing that development of women and its schemes in day to day life and in
the society that have made their life easier. Because they improve their power and information
level and not fear.
Majority 70% of the women were agreed that Government is gave them sufficient support to
education to the women in their area.
Most of the women i.e. 52% were agreed with the Government provided the women opportunity
to work from home and earn.
57% women were satisfied with the Government Scheme / Yojna . While, 24% women were not
were satisfied with the Government Schemes.




Limitation of the study
In survey that women were uneducated so, they are not answering the proper way.
Some of the women have lack of knowledge and awareness about the Government schemes.
The time period of the study was not sufficient to measure the Women response effectively and
reach to a more valid conclusion.
The sample size was limited so the results obtained from the study may not be generalized for
the whole population.



Most of the Women were known about the Government Scheme/Yojan but some of the Women
were not aware because lack of awareness, lack of orientation in rural development schemes and
programs, No proper knowledge and orientation about Government schemes, lack of support from
home and their senior colleagues, women feel Fear and Insecurity. They have family
responsibilities. Lack of power and information. So, government gave the advertisement and
awareness programs on the several schemes to aware them.
As per survey most of the women are agreed that the development of women & its schemes in
their day to day life and in the society that have made their life easier.
The most of the women have the equal opinion that government is provided women opportunity
to work from home and earn. So, they Increase in articulation abilities, self confidence and self
So I conclude that in Indian economic the women get many opportunities to develop their self
but they are facing some constraints like some women were not aware regarding the scheme and
how to utilize the schemes for their development. So, government should try to make more
awareness programs for rural women.




Dear sir/madam,
I am Ritika Pandey, students of BBA VI
Sem. As per our curriculum, we are conducting
survey. You are requested to read following questions carefully and answer them. And we assure
you that this information will be held confidential and only used for our project purpose. Please,
spend your valuable time in filing questionnaire. Thank you.
(For the questions bellow please tick from the given option)
Q=1 Fill the following details.
1) Marital Status
2) Unmarried
3) Divorce
4) Widow
5) Separate
Q=2 How many Number of the members in the family?
1) 2
2) 3 to 5
3) Above 5
Q=3 Are you working women or not?
1) Yes
2) No
Page | 87
Q=4 If you are working, In which Sector are you working?
1) Government
2) Private
3) NGO
4) Self Employed
5) None of these
Question =5 What is your monthly income?
1) Less than 1000
2) 1001 to 5000

3) Above 5000
4) None of these
Q=6 Being an employed women are you getting the freedom in the
decision making of your family? (Give rank out of 10)
1) Yes
2) No
3) Some what
Q=7 Being an employed women are you getting leisure to look after your
family & your health?
1) Yes
2) No
3) Some what
Q=8 Are you aware India Government scheme for women?
1) Yes
2) No
Page | 88
Q=9 Are you aware from the following Scheme/ Yojna which provided by
government for women?
1) Saat Phera Samuh Yojna
2) Vidya Sahay & Talim Yojna
3) Swayam Sidh Yojna
4) Sakhi Mandal Yojna
5) Nari Adalat
6) Mahila Vrudh Ashram
7) Kunverbai nu Mameru Scheme
8) None of these
Q=10 Taking benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna are you satisfied with these?
1) Highly Satisfied
2) Satisfied
3) Neutral
4) Dissatisfied

5) Highly Dissatisfied
Q=11 Are you getting the proper facility of above scheme of
1) Strongly Agree
2) Agree
3) Neutral
4) Disagree
5) Strongly Disagree
Page | 89
Q=12 Do you Agree that development of women & its Schemes in day to
day life in the society has made your life easier?
1) Strongly Agree
2) Agree
3) Neutral
4) Disagree
5) Strongly Disagree
Q=13 The Government is giving sufficient support to education to the
women in your area?
1) Strongly Agree
2) Agree
3) Neutral
4) Disagree
5) Strongly Disagree


Personal Details of the Respondents:
Name of the women:___________________________________________
Occupation: ___________________________________________
1) 21 to 30
2) 31 to 40
3) 41 to 50
4) 51 to 60
1) Urban
2) Rural


BIBLIOGRAPHY: MandalSampleData.pdf
Miller, 2000, Women in Knowledge Societies, Global Knowledge
Partnership, Malaysia in
Globalization, poverty and womens empowerment. United Nations
Division of the Advancement of Women
Bisnath-EP3.pdf [accessed 1 December 2004].
Bisnath S, Elson D. Womens empowerment revisited. UNIFEM unifem/progressww/empower.html [accessed 30 October 2003]. entrepreneurship -articles/is-the-womenentrepreneur-
empowered-in india-3147613.htmlixzz15PmH5WNy