+_
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VF
Pragna
MICRODESIGNS
PID CONTROLLER
PRAGNA MICRODESIGNS
No. 34, Karekallu, Kamakshipalya,
Basaveshwaranagar post, Bangalore – 560 079.
Ph: 23482492 Telefax: 23285123
E-mail: pragnamicrodesigns@yahoo.com
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION
2. DESCRIPTION OF THE UNIT
PID Controllers are Very often used in industrial process control to ensure that a
3. FRONT PANEL DETAILS
Parameter such as speed temperature flow etc is maintained to be a constant
4. EXPERIMENTS
desired value. P-I-D stands for Proportional Integral Derivative control, as the
controller uses all these in the feedback. One can also have P control, PI or PD
controllers depending on the requirement. All these are feedback controllers with
To enable training of students in all these aspects, a PID controller with builtin set
point generation, controller and simulated process are provided for studying the
performance of the controller in closed loop.
1) PROPORTIONAL CONTROLLER:
The first stage of the controller error amplifier is a differential amplifier that
establishes the difference between the set value and the measured value. This error is
then amplifiers and feed back to control the parameter. This amplification is
proportional to P-Gain, a low gain means loose control and high gain means tight
control. Proportional controllers always have a finite steady state error.
Vs V s-Set voltage
Error =
1+G
2. INTEGRAL CONTROLLER:
The rate of change of the output from the integral controller is proportional to
the error.
dVo 1 Verror
= Ki Verror =
dt Ti
Ti is integral time constant. When there is a large error the controller output
changes rapidly to correct the error. As the error gets smaller, the controller
output changes more slowly as long as there is an error. The controller output will
continue to change. Once the error is zero, the output change also goes to zero.
This means the controller holds the output which eliminates the error. The
Transfer function of integral controller is Vout Ki
Verror S
The integral controller has very poor dynamic response.
3) DERIVATIVE CONTROLLER:
inertia. It produces an output only for changes in error and hence it is mostly used
With non optimised P and I the response may show an overshoot, or in certain cases,
the system may itself become unstable - oscillatory.
Proportional + Integral controller
D verror is an effort to combine the advantages of both
In many P Controllers, the system delays might make the final response poor for a
step change in the set value. In these cases, one can resort to controlled derivative
feedback to improve the step response and dynamic performance of the loop.
6) P-I-D CONTROL
2. CONTROLLER UNIT: This is a vary well designed unit to study the PID Controllers. This
unit consists of signal sources, a digital voltmeter, a PID controller, Different process
with builtin stabilized DC supply.
3. SIGNAL SOURCES : This part consists of variable low frequency square wave and
triangle wave generator with variable amplitude.
The square wave is used as command input to the system. The square wave is treated as repeated
step input. The triangular wave is used for external x-deflection in the CRO.
5. ERROR DETECTOR : The error detector is a unity gain adder which adds the set
voltage with the feedback voltage.
Proportional Gain – Kc - 0 to 20
Integral gain - Ki - 0 - 1000
Derivative gain - Kd - 0-0.01
P I D CONTROLLER
P I D CONTROLLER
Kc
E(s) M(s)
Ki
+ - S +
SKd
P I D CONTROLLER
LEVEL SQUARE
FREQUENCY TRIANGLE
CONTROLLER
AMPLITUDE DC
INV. AMP
MAINS
FRONT PANEL
EXPERIMENTS
Make the connections as given in the circuit diagram. Connect a small voltage of
O.2Volts to the input. Connect feedback input to Ground. Switch OFF P and D
controller - switch ON I controller. Set t to some value and observe the output with
the digital voltmeter. We can observe that the output builds up as a ramp till it
reaches saturation voltage. We can also check this by connecting square wave of
small amplitude and we can observe a triangular wave at the output.
Make the connections as given in the circuit diagram. Keep I and D controllers at
OFF position. Connect DC supply to Vin. Connect First order plant in the loop.
Note down Vin, Vf, Verror for different P - gain and entered in the tabular column.
We can observe that the error voltage = Vs
l+G
TABLE
Next Connect Integrator in the loop. Integrator has 1800 phase shift. When we
connected directly to the feedback input, then it works as positive feedback, now
the feedback added with the set voltage and the .error voltage will reach its
maximum. This is the effect of positive feedback on the closed loop system. To
make it -ve feedback connect integrator output to the Feedback input trough
inverting amplifier as shown in the figure. Since the plant itself is an integrator, the
error will be automatically zero, without I controller also.
6) INTEGRAL CONTROLLER:
Make the connections as given in the circuit diagram. Keep P and D controller at
Off position - connect DC supply to V in. Repeat the same procedure for first order
system, Second Order System and integrator we can observe that the system shows
zero offset error but very poor dynamic performance. Enter the results in the tabular
column.
7)PROPORTIONAL+INTEGRAL(PI)CONTROLLER:
Make the connections as given in the circuit diagram - Keep D Controller at
off position. Connect DC supply to Vin. Repeat the same procedure for first
Order System, Second Order System for different Values of P and I gain.
Enter the results in the tabular column.
Make the connections as given in the circuit diagram connect DC supply to V in.
Repeat the same procedure for First Order Plant, Second Order Plant. Enter the
results with tabular column.
P-I-D Controller can also be tested with square wave input. And observe the
response on a regular CRO. For testing the PID controller for square wave
(Step input) connect time constant block only in the loop. Do not connect First
Order System, Second Order System and integrated in the loop, as there blocks
time constant is more compare to the time period of the square wave input. We
can also connect the CRO in X- Y mode and verify the results. Connect X-
input to triangle waveform and Y -input to feedback input - V F.
Draw the re" 'ts for P, PI, PID Controllers and for different P-I-D
gains.
PROPORTIONAL / INTEGRAL / CONTROLLER DERIVATIVE – OPEN LOOP
P I D CONTROLLER – CLOSED LOOP
PID CONTROLLER FOR SQUARE WAVE INPUT
P I D CONTROLLER FOR INTEGRATOR LOOP