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An overview of ITU-T G.


Application Note: 1379

As increasing demands are made
on the world’s communications
networks, new standards emerge to
cater for the challenges that these
demands make. ITU-T G.709
“Interface for the optical transport
network (OTN)” is one of the latest
recommendations. It has been
developed to meet two requirements:
to cater for the transmission needs of
today’s wide range of digital services,
and to assist network evolution to
higher bandwidths and improved
network performance. Furthermore,
it takes another step towards the
all-optical network.

This paper provides a brief overview
of ITU-T G.709 signal structures, and
examines the testing requirements
for ITU-T G.709 compliant network

standardized method for managing optical wavelengths (channels) end to end without the need to convert an optical signal into the electrical domain. And. in-service perfor- has. Indeed.709 “Interface for the optical in virtually every country in the transport network (OTN)” builds on world. the physical limits of the ● Forward error correction (FEC) to transport medium (optical fiber) improve error performance and becomes critical. This increase in demand layered structure. Many of the bandwidth driven mainly by internet concepts in ITU-T G. protection and combination of increased line rates other management functions. the OTN is widely last five years there has been regarded as the lifeline to increased an explosion in the demand for bandwidth capacity.) Thus.709 also provides a service to customers. During the network. These include: multiplexing). (Today’s DWDM networks are typically managed as a series of point-to-point links with a path through the network requiring many expensive optical/electrical/optical {O/E/O} conversions. been added to continue the cycle of lengths through a single fiber improved performance and reduced (DWDM – dense wave division cost. ITU-T G. (TDM – time division multiplexing) However. established ITU is G. from SDH and SONET to provide a telecommunications traffic was route to the next-generation optical predominantly voice. 2 . so far. there remains enable longer optical spans an over-riding requirement to control the cost of providing an improving ITU-T G. ● Management of optical channels But as the network evolves to higher in the optical domain line rates. Introduction SONET/SDH is now a mature digital The latest recommendation from the transport technology. for example a telephony. some key elements have and transmitting multiple wave. When SONET/SDH was the experience and benefits gained first conceived in the early 1980s.709 along with the advent of all- optical switches (using MEMs and bubble technology) opens the door to potentially extensive cost savings in the network.709 have their access. e-commerce and mobile roots in SDH/SONET. been satisfied through a mance monitoring.

two that are G. each row contains 16 FEC departure from the fundamental cations for many years. without degraded performance.057. mainly in the blocks of 16 bytes for the row.709: broadly similar to a SDH/SONET RS(255. physical improve the error correction on error 3. This architecture helps 2. provides additional coded data to enable error checking and correction The size of the frame is four rows of This means that to carry one SDH/ by a receiving device. an 1. rounded to three digits. 82.709 frame size (FEC) block. ITU-T G. This The three frame rates (and period) ments at the same time as keeping results in the serial bit stream are: infrastructure costs in check. rate increases. 43. 16-byte interleaved codecs. transmission at higher line rates row and so on. This is a FEC has been used in telecommuni. The FEC for the OTU frame uses mance quality in ‘noisy’ environ. frame. The optical transport module overhead consists of four functional areas (figure 3): Figure 1 Figure 3.971 ms) for OTU1 As transmission bit rates increase processing.709 frame also in the FEC code word when used for Unlike SONET/SDH.143 kbit/s – optical additional 16 bytes (255-239=16) of channel transport unit 1 (OTU1) ● Overhead area for operation.225. FEC errors. (10. SONET 10 Gb/s frame. Data is trans. tion networks designed to carry important in enabling communica. FEC has been every OTU frame. predominantly voice traffic.420 kHz (48. followed by the second optical channel frames. the G.489 kHz (3.316 kbit/s – optical administration and maintenance The RS(255. tions to maintain acceptable perfor. thus 8 kHz frame rate that has been a areas of satelite communications and making 64 FEC blocks (4 x 16) for foundation of digital telecommunica- undersea transport.71 Gb/s for example) being converted into 16 parallel signals for 1. the G.709 4080 bytes (figure 2). value.239) code can correct up channel transport unit 2 (OTU2) functions to eight symbol errors in the code 3. 2.ITU-T G. ITU-T G.191 ms) for OTU2 to 10 Gb/s and beyond.239) code. 20.709 framing structure and byte definitions The ITU-T G. channel transport unit 3 (OTU3) and can detect sixteen symbol errors In addition. data is added for error correction.559 kbit/s – optical ● Payload area for customer data word when used for error correction. This means that frame: for every 239 bytes of data. 10.709 frame (figure 1) has The FEC scheme used in the ITU-T There are three line rates currently three distinct parts.709 Figure 5-1 Figure 2. includes a standardized method mitted serially beginning at the top requires approximately eleven OTU2 of FEC that enables long haul left.027 kHz (12.666. 329.413.709 standard is a Reed-Solomon defined in ITU-T G. as the line includes a foward error control error detection only. first row. ITU-T G.709 Figure 11-1 OTU – Optical transport unit ODU – Optical data unit OPU – Optical payload unit FEC – Forward error correction 3 .018. (4 x 4080) remains the same and the In the optical transport unit (OTU) frame rate increases. for example.709.035 ms) for OTU3 parameters of the optical fiber play bursts and countering interleaving a more significant part in degrading that may split up closely spaced Note: The period is an approximated transmitted pulses of light. 2.

column 6. reshaping OTN is accomplished through the use to generate OOF alarms and LOF and regeneration) regeneration of framing bytes which are transmit. this level of testing standardization. correct entry and exit points for these events can only be verified The OTU overhead consists of three The frame alignment area contains a using test equipment that gives bytes for section monitoring (SM). transmitted unscrambled. Frame alignment Optical channel frame-stress testing Optical transport unit (OTU) requires the ability to generate overhead When using serial blocks of data sequences of errored/error-free FAS (that is. ITU-T G. alarms in network equipment. two-byte general communications in row 1 columns 1-6 (figure 4). Additionally. supervisory functions. equipment. located at row 1 transmission system. ITU-T G. The ability to tions. ted every frame. F6F6F6282828.709 Figure 15-12 MFAS Multi frame alignment signal NJO Negative justification opportunity PM Path monitoring PSI Payload structure identifier RES Reserved SM Section monitoring TCM ACT Tandem connection monitoring activation TCM1-6 Tandem connection monitoring 4 .709 Figure 15-2 requirement for any receiving equipment. points in the OTN. and loss-of-frame (LOF) conditions is a fundamental Some of the OTU and optical data unit (ODU) overhead signals span Figure 5. The equipment needs to multiple OTU frames. The value of the MFAS byte is incremented each frame thereby providing a 256 frame multi- frame. gives the confidence that designs will inter-operate with other vendor The SM channel is structured as The ability to frame-up. when adding it conditions the signal for transport identify the ‘starting point’ in the frame errors up to the level needed between 3R (re-timing. bytes and frames) in a words to verify that error and alarm The OTU overhead. the receiving conditions are entered and exited at columns 8-14 (figure 4). Because of find the start of a frame before it can this. Abbreviations APS/PCC Automatic protection switching/ protection communication channel EXP Experimental FAS Frame alignment signal FTFL Fault type and fault location GCC0-3 General communication channel JC Justification control Figure 4. The channel (GCC0). and are environment. a multi-frame alignment signal find the management and customer (MFAS) byte is defined in row 1 data it needs to process. provides equipment must be able to identify levels defined in the recommenda. For example. a 6-byte frame alignment signal (FAS) complete control over the FAS bytes. follows (figure 5): of-frame (OOF). identify out. The MFAS byte is scrambled along with all the other bytes in the Overhead byte locations and naming OTU frame. the block boundaries. and two bytes byte values are the same as in SDH/ When designing in a ‘standards’ reserved for future international SONET.

namely 0-8 errors network management data. nine valid values. stream from the device-under-test. 5 . The BEI has GCC0 channel is likely to carry When testing for correct termina. There are also bytes BIPs in SDH/SONET and the SM BIP are set to ‘00’ allocated for operator-specific use. the BIP-8 value event trigger outputs can be useful. the SM BIP-8 is calculated functionality requires the ability with the OTU multi-frame and is only over the OPU payload and to stimulate the device-under-test therefore transmitted four times per OPU overhead areas of the frame (DUT) with various alarm and multi-frame (256/64) sequence. Testing the section monitoring The 64-byte message is aligned First. i+2. in ITU-T G. elements (NEs). This can be performed signal is defined to signal upstream provide a clear channel connection using test equipment that allows the number of bit-interleaved blocks between OTU termination points. performance quality. byte is defined in the section detected on the incoming signal The message contains a source and monitoring (SM) overhead (figure 5). These bytes requirement. particularly important if the signal is intended for an endpoint down. Second. backward defect indication (BDI) is defined to convey the signal-fail status determined in a section termination sink function in the upstream direction. in SDH/SONET. the B1 BIP-8 is calculated the DUT gives appropriate responses Testing the TTI functionality involves over an entire frame. the section monitoring sink function this channel is not defined. The testing a device at the design stage. Figure 6 The single-byte trail trace identifier ITU-T G. In this case. transmission of flexible user-defined that have been identified in error by The format of the data carried in sequences in the TTI byte locations. a four-bit channel (GCC0) is defined in row 1 corrupt TTI messages is also a backward error indicator (BEI) columns 11 and 12. so when tion/transparency in network detected in the SM BIP-8 byte. in SDH/ error conditions and check that SONET. network. is inserted into the next frame Testing that the network device A two byte general communications accurately identifies incorrect or For section monitoring. routing the OTU signal through the between the implementation of B1 reserved for future standardization. For section monitoring a single bit. destination identifier used for There are two main differences Two further bits of the SM bytes. it is vital to check remaining values can only occur performing a BER test in the GCC that TTI messages are passed from some unrelated condition and channels may be adequate to verify through the NE unaltered. including (figure 6). otherwise it is set to ‘0’. the calculated measuring the time taken to respond network device and verifying BIP-8 value for the frame is inserted to an input stimulus. The using the BIP-8 code.709.709 uses bit interleaved A single incoming alignment (TTI) is defined to transport a parity (BIP) checks for in-service error (IAE) bit is defined to indicate 64-byte message (similar to the performance monitoring. This testing may involve sending valid messages into a overhead. that the signal is routed to the into the BIP-8 SM location of frame test equipment with a wide range of appropriate output port. and a BIP-8 that an alignment error has been functionality of J0 in SONET/SDH). It is set to ‘1’ to indicate a defect. (columns 15 to 3824). This is are interpreted as zero errors.

structure provides tandem connec- tion monitoring (TCM). TCM enables a network function to the section monitor field operator to monitor the error The ODU overhead resides in in the OTU overhead (figure 7).709 Figure 15-3 egress points. end-to-end The six TCM fields have the same path supervision. The ODU information Figure 7.709 Figure 15-17 The fault type and fault location (FTFL) field is also related to the monitoring of a tandem connection span. ITU-T G. The FTFL channel is a 256-byte message transmitted across multiple frames and aligned with the ODU MFAS. and adaptation via the optical channel support monitoring of ODU connec- payload unit (OPU). overlap- ping and cascaded topologies as illustrated in figure 8. and detection of signal fail or degrade conditions ● Monitoring a tandem connection for fault localization or verifica- tion The six TCM fields provide support for tandem connection monitoring in a variety of network configurations. Optical channel data unit (ODU) The path monitoring (PM) field in The ODU also defines six fields overhead the ODU has a similar structure and for TCM. Figure 8. tions for one or more of the following applications: ● UNI-to-UNI monitoring of the ODU connection through the public network ● NNI-to-NNI monitoring of the ODU through a network operator ● Sub-layer monitoring for protection switching. and can cope with nested. 3 and 4 of from its own network ingress and the OTN frame.709 Figure 15-16 6 . and client signal structure as the PM field. performance of a signal transiting columns 1-14 of rows 2. The message conveys both forward and backward fault informa- tion and the message structure is shown in figure 9. ITU-T G. ITU-T G.

ITU-T G.Currently the fault indication codes Two two-byte general communica. ITU-T G. ATM cells. to be developed in the future. a two-byte experimental The TCM activation (TCM ACT) field defined. Its definition is for further study. Optical channel payload unit (OPU) overhead Figure 9.709 Figure 15-6 Figure 10 OPU2 payload. generic framing procedure (GFP) frames. These bytes are information. and a test pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) pattern. The format of the data carried in this channel is not Finally. GCC2. overhead. This field will not be monitoring and is located in the ODU ment data. STM-16/64/ 256).709 Figure 15-20 being mapped into the OPU payload. Two fields (RES) are reserved for located in bytes 0 (forward) and 128 tions channel fields. OPU2. The OPU overhead is located in rows 1-4 of columns 15 and 16 and is terminated where the OPU is assembled and disassembled. Further codes are likely channel connection between ODU normally set to all zeros. are defined in row 4 columns located in row 2 columns 1-3 and row ‘signal degrade’ and ‘no fault’ 1 to 4. GCC1 and future standardization and are (backward) provide only ‘signal fail’. These bytes provide a clear 4 columns 9-14. termination points.709 Figure 15-20 The OPU overhead is added to the OPU payload and contains informa- tion to support the adaptation of client signals. Figure 10 shows the OPU2 overhead used when asynchronously mapping a 10 Gb/s SDH/SONET signal into the ITU-T G. The OPU overhead byte definitions vary depending on the client signal ITU-T G.709 currently defines mappings for constant bit rate signals (for example. synchronous constant bit stream. subject to future standardization. both bit-synchronous and ITU-T G. O/H for synch mapping of 10 Gb/s SDH/SONET 7 . The main purpose of these (EXP) field is defined for experimen- is also related to tandem connection bytes is to carry operator manage. tal purposes.709 Figure 15-21 asynchronous mapping.

A condition through the use of parity to a detected loss of signal (LOS) at a majority vote (that is. ● Stress test ODU-AIS ODU alarm indication signal ● Client signal mapping/ ODU-OCI ODU open connection indication demapping ODU-LCK ODU locked ● Parametric ODU-BDI ODU backwards defect indication FAS Frame error MFAS Multi-frame error OTU-BIP8 OTU BIP error OTU-BEI OTU backwards error indication ODU-BIP8 ODU BIP error OTU-BEI OTU backwards error indication FEC block Uncorrectable FEC block error Standards and recommendations usually define the response time to a detected event. The communica. OTU-AIS OTU alarm indication signal some are not available. timer or oscilloscope) to determine the DUT response time to an event (see figure 11). Triggers are set for initiating the LOS signal and for the OTU-BDI reponse. for all possible input stimuli that In today’s world of standardization the DUT is expected to respond to. NJO and PJO values satisfy these demands. some ing stages. and manufactur. either in frames or in a time period. These tests can be divided OOF Out of frame are already defined: 288 values are into the following broad areas: OOM Out of multiframe reserved for future standardization. PSI0 contains the To ensure the designs of new ITU-T Figure 12 payload type (PT) identifier that G. This type of test involves sending a positive justification opportunity Modern networks are designed with stimulus signal into the DUT and (PJO). the OTU MFAS. gence is delivered in the manage. error detection and alarm receiver input. The mapping process gener. The payload structure identifier and interoperability. The The demapping process interprets with customer data. due to the stimulus.709 compliant network equipment Stimulus Description reports the type of payload being meet customer’s expectations. it is useful to use test equipment with Figure 11 event trigger outputs that can be connected to measuring equipment (for example. example below (figure 11) shows the the JC. In the latter case. ● Stimulus response OTU-BDI OTU backwards defect indication etary use. status that’s carried in the overhead tion decision to protect against an channels. Of the 256 design. it is vital that A list of possible stimuli is shown (PSI) field is defined to transport new designs comply with relevant in figure 12. a 256-byte message aligned with standards and recommendations. In the OTN. 8 . single stimulus may result in several ment ‘overhead’ that is transmitted simultaneous responses. while others ● Conformance OTU-IAE OTU incoming alignment error are reserved exclusively for propri. two out of checks. a high degree of intelligence to help monitoring for appropriate outputs ates the JC. verification. a carried in the OPU payload to the range of tests is required during the LOS Loss of signal receiving equipment. three) is used to make the justifica. tions network ‘senses’ its own test set-up and expected responses ing to the table in figure 10. Testing optical channel devices and hierarchical structures The justification control (JC) bytes Guaranteed availability of bandwidth Stimulus/response testing are used to control the negative plus a high level of service quality is justification opportunity (NJO) or a consistent customer demand. NJO and PJO values accord. This intelli. a respectively. This type of test must be repeated error in one of the three JC signals. LOF Loss of frame possible values available.

In this instance. The DUT maps the client signal into the optical channel frame and the tester verifies that this has been performed without any error or alarm events at the OTN or SDH/ SONET levels. three. the client’s bit rate met precisely. rate tolerance of +/. When mapping SDH/SONET possible test configuration is shown condition for one. there are defined exit criteria for alarm events. correct point. a network device been designed to transport a range Standards normally define entry and should signal this to the management of payloads. accommodated between OPU and simulated for a variable number of client clocks is +/. performed to verify the exit criterion to the recommendation. A similar test can be event to ensure conformance tolerance can be +/.Alarm stress testing For example. usually system when it has been set for five mappings for SDH/SONET. Today. Figure 14 9 . variable number of frames or time.20 ppm for the confirm that the entry criterion is formed for every possible alarm OPU clock. is shown in figure 14. and for the event. on detection of an Mapping/demapping testing alarm such as OTU-BDI (detected by This type of test really comes under ‘1’ in bit 5 of byte 3 of the SM field of The optical transport hierarchy has the banner of ‘conformance testing’. the OTU overhead).65 ppm. The bit rate of the input client test signal is varied across its maximum Figure 13 allowable range (normally +/.20 ppm for SDH/SONET line signals). it is useful and more consecutive frames.45 ppm. four signals into the OPU. The demapping process can also be verified with the tester generating OTN frames containing mapped SDH/SONET frames. rate differ- figure 13. ATM and specified by a number of frames or consecutive frames. interoperability with other vendor A configuration for mapping testing equipment. By using test generic framing procedure (GFP) sometimes in a time period. A similar test can The maximum difference that can be This allows an alarm condition to be verify the alarm exit condition. With a bit frames and the number varied to This type of testing must be per. two. ences between the client and OPU for test equipment to simulate a it is possible to verify that the alarm clocks are accommodated through stimulus condition (alarm) for a condition is entered at exactly the the use of justification (stuffing). A equipment that can generate this frames.

709. Forward error correction (FEC) testing FEC is a key element of the OTN and is used to provide improved quality of service and longer span lengths. OPU Optical payload unit However. In this way. it is possible to add increasing rates of errors at the input to the DUT and monitor the error performance at the DUT output. it is possible to verify that errors at the input are actually corrected by the DUT. NEMS need an OTN Optical transport network OTN tester that will verify every OTU Optical transport unit aspect of the recommendation. to do this. This is seen as MEMS Micro Electro Mechanical the best value-for-money solution for Systems bandwidth at 10 Gb/s and above. In the configuration shown below. multiplexing The OTN includes forward error correction (FEC) and enhanced FEC Forward error correction network management. and in improved performance to end users. service providers are DWDM Dense wave division deploying the next generation OTN. thereby ensuring interoperability prbs Pseudo random bit and standardization. This means sequence service provides can have complete confidence in the product. 10 . A test configuration is shown in figure 15. OCh Optical channel NEMs that manufacture devices ODU Optical data unit for the OTN must ensure they are fully compliant with ITU-T G. The Reed-Solomon coding scheme combined with the use of 16-byte interleaved codecs makes this implementation of FEC particularly good at correcting bursts of errors. Figure 15 Using a tester that generates cor- rectly structured OTN frames and that can also generate a range of frame errors is useful in validating FEC functionality in new device designs. control costs and still remain DUT Device under test competitive. Glossary Conclusion Abbreviation Description To satisfy demand for bandwidth.

itu. Place des 11 . from which the figures reproduced are extracted.The figures extracted from the ITU-T material have been reproduced with the prior authorization of the Union as copyright holder. E-mail: sales@itu-int http://www. the complete volume(s) of the ITU material. can be obtained from: International Telecommunication Union Sales and Marketing Service. Switzerland Tel: +41 22 730 61 41. CH-1211 Geneva 20. Fax: +41 22 730 51 94. the sole responsibility for selecting extracts for reproduction lies with the beneficiary of this authorization alone and can in no way be attributed to the ITU-T.

Your Advantage Your Advantage means that Agilent offers a wide range The OnmiBER 725 combines best in of additional expert test and measurement services. project management. phone. Ltd. For from experienced test engineers. refer to publication (fax) (61 3) 9272 0749 5988-3655EN Europe: no. with tive edge by contracting with us for calibration. and on-site education and Offering unframed PRBS signals it's training. For further (fax) (905) 206 4120 (tel) 1 800 629 485 Printed in USA 1st September. at no extra cost upon request. upgrades. 2001 technology for faster turn-up and (tel) 1 877 894 4414 Australia: troubleshooting. When you use Agilent further information. 5988-2569EN. (tel) (31 20) 547 2323 New Zealand: (fax) (31 20) 547 2390 (tel) 0 800 738 378 (fax) 64 4 495 8950 Japan: (tel) (81) 426 56 7832 Asia Pacific: (fax) (81) 426 56 7840 (tel) (852) 3197 7777 (fax) (852) 2506 9284 Transmission test set Agilent Technologies manufactures the OmniBER OTN under a quality system approved to the international standard ISO 9001 plus TickIT (BSI Registration Certificate No FM 10987). the test (tel) 1 800 452 4844 (tel) (305) 267 4245 descriptions in this document subject to change without notice. 5988-0327EN. and Assistance in the product specification publications no. including concatenated help you with product information. Many self-help tools are available. or fax. system integration. we will 2. Our extensive support resources and services can help you choose the right Agilent products for your applications and apply them successfully. 5968-8740E with product operation. ATM. OmniBER 725 products. You'll find further details of the OmniBER OTN’s capability Services. Phone or Fax Supporting SONET/SDH and United States: Latin America: Product specifications and T-carrier/PDH configurations. set offers simultaneous monitoring (fax) (305) 267 4286 Canada: © Agilent Technologies. help all rates from 64 kb/s up to 10 Gb/s. Related products Every instrument and system we sell has a global warranty. By internet. U. When you are choosing new equipment.” 718 communications performance analyzer is the proven SONET/SDH OmniBER 718 Our Promise one-box test solution. Jitter and POS. We strive to ensure www. 5988-3654EN or at while minimizing your risk and problems. the Online assistance: J2127A transmission test sets cover www. Solve problems efficiently and gain a competi- at all rates up to 2.K. and provide basic measurement assistance for the use of specified that you get the test and measurement capabilities you paid for and obtain the support you need. and obtain dependable measurement accuracy for the life of those no. refer to publication equipment. 2001 information. Support is available for at least five years beyond the produc- The Agilent Technologies OnmiBER tion life of the product. It provides full Our Promise means your Agilent test and measurement equipment will meet its advertised performance and T-carrier/PDH and SONET/SDH up to functionality. and configuration guide publication no. refer to publication investment of your Agilent instruments and systems. and other professional engineering services. optimize the return on information. which class SDH and SONET jitter capability you can purchase according to your unique technical and business needs. out-of-warranty repairs. as well as design. Two concepts underlie Agilent’s overall support policy: “Our Promise” and “Your Advantage. the ideal choice for testing optical Experienced Agilent engineers and technicians worldwide can components and modules.agilent.agilent.Product literature Agilent Technologies’ Test and Measurement Support.5 Gb/s. get assistance with all your test & measurement needs Focused on field applications. 5988-3653EN Agilent Technologies aims to maximize the value you receive. extra-cost differential electrical interfaces. For further help you maximize your productivity. . we can verify that it works properly.5 Gb/s. including realistic performance specifications and practical recommendations payloads.