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“The health of individuals and communities are, to large extent, affected by a

combination of many factors. A person’s health is determined by his

circumstances and environment. It is appropriate therefore to blame or credit the

person’s state of health to himself alone because he is unlikely able to directly

control many factors however, knowledge of these factors is important in order to

effectively promote health an prevent illnesses. It also important to note that in

understanding the multidimensional nature of health, the public health nurse will

now be in better position to plan and implement health promoting interventions

for individuals and communities”. (NLPGN 2006)

This framework refers to an Optimum Level of Functioning (OLOF) of individuals,

families and communities being influenced by several factors in the eco-system.

These concepts of determinants of health impart us ideas that the person will be

affected by different factors like environmental, socio-economic, biologic, culture,

genetics, and health care delivery system; thus person adapt behavior In his

environment and it can affect health and the way the person functions as an

individual in a community.

This fact which established by the National League of Government Nurses of

2006 made it to be a very vital part of our study were “the determinants of health”

are to be the key factors in the investigation of the physical and health status of

the employees and workers of Mindanao Container Terminal of Philippine

Veterans Investment Development Corporation of the municipality of Tagoloan,

Misamis Oriental.

Article Source: Community Health Nursing Committee, NLPGN, 2000


Abraham Maslow has formulated the hierarchy of needs which ranked the needs

of man according to the basic needs or the physiologic needs. The need for

safety and security which came to be the next needed after the basic needs, The

love and belongingness, the need of man to have self worth and esteem and

finally the need of man to be self actualized. All of the needs mentioned come to

form like levels of achievements were man must encompass the previous stages

of needs before reaching the next. The hierarchy begins with the physiologic

stage followed by safety and security, then love and belongingness, then self

esteem, the finally self actualization.

With his physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take

over and dominate his behavior. These needs have to do with man's yearning for

a predictable, orderly world in which injustice and inconsistency are under

control, the familiar frequent, and the unfamiliar rare. In the world of work, this

safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security,

grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority,

savings accounts, insurance policies, and the like.

For the most part physiological and safety needs are reasonably well satisfied in

our affluent and relatively lawful society. The obvious exceptions, of course, are

people outside the mainstream — the poor, the disadvantaged, and members of

minority groups. If frustration has not led to apathy and weakness, such people

still struggle to satisfy the basic physiological and safety needs. They are

primarily concerned with survival: obtaining adequate food, clothing, shelter, and

seeking justice from the dominant societal groups.

The study of Maslow is also a major concept to be anchored for the basis of the

study as the study aims to assess the level of achievement in terms of needs of

the employees and workers of Mindanao Container Terminal of Philippine

Veterans Investment Development Corporation of the municipality of Tagoloan,

Misamis Oriental, especially regarding the sufficiency of the basic needs which

deals with the salary, the safety of the workplace and the ties that are present

with co-workers and so on.



Coordinates: 8°29′N 124°39′ECity of Cagayan de Oro

Dakbayan sa Cagayan de Oro

Lungsod ng Cagayan de Oro

Nickname(s): City of Golden Friendship

Map of Misamis Oriental showing the location of Cagayan de Oro City

Country, Philippines

Region Northern Mindanao (Region X)

Class 1st Class City

Province Misamis Oriental (Capital)

Districts 1st and 2nd Legislative Districts of Cagayan de Oro City

Barangays 80

Official Languages Cebuano (Majority), Filipino, English

Incorporated (Town) 1871

Incorporated (City) June 15, 1950

The City of Cagayan de Oro (IPA: /kă-gə'yăn dĕ ôrô/); abbreviated as CDO,

CDOC or Cag. de Oro; City of Cagayan de Oro; Cebuano: Dakbayan sa

Cagayan de Oro; Filipino: Lungsod ng Cagayan de Oro; lies along the northern

coastline in the island of Mindanao, Philippines. It is the provincial capital of the

province of Misamis Oriental and classified as a first class city. The city serves

as the regional center and the most populous highly-urbanized city in


northern Mindanao (region 10) According to the 2007 census, the city has an

estimated population of 553,996 people.


The residents of Cagayan de Oro City are a mixture of Spanish, American,

Chinese and Maranaw blood. People from Cagayan de Oro are called

Cagayanons or Kagayanons. Most are brown-skinned of Malay descent and

some with mixed ancestry popularly known to locals as mestizo. There are about

44 percent of the household population in Cagayan de Oro City classified

themselves as Binisaya/Bisaya, 22.15 percent as Cebuano, 4.38 percent as

Boholano, while 28.07 percent as other ethnic groups. (2000 Census)[6]


Cebuano or Visayan, is the city's main conversational language. English is

mainly used for business, written text and is also widely used by the academic

community. Most of the local population are also fluent in Filipino, the country's

national language.


Majority of the people of Cagayan de Oro City are Roman Catholics. Other

religions include; Christians of various sect, Muslims, Buddhists and others.


Cagayan de Oro City is the center of education in Northern Mindanao and

has three major private universities, namely: Capitol University, Liceo de

Cagayan University and Xavier University (Ateneo de Cagayan). These

institutions specialize in various disciplines such as medicine, nursing,


commerce, engineering, and law, as well as graduate and post-graduate

courses. The Mindanao University of Science and Technology (formerly

Mindanao Polytechnic State College) is the only state university in the city[8].

AMA Computer University and Philippine Women's University have campus

branches in the city offering limited courses.


There are six major land based phone companies PhilCom, MisOrTel, Smart

Broadband (formerly CruzTelCo), ItalTel, SotelCo and PLDT serving the city.

Mobile phone services are provided by Globe Telecom, Smart Communications,

Sun Cellular and Red Mobile.

There are several internet companies operating in the city offering dial up,

broadband, Wi-Fi and cable services. The Pueblo de Oro IT Park located in

Upper Carmen is the first PEZA-registered IT park in Mindanao. The IT Park

currently houses one of Cagayan de Oro's call centers.

Water services is provided by the Cagayan de Oro Water District (COWD), it

was the first water district established in the entire country.

Electricity is provided by the Cagayan Electric Power and Light Company

(CEPALCO). CEPALCO, which began operations in 1952, covers the City of

Cagayan de Oro and the Municipalities of Tagoloan, Villanueva and Jasaan, all

in the Province of Misamis Oriental, including the 3,000-hectare PHIVIDEC

Industrial Estate and caters to more than 100,000 consumers. The

Company's distribution system network now includes 138KV, 69KV, 34.5KV and

13.8KV systems. CEPALCO is also operating the developing world’s first and

largest (at the time of its inauguration in 2004) on-grid solar photovoltaic (PV)

power plant. The 1-megawatt polycrystalline silicon-based PhotoVoltaic plant in

Indahag of this city is connected with the distribution network of CEPALCO.

By Sea

Cagayan de Oro Port serves regular trips to and from Manila, Cebu, Tagbilaran,

Bacolod, Dumaguete, Iloilo, and Jagna. It is the busiest seaport in Northern


The port is a modern international seaport situated near the estuary of Cagayan

de Oro River, it has an anchorage depth of 18 meters and is around 400 meters

from the shoreline. Cagayan de Oro Port has 2 authorized cargo handling

operators.[9] With the recent completion of the 250 Million Peso Rehabilitation

Project, the port is now the largest international and domestic seaport in

Mindanao.[10] General Milling and Del Monte Philippines also operates their own

port facilities within Cagayan de Oro. The US $85 Million Mindanao Container

Terminal located in Tagoloan, 17 kilometers from Cagayan de Oro serves

the PHIVIDEC Industrial Estate.

By Land

Cagayan de Oro City is abundant of jeepneys, taxicabs, tricycle and buses which

makes getting around the city quite easier. You can easily call taxis at there

dispatching areas or simply flagging your hand in the city streets. There are three

bus and jeepney terminals in the city which offer regular land trips. The

Eastbound-Gusa Jeepney Terminal and Agora Integrated Bus Terminal caters

trips to and from Balingoan (port going to Camiguin), Gingoog, Davao, Butuan,

Surigao in the Caraga Region, Valencia and Malaybalay in Bukidnon. While the

Westbound-Bulua Integrated Bus Terminal caters trips to and from Iligan, El

Salvador, Laguindingan, Ozamiz, Pagadian, Zamboanga and some parts of

western Mindanao.

Article source: (


September 2008 The bathroom and toilet are communal areas of the home

which are in constant use throughout the day. They thus offer constant

opportunities for spread of infection from one family member to another if basic

hygiene standards are not observed. This leaflet has been put together to

provide background information on bathroom and toilet hygiene with particular

reference to the home. This briefing material has been produced for healthcare

professionals, the media and others who are looking for background

understanding and/or are responsible for informing the public about infectious

diseases in the home and their prevention through good hygiene practice.

The bathroom and toilet are communal areas of the home which are in constant

use throughout the day. Bathroom and toilet areas usually have higher levels of

moisture in the atmosphere and on surfaces than the rest of the house. Given

that there will also almost always be some residual nutrients from organic matter,

this provides good conditions for micro-organisms to survive for extended

periods, and in some circumstances microbial populations can grow and form

permanent reservoirs of infection. The bathroom and toilet provides an ideal

environment for spread of gut, respiratory and skin pathogens via hands and


Article Source:,


Drainage is the disposal of excess water on land (either used or in form of

storm water). It must be distinguished from flood control which is the prevention

of damage as a result of overflow from river. There are two type of system

adopted for waste water collection. Separate sanitary and combined system. In

separate sanitary system, there is a separate sewer that collects the household,

commercial and industrial waste water and disposes them while a separate

sewer collects the storm water and disposes it separately. In the combined

system, both the storm water and domestic water are conveyed through the

same pipe network.

Sanitary sewers should have a self cleansing velocity of (.6-1 m/s). This self

cleansing velocity is achieved by laying the drain on a steep slope. Manholes

should be placed at interval of 100-120m for the purpose of maintaining and


servicing of the sewer. It should be noted that waste water in the sewer are

usually transported by gravitational force rather than mechanical means

(pumping) for convenient sake. This is why in laying sewer pipes; the topography

of the area should be well understood.

The storm water flow can be estimated by .278CIA where C is the coefficient of

runoff, I is the rainfall intensity and A is the catchment area. C is usually got from

table which is a function of factors that affect infiltration. From rainfall data I can

be estimated.

A can be estimated by using planimeter or superimposing scaled grid paper on

the map and note the grid that fall within the boundary of the map . The waste

water from industry, commercial centers and domestic uses are usually

estimated by knowing the quantity of waste water the users' discharges through

the use of questionnaire and personal interview. The population of people and

number of industries should be noted for this estimation.

The disposal of the waste water could be treated or not treated. However, the

treatment is usually by biological method. The disposal of waste water is of

immerse important for economic growth. The treated or untreated waste

could be used as a source of irrigation, supplement stream or river flow

and could be used as a source of recharge for ground water.


It is obvious in the cities of the developing countries that the most of

construction industries do not take note of all the above mentioned

process. As a result storm water follows drains that are not specified for them or

overflows the drains there by causing erosions. On the other hand, some of the

storm water are stagnant in the drains there by becoming a breeding place for

mosquitoes and toads. This could result in increase of malaria and water related

disease in the vicinity. All this is because; most government in such cities have

not yet understand the important of drainage systems and the role it plays in

social- economic development.

Okwudili J. Onuchukwu

B.Engr Civil Engineering


Specialty: Water resources and Environmental engineering.

Article Source:


Hyderabad | January 24, 2007 5:38:21 AM IST

Renowned surgeon from Venezuela, Dr Guillermo Bajares, said the incidence of

Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) was increasing among youth across the world

due to sedentary lifestyle.


Talking to media here, Dr Bajares said discs, especially in the cervical (neck

region) and lumbar (lower back) areas, lost their flexibility, elasticity and shock-

absorbing characteristics due to the hectic work schedule nowadays.

Stating that DDD was naturally seen in older people, he said advanced

'revolutionary dynamic stabilization therapy' could treat spinal disorders and

provide relief.

Article source:



WHSC Offers New Training Program Targeting MSD Prevention

The Workers Health & Safety Centre of 2004 has developed a new program that

focuses on how work and the work environment can be designed or redesigned

to prevent musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs).

Ergonomics: Injuries, Risk Factors and Design Principles is designed to help

participants better understand how work can damage the muscles, tendons and

other parts of the musculoskeletal system. Participants will identify and discuss

the many workplace factors responsible for the development of MSDs including

repetition, awkward or fixed postures, forceful movements, vibration and

inadequate rest. Discussion will then focus on the workplace solutions and

strategies needed to end the MSD epidemic including the principle of designing

work to fit the needs of workers and the field of study commonly referred to as

ergonomics. Relevant legislation is reviewed and additional resources are

identified including the MSD prevention resources recently developed by the

Occupational Health and Safety Council of Ontario (OHSCO). The program

concludes by highlighting the need for active involvement of all workplace

parties, including workers, when identifying the risk factors and applying

ergonomic principles to eliminate them.

Musculoskeletal disorders remain the most common classification of injury

suffered by workers accounting for more than 40 percent of claims, it was

noticed by the Ontario’s Workplace Safety and Insurance Board. Common

symptoms include aches, pains, tingling, swelling and loss of joint movement and

strength in the affected area(s). These symptoms can progress into crippling

disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis and back injuries

preventing those affected from working or leading normal lives. The financial cost

to employers, workers who develop an MSD and the overall economy is

staggering. The cost in terms of pain and suffering for affected workers and their

families is incalculable.

The study of Workers Health & Safety Centre regarding giving the importance

towards the efficacy of the workers with direct proportionality with health remain

to be the utmost inspiration and relation to the researchers and their study

especially as the Workers Health & Safety Centre stated that “The cost in terms

of pain and suffering for affected workers and their families is incalculable.” Thus

giving attention to what serves as the backbone of our economy the workers.

Article Source:



SAY Mark Wheeler | 10/17/2008

During this year's baseball playoffs, Chicago White Sox outfielder Ken Griffey Jr.,

38, threw a picture-perfect strike from center field to home plate to stop an

opposing player from scoring. The White Sox ultimately won the game by a

single run and clinched the division title.

Had Griffey been 40, it could be argued, he might not have made the throw in

time. That's because in middle age, we begin to lose myelin — the fatty

sheath of "insulation" that coats our nerve axons and allows for fast

signaling bursts in our brains.

Reporting in the online version of the journal Neurobiology of Aging, Dr. George

Bartzokis, professor of psychiatry at the UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience

and Human Behavior at UCLA, and his colleagues compared how quickly a

group of males ranging in age from 23 to 80 could perform a motor task and then

correlated their performances to their brains' myelin integrity. The researchers

found a striking correlation between the speed of the task and the integrity of

myelination over the range of ages. Put another way, after middle age, we start

to lose the battle to repair the myelin in our brain, and our motor and cognitive

functions begin a long, slow downhill slide.

The myelination of brain circuits follows an inverted U-shaped trajectory, peaking

in middle age. Bartzokis and others have long argued that brain aging may be

primarily related to the process of myelin breakdown.

"Studies have shown us that as we age, myelin breakdown and repair are

continually occurring over the brain's entire 'neural network,'" said Bartzokis, who

is also a member of UCLA's Ahmanson–Lovelace Brain Mapping Center and the

UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging. "But in older age, we begin losing the repair

battle. That means the average performance of the networks gradually declines

with age at an accelerating rate."

The researchers proposed that cognitive, sensory and motor processing speeds

are all highly related to this decline. To test their hypothesis, they used one of the

simplest and best understood tests of central nervous system processing speed:

how fast an individual can tap their index finger.


It's well known that the speed of a movement increases with the frequency of

neuronal action potential (AP) bursts in the brain. AP is an electrical discharge

that travels over the axons connecting nerves, whether it's Ken Griffey Jr.'s brain

ordering his arm to throw or the brain telling a finger to tap. Fast movements

require high-frequency AP bursts that depend on excellent myelin integrity over

the entire axon network involved in controlling that movement.

In the study, each of the 72 participants had a magnetic resonance imaging

(MRI) scan that measured the myelin integrity in the vulnerable wiring of their

brain's frontal lobes. The maximum finger-tapping speed (the number of taps

over a period of 10 seconds) was measured just before the MRI measure was


The results supported what the researcher had suspected, that finger-tapping

speed and myelin integrity measurements were correlated and "had lifespan

trajectories that were virtually indistinguishable," according to Bartzokis. And yes,

they both peaked at 39 years of age and declined with an accelerating trajectory


Bartzokis said these observations are consistent with the hypothesis that

"maximum motor speeds depend upon high frequency AP bursts that, in turn,

depend on the myelin integrity of the neural networks involved in the task."

"Beginning in middle age," he said, "the process of age-related myelin

breakdown slowly erodes myelin's ability to support the very highest frequency

AP bursts. That may well be why, besides achy joints and arthritis, even the

fittest athletes retire and all older people move slower than they did when they

were younger."

"The results are pretty striking," Bartzokis said. "The nearly identical trajectory

across the lifespan for both measures of myelin integrity and fine motor speed

supports the notion that myelin health underlies maximum AP burst frequency."

Significantly, the research suggests that the myelin breakdown process

should also reduce all other brain functions for which performance speed

is dependent on higher AP frequencies, including memory; it also supports

the suggestion that myelin breakdown is a biological process of aging

underlying the erosion of physical skills and cognitive decline, including

the onset of such age-driven disorders as Alzheimer's disease.

There is, however, some good news, according to Bartzokis.

"Since in healthy individuals brain myelin breakdown begins to occur in middle

age, there is a decades-long period during which therapeutic interventions could

alter the course of brain aging and possibly delay age-driven degenerative brain

disorders such as Alzheimer's," he said. "Non-invasive, serial evaluations of


myelin integrity could be used to monitor the effects of new and current

treatments that may slow the process of myelin breakdown as early as midlife."

Other authors of the study included Po H. Lu, Kathleen Tingus, Mario F. Mendez,

Aurore Richard, Douglas G. Peters, Bolanle Oluwadara, Katherine A. Barrall, J.

Paul Finn, Pablo Villablanca, Paul M. Thompson, and Jim Mintz. The authors

report no conflict of interest.

The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health, the RCS

Alzheimer's Foundation, Sidell-Kagan Foundation; and the U.S. Department

of Veterans Affairs.

The Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA is an

interdisciplinary research and education institute devoted to the understanding of

complex human behavior, including the genetic, biological, behavioral and

sociocultural underpinnings of normal behavior, and the causes and

consequences of neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition to conducting

fundamental research, institute faculty members seek to develop effective

treatments for neurological and psychiatric disorders, improve access to mental

health services, and shape national health policy regarding neuropsychiatric


Article source:



Ebrahim A. Balbisi, BSPharm, RPh, PharmD

Hypertension is a common disorder that affects approximately 1 billion

people and contributes to 1 in 8 deaths: it is the third leading cause of death

worldwide.1 Approaches to the management of hypertension are constantly

evolving and being refined on the basis of findings obtained from well-designed,

adequately controlled clinical trials. The Seventh Report of the Joint National

Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood

Pressure (JNC 7)2 was released in May 2003. The purposes of this article are to

update the previously published guidelines (JNC 6)3 and to provide an evidence-

based approach for the evaluation and management of elevated blood pressure.

Changes in Classification System

Under the JNC 7 guidelines, the normal blood pressure for adults aged 18 years

or older is a systolic pressure of <120 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of <80 mm

Hg. The categories of "Normal" and "High Normal" blood pressure were removed

and replaced with a new category, "Prehypertension." Additionally, JNC 7

simplified the classification system by eliminating "Stage 3 Hypertension" and


combining it with "Stage 2 Hypertension," because of the similarity in

management. Collectively, this new and simplified classification of blood pressure

(Table 1) reflects the recognition of the value of early detection and the need for

aggressive management, particularly in patients with comorbid conditions and

those in Stage 2 Hypertension.

Changes in Approach to Treatment

JNC 7 sets a novel approach to the management of hypertension with emphasis

on patients classified as prehypertensives. Such individuals are at increased risk

for the development of hypertension and, therefore, should be encouraged to

undergo lifestyle modification as well as frequent monitoring. Nonetheless, in the

presence of compelling indications (eg, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease),

prehypertensive patients should receive pharmacologic agents that have been

proven beneficial in such comorbidities: for example, angiotensin-converting

enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).

In addition to lifestyle modification, patients who fall into Stage 1 Hypertension

should receive drug therapy¡ªpreferably with a thiazide-type diuretic. Lastly,

patients in Stage 2 Hypertension require more aggressive management. Such

patients should be initiated on 2 antihypertensive agents, one of them a thiazide-

type diuretic.

Based on the changes in classification, the approach to the management of

hypertension also is simplified (Figure). The treatment approach is determined

based on the classification of blood pressure, the presence of compelling

indications, and the stage of hypertension.


Key Recommendations

Increase in Hypertension Risk with Age

According to the results of the Framingham Heart Study,4 people who are

normotensive by age 55 have a 90% lifetime risk for the development of

hypertension. With rapid advances in medical therapies, patients are living

longer. Hence, nearly all individuals will eventually require antihypertensive drug

therapy. Early detection and prevention will result in better outcomes.

Systolic Blood Pressure

Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) affects approximately half of people >60

years.5 Although it was once considered a part of the aging process, current data

suggest that ISH confers a substantial cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients over

the age of 50.6,7 Furthermore, it has been shown that ISH is a significant

predictor of CV risk, more so than diastolic blood pressure. 8,9 Therefore, ISH is

not a benign condition and should not be ignored.

Prevention and Lifestyle Modification

Small elevations in blood pressure result in a significant increase in CV risk: the

risk of CV disease doubles with each increment of 20/10 mm Hg above 115/75

mm Hg.10 Thus, health-promoting lifestyle modification should be recommended

to all patients, and more so for those classified as prehypertensives.

Components of lifestyle modification, which have demonstrated effectiveness in

reducing blood pressure, include the following:


• Weight reduction in patients who are obese to achieve a body mass index

of 18.5 to 24.9

• A decrease in daily sodium intake to ¡Ü2.4 g

• Regular aerobic physical activity of 30 minutes daily on most days of the


• Moderation of alcohol consumption

Additionally, patients should be encouraged to adopt the Dietary Approaches to

Stop Hypertension (DASH) plan.11 Such a diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, and

low-fat dairy products, with reduced content of total and saturated fat. This diet

has been shown to be beneficial in reducing elevated blood pressure levels,

particularly when combined with low sodium intake.12 Lastly, patients who

smoke should be directed to smoking-cessation programs.

Article Source:


Brains Work Best at Age of 39

Posted by ScuttleMonkey on Mon Oct 27, 2008 12:39 PM from the sounds-like-a-

good-last-day-to-me dept.

Scientists at the University of California Los Angeles are reporting that while

some people may think "life begins at 40," all it seems to do is slow down.

Accordng to recent research, at age 39 our brain reaches its peak speed, and it's

all downhill after that.

"The loss of a fatty skin that coats the nerve cells, called neurons, during middle

age causes the slowdown, experts say. The coating acts as insulation, similar to

the plastic covering on an electrical cable, and allows for fast bursts of signals

around the body and brain. When the sheath deteriorates, signals passing along

the neurons in the brain slow down. This means reaction times in the body are

slower too."

Article source:



In definition, an industrial plant is a factory that is largely responsible for

the manufacture of goods at a mass production level, frequently employing

mechanical or chemical processes. The industrial plant worker may be asked to

perform any number of duties, from cutting to smelting and everything in

between, depending on the particulars of each specific plant.

Because of the kinds of jobs they do, industrial plant workers often put

themselves and their health at risk. Noxious chemicals and other hazardous

materials, such as asbestos, are often present in industrial plants


For decades, industrial plant workers did their jobs without benefit of any sort of

protective gear or clothing. The lack of masks or respirators made asbestos

inhalation a common occurrence among industrial plant workers and many have

been diagnosed with asbestos-related diseases 40-50 years after their exposure.

The relevance of the study gives us an eye opener for the detrimental effects an

industrial plant could do to mankind. It opens the alarming fact that most of us

may take precautionary measures for granted however; it will only eventually

harm us in anyway. With this study we may be able to forestall any harm and

danger an industrial plant would caused.

Article source:



This review of related literature and studies cited in our paper has a

particular significance in our study; in a sense that this will serve as our basis on

how we will going to conduct our studies in terms of the methodology and

interpretation of data. This will be our tool in getting ideas wherefore it is similar

in our research that we will be going to conduct. This will serve as supplements

in providing as concepts in correlation of goals and objectives. It is significant

wherefore we can compare and contrast our studies with previous studies

conducted so that we can ameliorate more and to forestall duplication of data.