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You are on page 1of 15

C.T.J.Dodson

c Draft date November 30, 2001

. . . . . . . 3 2 Up to Homotopy is Good Enough 5 2. . .1 Existence problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introducing homotopy . . . . . 5 Bibliography 7 Index 8 i . . . . . .Contents Contents i Preface 1 1 Basics of Extension and Lifting Problems 3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ii CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . . . .1 The log-gamma family of densities with central mean < N > = 21 as a surface and as a contour plot. . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. 4 iii .

iv LIST OF FIGURES .

. . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 2. . . .1 Numbers of distinct differentiable structures on real n-space and n- spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 v . . . . . .

vi LIST OF TABLES .

Note the tag used to make an index entry.tex gives a basic example of how to use LATEX for prepa- ration of a book.tex is the name here of the file containing Chapter 1. 1 . LATEX will create a pre-index by listing all the tagged items in the file bookex.idx then you edit this into a theindex environment. Each Chapter.tex. as index. Appendix and the Index is made as a *. Do not put an enddocument command at the end of chapter files. Note that all LATEX commands begin with a backslash.tex file and is called in by the include command—thus ch1. The inclusion of any particular file can be suppressed by prefixing the line by a percent sign. just one such command is needed at the end of the book. You may need to consult Lamport’s book [1] for details of the procedure to make the index input file.Preface The book root file bookex.

2 LIST OF TABLES .

Chapter 1 Basics of Extension and Lifting Problems To boldly go where no map has gone before 1.1 Existence problems We begin with some metamathematics. with pf ◦ = f ? That all existence problems about maps are essentially of one type or the other from these two is seen as follows.→ X. p f The Lifting Problem Given a pair of maps E → B and X → B. crusading 3 . does there exist a map f ◦ : X → E. and a map A → Y . in no way begging the question of its existence. If such an f † exists1 . that is. then it is called an extension of f and is said to extend f . i f The Extension Problem Given an inclusion A . commutativity through a candidate f † is precisely the restriction requirement. f † : f † ◦ i = f † |A = f . all existence problems are representable 1† suggests striving for perfection. the presence of a dotted arrow or an arrow carrying a ? indicates a pious hope. In any diagrams. Note that we shall usually omit ◦ from composite maps. All problems about the existence of maps can be cast into one of the following two forms. does there exist a map f † : X → Y such that f † agrees with f on A? Here the appropriate source category for maps should be clear from the context and. Evidently. moreover. which are in a sense mutually dual.

2 0.4 4 0. 6 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 .6 0.2 4 0. by triangular diagrams and it is easily seen that there are only these six possibilities: .4 0. BASICS OF EXTENSION AND LIFTING PROBLEMS 10 β 8 3 10 2 6 1 8 0 6 β 0. 4 CHAPTER 1.1: The log-gamma family of densities with central mean < N > = 12 as a surface and as a contour plot.6 1 Figure 1.8 0. .8 2 2 N 1 0 N 0.

and H1 = H H( . a pair of maps f. We can also think of H as either of: • a 1-parameter family of maps {Ht : X −→ Y | t ∈ [0. If A = ∅ or A is clear from the context (such as A = ∗ for pointed spaces. H below). then we write f ∼ g.Chapter 2 Up to Homotopy is Good Enough A log with nine holes— old Turkish riddle for a man 2. H0 = H( . 1] −→ Y X : t 7−→ Ht . or sometimes just f ∼ g and say that f and g are homotopic. 1] } with H0 = f and H1 = g . g : X → Y which agree on A ⊆ X is said to admit a homotopy H from f to g relative to A if there is a map H X × I −→ Y : (x. t) 7−→ Ht (x) with Ht (a) = H(a. we picture H as a continuous deformation of the graph of f into that of g. 0) = f . Intuitively. t) = f (a) = g(a) for all a ∈ A. The following is an easy exercise. • a curve cH from f to g in the function space Y X of maps from X to Y cH : [0.1 Introducing homotopy In a topological category. 1) = g. Then we write f ∼ g (relA). cf. 5 . We call f nullhomotopic or inessential if it is homotopic to a constant map.

1 For all A ⊆ X. ∼ (relA) is an equivalence relation on the set of maps from X to Y which agree on A. UP TO HOMOTOPY IS GOOD ENOUGH n Sn Rn 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 ∞ 5 1 1 6 1 1 7 28 1 8 2 1 9 8 1 10 6 1 11 992 1 12 1 1 13 3 1 14 2 1 15 16256 1 Table 2. Maps in the same equivalence class of ∼ (relA) are said to be homotopic (relA). .6 CHAPTER 2.1: Numbers of distinct differentiable structures on real n-space and n-spheres Proposition 2.1.

Bibliography [1] L. LATEX A Document Preparation System Addison-Wesley. 7 . California 1986. Lamport.

Index extend 3 extension problem 3 extension of a map 3 homotopic 5 homotopy 5 homotopy relative 5 inessential 5 lifting problem 3 nullhomotopic 5 triangular diagrams 4 rel 5 relative homotopy 5 8 .

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