You are on page 1of 8

106

ISSN 1648-9098
Ekonomika ir vadyba: aktualijos ir perspektyvos. 2008. 4 (13). 106–113
A CHILD IMPACT ON PARENTS` PURCHASING DECISION
Vytautas Dikcius, Elvita Medeksiene
Vilnius University International business school
Object: The object of this paper is the level of
children infuence that was examined in two product
categories evaluating characteristics oI a child, a mot-
her and a Iamily.
Aim: The aim oI this paper is to evaluate the
extent oI infuence exerted by children on a Iamily
purchase decision making.
Objectives:
To perIorm a comparative analysis based on
previous researches about a child`s role in
a Iamily decision making with regard to a
child- and a Iamily-related products catego-
ries.
To evaluate the impact oI characteristics oI
a child, a mother and a Iamily that causes
the extent oI a child`s infuence.
To ascertain any diIIerences in the amount
oI infuence while buying the same domes-
tic and Ioreign products.
Literature review
Nowadays children are not passive observers
in the Iamily decision making process they make
a signifcant infuence on the parental purchasing.
According to Wimalasiry (2004) the tremendous inc-
rease in the child-infuenced sales volume in most
countries can be attributed to several Iactors. First,
most Iamilies have Iewer children, thereby increasing
the infuence oI each child; second, working couples
can aIIord to allow their children to make the choice;
third, due to constant exposure to the media, children
learn a great deal about products/ services and are in a
position to convince their parents as to what is 'good¨
and 'bad¨. Finally, single parents Ioster a household
participation and selI-reliance among their children.
Children`s infuence on a Iamily purchasing de-
cisions has been studied Irom various perspectives.
These infuences can be related to diIIerent Iactors
such as a type oI product, child- and Iamily characte-
ristics and others. The degree oI children`s infuence
depends mostly on the type oI product and whether
the child is an end consumer. For example, Jensen
(1995) by examining children`s infuence classifed
products into three categories those that were pri-
marily Ior children (e.g. toys, candy), products Ior a
1.
2.
3.
Abstract
A number oI Ioreign studies have acknowled-
ged that children display a signifcant infuence in a
Iamily decision making Ior a wide array oI products.
This study uses a survey research approach to measu-
re the amount oI infuence displayed by children in
the purchase decision making regarding to a child and
a Iamily related products` categories. Participants inc-
luded mothers with children, aged 3-16 years, oI Ia-
milies in Vilnius, Lithuania. The results reported here
mostly support the fndings oI previous researches but
with some exceptions. Further, the amount oI infuen-
ce exerted by children is Iound to be dependent oI cer-
tain demographic characteristics oI a child, a mother
and a Iamily.
Keywords: Children, infuence on parents, pur-
chasing behaviour, decision making, product type
Introduction
Problem and relevance of research: There is
no doubt that nowadays children have a signifcant
infuence on a Iamily purchase decisions. Some rese-
archers maintain that children make an 'extensive¨
infuence on parental purchases, while others think
that the infuence has been 'overestimated.¨ The lat-
ter claim that Iamilies adopt a more liberal attitude, in
which children`s view is more likely to be taken into
an account. Overall, a number oI studies have Iound
children to have at least some infuence on decisions
Ior a wide array oI products. It varies according to a
product type, a decision stage, a Iamily, parental and
child demographic characteristics, etc. A cultural en-
vironment also has an impact on a child`s participa-
tion in a Iamily decision making process. Such kind
oI research hasn`t been perIormed in Lithuania and
thereIore a child`s preIerences to select the same do-
mestic and Ioreign goods have not been examined. An
important contribution oI this research is that it exa-
mines children`s infuence on Iamily decision making
in Lithuania, namely outside the USA and Western
Europe, where the most such kind oI researches have
been carried out. The fndings oI the research would
be benefcial Ior marketers, who would attempt to re-
ach the rapidly expanding children`s market.
107
Iamily consumption (Iood, shampoo, toothpaste), and
parents` products such as gasoline, coIIee (Kaur and
Singh, 2006). In general, children exert signifcant
infuence on the products oI which they are primary
consumers (Foxman and Tansuhaj, 1988, Foxman et
al., 1989; Jenkins, 1979; Lee and Beatty, 2002). Chil-
dren impact on the purchase decisions Ior breakIast
cereals, snack Ioods, toys, children clothes and scho-
ol supplies. In contrast to decisions Ior child-related
products children have less infuence on decisions Ior
products Ior the whole Iamily (Foxman and Tansuhaj,
1988). However, in this product category children ha-
ve been Iound to make an important role infuencing a
parental decision related to a Iamily leisure time activi-
ty such as holidays, eating out, cable TV subscription
(Szybillo and Sosanie, 1977; Darley and Lim, 1986).
Actually, children`s infuence on latter decisions is lo-
wer than on decisions Ior the child-related products.
Unequal extent oI infuence likely depends on how
the child is involved with the product. Children percei-
ve products Ior a personal use as personally relevant
to them and use more Irequently. Decisions regarding
a Iamily leisure time activities could also involve chil-
dren but at a lower degree. In a Iamily-related product
category parents are mostly inclined to make deci-
sions without a child`s participation when an outlay
oI products is substantial (products oI high fnancial
risk). Thus parents limit a child`s involvement as well
the child is less motivated to take part in a such kind
oI decisions, as the product is not personally relevant
to him/her (Mangleburg and Tech, 1990). Children
have less impact on decisions Ior cars, Iurniture, te-
levision, life insurance, etc. Moreover, Jensen stated
that if parents are less involved and/ or perceive little
or no product diIIerentiation, the child`s infuence is
growing. The same results were Iound by Tinson and
Nancarrow (2007), who examined both Iamily purcha-
se (a car Ior the Iamily, a Iamily holiday, a Iamily trip
to the cinema and going out Ior the Iamily meal) and
purchase Ior the child (book/ comic, shoes Ior scho-
ol, sweets, PC game, soIt drink, music CD and Iruit).
Previous studies suggest that children are most infu-
ential when they are primary consumers, so products
like breakIast cereals and soIt drinks might be expec-
ted to Ieature strongly. Otherwise, the fndings oI
the research carried out by Wilson and Wood (2004)
showed, that parents rated cereals the most heavily in-
fuenced category, closely Iollowed by Irozen Ioods,
mostly pizza, chips, chicken nuggets and ice cream,
then juice and crisps. The least infuenced categories
were biscuits, meat, Iruit/ vegetables and pasta.
Supposedly such situation could be explained
that most oI last-mentioned products are not directly
available to children and must be obtained through
an intermediary purchasing agent the parent. Accor-
ding to Berey and Pollay (1968) the extent oI the in-
fuence the child may have on the parent`s purchase
decisions depends on at least two primary Iactors, the
child`s assertiveness and the parent`s child-centered-
ness. The latter researches raised two hypotheses: the
frst the more assertive the child is, the more likely
the mother will purchase the child`s Iavourite brand
oI breakIast cereals; the second the more child-cen-
tered the mother is, the more likely she will purchase
the child`s Iavourite brands oI breakIast cereals. The
fndings oI the research showed that the mother who
is more a child-centered has a greater tendency to
purchase cereals Iollowing her view oI what is right
and healthIul. Since the child usually preIers preswe-
etened cereals, the child`s preIerence diIIers Irom the
mother`s selection and, given her overriding concern
Ior the child wellbeing, she tends to ignore the child`s
request and to purchase what is the best Ior her child.
In addition, the mother low in a child-centeredness
may be more likely to purchase the brands the child
preIers to placate the child (Berey and Pollay, 1968).
Other Iactors aIIecting children`s infuence relate to
the characteristics oI the child, e.g. age and gender
oI the child. Most studies have Iound that older chil-
dren have more infuence on Iamily purchase deci-
sions than younger children (Darley and Lim 1986;
Jenkins 1979; Moschis and Mitchell 1986; Nelson
1978; Ward and Wackman 1972). Such results partial-
ly appear because oI older children`s cognitive ability
as compared to younger children. Older children ha-
ve more experience oI the products and knowledge
about consumer roles. The report published in Maga-
zine Publishers oI America (2001) indicates that older
children have more infuence than younger children
on Iamily-related products purchases such as personal
computers, cell phones and deodorants, whereas youn-
ger children in many cases have more infuence than
older children on child-related products, e.g. video
games, ice cream, candy, pretzels and vacation travel
(Shoham and Dalakas, 2006). Children`s infuence
increases with their age. Older children become more
knowledgeable and parents are more likely to rely on
them. Levy and Lee (2004) suggested that children
Irom about the age oI eight or nine to about fIteen
have the greatest infuence. Children below this age
will normally tend to endorse their parent`s decision.
Older children in many cases are beginning to distan-
ce themselves Irom the Iamily and are less interested
in purchase decisions and so may not infuence them.
The latter researches investigated Iamily-related pro-
ducts such as housing purchase. Ward and Wackman
(1972) were Iound that parental yielding increases
with child`s age. Perhaps yielding increases with the
age because oI older children`s better understanding
oI economic concepts and consumer skills. Marquis
108
(2004) noted that children`s requests become harder
to reIuse as they grow older, Ior example, parents fnd
it more diIfcult to reIuse requests Irom a ten-year-
old compared to a fve-year-old. There are noticeable
diIIerences regarding gender in dominating purchase
decisions. Girls dominate decisions regarding interior
design and appear to be more interested in mother`s
and Iather`s clothes, and boys are more involved in
many technical durable items. In general, children`s
infuence and involvement depends on their interest,
knowledge and particular situation.
Another group oI Iactors having an impact on
a child`s infuence on a Iamily purchase decisions
are Iamily characteristics. Some studies have Iound
a child`s infuence to be greater with increased a Ia-
mily`s income (Jenkins 1979) or a higher socio-eco-
nomic status (Moschis and Mitchell 1986). However,
Atkin (1978) and Ward and Wackman (1972) did not
fnd any statistically signifcant eIIect oI socio-econo-
mic status on children`s infuence attempts (Lee and
Beatty, 2002). It seems that aIfuent Iamilies oIten ha-
ve more opportunities Ior consumption and thereby
children have a larger number oI opportunities to in-
fuence. It means that such Iamilies may perceive a
lower fnancial risk. Furthermore, living in a special
environment may also reinIorce particular behaviou-
ral patterns. Lee and Beatty (2002) carried out anot-
her important research by observing nuclear Iamilies
with two children while making the decision about
restaurant choice. Measuring the mother`s occupatio-
nal status (nonworking, low-occupational-status and
high-occupational-status) they Iound that older chil-
dren whose mothers are housewives have more power
than those older children whose mothers have careers
or 'just a job¨ in the fnal stage oI decision. Another
variable oI Iamily characteristics that seems likely to
aIIect a child`s infuence is a Iamily size. The fndings
here are also diIIerent. Ward and Wackman (1972) did
not fnd any signifcant eIIect oI the number oI chil-
dren on children`s infuence attempts while Jenkins
(1979) Iound that children`s infuence increase with a
Iamily size. The results oI subsequent investigations
where children`s infuence strategies were examined
support Jenkins` fndings.
Other infuences should be also born in mind;
namely the media, a school, peer and reIerence groups
had the Iact that teenagers are in their relatively early
Iormative years.
Research methodology
In order to analyze children` impact on parents`
decision to buy one or another product or brand, we
developed a research model that included the main Iac-
tors (Figure 1). It is understood that demographic cha-
racteristics oI children play important role on parents`
selection oI products. ThereIore we included such cha-
racteristics like gender, age and number oI children in
a Iamily. According to the theory children`s impact
depended on some demographic characteristics oI pa-
rents. Thus we included several characteristics oI pa-
rents as well age oI mothers and monthly incomes
per person.
Based on academic literature review, we def-
ned two groups oI products products purchased Ior
children and products Ior Iamily. A group oI pro-
ducts purchased Ior children included glazed sweet
curds, Lithuanian and an imported chocolate, local
and imported juice, clothes Ior children. Another
group oI products were those, which purchased Ior
whole Iamily vocations in Lithuania and an abroad,
eating out (restaurants, caIé, pubs, etc.), home equip-
ment, audio-video devices and cars. The answers we-
re presented using a ten-point scale, where 1 was no
impact, 10- very strong impact. An average was cal-
culated to evaluate strength oI children`s impact. T
test statistic was used to evaluate diIIerences between
means. T test Ior independent samples was used Ior
evaluation diIIerences oI means between diIIerent age
groups, gender oI children, mothers` age and income
categories. T test Ior pair samples was used Ior evalu-
ation diIIerences oI means between products Ior chil-
dren and products Ior Iamily. All data were analyzed
using the Statistical Package Ior the Social Sciences
(SPSS).
Figure 1. Research model
Parents` decision on selection oI a product
=
Products for
family
Products for
child
Mother`s
characteristics
Child`s
characteristics
109
The research aims to explore the extent to
which children may infuence their Iamily purchase
making with regard to child- and Iamily-related pro-
duct categories in Vilnius and its districts, in Lithu-
ania. The method oI data collection was the survey.
The type oI non-probability sample was applied, i.e.
the type oI 'snowball¨ sampling. Questionnaires we-
re distributed to approximately 200 mothers with chil-
dren aged Irom three to sixteen years old. AIter the
elimination oI those questionnaires that did not me-
et the established criteria or that were not accurately
completed, 181 mothers constituted the fnal sample
(see Table 1).
1 Table
Sample proñle
Child`s
gender
Frequ-
ency
º
Number
of
children
Frequ-
ency
º
Child`s
age
Frequ-
ency
º
Mother`s
age
Frequ-
ency
º
Monthly
income
per per-
son, Lt
Frequ-
ency
º
Girl 90 51,7 1 65 35,9 3-6 28 16,3 26 - 35 84 47,5 up to 500 23 13,9
Boy 84 48,3 2 88 48,6 7-11 98 57,0 36 - 55 92 52,0 501-1500 84 50,9
3 and
more
28 15,5 12-16 46 26,7 1501-3000 58 35,2
Since previous researches showed that an im-
pact on product selection depended on some characte-
ristics oI children and parents, we introduced several
criteria in our research. The proportion between girls
and boys was approximately equal. Almost one third
oI the sample had just one child, a halI oI sample two
children and 15° - 3 and more children. Over 57° oI
children were 7-11 years old, more than one quarter
were 12-16 years old and the rest part was 3-6 years
old. In addition to the children demographic data, we
collected data about mothers. The proportion betwe-
en mothers that belonged to age category 26-35 years
and 36-55 years was approximately equal. A halI oI
the sample women was Irom Iamilies with monthly
incomes 501-1500 Litas per month. A third oI resear-
ched women had higher than 1500 Litas monthly inco-
mes per person and others less than 500 Litas.
Findings and discussion
An analysis oI the data showed that children`s
opinions had diIIerent an impact on purchasing oI se-
lected products. Women noticed that their children had
the biggest impact on selection oI glazed sweet curds
(Table 2). An impact on selection oI Lithuanian choco-
late was mentioned as the less important (a diIIerence
Irom glazed sweet curds t÷ -4,447, p· ,001). Almost
the same impact children had on selection oI clothes
Ior them. The third group oI products, purchasing oI
which is even less infuenced by children, includes se-
lection oI vacations in Lithuania, restaurants (eating
out), audio-video equipment and Lithuanian juices. A
signifcant diIIerence was noticed between children`s
impact on selection oI a vacation in Lithuania and im-
ported chocolate (t÷ 2,570, p· ,05). Even though this
group even less important, but the importance is still
higher than 5 points in a ten points scale. It means that
children still have a signifcant impact on a selection oI
the product. Another group oI products can be valuated
as a not important Ior children, since their impact on
adult purchasing decision was lower than 5 points. The
group included such products like an imported chocola-
te, an imported juice and a vacation abroad. The fnal
group oI products included car and home equipment, an
importance oI which signifcantly diIIered Irom previo-
us (an impact on a selection oI a vacation abroad and
car diIIers signifcantly t÷2,849, p· ,05). ThereIore, we
can conclude that children have almost no impact on
adults` selection oI a car and home equipment.
2 Table
Impact on product selection, measured using 10 point scale
Total
1. Glazed sweet curds 7,25
2. Lithuanian chocolate 6,34
2. Clothes 6,03
3. Vacation in Lithuania 5,66
3. Restaurant (eating out) 5,56
3. Audio-video 5,45
3. Lithuanian juice 5,22
4. Imported chocolate 4,92
4. Imported juice 4,89
4. Vacation abroad 4,67
5. Car 3,89
5. Home equipment 3,67
110
Several diIIerences were noticed comparing
children`s impact on adults` purchasing decision bet-
ween diIIerent genders oI children. Girls have a big-
ger impact on selection oI imported chocolates than
boys (Table 3). The same situation can be seen in a ca-
se oI selection oI vacations abroad (t÷2,450, p· ,05).
This diIIerence shows that girls quite signifcantly in-
fuence adults` selection process in a case oI imported
chocolates and vacations abroad as well as early men-
tioned three groups oI products.
3 Table
An impact on a product selection depending on a gender of children, measured using 10 point scale
Child`s gender Girls Boys t-test Sig.
Glazed sweet curds 7,52 6,96 1,081 ,281
Lithuanian chocolate 6,57 6,10 ,898 ,370
Clothes 6,40 5,61 1,518 ,131
Imported chocolate 5,95 3,87 4,251 ,000
Vacation in Lithuania 5,94 5,37 1,139 ,256
Restaurant (eating out) 5,75 5,36 ,778 ,438
Vacation abroad 5,31 3,99 2,450 ,015
Audio-video 5,21 5,69 -,829 ,408
Lithuanian juice 4,94 5,52 -1,101 ,272
Imported juice 5,06 4,71 ,690 ,491
Car 3,57 4,22 -1,168 ,244
Home equipment 3,45 3,91 -,876 ,383
Even more diIIerences were noticed according
an age oI children. The children`s impact on a selec-
tion oI clothes grew with an age oI children (Table
4). In addition, there were noticed diIIerences in eva-
luation oI an impact on selection oI audio-video and
home equipment. 3-6 years old children have almost
no impact on parents` selection oI audio-video and
home equipment. However, elder children had the
bigger impact on selection oI audio-video and home
equipment.
4 Table
Impact on product selection depending on age category, measured using 10 point scale
Child`s age
3-6
years
7-11
years
12-16
years
t-test
3-6/7-11
Sig.
t-test
3-6/12-16
Sig.
t-test
7-11/12-16
Sig.
Glazed sweet curds 8,07 7,16 6,76 1,321 ,189 1,655 ,103 ,616 ,540
Lithuanian chocolate 6,21 6,52 5,80 -,425 ,671 ,478 ,634 1,147 ,254
Clothes 4,88 5,70 7,38 -1,147 ,254 -3,106 ,003 -2,723 ,007
Imported chocolate 5,15 4,90 4,80 ,294 ,770 ,406 ,686 ,185 ,853
Vacation in Lithuania 6,29 5,23 6,15 1,476 ,142 ,180 ,858 -1,597 ,113
Restaurant (eating out) 5,21 5,70 5,47 -,705 ,482 -,309 ,759 ,397 ,692
Vacation abroad 4,64 4,39 5,18 ,332 ,740 -,615 ,541 -1,254 ,212
Audio-video 3,67 5,44 6,56 -2,232 ,028 -3,583 ,001 -1,749 ,084
Lithuanian juice 4,93 5,57 4,59 -,884 ,379 ,401 ,690 1,616 ,108
Imported juice 5,00 4,95 4,57 ,066 ,947 ,492 ,625 ,641 ,523
Car 3,11 4,08 3,91 -1,437 ,157 -,997 ,322 ,258 ,797
Home equipment 2,50 3,84 4,00 -2,210 ,031 -2,080 ,041 -,243 ,809
According theory, some characteristics oI pa-
rents might cause diIIerences in the children behavior
including a behavior related with an infuence on a se-
lection oI a product. Actually two signifcant diIIeren-
ces were noticed. First, 26-35 years old women rated
children`s impact on selection glazed sweet curds hig-
her than 36-55 years women (t÷2,170, p· ,05) (Table
5). The same tendency was noticed in the cases oI Lit-
huanian and imported juice (t÷1,715, p· ,10 Ior Lithu-
anian juice and t÷1,706, p· ,10 Ior imported juice).
On the contrary, older women (36-55 years old) noti-
ced that their children had higher an impact on purcha-
sing oI audio-video equipment (t÷-3,076, p· ,05) and
home equipment (t÷-1,842, p· ,10).
111
5 Table
Impact on product selection depending on mothers` age category, measured using 10 point scale
Mother`s age 26 - 35 years 36-55 years t-test Sig. (2-tailed
Lithuanian juice 5,73 4,85 1,715 ,088
Imported juice 5,36 4,49 1,706 ,090
Lithuanian chocolate 6,54 6,20 ,643 ,521
Imported chocolate 5,09 4,83 ,504 ,615
Glazed sweet curds 7,81 6,71 2,170 ,031
Clothes 5,79 6,35 -1,075 ,284
Restaurant (eating out) 5,12 5,92 -1,628 ,105
Vacation in Lithuania 5,46 5,91 -,916 ,361
Vacation abroad 4,33 5,00 -1,246 ,215
Car 3,75 4,15 -,743 ,459
Home equipment 3,26 4,22 -1,842 ,067
Audio-video 4,61 6,30 -3,076 ,002
Finally, we tested diIIerences oI children`s in-
fuence on parents` product selection depending on
a Iamily`s monthly incomes. Mothers Irom Iamilies
with incomes less than 500 Litas per month per person
rated their children`s impact on a selection oI impor-
ted juice (t÷-2,631, p· ,05) lower than mothers with
incomes 500-1500 Litas. The same diIIerence was
noticed in a case oI imported chocolates (t÷-2,924,
p· ,05) and restaurants (t÷-2,371, p· ,05). It means
that Iamilies with higher incomes pay less attention
to a price oI product and children can have higher
impact on these products. At the same time Iamilies
with lower incomes noticed higher children`s impact
on selection oI audio-video equipment than Iamilies
with monthly incomes oI 500-1500 Litas per person
(t÷1,906, p· ,10).
6 Table
Impact on product selection depending on family`s income category, measured using 10 point scale
Incomes per person
per month, Litas
Less than
500 (1)
501-1500
(2)
1501-3000
(3)
t-test
1-2
Sig.
t-test
1-3
Sig.
t-test
2-3
Sig.
Lithuanian juice 6,13 4,81 5,40 1,414 ,168 ,752 ,457 -1,062 ,290
Imported juice 3,29 4,58 5,56 -1,777 ,079 -2,631 ,010 -1,712 ,090
Lithuanian chocolate 6,57 6,31 5,93 ,298 ,766 ,667 ,509 ,653 ,515
Imported chocolate 2,76 5,19 4,95 -3,228 ,002 -2,924 ,005 ,424 ,672
Glazed sweet curds 6,48 6,98 7,76 -,590 ,557 -1,377 ,178 -1,406 ,162
Clothes 5,58 5,73 6,39 -,176 ,860 -,912 ,365 -1,111 ,269
Restaurant (eating out) 4,20 5,36 6,07 -1,462 ,147 -2,371 ,020 -1,268 ,207
Vacation in Lithuania 5,09 5,32 5,91 -,274 ,784 -1,016 ,313 -1,068 ,287
Vacation abroad 4,61 4,15 4,93 ,516 ,607 -,328 ,744 -1,309 ,193
Car 4,76 3,15 4,10 1,497 ,150 ,641 ,523 -1,626 ,107
Home equipment 4,67 3,16 3,96 1,486 ,152 ,692 ,491 -1,368 ,174
Audio-video 6,72 4,98 5,20 1,906 ,060 1,508 ,136 -,352 ,725
Finally, an analysis oI data showed that there
was a signifcant diIIerence between children infuen-
ce on parents` selection oI products Ior a child and
products Ior a Iamily. Mothers evaluated children`s
impact on selection products Ior a child m÷5,51 and
products Ior a Iamily m÷4,86 (t÷3,239, p· ,01). That
support theoretical assumptions that parents let chil-
dren select products Ior themselves, but have stron-
ger opinion when products are used by whole Iamily.
Even though the diIIerence is signifcant, but the im-
pact in both cases is not high.
Conclusions and directions for future research
The research showed that the children had low
to moderate impact on parents` decision Ior a se-
1.
lection oI a product. That could mean two very
diIIerent things. First it could show that parents
'know better what is the best Ior their children¨
in Lithuania and children have just an average
impact on a selection oI products. ThereIore it
is necessary to continue the researches in this
area. Second, parents might be inclined to ne-
glect the children`s impact on their decision.
Thus it is worth to use a third person technique
Ior developing questions.
The impact varied depending on a product. Chil-
dren had the strongest impact on selection oI
glazed sweet curds, Lithuanian chocolate and
clothes Ior children among all products, inclu-
ded in the research. All these three products be-
2.
112
longed to the category named 'a product Ior a
child¨. Since the research was limited with an
amount oI tested products, it would be useIul to
include other products Irom this group oI pro-
ducts as well as to test other products Irom a
category 'a product Ior a Iamily¨.
Some diIIerences were noticed due to a gender
and an age oI a child. It is worth to notice that
children`s impact on a selection oI clothes, au-
dio-video equipment and home equipment inc-
reases with an age oI children. That supports
fndings oI earlier researches perIormed in diI-
ferent countries.
Finally, it was discovered that children has hig-
her impact on a selection oI some products de-
pending on monthly incomes per person. This
suggest an idea Ior next researches analyse
children`s impact on a selection oI necessity
products and luxury goods.
References
Berey, L. A. and Pollay, R. W. (1968). The Infuencing
Role oI the Child in Family Decision Making. Journal
of Marketing Research, Vol. V (February), p. 70-72.
Darley, W. K. and Lim, J.-S. (1986). Family Decision
Making in Leisure-Time Activities: An Exploratory
Analysis oI the Impact oI Locus oI Control, Child Age
Infuence Factor and Parental Type on Perceived Child
Infuence. Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 13,
p. 370374.
Foxman, E. and Tansuhaj, P. (1988). Adolescents` and
Mothers` Perceptions oI Relative Infuence in Family
Purchase Decisions: Patterns oI Agreement and Disag-
reement. Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 15,
p. 449-453.
Foxman, E., Tansuhaj, P. and Ekstrom, K. (1989). Fa-
mily Members` Perceptions oI Adolescents` Infuence
in Family Decision Making. Journal of Consumer Re-
search, Vol. 15 (March), p. 482-491.
Jenkins, R. L. (1979). The Infuence oI Children in
Family Decision-Making: Parents` Perceptions. Advan-
ces in Consumer Research, Vol. 6, p. 413-418.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Kaur P. and Singh R. (2006). Children in Iamily purcha-
se decision making in India and West: a Review. Acade-
my of Marketing Science Review, No. 8, p. 1-30.
Lee, C. K. C. and Beatty, S. E. (2002). Family structu-
re and infuence in Iamily decision making. Journal of
Consumer Marketing, Vol. 19, No. 1, p. 24-41.
Levy, D. S. and Lee, C. K. C. (2004). The infuence oI
Iamily members on housing purchase decisions. Jour-
nal of Property Investment & Finance, Vol. 22, No. 4,
p. 320338.
Mangleburg, T. F., Tech V. (1990). Children`s Infuen-
ce in Purchase Decisions: A Review and Critique. Ad-
vances in Consumer Research, Vol. 17, p. 813-825.
Marquis, M. (2004). Strategies Ior infuencing paren-
tal decisions on Iood purchasing. Journal of Consumer
Marketing, Vol. 21, No.2, p. 134143.
Moschis, G. P. and Mitchell, L. G. (1986). Television
Advertising and Interpersonal Infuences on Teena-
gers` Participation in Family Consumer Decisions. Ad-
vances in Consumer Research, Vol. 13, p. 181186.
Nelson, J. E. (1979). Children as InIormation Sources
in Family Decision to Eat Out. Advances in Consumer
Research, Vol. 6, p. 419423.
Shoham, A. and Dalakas, V. (2006). How our adoles-
cent children infuence us as parents to yield to their
purchase requests. Journal of Consumer Marketing,
Vol. 23, No.6, p. 344350.
Szybillo, G. J. and Sosanie, A. K. (1977). Family Deci-
sion Making: Husband, WiIe and Children. Advances
in Consumer Research, Vol. 4, p. 46-49.
Tinson, J. and Nancarrow, C. (2007). 'GROw¨ing
up: tweenagers` involvement in Iamily decision ma-
king. Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 24, No.3,
p. 160170.
Ward, S. and Wackman, D. B. (1972). Children`s Pur-
chase Infuence Attempts and Parental Yielding. Jour-
nal of Marketing Research, November, Vol. 9, p. 316
319.
Wilson G. and Wood K. (2004). The infuence oI chil-
dren on parental purchases during supermarket shop-
ping. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol.
28, No.4 (September), p. 329-336.
Wimalasiri, J. S. (2004). A cross-national study on
children`s purchasing behaviour and parental respon-
se. Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 21, No. 4,
p. 274284.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
V. Dikcius, E. Medeksiene
Vaiko |taka tevµ sprendimui pirkti prekç
Santrauka
Paskutiniais desimtmeciais vaikµ kaip vartotojµ rin-
ka tapo bene didziausia naujai atrasta rinka [vairiµ prekiµ
gamintojams. Pasirodo, vaikams galima parduoti ne tik
zaislus, bet ir dekoratyvinç kosmetika, videoflmus ar kom-
piuterinius zaidimus. Visa tai perka vaikai arba jµ tevai,
negalintys atsispirti vaikµ prasymams: ,Juk mano klases
draugai jau turi...?' Patyrç marketingo specialistai zino,
kad ,pigi' kuprine arba ,prasti' drabuziai gali neigiamai
atsiliepti vaiko socialiniam statusui arba tiesiog padaryti
j[ nepopuliarµ bendraamziµ tarpe. Uzsienio salyse vykdy-
ti tyrimai demonstravo augancia vaiko [taka seimos spren-
dimams pirkti prekes. Taciau salygos, kuriomis Iormavosi
vaikµ ir jµ tevµ pasauleziüra, Lietuvoje ir uzsienio salyse
buvo labai skirtingos. Labai tiketina, kad Lietuvoje vaikµ
113
[taka tevµ sprendimams gali büti zymiai mazesne nei Va-
karµ salyse. Sio darbo tikslas buvo nustatyti, kokia [taka
turi vaikai savo tevµ sprendimams pirkti prekes. Buvo
isskirtos dvi prekiµ grupes prekes, skirtos vaikams ir
prekes, skirtos visai seimai. Tyrime dalyvavo 181 moteris,
gyvenanti Vilniuje bei jo apylinkese. Remiantis tyrimo re-
zultatais galima teigti, kad vaikai turi [takos pasirenkant
prekes priklausomai nuo konkrecios prekes ir si [taka gali
büti nuo mazos iki vidutines. Didziausia [taka vaikai turi
glaistytµ süreliµ, lietuvisko sokolado ir savo drabuziµ pa-
sirinkimui. Visos sios prekes priklause prekiµ kategorijai,
vadinamai ,prekes vaikams'. Reikia pastebeti, kad vaikµ
[taka tevams, perkant drabuzius vaikams, garso, vaizdo bei
buitinç technika, dideja augant vaikµ amziui. Tam tikrµ
tirtµ prekiµ atzvilgiu skiriasi vaikµ [taka suaugusiµjµ spren-
dimui priklausomai nuo vaikµ lyties. Taciau remiantis sio
tyrimo rezultatais bütµ sunku [zvelgti sistemingus skirtu-
mus. Tyrimo rezultatai atskleide, kad vaikµ [taka skyresi
priklausomai nuo seimos pajamµ per menes[, tenkanciµ
vienam seimos nariui. Vaikai, augantys didesnes pajamas
turinciose seimose, labiau [takoja tevµ sprendima renkantis
uzsienietiskas sultis, uzsienietiska sokolada bei restorana/
kavinç. Vienok, vidutine, o kartais ir maza vaiko [taka su-
augusiµjµ sprendimui pirkti prekes gali büti salygota tam
tikro sovietinio palikimo. Taciau taip pat tiketina, kad suau-
gusieji apklausos metu buvo linkç sumenkinti vaiko [taka
prekiµ pasirinkimui. Todel rekomenduotina, vykdant ana-
logiskus tyrimus, naudotis trecio asmens technika Iormu-
luojant klausimus, t.y. suaugusiµjµ klausti netiesiogiai apie
vaikµ daroma [taka priimant sprendimus seimoje.