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Furthermore, the developed module gave them the concepts that they need to

learn and better understanding about earthquake.

It was in the second week of January 2008 were the researchers finalized

the title of their study which is “Module in Earthquake” and was approved by their



After selecting and assuring, the researchers conducted library research

and internet surfing overnight about the subject and also studied the different

designs of the module.

The researcher organized the content of the module based on the outline

as arranged in order as listed below, to wit: (1.) Topic Selection (2.) Divisions of

Learning Units (3.) Introduction of each unit (4.) Formulation of Objectives (5.)

Drawing Illustrations (6.) Construction of the SAQ (7.) Answer of the SAQ (8.)

Revisions of the Module (9.) Finalization of the Module

In construction and development of the module, the researchers choose

appropriate topics and sub-topics to be included based upon the title of their

module. It was in the last week of January and the first week of February 2008

when the researchers divided the topics and sub-topics according to their

arrangement. The researchers of Module in Earthquake divided the topics into

four major units such as Unit I-The Shaking, Unit II- Effects of Earthquakes, Unit

III- Measuring an Earthquake and Unit IV-Preparing and Predicting for an


Earthquake. Every unit of the instructional module has the following sections

such as Cover page, Introduction, Objectives, Input (main body of the module),

Self-Assessment Questions, Answer to the Self-Assessment Questions and

Bibliography and a Glossary of terms at the end of the module. It was in July

2008 when the researchers started making the draft of every units of the module.

In the third week of July, the researchers finished the Unit I and Unit II draft and

in the fourth week of the same month, they finished the Unit III and IV draft. In the

first week of August 2008, the researchers conducted a trip to interview some

experts of the PAGASA and PHILVOLCS Region X in Cagayan de Oro City. The

following two weeks of the same month, the researchers finished the entire


It was in August 19, 2008, when the researchers submitted their first draft and

then followed the stages of development shown in Figure 1 in Chapter III. The

researchers, together with their adviser, had agreed on the content and learning

objectives in teaching Earthquake. Three days after, the researchers submitted

their second draft. Before the module was evaluated, the researchers had a

consultation with their adviser. The adviser had made comments and

suggestions on the basis of achieving the learning objectives and or the design,

content, topic and everything that is included in the making of the module.


The Developed Module in Earthquake is a self-contained instructional

package and has four units. Each unit includes the cover page, objectives,

illustrations, self-evaluation, answer to the evaluation and bibliography.

Unit I is entitled “The Shaking”. This unit includes the brief definition of

earthquake and its causes, the different types of faults, and the volcanic and

tectonic earthquakes.

Unit II is entitled “Effects of Earthquake”. This unit contains the different

effects of earthquakes such as ground shaking, landslides, liquefaction, seiches,

fires, scarps, water changes and tsunami.

Unit III is entitled “Measuring Earthquake”. This unit presents the

instrument used in measuring earthquake and other related topics such as types

of waves, epicentre, focus, magnitude and Richter scale.

Unit IV is entitled “Predicting and Preparing for an Earthquake”. This

unit contains the coping mechanisms such as the different preparations and

types of predictions.

The General Science Expert validated the developed module of the

researchers. In the Cover Page of the module, the General Science Expert

suggested that the illustrations on the cover page should fit on the title of the

module and must give an overview of what the topic is all about.

Here are some changes in the cover page after it was being validated by a

General Science Expert:

First Draft Final Draft

Figure 2. Cover Page of the Entire Module

The following are the changes of the Cover Page in every Unit; the expert

suggested the proper contrast of the text and pictures and including the sources.

First Draft Final Draft



Figure 3. Unit I Cover Page – “The Shaking”


First Draft Final Draft

Figure 4. Unit II Cover Page – “Effects of Earthquake”

First Draft Final Draft



Figure 5. Unit III Cover Page – “Measuring Earthquake”


First Draft Final Draft

and Preparing
for an

Figure 6. Unit IV Cover Page – “Predicting and preparing

for an Earthquake”

For the Objectives, the General Science Expert suggested that the

objectives should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and

Time Bounded) and should be in a higher order thinking skills. Only few changes

are made under this section.

For the Introduction of every unit, the General Science Expert suggested

that the introduction should be brief, concise, and must give an overview of what

the unit is all about. Only the spellings of some information’s were changed.

For the Learning content of the unit, the General Science Expert

suggested that the content should arranged accordingly. There should be proper

arrangement between the reading text and illustrations all through out the

module. The pages should be in three colours only (from the text design, page

design and title strips) to avoid distractions. Colors and some illustrations were

highly changed in this section.

For the Self–assessment of the unit, the General Science Expert

suggested that it should be based in the objectives, the given directions must be

clear, and apply the art of questioning. Some of the self-assessment questions

were changed because it doesn’t fit into the Unit’s objectives.

For the Answers of the Self – assessment of the unit, the General

Science Expert suggested that all of the answers must be correct. If there is any

essay type of question, the answer must be brief and direct to the point.

The Bibliography of the unit, the General Science Expert suggested that

the references must be arranged alphabetically. In this module, the

arrangements of the authors were changed alphabetically.

Finally the General Science Expert suggested unlocking the difficult

words, that’s why at the end of the module you can find the Glossary of Terms.

In the 12th day of September 2008, the researchers validated their module

to three ICEHS schools in Iligan City, ICEHS – Kiwalan, Santiago and

Hinaplanon. The researchers left the module, rubrics and qualitative ratings to

the In-Service teachers of the said schools, so that the in-service teachers could

be able to read, study the module, react, rate and give comments.

Two weeks after, the researchers went back into the three schools and got

their modules with ratings, comments and suggestions. In September 24th of