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Don Roy, Application Development Manager, EXFO Photonic Solutions Inc.

Joyce Koo, Senior Research Engineer, EXFO Photonic Solutions Inc.

Advanced electronic and optoelectronic systems require high density, low cost assemblies in
order to meet the present market demand. Rework of such assemblies has proven to be difficult
using conven-tional hot air reflow due to the space limitation and potential lifting of the thin
copper trace from the fine pitch device pads. Rework is particularly difficult for full area array
devices using hot air reflow due to the non-uniform heating of the area.

An emergent rework technique is local area reflow using focused Infrared radiation (IR) assisted
heating. The focused IR technology does not require compo-nent specific nozzles as is the case
with hot air rework equipment. The IR method provides uniform heating via irradiation and conduction through the reworking device. The IR
method provides local-ized heating area in the rework zone only and provides for the effective heating at the device location only for a short
duration above the eutectic soldering temperature >195 °C (383 °F), meanwhile keeping the rest of the assembly at the pre-heat temperature
<130 °C (266 °F). The EXFO Novacure® IR Spot Curing System can provide such capability for small area rework at relatively modest cost.
The unit can also be used for other applications such as IR assisted encapsulation gelation for chip encapsulation. This application note
outlines the components rework methodology using an EXFO Novacure IR system.

Figure 1: Preheating to 120 °C-130 °C (248 °F-266 °F)

minimizes the potential for component damage.

Rework Methodology
The major advantage for using IR rework is to provide a source of localized heating. The focused IR from the Novacure IR equipment provides
a spot of heat of approximately 1 cm (0.4 in) directly on top of the part requiring rework. Minimal heat is delivered outside this area that could
effect the surrounding components. The spot size can be changed with adjustable optics or using masks to accommodate multiple sizes of
components that require rework. The Novacure IR equipment is particularly suited for reworking HDI assemblies, such as the single sided
assembly for automotive mounting parts (sensors, controllers), cell phone assemblies, Microelectronic Mechanical System (MEMS), multi-
chip-module (MCM) and Optoelectronic assemblies.
Telecommunications Test and Measurement
Application Note 097

In order to rework a part successfully by removing the defective part/assembly, specific attention is required as follows:

(a) Good pre-heat practices will reduce the required IR energy for rework and minimize the potential for damage of the device or assembly
during the rework process.

(b) Protect the device (module/chip, etc.) by limiting the time and heat upon rework. The profile shall be set within the device manufacturer’s
specified range. Consult device manufacturer’s recommendations. For example, Intel’s packaging handbook provides both solder reflow
recommendation and moisture sensitivity handling guideline.

(c) Protect the surrounding components by isolating the heat source (minimize the heat impact) to the repair area. Ensuring the uniformity of
the pre-heat conditions is necessary to minimize stress gradients during the rework process.

(d) Protect the device by using ESD safe tooling for device handling upon rework (proper ESD grounded tooling should be used for dislodge
the rework part at peak temperature).

The Novacure IR System offers the following key features:

Aiming and focusing the device using 3 visible lasers (red laser at 660 nm)
Reduced IR lamp heating element of 150 Watt to prevent damage of the device and assembly (compared to the standard 600 W
used by other IR rework stations).
High efficiency, constant power output control with user set time to minimize device over heating.
Programmable, multiple rework heating profile (recommend 4000-8000 mW/ for standard Pb/Sn eutectic solder) for different devices.
The system is capable of three preprogrammed IR power/time profiles.
Small working area of 1 cm (0.4 in) with standard working distance 2.5 cm to 3.8 cm
(0.98 in to 1.5 in)(measured from the targeting ring, or 5.1 cm (2 in) from the lens).

Figure 2: The target device is located using the three visible laser diodes.

The Novacure IR utilizes focused IR radiation for rework of high density SMT assemblies. The focus area is approximately 1 cm (0.4 in) in
diameter; positioned vertically using visible laser guided “focus heat zone locator”. The board is pre-heated to 120 °C-130 °C (248 °F-266 °F)
using a thermal heating pad or heat plate prior to IR irradiation.
Telecommunications Test and Measurement
Application Note 097

Typical rework conditions are listed below:

Step Condition Observation

Preheat* Preheat using thermal pad/hot plate 120 °C-130 °C* (248 °F-266 °F*)
(figure 1) to 120 °C-130 °C (248 °F-266 °F) for at measured at surface of the substrate
least 2 minutes to ensure uniform heating close to the rework area.
of the rework area.
Locate the defective Using 3 laser target finder (when the Push “laser on” and locate the
device 3 laser overlap on top of the device, rework area. The depth of the over
(figure 2) it is focused). Flux the area with lapped laser spot indicate the maximum
proper rework flux. heat location.
IR rework** Apply IR radiation < 30 seconds** 10-15 seconds normally is sufficient
(figure 3) and remove the device with ESD using 6000-8000 mW from the
proofed tooling as soon as reflow Novacure IR equipment.
Turn off the IR and Remove the assembly after IR Clean the rework flux if it is
remove the assembly rework and examining the substrate required. If pad lifting is observed
from the heating element. pad. due to insufficient reflow, increase
pre-heat time or IR energy.

Table I. Typical IR Rework Conditions (based on standard Pb/Sn eutectic solder assembly)

* Pre-heat time is dependant upon the thermal mass of the target assembly. Air gap between the pre-heat element and the assembly may
result insufficient heating.
** Maximum reflow of standard module is 30 seconds at T>183 °C (362 °F). Typical 10-20 seconds is sufficient for DIP, 10-15 seconds
for QFP or small BGA without heat sink. Consult device manufacture recommended profile (maximum reflow temperature and time)
before proceeding with the rework.

Note: Table I provides typical rework conditions. Adjustment may be required due to the different thermal mass of individual assemblies. Do
not expose the assembly to excessive IR radiation. Over heating and discoloration of PWB may occur if excessive IR radiation is used.

Figure 3: Infrared energy triggers reflow of the eutectic solder.
Telecommunications Test and Measurement
Application Note 097

Lamp: 150-watt quartz halogen gold-coated parabolic reflector
Lamp Life: > 500 hours
Output Spectrum: 0.7– 4.5 microns (Standard), 1.1– 4.5 microns (Optional)
Spot Size: 10 mm

Temperature Up to 600°C, (1112°F), dependent on substrate materials, thermal mass

Range: and fixturing

Power Supply: High efficiency, switch mode, constant power output, auto range selection 90–132
and 180–264 VAC, 47–63 Hz

Microprocessor User friendly menu driven software prompts for and accepts application parameters
Controls: and ensures correct values are maintained (also allows user to select feedback mode,
as well as calibrate and regulate output)

Keypad: 5-button, flush-mounted, tactile with protective overlay

Display: Backlit LCD

Size (H x W x D) 15 cm x 28.06 cm x 29.51 cm (5 15/16 in x 11 5/8 in x 11 1/16 in)

(Control Unit): (Weight) 5.48 kg (12.05 lbs)

Size: Light Delivery Module (Length) 22.12 cm (8 11/16 in)

(Diameter) 8.64 cm (3 3/8 in)
(Weight) 2.05 kg (4.5 lbs)
Laser Targeting Ring (Height) 3.1 cm (1 3/16 in)
(Diameter) 13.28 cm (5 1/4 in)
(Weight) 0.5 kg (1.1 lbs)

Includes: Light delivery module, standard cold mirror filter (0.7– 4.5 microns), grounded and
shielded power cord, foot pedal, spare I/O connector, radiometer calibration
certificate, control unit and User Guide

Options: Laser targeting ring

Warranty: 1 year, parts and labor (excluding lamp)

Corporate Headquarters > 400 Godin Avenue, Vanier (Quebec) G1M 2K2 CANADA Tel.: 1 418 683-0211 Fax: 1 418 683-2170
Toll-free: 1 800 663-3936 (USA and Canada)

EXFO America 4275 Kellway Circle, Suite 122 Addison, TX 75001 USA Tel.: 1 800 663-3936 Fax: 1 972 836-0164
EXFO Europe Le Dynasteur, 10/12 rue Andras Beck 92366 Meudon la Forêt Cedex FRANCE Tel.: + Fax: +
EXFO Asia-Pacific 151 Chin Swee Road, #03-29 Manhattan House SINGAPORE 169876 Tel.: +65 6333 8241 Fax: +65 6333 8242
EXFO China Beijing New Century Hotel Office Tower Room 1754-1755 Beijing 100044 P. R. CHINA Tel.: +86 (10) 6849 2738 Fax: +86 (10) 6849 2662
No. 6 Southem Capital Gym Road

Appnote097.2AN © 2005 EXFO Electro-Optical Engineering Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in Canada 05/05