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Pragna
MICRODESIGNS

INSTRUCTION AND OPERATION


MANUAL
FOR

SECOND ORDER SYSTEM


STUDY UNIT

Designed and Manufactured by:

PRAGNA MICRODESIGNS
No. 34, Karekallu, Kamakshipalya,
Basaveshwaranagar post, Bangalore – 560 079.
Telefax; 23285123
E-mail: pragnamicrodesigns@yahoo.com

SECOND ORDER SYSTEM STUDY UNIT


This unit consists of two parts: -

a) Signal source for second order system.


b) Second order systems using opamp and RLC.

a) Signal Source: -
The signal source generates the necessary input excitation supply for testing the second
order system under different damping factors and time constant.

This part generates a square wave of 15Hz approximately. A switch is provided to select
square wave or step (DC) source. ON/OFF switch is provided for signal source.

Amplitude of the signal source can be varied from 0V to 15V approximately for square
wave and 0V to 10V approximately for DC source.

b) Second order system: -


This part consists of a second order system built using Op-amp.

In order to study the behavior of a second order system with various damping factors,
facility has been provided to select the damping factor – 0.3, 0.7, 1 and 2.

In order to study the behavior of a second order system with different time
Constants, facility has been provided to choose the time constant at 3 msec or
5sec.

The input & output terminals of the second order system are brought out on the
front panel independently. So, we can also use external signal source to study the
frequency response of the system.

Front Panel Details: -


1. Power : Mains ON/OFF switch to the unit with builtin indicator.

2. Amplitude : Potentiometer to vary the amplitude of signal source.

3. Sq/Step : Switch to select square wave or step (DC) input.

4. ON/OFF : ON/OFF switch for signal.

5. OUTPUT : Signal output points.

6. Damping factor: Switch to select damping factor 0.3/0.7/1 & 2.

7. INPUT : Second order system input points to connect signal source.

8. OUTPUT : Second order system output points

9. Time constant
3m sec / 5 sec : Switch to select time constant.

Procedure: -

Switch ON the mains supply to the unit, observe the signal source output by selecting
square wave or step input and by varying amplitude potentiometer. Make sure that the signal
source is correct before connecting the input of the second order system.

Now select square wave signal and 3 msec time constant. Draw the input square wave
signal. Connect signal output to second order system input. Draw the second order system o/p
for different values of damping factors 0.3, 0.7, 1 and 2. Compare this with the theoretical
wave forms.

Select step input, adjust the amplitude potentiometer to get %Volts DC and select 5 sec
time constant. Switch off the signal.

Now switch ON the signal, monitor the second order system o/p using a multimeter.
Note down the o/p voltage for every second. Draw the graph of time v/s voltage.

Repeat the same for different damping factor.

When testing a second order system with large time constant – 5 sec, it is essential to
supply a DC as a step voltage. This source provides a DC step input to the system by selecting
step signal and by switch ON the signal source from OFF to ON.
When testing a second order system with low time constant – 3 msec, the response of the
system for a step input stabilizers to its final value within about 50 – 75m sec. In such case, the
system response for a step can be studied by giving a repeated step, which is effectively, a
square wave.

Input level to the system should be chosen so as to obtain the output response within the
saturable voltage of opamp + or – 15V.

The amplitude should be within 5 to 8V. If a much lower input voltage is selected, then
the other interference’s such as mains picks up can be become relatively higher & the response
obtained may not be satisfactory.

The parameters of a second order system such as delay time, rise time, peak time,
settling time and peak overshoot are important parameters to be understood.

For zeta less than 1, the system is under damped and the system response shows
overshoot for very low damping factor, the step response is DC superimposed with an
exponentially dying cosine waveform.

For zeta less than 1, the system said to have over damped response. In practical systems,
the damping factor is set between 0.7 and 1.

Note : -

Use 3 pin grounded mains supply to the unit avoid line interference. Use proper CRO probe to
see the output wave forms.
FIG: STEP RESPONSE OF AN UNDERDAMPED STSTEM.

td = delay time
tr = Rise time
Mp = Max. Overshoot
tp = peak time
ts = Setting time
ess = Steady state error.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

SECOND ORDER SYSTEM USING R L C

Procedure: -
Switch ON the mains supply to the unit, observe the signal source output by selecting
square wave or step input and by varying amplitude potentiometer. Make sure signal source is
correct before connecting the input of the second order system.

Now select square wave signal. Draw the input square wave signal. Connect the output
of square wave signal source to second order system using RLC. Draw the second order
system o/p for different values of damping factors from 0 to 2 in steps of 0.1 by varying R.
Compare this with the theoretical wave forms.

Measure the R values using Digital DC voltmeter or multi meter between the I/P
terminals marked ‘R’ with main switch in OFF position.

R-10K L- 2H

Square wave C-0.32 µF


signal

L = 2H C = 0.32 µF

Calculation
1 1
Wn = = = 1250
6
LC 2 X 0.32 x 10¯

1250
f = = 200Hz

R = 2δ L/C
δ = 0.3 -- R = 2δ L/C
= 2X0.3 /0.3X10ֿ
2X0.3X2.5X10³

0.3 = 1500 ohms


δ = 0.7 = 3500 ohms
δ = 1 = 5000 ohms
δ = 2 = 10000 ohms
Tabular Column

Sl No R in L in C in Micro δ td tr Mp tp ts ess
Ohm Henry Farad (Dampin
g Factor)
1 500 2H 0.32mF
2 1000 2H 0.32mF
3 1500 2H 0.32mF
4 2000 2H 0.32mF
_ _ _
_ _ _
_ _ _
_ _ _
_ _ _
_ _ _
10000 2H 0.32mF