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now to kead a 8ook, vS.

aul n. Ldwards
School of lnformaLlon
unlverslLy of Mlchlgan

1hls work ls llcensed under a CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlon-nonCommerclal-ShareAllke 4.0 lnLernaLlonal
Llcense. 1he Lerms of Lhls llcence allow you Lo remlx, Lweak, and bulld upon Lhls work non-commerclally, as
long as you credlL me and llcense your new creaLlons under Lhe ldenLlcal Lerms.
Cuasl-permanenL u8L:

/0)& 1$ 2-304-' 5%3 6% 7#0- 0 8%%9 1

Pow can you learn Lhe mosL from a book - or any oLher plece of wrlLlng - when you're readlng
for lnformaLlon, raLher Lhan for pleasure?

lL's saLlsfylng Lo sLarL aL Lhe beglnnlng and read sLralghL Lhrough Lo Lhe end. Some books, such as
novels, ,0:# Lo be read Lhls way, slnce a baslc prlnclple of flcLlon ls Lo hold Lhe reader ln
suspense. ?our whole purpose ln readlng flcLlon ls Lo follow Lhe wrlLer's lead, allowlng hlm or
her Lo spln a sLory blL by blL.

8uL many of Lhe books, arLlcles, and oLher documenLs you'll read durlng your undergraduaLe
and graduaLe years, and posslbly durlng Lhe resL of your professlonal llfe, won'L be novels.
lnsLead, Lhey'll be non-flcLlon: LexLbooks, manuals, [ournal arLlcles, hlsLorles, academlc sLudles,
and so on.

1he purpose of readlng Lhlngs llke Lhls ls Lo galn, and reLaln, lnformaLlon. Pere, flndlng ouL whaL
happens - as qulckly and easlly as posslble - ls your maln goal. So unless you're sLuck ln prlson
wlLh noLhlng else Lo do, nLvL8 read a non-flcLlon book or arLlcle from beglnnlng Lo end.

lnsLead, when you're readlng for lnformaLlon, you should ALWA?S [ump ahead, sklp around, and
use every avallable sLraLegy Lo d|scover, Lhen Lo understand, and flnally Lo remember whaL Lhe
wrlLer has Lo say. 1hls ls how you'll geL Lhe mosL ouL of a book ln Lhe smallesL amounL of Llme.

uslng Lhe meLhods descrlbed here, you should be able Lo read a 300-page book ln slx Lo elghL
hours. Cf course, Lhe more Llme you spend, Lhe more you'll learn and Lhe beLLer you'll
undersLand Lhe book. 8uL your Llme ls llmlLed.

Pere are some sLraLegles Lo help you do Lhls effecLlvely. MosL of Lhese can be applled noL only
Lo books, buL also Lo any oLher klnd of non-flcLlon readlng, from arLlcles Lo webslLes. 1able 1, on
Lhe nexL page, summarlzes Lhe Lechnlques, and Lhe followlng pages explaln Lhem ln more deLall.

!"#$ &'" (')*" &'+,-.

ln readlng Lo learn, your goal should always be Lo geL all Lhe way Lhrough Lhe asslgnmenL.
lL's much more lmporLanL Lo have a general grasp of Lhe argumenLs or hypoLheses,
evldence, and concluslons Lhan Lo undersLand every deLall. ln facL, no maLLer how carefully
you read, you won'L remember mosL of Lhe deLalls anyway.

WhaL you can do ls remember 0"- 4#+%4- Lhe maln polnLs. And lf you remember Lhose, you
know enough Lo flnd Lhe maLerlal agaln lf you ever do need Lo recall Lhe deLalls.

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/#0*" 12 3455#67 )8 6"#$+,- 9&6#&"-+"9 #,$ &":',+;4"9

"#$%#&'(&) %*+ #&,-*(./&) 0%#(1*%2&
!"#$ &'" (')*" &'+,-
Ma[or argumenLs and evldence maLLer more Lhan deLalls.
Crasplng Lhe sLrucLure of Lhe whole ls more lmporLanL Lhan
readlng every word.
."/+$" ')( 01/' &+0" 2)1
(+** 34",$
8eal-world Llme ls llmlLed. lf you know exacLly how long you
can acLually spend on readlng, you can plan how much Llme
Lo devoLe Lo each lLem.
5#6" # 4174)3" #,$ #
?ou'll en[oy readlng more, and remember lL beLLer, lf you
know exacLly why you're readlng.
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never rely on Lhe auLhor's sLrucLures alone. Move around ln
Lhe LexL, followlng your own goals.
!"#$ +& &'7"" &+0"3
llrsL Llme for overvlew and dlscovery. Second Llme for
deLall and undersLandlng. 1hlrd Llme for noLe-Laklng ln your
own words.
8)/13 ), 4#7&3 (+&' '+-'
+,9)70#&+), /),&",&
1ables of conLenLs, plcLures, charLs, headlngs, and oLher
elemenLs conLaln more lnformaLlon Lhan body LexL.
:3" ;<=> ?4"73),#* &"@&
0#7A14 *#,-1#-"B
Mark up your readlng wlLh your own noLes. 1hls helps you
learn and also helps you flnd lmporLanL passages laLer.
C,)( &'" #1&')7?3B #,$
AuLhors are people wlLh backgrounds and blases. 1hey
work ln organlzaLlons LhaL glve Lhem conLexL and depLh.
C,)( &'" +,&"**"/&1#*
MosL academlc wrlLlng ls parL of an ongolng lnLellecLual
conversaLlon, wlLh debaLes, key flgures, and paradlgmaLlc
:3" 2)17 1,/),3/+)13 0+,$
Leave Llme beLween readlng sesslons for your mlnd Lo
process Lhe maLerlal.
!"'"#73"E #,$ 13" 01*&+4*"
1alklng, vlsuallzlng, or wrlLlng abouL whaL you've read helps
you remember lL.

<":+$" ')( 54:' &+5" 7)4 (+** 9=",$

lf you know ln advance LhaL you have only slx hours Lo read, lL'll be easler Lo pace yourself.
8emember, you're golng Lo read Lhe whole book (or Lhe whole asslgnmenL).

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ln facL, Lhe more dlrecLly and reallsLlcally you confronL your llmlLs, Lhe more effecLlve you
wlll be aL pracLlcally everyLhlng. SeLLlng Llme llmlLs and keeplng Lo Lhem (whlle
accompllshlng your goals) ls one of Lhe mosL lmporLanL llfe skllls you can learn. So never
sLarL Lo read wlLhouL plannlng when Lo sLop.

>#?" # =46=)9" #,$ # 9&6#&"-7

8efore you begln, flgure ouL why you are readlng Lhls parLlcular book, and how you are
golng Lo read lL. lf you don'L have reasons and sLraLegles of your own - noL [usL Lhose of
your Leacher - you won'L learn as much.

As soon as you sLarL Lo read, begln Lrylng Lo flnd ouL four Lhlngs:

- Who ls Lhe auLhor?
- WhaL are Lhe book's argumenLs?
- WhaL ls Lhe evldence LhaL supporLs Lhese?
- WhaL are Lhe book's concluslons?

Cnce you've goL a grlp on Lhese, sLarL Lrylng Lo deLermlne:

- WhaL are Lhe weaknesses of Lhese argumenLs, evldence, and concluslons?
- WhaL do you Lhlnk abouL Lhe argumenLs, evldence, and concluslons?
- Pow does (or how could) Lhe auLhor respond Lo Lhese weaknesses, and Lo
your own crlLlclsms?

keep comlng back Lo Lhese quesLlons as you read. 8y Lhe Llme you flnlsh, you should be able
Lo answer Lhem all. 1hree good ways Lo Lhlnk abouL Lhls are:

a) lmaglne LhaL you're golng Lo revlew Lhe book for a magazlne.
b) lmaglne LhaL you're havlng a conversaLlon, or a formal debaLe, wlLh Lhe
c) lmaglne an examlnaLlon on Lhe book. WhaL would Lhe quesLlons be, and how
would you answer Lhem?

!"#$ #:&+?"*7

uon'L walL for Lhe auLhor Lo hammer you over Lhe head. lnsLead, from Lhe very beglnnlng,
consLanLly generaLe hypoLheses (Lhe maln polnL of Lhe book ls LhaL...") and quesLlons
(Pow does Lhe auLhor know LhaL...?") abouL Lhe book.

Maklng brlef noLes abouL Lhese can help. As you read, Lry Lo conflrm your hypoLheses and
answer your quesLlons. Cnce you flnlsh, revlew Lhese.

@,)( &'" #4&')6A9B #,$ )6-#,+C#&+),9

knowlng who wroLe a book helps you [udge lLs quallLy and undersLand lLs full slgnlflcance.

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AuLhors are people. Llke anyone else, Lhelr vlews are shaped by Lhelr educaLlons, Lhelr [obs,
Lhelr early llves, and Lhe resL of Lhelr experlences. Also llke anyone else, Lhey have
pre[udlces, bllnd spoLs, desperaLe momenLs, falllngs, and deslres - as well as lnslghLs,
brllllance, ob[ecLlvlLy, and successes. noLlce all of lL.

MosL auLhors belong Lo organlzaLlons: unlverslLles, corporaLlons, governmenLs, newspapers,
magazlnes. 1hese organlzaLlons each have culLures, hlerarchles of power, and soclal norms.
CrganlzaLlons shape boLh how a work ls wrlLLen and Lhe conLenL of whaL lL says. lor
example, unlverslLy professors are expecLed Lo wrlLe books and/or [ournal arLlcles ln order
Lo geL Lenure. 1hese pleces of wrlLlng musL meeL cerLaln sLandards of quallLy, deflned chlefly
by oLher professors, for Lhem, conLenL usually maLLers more Lhan good wrlLlng. !ournallsLs,
by conLrasL, are ofLen drlven by deadllnes and Lhe need Lo please large audlences. 8ecause
of Lhls, Lhelr sLandards of quallLy are ofLen dlrecLed more Loward clear and engaglng wrlLlng
Lhan Loward unlmpeachable conLenL, Lhelr sources are usually oral raLher Lhan wrlLLen.

1he more you know abouL Lhe auLhor and hls/her organlzaLlon and/or dlsclpllne, Lhe beLLer
you wlll be able Lo evaluaLe whaL you read. 1ry Lo answer quesLlons llke Lhese: WhaL shaped
Lhe auLhor's lnLellecLual perspecLlve? WhaL ls hls or her professlon? ls Lhe auLhor an
academlc, a [ournallsL, a professlonal (docLor, lawyer, lndusLrlal sclenLlsL, eLc.)? LxperLlse?
CLher books and arLlcles? lnLellecLual neLwork(s)? Cender? 8ace? Class? ollLlcal afflllaLlon?
Why dld Lhe auLhor declde Lo wrlLe Lhls book? When? lor whaL audlence(s)? Who pald for
Lhe research work (prlvaLe foundaLlons, governmenL granL agencles, lndusLrlal sponsors,
eLc.)? Who wroLe [ackeL blurbs" ln supporL of Lhe book?

?ou can ofLen (Lhough noL always) learn abouL much of Lhls from Lhe acknowledgmenLs, Lhe
blbllography, and Lhe auLhor's blographlcal sLaLemenL.

@,)( &'" +,&"**":&4#* :),&"D&

knowlng Lhe auLhor and hls/her organlzaLlon also helps you undersLand Lhe book's
lnLellecLual conLexL. 1hls lncludes Lhe academlc dlsclpllne(s) from whlch lL draws, schools of
LhoughL wlLhln LhaL dlsclpllne, and oLhers who agree wlLh or oppose Lhe auLhor's vlewpolnL.

A book ls almosL always parLly a response Lo oLher wrlLers, so you'll undersLand a book
much beLLer lf you can flgure ouL whaL, and whom, lL ls 0"'3#4(";. ay speclal aLLenLlon Lo
polnLs where Lhe auLhor Lells you dlrecLly LhaL s/he ls dlsagreelng wlLh oLhers:
ConvenLlonal wlsdom holds LhaL <, buL l argue lnsLead LhaL =." (ls < really convenLlonal
wlsdom? Among whaL group of people?) lamous !ane Scholar says LhaL <, buL l wlll show
LhaL =." (Who's lamous !ane, and why do oLher people belleve her? Pow plauslble are x and
y? ls Lhe auLhor sLralnlng Lo flnd someLhlng orlglnal Lo say, or has s/he genulnely convlnced
you LhaL lamous !ane ls wrong?) Lqually lmporLanL are Lhe people and wrlLlngs Lhe auLhor
clLes ln supporL of hls/her argumenLs.

!"#$ +& &'6"" &+5"9

1h|s |s the key techn|que. ?ou'll geL Lhe mosL ouL of Lhe book lf you read lL Lhree Llmes -
each Llme for a dlfferenL purpose.

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a) Cverv|ew: d|scovery (S-10 percent of tota| t|me)

Pere you read very qulckly, followlng Lhe prlnclple (descrlbed below) of
readlng for hlgh lnformaLlon conLenL. ?our goal ls Lo d|scover Lhe book. ?ou
wanL a qulck-and-dlrLy, unsophlsLlcaLed, general plcLure of Lhe wrlLer's
purpose, meLhods, and concluslons.

Mark - 3(6,%)6 4#0-("; +04#>)&&= - headlngs, passages, and phrases LhaL
seem lmporLanL (you'll read Lhese more closely Lhe second Llme around.)
CeneraLe quesLlons Lo answer on your second readlng: whaL does Lerm or
phrase x mean? Why doesn'L Lhe auLhor cover sub[ecL ?? Who ls Z?

b) Deta||: understand|ng (70-80 percent of tota| t|me)

WlLhln your Llme consLralnLs, read Lhe book a second Llme. 1hls Llme, your
goal ls undersLandlng: Lo geL a careful, crlLlcal, LhoughLful grasp of Lhe key
polnLs, and Lo evaluaLe Lhe auLhor's evldence for hls/her polnLs.

locus especlally on Lhe beglnnlngs and ends of chapLers and ma[or secLlons.
ay speclal aLLenLlon Lo Lhe passages you marked on Lhe flrsL round. 1ry Lo
answer any quesLlons you generaLed on Lhe flrsL round.

c) Notes: reca|| and note-tak|ng (10-20 percent of tota| t|me)

1he purpose of your Lhlrd and flnal readlng ls Lo commlL Lo memory Lhe
mosL lmporLanL elemenLs of Lhe book. 1hls Llme, make brlef noLes abouL Lhe
argumenLs, evldence, and concluslons. ?,(' (' "%6 06 0&& 6,# '0*# 6,("; 0'
6#<6 *049)!@ your goal here ls Lo process Lhe maLerlal by LranslaLlng lnLo
your own menLal framework, whlch means uslng your own words as much
as posslble. CuLLlng and pasLlng segmenLs of LexL from Lhe book wlll noL do
as much for you as summarlzlng very brlefly ln your own words. lnclude Lhe
bare mlnlmum of deLall Lo leL you remember and re-locaLe Lhe mosL
lmporLanL Lhlngs. 1-3 pages of noLes per 100 pages of LexL ls a good goal Lo
shooL for, more Lhan LhaL ls ofLen Loo much. use some sysLem LhaL leLs you
easlly flnd places ln Lhe book (e.g., sLarL each noLe wlLh a page number.)

noLebooks, Lyped pages, or handwrlLLen sheeLs Lucked lnLo Lhe book can all
work. Powever, noLes wlll be useless unless you can easlly flnd Lhem agaln.
A very good sysLem - Lhe one l use - ls Lo Lype noLes dlrecLly lnLo
bllblography enLrles uslng clLaLlon manager sofLware such as LndnoLe,
ZoLero, or 8ookends. See below for more on clLaLlon managers.

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E, &+5" #,$ &+5+,-

llrsL, because human aLLenLlon fades afLer abouL an hour, you'll geL more ouL of Lhree one-
hour readlngs Lhan you could ever geL ouL of one Lhree-hour readlng. 8uL be careful: Lo geL
one full hour of effecLlve readlng, you need Lo seL aslde aL leasL one hour and flfLeen
mlnuLes, slnce dlsLracLlon ls lnevlLable aL Lhe beglnnlng (seLLllng ln) and end (re-arousal for
your nexL Lask) of any readlng perlod.

Second, make a reallsLlc plan LhaL lncludes how much Llme you wlll devoLe Lo each of Lhe
Lhree sLages. lor a 230-page book, l mlghL spend 13 mlnuLes on overvlew, 4 hours on
deLalled readlng, and 20-30 mlnuLes maklng noLes - buL l'd ad[usL Lhese perlods up or
down dependlng on how dlfflculL Lhe LexL ls, how lmporLanL lL ls Lo me, and how much Llme l

F):49 ), &'" =#6&9 (+&' '+-' +,8)65#&+), :),&",&

non-flcLlon books very ofLen have an hourglass" sLrucLure LhaL ls repeaLed aL several levels
of organlzaLlon. More general (broader) lnformaLlon ls Lyplcally presenLed aL Lhe beglnnlngs
and ends of:

- Lhe book or arLlcle as a whole (absLracL, lnLroducLlon, concluslon)
- each chapLer
- each secLlon wlLhln a chapLer
- each paragraph

More speclflc (narrower) lnformaLlon (supporLlng evldence, deLalls, eLc.) Lhen appears ln Lhe
mlddle of Lhe hourglass.


3-& 41/$'2%)) 5*61$7%#(1* "#$/,#/$&

/0)& 1$ 2-304-' 5%3 6% 7#0- 0 8%%9 7
?ou can make Lhe hourglass sLrucLure of wrlLlng do a loL of work for you. locus on Lhe
followlng elemenLs, ln more or less Lhe followlng order:

- Iront and back covers, |nner [acket f|aps
- 1ab|e of contents
- Index: scan Lhls Lo see whlch are Lhe mosL lmporLanL Lerms
- 8|b||ography: Lells you abouL Lhe book's sources and lnLellecLual conLexL
- reface and/or Introduct|on and/or Abstract
- Conc|us|on
- |ctures, graphs, tab|es, f|gures: lmages conLaln more lnformaLlon Lhan LexL
- Chapter |ntroduct|ons and conc|us|ons
- Sect|on head|ngs
- Spec|a| type or formatt|ng: boldface, lLallcs, numbered lLems, llsLs

G9" H/IJ A="69),#* &"D& 5#6K4= *#,-4#-"B

Always, always, always mark up your readlng. 1hls ls a crlLlcal parL of acLlve readlng. uo Lhls
from Lhe very beglnnlng - even on your flrsL, overvlew readlng. Why? 8ecause when you
come back Lo Lhe book laLer, your marks reduce Lhe amounL you have Lo look aL and help
you see whaL's mosL slgnlflcanL.

Don't mark too much. 1hls defeaLs Lhe purpose of markup, when you consulL your markup
laLer, heavy markup wlll force you Lo re-read unlmporLanL lnformaLlon. As a rule, you should
average no more Lhan Lwo or Lhree shorL marks per page. 8aLher Lhan underllne whole
senLences, underllne words or shorL phrases LhaL capLure whaL you mosL need Lo
remember. 1he polnL of Lhls ls Lo dlsLlll, reduce, ellmlnaLe Lhe unnecessary. WrlLe words and
phrases ln Lhe marglns LhaL Lell you whaL paragraphs or secLlons are abouL. use your own

H#-" ?92 9:6"",

rlnLed maLerlal has far hlgher resoluLlon (~600 dpl) Lhan even Lhe besL compuLer screens
(~100 dpl), see Lhe lllusLraLlon of 300 vs. 600 dpl, below. lor Lhls reason you wlll read more
accuraLely, and wlLh less faLlgue, lf you sLlck wlLh Lhe paper verslon. SLlll, we lnevlLably read
much more screen-based maLerlal now.

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Markup on the screen: lL remalns dlfflculL Lo mark up screen-based maLerlals effecLlvely.
1he exLra sLeps lnvolved are dlsLracLlng, as ls Lhe LempLaLlon Lo check emall or websurf.
Also, wlLh screen-based markup you ofLen have Lo cllck on a noLe ln order Lo read lL, whlch
means you're less llkely Lo do lL laLer. lL remalns far easler Lo mark up a prlnLed copy!

Powever, lf you're dlsclpllned, recenL verslons of AcrobaL, Apple revlew, and Lhlrd-parLy
ul vlewers such as ulpen, lAnnoLaLe, and Coodreader allow you Lo add commenLs,
hlghllghLlng, and so on Lo uls. volce recognlLlon can make Lhls a loL easler. 1oday, l
rouLlnely read and annoLaLe uls on an lad, uslng volce recognlLlon when l wanL Lo make a
noLe. Some of Lhese readers, as well as ebook readers such as klndle, allow you Lo exporL
only your hlghllghLs and noLes. 1hls ls a greaL way Lo make yourself a condensed verslon of a
documenL. asLe lL lnLo Lhe noLes fleld of your clLaLlon manager and lL'll always be aL your
flngerLlps. PunL around on Lhe web for ways Lo do Lhls klnd of Lhlng on an lndusLrlal scale
(especlally wlLh klndle books).

When Laklng noLes abouL someLhlng you're readlng (as opposed Lo marklng up Lhe LexL),
you'll be LempLed Lo cuL and pasLe Lhe orlglnal LexL ln lleu of maklng your own noLes ln your
own words. CuL-and-pasLe +0" someLlmes work well, especlally for Lhlngs you mlghL wanL Lo
quoLe laLer. nowever: ln general lL defeaLs Lhe Lwo maln purposes of noLe-Laklng: (a)
learnlng and rememberlng (by rephraslng ln your own Lerms), and (b) condenslng lnLo a very
shorL form. 1he same ls Lrue of llnks: Lhough useful for keeplng Lrack of sources, keeplng a
u8L wlll noL A= (6'#&> help you remember or undersLand whaL's Lhere, even Lhough lL may
feel LhaL way.

G9" # :+&#&+), 5#,#-"6

lL's hard Lo overemphaslze Lhe huge advanLages of clLaLlon manager sofLware such as
LndnoLe, 8ookends, ZoLero, Mendeley, ClLeuLlke, eLc. 1hey leL you keep Lrack of your
growlng llbrary, easlly enLer and formaL clLaLlons ln your word processor (savlng you Lhe
lncredlble lrrlLaLlon of dolng lL yourself). MosL of Lhem can pull ln clLaLlons dlrecLly from Lhe
web, record web llnks, flnd uCl's, and so on. Some have Lhelr own web search Lools bullL ln.
Some, such as 8ookends (Mac only), wlll auLomaLlcally rename documenLs wlLh AuLhor-
uaLe-1lLle, a huge help wlLh Lhe exLremely annoylng problem of unlnformaLlve fllenames.

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none of Lhese packages are perfecL. All have boLh advanLages and dlsadvanLages, and Lhe
more sophlsLlcaLed ones have sLeep learnlng curves. Look for one LhaL can handle all ma[or
documenL formaLs, lncludlng books, [ournal arLlcles, newspaper arLlcles, onllne sources,
lnLervlews, and so on. 8e wary of managers LhaL only handle uls, slnce so many oLher
formaLs are sLlll lmporLanL.

lf you use Lhe noLes fleld of your clLaLlon manager ln a dlsclpllned way, your noLes wlll
always be easy Lo flnd. When your llbrary sLarLs reachlng lnLo Lhe Lhousands of lLems, Lhls ls
a godsend.

G9" 7)46 4,:),9:+)49 5+,$

An awful loL of Lhlnklng and menLal processlng goes on when you're noL aware of lL. !usL as
wlLh wrlLlng or any oLher creaLlve LhoughL process, full undersLandlng of a book Lakes Llme
Lo develop.

Llke Lhe body, Lhe mlnd suffers from faLlgure when dolng [usL one Lhlng for many hours.
?our ablllLy Lo comprehend and reLaln whaL you read drops off dramaLlcally afLer an hour or
so. ?,#4#>%4#B =%) ',%)&- 4#0- 0 A%%9 (" '#:#40& ',%46 '#''(%"' %> %"# 6% 63% ,%)4' 0!(#+#B
406,#4 6,0" %"# &%"; *0406,%"$

ln beLween, your unconsclous mlnd wlll process some of whaL you've read. When you come
back for Lhe nexL sesslon, sLarL by asklng yourself whaL you remember from your prevlous
readlng, whaL you Lhlnk of lL so far, and whaL you sLlll need Lo learn.

!"'"#69"L #,$ 49" 54*&+=*" 5)$"9

8eadlng ls exacLly llke marLlal arLs, baseball, or cooklng ln Lhe sense LhaL |earn|ng and
memory depend cruc|a||y on rehearsa|.

So - afLer you've read Lhe book, rehearse whaL you've learned. Culz yourself on lLs
conLenLs. Argue wlLh Lhe auLhor. lmaglne how you would defend Lhe auLhor's poslLlon ln
your own wrlLlng.

8eadlng, wrlLlng, speaklng, llsLenlng, and vlsuallzlng all engage dlfferenL parLs of Lhe braln.
lor Lhls reason, Lhe besL forms of rehearsal use mu|t|p|e modes of Lhlnklng and acLlon.
uon'L [usL conLemplaLe prlvaLely. lnsLead, Lalk abouL Lhe book wlLh oLhers. 8rlng lL up ln
classes. WrlLe abouL lL. vlsuallze anyLhlng LhaL can be vlsuallzed abouL lLs conLenLs. All of Lhls
helps flx your memory and lnLegraLe your new learnlng lnLo Lhe resL of your knowledge.

5#,- +, &'"7"F

When l glve presenLaLlons on Lhese ldeas, sLudenLs ofLen Lell me a few weeks laLer LhaL Lhey
Lrled lL a few Llmes and [usL couldn'L do lL," so Lhey sLopped.

/0)& 1$ 2-304-' 5%3 6% 7#0- 0 8%%9 10
ou w||| have to pract|ce Lhese Lechnlques for a conslderable lengLh of Llme - aL leasL a few
monLhs - before Lhey come Lo seem naLural, and Lhey wlll never be easler Lhan Lhe
comforLable, passlve way we've all been readlng for many years.

Pang ln Lhere. 1he rewards of Lhese Lechnlques are greaL, or so say Lhe hundreds of
sLudenLs who've Lold me so years laLer. Learnlng Lo read llke Lhls can be a crlLlcal key Lo a
successful career as a sLudenL, scholar, or professlonal ln almosL any fleld.