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IMPACT OF JOB

ENRICHMENT
ON EMPLOYEE
MOTIVATION
RUPESH VERMA
LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY
4TH SE

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CONTENTS

PREFACE
CERTIFICATE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
CHAPTER 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
CHAPTER 2
2.1 COMPANY PROFILE
2.2 HISTORY
2.3 GROWTH
CHAPTER 3
3.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
3.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.3 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.4 SAMPLE SIZE
3.5 SAMPLING TECHNQUE
3.6 SOURCES OF DATA
CHAPTER 4
4.1 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
4.2 FINDINGS
CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 6
BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER 7
APPENDICE

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Someone has rightly said that practical experience is far better and closer to the real
world than more theoretical exposure. The practical experience helps the students to view
the real business world closely, which in turn widely influences their perceptions and
arguments their understanding of the real situation.
Research work constitutes the backbone of any management education programme. A
management student has to do research work quiet frequently during his entire span.
MBA is the stepping-stone to management care in order to reach practical and concrete
results.
This project is on Job Enrichment Impact on Employee Motivation of Amrit Banaspati Company
Ltd.

Job Enrichment refers vertical expansion of jobs. It increases the degree to which the worker
controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of work. An enriched job organizes the tasks so
as to allow the worker to do a complete activity, increases the employee’s freedom and
independence, increases job responsibility and provides feedback.

Employee’s job enrichment could be done in number of ways as follows.


• By job rotation, allows workers to do different varieties of tasks.

• By combining tasks, work activities are combined to give more challenging work
assignments.

• By implementing participative management, this allows employees to participate in


decision making and strategic planning.

• By providing autonomy for work , this allows employees to work independently

• By providing feedback for their work, this allows employees to understand how poor or
well they are doing.

• By increasing client relationships, this increases direct relationship between employee


and his clients.

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Based on above understanding of job enrichment, we have identified factors which by which job
enrichment could be done .These factors are as follows.

• Job redesigning

• Autonomy

• Feedback

• Work place challenge

• Customer interaction

• Participate management

• Flexible working hours

• Use of technical skills

• On the job training

The main objectives of the project is to understand the JOB ENRICHMENT IMPACT ON
EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION in detail by interacting with the management, supervision and
workers and to see how far the various measures are implemented and bring out the
drawbacks if any and recommended measures for the betterment of the system. Secondly
to critically evaluate the JOB ENRICHMENT impact on employee motivation as well as
on absenteeism and turnover. At last study the most extensive changes those are critical
for high motivation and performance.

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PREFACE

Corporate Training in an organization is an integral and inseparable part of technical education


syllabi; it provides an opportunity and practical exposure to the students who are the future
professional captains or leaders of the industry.

There is a definite gap between theoretical knowledge/information imparted in classes and


practical happenings/ground realities in any industrial organization. This gap is bridged by
practical training, which also strengthens the process of communication between the future
professionals and corporate world.

I have done my summer training project from Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, Chandigarh
Road, Rajpura. The company produces the edible oil quality products, having brand names of
Gagan, Gini (GNO, CSO), Bansari, Sunehri Teer, and Merrigold, Sunflower oils under its
banner.

I am assigned the task to study Job Enrichment Impact on Employee Motivation of ABC, which
is controlled by the personnel department.

During this training period I learned a lot of other things beside the project assigned to me. I
have learned the office procedure in maintaining various registers and dissemination of
information at various managerial levels. I fenced the professional attitude in air and did grasp to
an extent, what it takes to become a professional? One thing more which I learned during my
training is that the working area of HR is very wide.

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In the Nutshell the whole experience was enlightening and interesting.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I have prepared this project with the help of the many persons working in the
organization. I collected primary data from the personnel department but secondary and
supporting data was provided by many others.

A project work is never the work of a one person; rather it is a combination of


ideas, suggestions, views & contribution involving various folks.

I want to thank several people for their professional assistance. This includes
Dr.R.K.Kalia (G.M- HR & Admn), B.S.Jaswal (Sr Manager-HR& Pers), Mr. Sita Ram and Mr.
Guvinder who gave me privilege of working as a trainee in Amrit Banaspati Company Limited,
Rajpura. They devoted their precious time and rendered generous support for my research and
writing.

I also want to thank all the person of the personnel department who gave their full
support in completing my project. All the persons mentioned above not only helped me but also
provided guidance for completing the project by their vast experience and professional attitude.
I shall ever remain thankful to them and express my sincere gratitude

Rupesh verma

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Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction: Job Enrichment

The current research project is based on JOB ENRICHMENT. The new changes both in science and
technology and business environment have brought a change in functional approach of an industrial
organization. The human resource executive plays a significant role to set and achieve the objectives as the
functional horizon is extended from legalistic mundane approach to human relation. Employees are not
perceived as human resource, as some human resource experts have termed the human resource as
“knowledge capital” of the organization.

It is, therefore, imperative for human resource executive to adopt a rationale approach to muster and
accumulate the so-called knowledge capital. This places an immense responsibility on HR executive, as there
no direct scale to measure human HR activities vis-à-vis the output.

Definition: Job Enrichment is the addition to a job of tasks that increase the amount of employee control or
responsibility. It is a vertical expansion of the job as opposed to the horizontal expansion of a job, which is
called job enlargement.

Most of us want interesting, challenging jobs where we feel that we can make a real difference to other
people’s lives. As it is for us, so it is for the people who work with or for us. So why are so many jobs so
boring and monotonous? And what can you do to make the jobs you offer more satisfying? (By reducing
recruitment costs, increasing retention of experienced staff and motivating them to perform at a high level;
you can have a real impact on the bottom line.)

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One of the key factors in good job design is job enrichment. This is the practice of enhancing individual jobs
to make the responsibilities more rewarding and inspiring for the people who do them.

With job enrichment, you expand the task set that someone performs. You provide more stimulating and
interesting work that adds variety and challenge to an employee’s daily routine. This increases the depth of the
job and allows people to have more control over their work. The central focus of job enrichment is giving
people more control over their work (lack of control is a key cause of stress, and therefore of unhappiness.)
Where possible, allow them to take on tasks that are typically done by supervisors. This means that they have
more influence over planning, executing, and evaluating the jobs they do. In enriched jobs, people complete
activities with increased freedom, independence, and responsibility. They also receive plenty of feedback, so
that they can assess and correct their own performance.

Here are some strategies you can use to enrich jobs in your workplace:

• Rotate Jobs – Give people the opportunity to use a variety of skills, and perform
different kinds of work. The most common way to do this is through job rotation. Move your
workers through a variety of jobs that allow them to see different parts of the organization
learn different skills and acquire different experiences. This can be very motivating,
especially for people in jobs that are very repetitive or that focus on only one or two skills.

• Combine Tasks – Combine work activities to provide a more challenging and complex
work assignment. This can significantly increase “task identity” because people see a job
through from start to finish. This allows workers to use a wide variety of skills, which can
make the work seem more meaningful and important. For example, you can convert an
assembly line process, in which each person does one task, into a process in which one
person assembles a whole unit. You can apply this model wherever you have people or
groups that typically perform only one part of an overall process. Consider expanding their
roles to give them responsibility for the entire process, or for a bigger part of that process.

• Identify Project-Focused Work Units – Break your typical functional lines and form
project-focused units. For example, rather than having all of your marketing people in one
department, with supervisors directing who works on which project, you could split the
department into specialized project units – specific storyboard creators, copywriters, and

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designers could all work together for one client or one campaign. Allowing employees to
build client relationships is an excellent way to increase autonomy, task identity, and
feedback.

• Create Autonomous Work Teams – This is job enrichment at the group level. Set a
goal for a team, and make team members free to determine work assignments, schedules, rest
breaks, evaluation parameters, and the like. You may even give them influence over choosing
their own team members. With this method, you’ll significantly cut back on supervisory
positions, and people will gain leadership and management skills.

• Implement Participative Management – Allow team members to participate in decision


making and get involved in strategic planning. This is an excellent way to communicate to
members of your team that their input is important. It can work in any organization – from a
very small company, with an owner/boss who’s used to dictating everything, to a large
company with a huge hierarchy. When people realize that what they say is valued and makes
a difference, they’ll likely be motivated.

• Redistribute Power and Authority – Redistribute control and grant more authority to
workers for making job-related decisions. As supervisors delegate more authority and
responsibility, team members’ autonomy, accountability, and task identity will increase.

• Increase Employee-Directed Feedback – Make sure that people know how well, or
poorly, they’re performing their jobs. The more control you can give them for evaluating and
monitoring their own performance, the more enriched their jobs will be. Rather than have
your quality control department go around and point out mistakes, consider giving each team
responsibility for their own quality control. Workers will receive immediate feedback, and
they’ll learn to solve problems, take initiative, and make decisions.

Job enrichment provides many opportunities for people’s development. You’ll give them lots of
opportunity for their task to participate in how their work gets done, and they’ll most-likely
enjoy an increased sense of personal responsibility. Job enrichment is connected to the concept
of job enlargement.

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Job enrichment is the process of "improving work processes and environments so they are more
satisfying for employees".

Many jobs are monotonous and unrewarding - particularly in the primary and secondary
production industries. Workers can feel dissatisfied in their position due to a lack of a challenge,
repetitive procedures, or an over-controlled authority structure.

Job enrichment tries to eliminate these problems, and bring better performance to the workplace.

There are three key parts to the process of job enrichment

1. Turn employees' effort into performance:

• Ensuring that objectives are well-defined and understood by everyone. The overall
corporate mission statement should be communicated to all. Individual's goals should also be
clear. Each employee should know exactly how she fits into the overall process and be aware
of how important her contributions are to the organization and its customers.
• Providing adequate resources for each employee to perform well. This includes support
functions like information technology, communication technology, and personnel training
and development.
• Creating a supportive corporate culture. This includes peer support networks, supportive
management, and removing elements that foster mistrust and politicking.
• Free flow of information. Eliminate secrecy.
• Provide enough freedom to facilitate job excellence. Encourage and reward employee
initiative. Flextime or compressed hours could be offered.
• Provide adequate recognition, appreciation, and other motivators.
• Provide skill improvement opportunities. This could include paid education at
universities or on the job training.
• Provide job variety. This can be done by job sharing or job rotation programmes.
• It may be necessary to re-engineer the job process. This could involve redesigning the
physical facility, redesign processes, change technologies, simplification of procedures,
elimination of repetitiveness, redesigning authority structures.

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2. Link employee’s performance directly to reward:

• Clear definition of the reward is a must


• Explanation of the link between performance and reward is important
• Make sure the employee gets the right reward if performs well
• If reward is not given, explanation is needed

3. Make sure the employee wants the reward. How to find out?

• Ask them
• Use surveys( checklist, listing, questionnaire)

Job enrichment is a type of job redesign intended to reverse the effects of tasks that are repetitive
requiring little autonomy. Some of these effects are boredom, lack of flexibility, and employee
dissatisfaction (Leach & Wall, 2004). The underlying principle is to expand the scope of the job
with a greater variety of tasks, vertical in nature, that require self-sufficiency. Since the goal is to
give the individual exposure to tasks normally reserved for differently focused or higher
positions, merely adding more of the same responsibilities related to an employee's current
position are not considered job enrichment.

The basis for job enrichment practices is the work done by Frederick Herzberg in the 1950's and
60's, which was further refined in 1975 by Hackman and Oldham using what they called the Job
Characteristics Model. This model assumes that if five core job characteristics are present, three
psychological states critical to motivation are produced, resulting in positive outcomes (Kotila,
2001). Figure 1 illustrates this model.

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Job enrichment can only be truly successful if planning includes support for all phases of the
initiative. Ohio State University Extension began a job enrichment program in 1992 and
surveyed the participants five years later. The results, broken down into 3 sub-buckets of data
beyond the main grouping of advantages/disadvantages as shown in Table 1, indicate the
University had not fully considered the planning and administrative aspects of the program
(Fourman and Jones, 1997). While the benefits are seemingly obvious, programs fail not because
of a lack of benefits, but rather due to implementation problems. These problems can include a
perception of too great a cost, lack of long-term commitment of resources, and potential job
classification changes (Cunningham and Eberle, 1990).

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In order for a job enrichment program to produce positive results, worker needs and
organizational needs must be analyzed and acted upon. According to Cunningham and Eberle
(1990), before an enrichment program is begun, the following questions should be asked:

1. Do employees need jobs that involve responsibility, variety, feedback, challenge,


accountability, significance, and opportunities to learn?
2. What techniques can be implemented without changing the job classification plan?
3. What techniques would require changes in the job classification plan? (p.3)

When asked about the successes of a Training Generalist job enrichment program begun in 2002,
Karen Keenan, Learning Manager with Bank of America, stated the accomplishments were,
"greater than expected". The Training Generalist program has resulted in three successful
participants to date. According to Ms. Keenan, positive results can be directly tied to a program
that addressed the strategic goal of greater resource flexibility without adding to staff, as well as
to proper planning, guidance, and feedback for the participants. Having a voluntary program
contributed as well, attracting a high caliber of individuals eager to expand their skills and be
positioned for advancement. To date, all three Training Generalists have experienced promotions
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and additional recognition while affording Ms. Keenan's team financial results and workload
flexibility it could not have otherwise achieved.

A job enrichment program can be a very effective intervention in some situations where a
Performance Technician is faced with a request for motivational training. Ralph Brown (2004)
summed it up very nicely:

Job enrichment doesn't work for everyone. Some people are very resistant to more responsibility
or to opportunities for personal growth, but…researchers report that some people they expected
to resist, seized the opportunity. Enriching jobs is a particularly effective way to develop
employees provided the jobs are truly enriched, not just more work for them to do.

EVOLUTION OF MOTIVATION THEORIES

Mainstream theories about employee motivation have varied greatly over the past century. Early
conceptions, sometimes termed "traditional" management theory, assumed that work was an
intrinsically undesirable pursuit and that workers naturally sought to do as little as possible. This
translated into a sort of carrot-and-stick managerial policy whereby companies tried to maximize
motivation by providing adequate compensation as an incentive but also by guarding against any
sign of wayward behavior through authoritarian control regimes.

A backlash in the 1940s and 1950s against such policies, which did not always prove particularly
successful, emphasized building a conducive social environment in which workers felt valued
and respected. This model still maintained management's authority over all critical matters, but
attempted to make the workplace more palatable by humanizing it.

Current notions of employee motivation started to take root in the 1960s. Elaborating on the
importance of human factors, contemporary theories envision workers as large and often
untapped reserves of skills, ideas, and other potential benefits to an organization. The motivation
process, according to this view, involves tailoring the work environment and incentive structure
to harness as much of this potential as possible. This approach emphasizes granting employees
greater flexibility, power, responsibility, and autonomy so that, to some extent, they may shape
their own work environments as they see fit, while remaining accountable for both favorable and
unfavorable outcomes of their actions.

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THEORIES APPLIED

Some attempts to bolster employee motivation still consider only extrinsic rewards. Endless
mixes of employee benefits such as health care and life insurance, profit sharing, employee
stock ownership plans (ESOPs), exercise facilities, subsidized meal plans, child care
availability, company cars, and more have been used by companies in their efforts to maintain
happy employees. Although some experts argue that many of these efforts, if only directed at
motivating employees, are just a waste of company money, it is clear that for certain individuals
in certain scenarios, monetary incentives can stimulate better job performance—at least for a
while.

The debate, rather, has been over whether such material factors have more than a superficial
impact on motivation. Many modern theorists propose that the motivation an employee feels
toward his or her job has less to do with material rewards such as those described above, than
with the design of the job itself. Studies as far back as 1924 show that simplified, repetitive jobs,
for instance, fostered boredom and the taking of frequent, unauthorized breaks by those who
performed them. In 1950 a series of attitude surveys found that highly segmented and simplified
jobs resulted in lower employee morale and output. Other consequences of low employee
motivation include absenteeism and high employee turnover, both very costly for businesses.
"Job enlargement" initiatives began to crop up in major companies in the 1950s, with one
champion of the cause being IBM founder Thomas Watson, Sr. On the academic front, Turner
and Lawrence proposed task attributes that characterize jobs that motivate.

Turner and Lawrence suggest that there are three basic characteristics of a "motivating" job:

1. It must allow a worker to feel personally responsible for a meaningful portion of the
work accomplished. An employee must feel ownership of and connection to the work he
or she performs. Even in team situations, a successful effort will foster an individual's
awareness that his or her contributions were important in accomplishing the group's tasks.
2. It must provide outcomes which have intrinsic meaning to the individual. Effective work
that does not lead a worker to feel that his or her efforts matter will not be maintained.
The outcome of an employee's work must have value to him or hers and to others in the
organization.

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3. It must provide the employee feedback about his or her accomplishments. A constructive,
believable critique of the work performed is crucial to a worker's continuance or
improvement of that which has already been performed.

In 1971 Hackman and Lawler tested these ideas. Using a telephone company as a test site, they
surveyed 200 employees to determine relationships between employee attitudes and behavior
and the characteristics of the employee's job. The study also assessed whether an employee's
reaction to his or her work was dependent upon particular kinds of satisfactions valued by the
employee. Positive correlations were found to exist between the quality of an employee's job,
with quality jobs meeting the three criteria above, and positive employee attitudes and behavior.
Further, "doing well" at a job was interpreted by the employee as having put in a high quality
performance, rather than a high quantity performance. Employees felt positively when they had
accomplished something they felt was meaningful, and strove to do so if given an encouraging
opportunity.

MOTIVATION TOOLS

The methods of motivating employees today are as numerous and different as the companies
operating in the global business environment. What is the nature of the company and its
industry? Is it small or big? What kind of culture is fostered? Is it conservative or innovative?
What is important to the employees? What steps have been taken to find out?

The best employee motivation efforts focus on what employees deem to be important. It may be
that employees within the same department of the same organization will have different
motivators. Many organizations today find that flexibility in job design and reward has resulted
in employees' increased longevity with the company, increased productivity, and better morale.
Although this "cafeteria-plan" approach to the work-reward continuum presents variety, some
strategies are prevalent across all organizations that strive to improve employee motivation.

EMPOWERMENT

Giving employees more responsibility and decision-making authority increases their control over
the tasks for which they are held responsible and better equips them to carry out those tasks.
Trapped feelings arising from being held accountable for something one does not have the

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resources to carry out are diminished. Energy is diverted from self-preservation to improved task
accomplishment. Empowerment brings the job enlargement of the 1950s and the job enrichment
that began in the 1960s to a higher level by giving the employees some of the power to expand
their own jobs and create new, personally identified challenges.

CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION

At many companies, employees with creative ideas do not express them to management for fear
of jeopardizing their jobs. Company approval and toeing the company line have become so
ingrained in some working environments that both the employee and the organization suffer.
When the power to create in the organization is pushed down from the upper echelon to line
personnel, employees are empowered and those who know a job, product, or service best are
given the opportunity to use their ideas to improve it. The power to create motivates employees
and benefits the organization in having a more flexible workforce, using more wisely the
experience of its employees and increasing the exchange of ideas and information among
employees and departments. These improvements also create an openness to change that can
give a company the ability to respond quickly to market changes and sustain a first mover
advantage in the marketplace. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., better known as 3M,
has fostered company wide creativity for decades. Its relentless support of new ideas has paid off
in profitability and loyal employees who are so motivated that they have the most nimble and
successful new product development system in the industry. MCI (now part of MCI WorldCom),
too, encourages employees to develop new ideas and take chances with them. A top manager
there stated, "We don't shoot people who make mistakes around here, we shoot people who don't
take risks."

LEARNING

If employees are given the tools and the opportunities to accomplish more, most will take on the
challenge. Companies can motivate employees to achieve more by committing to perpetual
enhancement of employee skills. Accreditation and licensing programs for employees are an
increasingly popular and effective way to bring about growth in employee knowledge and
motivation. Often, these programs improve employees' attitudes toward the client and the
company, while bolstering self-confidence. Supporting this assertion, an analysis of factors

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which influence motivation to learn found that it is directly related to the extent to which training
participants believe that such participation will affect their job or career utility. In other words, if
the body of knowledge gained can be applied to the work to be accomplished, then the
acquisition of that knowledge will be a worthwhile event for the employee and employer.

QUALITY OF LIFE

The number of hours worked each week by American workers is on the rise again and many
families have two adults working those increased hours. Under these circumstances, many
workers are left wondering how to meet the demands of their lives beyond the workplace. Often,
this concern occurs while at work and may reduce an employee's productivity and morale.
Companies that have instituted flexible employee arrangements have gained motivated
employees whose productivity has increased. Programs incorporating flextime, condensed
workweeks, or job sharing, for example, have been successful in focusing overwhelmed
employees toward the work to be done and away from the demands of their private lives.

MONETARY INCENTIVE

For all the championing of alternative motivators, money still occupies a rightful place in the mix
of motivators. The sharing of a company's profits gives incentive to employees to produce a
quality product, perform a quality service, or improve the quality of a process within the
company. What benefits the company directly benefits the employee. Monetary and other
rewards are being given to employees for generating cost savings or process-improving ideas, to
boost productivity and reduce absenteeism. Money is effective when it is directly tied to an
employee's ideas or accomplishments. Nevertheless, if not coupled with other, non monetary
motivators, its motivating effects are short-lived. Further, monetary incentives can prove
counterproductive if not made available to all members of the organization.

OTHER INCENTIVES

Study after study has found that the most effective motivators of workers are non monetary.
Monetary systems are insufficient, in part because expectations often exceed results and because
disparity between salaried individuals may divide rather than unite employees. Proven non
monetary motivators foster team spirit and include recognition, responsibility, and advancement.

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Managers, who recognize the "small wins" of employees, promote participatory environments,
and treat employees with fairness and respect will find their employees to be more highly
motivated. One company's managers brainstormed to come up with 30 powerful rewards that
cost little or nothing to implement. The most effective rewards, such as letters of commendation
and time off from work, enhanced personal fulfillment and self-respect. Over the longer term,
sincere praise and personal gestures are far more effective and more economical than awards of
money alone. In the end, a program that combines monetary reward systems and satisfies
intrinsic, self-actualizing needs may be the most potent employee motivator.

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1.2 Review of Literature

Honold(1997), suggests that an empowered organization is one where managers supervise more
people than in a traditional hierarchy and delegate more decisions to their subordinates (Malone,
1997). Managers act like coaches and help employees solve problems. Employees, he concludes,
have increased responsibility. Superiors empowering subordinates by delegating responsibilities
to them leads to subordinates who are more satisfied with their leaders and consider them to be
fair and in turn to perform up to the superior’s expectations (Keller and Dansereau, In practice,
the definition of delegation appears to be of critical importance.It can be discerned by the
language used by the researcher. The words “subordinate” and “superior” in the language
suggests giving additional tasks to employees. This is not perceived as empowering by
employees (Menon 1995). Providing for the development of self-worth by negotiating for
latitude in decision making and changing aspects of the employee’s job leads to increased levels
of perceived self-control and hence empowerment.

Johnson (2008), studied that absenteeism due to stress increased slightly in South African
companies in 2008 compared with the previous year. So far 3.4% of all sick leaves taken until
the end of June this year were due to stress, depression and anxiety, according to Cams, a
company which looks at corporate absenteeism. This was line with indications that the country
was experiencing an economic downturn. In 2007 this figure was 3.1% and 3.9% in 2006. The
research was done with the help of statistics from 100,000 employees in 60 companies, using
data from doctor-issued sick certificates. "Companies should therefore continue to ask
themselves what they could do to make their staff happy and productive."

Mills(1973), predicts that Industrial sociologists and psychologists have often paid little more
than scant attention to the actual work of the people they have been studying. The literature is
full of brief comments about the work situation which lack both data and an analytical
framework. This deficiency is surprising. Work content has been shown to have a significant
impact on behaviour, morale, and productivity in the workplace. The purpose of job design
research is to seek to understand this relationship more clearly and then to use research-based
insights to create jobs which are more satisfying to perform, and more efficient in performance.
As such this body of knowledge should be a subject of particular relevance for personnel

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specialists since job content considerations should affect recruitment, training, placement and
effort-reward policies. However, although job content has very wide repercussions for the
personnel area, job design is frequently left by default to the technical and engineering
specialists, who seek to make their work system function effectively in production rather than
human terms.

Mogelof et.al (2005), discusses context-driven job satisfaction tradeoffs associated with careers
in élite versus non-élite organizations and the role organizations may play in facilitating or
impeding workers’ participation in valued activities. It emphasizes the importance of
participation in valued activities as a key driver of job satisfaction. The original purpose of this
study was not to focus on job satisfaction, but rather to conduct an exploratory investigation of
how symphony orchestra players cope with the frustrations and disappointments of orchestra life.
Symphony orchestra players report surprisingly low levels of job satisfaction given the
perception held by many that life and work in symphony orchestras is glamorous and rewarding.

Orpen(2007), examined that (1) Employees in the enriched condition perceived their jobs as
more enriched than before; (2) enrichment caused significant increases in employee job
satisfaction, job involvement, and internal motivation; (3) enrichment led to significant decreases
in absenteeism and turnover; but (4) enrichment had little impact on performance, whether
assessed by superiors' ratings or by actual output. These findings, which are described in terms of
the Hackman-Oldham theory of job design, are regarded as suggestive evidence that enrichment
can cause substantial improvements in employee attitudes, but that these benefits may not lead to
greater productivity. It is argued that in order to explain the effect of enrichment on performance,
it is necessary to consider other factors besides the psychological states produced by jobs which
are seen to have certain characteristics.

Peter et.al (2004), said Job enrichment is a type of job redesign intended to reverse the effects of
tasks that are repetitive requiring little autonomy. Some of these effects are boredom, lack of
flexibility, and employee dissatisfaction (Leach & Wall, 2004). The underlying principle is to
expand the scope of the job with a greater variety of tasks, vertical in nature, that require self-
sufficiency. Since the goal is to give the individual exposure to tasks normally reserved for

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differently focused or higher positions, merely adding more of the same responsibilities related
to an employee's current position is not considered job enrichment.

Pettman(1979), examines that “quality of working life” (QWL) has grown steadily over a period
in which the industrialised nations have increasingly come to question the role and status of
human beings in the modern technological environment. In recent years concern with the nature
of work, its impact upon people, and their attitudes towards it, seem to have sharpened.
Investigation of, and experimentation with, the qualitative aspects of working life—its ability to
confer self-fulfilment directly, for example, as opposed to being a means of acquiring goods—
has gained momentum under the influence of a unique set of economic, social, political and
technological factors. The outpouring of books, reports and articles from a wide variety of
sources has, not surprisingly, grown apace.

Roberts(2006), study that absence is a major issue for many UK organizations, yet less than half
monitor the cost of absence to their business (CIPD, July 2007). On average the cost of absence
is £659 per employee per year and in addition to this the indirect cost of absenteeism on the
organization is significant, affecting productivity levels and knowledge management and putting
customer service, morale and corporate reputations at risk.
Managing absence is about starting with the little things.

Ullah(1991), Considers that implementing total quality management is more a matter of


changing people than changing technologies. Shows how psychology can be used to facilitate the
process. Examines attitudes and behaviour, values and motivation. Discusses work redesign and
goal setting as methods of motivating staff to achieve desired standards of work behaviour.
Finally, considers the importance of psychological measurement to test customer attitudes.
Concludes that there are other areas of organisational psychology which have implications for
implementing a programme of total quality, and that the human side of TQM is at least as
important as the technical side.

22
Chapter 2
23
2.1 COMPANY PROFILE

Amrit Banaspati is an ISO 9001-2000 certified company. It has a history of five decades in
business of edible oil products. Today, it is one of the largest manufacturing unit of edible oil in
the country. Its main brands are Gagan, Ginni (GNO, CSO), Bansari, Sunehri Teer, Merrigold,
and Sunflower Oil, which are very popular and virtually common household names in various
parts of the country.
In terms of turnover Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, has been rated amongst the top 100
companies of the India. Late Shri Laxmi Narain Bajaj set up Amrit Banaspati Company Limited
in the year 1940. It was the ninth company of the country established in the Banaspati industry.

The main branches that are under the Amrit group are:

a) Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, Ghaziabad (UP.)


b) Amrit Paper Sailkhurd, Hoshiarpur (Punjab)
c) Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, Rajpura (Punjab)

Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, Ghaziabad (UP.)


In Ghaziabad Amrit Banaspati Company has a corporate office.

Amrit Paper Sailkhurd, Hoshiarpur (Punjab)


One of the leading producers of the print paper in the country. The production capacity has
increased from 10,000 mts in 1980 to 24,000 mts at present. The company is saving precious
foreign exchange for the country.

Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, Rajpura (Punjab)


This unit of the Amrit Group was put in the year 1969-1970 with a capacity of 100 mts per day
of Banaspati (Hydrogenated vegetable oil). Later in the year 1982-83 capacity was increased 125
mts per day. Then later on a separate facility to produce set of refined oils to the capacity of 60
mts per day. At present company is manufacturing 3600 mts of Banaspati oil out of which 3000
of mts is produced in small packets under the brand name Gagan, which is a well-known and
accepted brand in entire Northern India. In Refined oil company is producing 1600-1700 mts per
month.
24
Types of Refined Oil: -

 Ginni Ground Nut Oil

 Ginni Ground Cotton Seed Oil

 Ginni Gold Sunflower Oil


 Ginni Corn Oil

Ginni is again a renewed and well-known brand in Northern India. Very recently the company
has launched table margarine under the brand name Merrigold. The product has received a good
response. Rajpura Company is catering in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal & Chandigarh. Northern
Eastern states are roughly estimated around 60% of the turnover of Rajpura is around 400 crores.
Rajpura plant is equipped with latest technology, developed in field of oil processing. Besides
technology developed by machinery suppliers, the company has its own complete research and
development facility. Where company keeps improving the process needed for oil processing
and other R&D work. Hence the plant regularly introduces new products in the market at regular
intervals of time.State of Punjab has plenty of edible oils available and hence maximum need of
the company is met locally within the Punjab state and rest of the need is fulfilled from the
other parts of the country.In future it seems that oil industry is going to be in good demand as its
products are a basic part of the day today life and part of household.

LIST OF PRODUCTS:-

25
1. Gagan Vanaspati
2. Ginni Gold Refined Sunflower
3. Ginni Refined Cotton Seed Oil
4. Ginni Refined Ground Oil
5. Ginni Lite Refined Oil
6. Ginni Refined Ricebran Oil
7. Ginni Refined Soyabean Oil
8. Merrigold Table Margarine
9. Gagan Kachi Ghani Mustard Oil
10. Merri Lite Calorie Vegetable
11. Gagan Salt
12. Gagan Basmati Rice

VARIOUS SLOGANS USED BY COMPANY

26
 Khao Gagan Raho magan : Banaspati

 The Oil of Today : Cotton Seed Oil Woman of today

 The Complete Oil : Sunflower Oil Complete family

 Its Takes on the Flavour of Food : Groundnut Oil

 As Pure as Mother’s Love : Mustered Oil

 It’s Not Butter, It’s Better : Merrigold Table Margrine

 The Taste of Good Health : Merritreat Bread Spread

27
THE MISSION STATEMENT OF THE COMPANY

“To product and sell goods to achieve the highest return on sales in the industry and the
total satisfaction of the customers, employees and the share holders in that order”.

KEY ORGANIZATION ELEMENTS OF AMRIT BANASPATI CO.LTD

• Chairman cum Managing director — Mr.Naresh Kumar Bajaj

• Vice Chairman cum Managing director — Mr. Jagesh Kumar Khaitan

• Senior Executive Director — Mr.Suresh.C. Aggrwal

• Director —Mr. Manmohan Lal Sarin

• Director —Mr.Romesh Lal

• Director —Mr.Hari Shankar Goenka

• Director —Mr.Lalit Mohan Suri

• Director —Mr.Virander kumar Sibal

• Director —Dr.Balbir Singh Bhatia

• Director —Mr.Pavan Khaitan

• Director —Mr.Ashwani Kumar Bajaj

• Director —Mr.Vikram Bajaj

• G.M- HR & Admn —Dr.R.K.Kalia

• Sr Manager-HR& Pers —Mr.B.s.Jaswal

28
2.2 HISTORY

Amrit Banaspati Company is a public limited company started on 29 March 1940 by Late Sh.
Laxmi Narain Bajaj. The company Commenced business on the day of basakhi i.e. 13th April
1940 by production of Banaspati at its Ghaziabad plant.

In 1940, 25-mt capacity of plant was started at Ghaziabad (U.P.). Very soon the product became
popular and sales increased accordingly. Hence the capacity of the plant was increased to 50-mt
per day in 1954.

The company was managed by M/S Amrit Agency Private Limited till 1956. Thereof the
managing agency was terminated and now Board of Directors manages it.

Governor of Punjab Dr D.C. Pavte realizing the increased demand in the field a 100-mt per day
plant was started at Rajpura in the year 1969. The foundation stone of the company was laid by
Dr D.C. Pavte on March 06, 1969 while the company was inaugurated by the honorable chief
minister of Punjab Mr. S. Gurnam Singh on December 06, 1969. The commercial production of
the Banaspati at Rajpura unit started on January 10, 1970.

By noticing the power shortages in the state the company has installed diesel generator sets of
high capacity at both of its units so as to reduce production losses due to power failures.

The company’s most prestigious product today is Merrigold Cholesterol free Margarine launched
in 1991 at its Rajpura unit.

Since its establishment the company has grown very fast and also diversified its business. The
main objective of the company is the consumer satisfaction, quality of the product to reach at
break-even point and price stabilization

2.3 GROWTH
BUSINESS TURNOVER
The Present turnover of Amrit group is around 1100 crores and that of Rajpura unit is of 800
crores. In terms of turnover Amrit Banaspati Company has been ranked amongst the top
companies of the India.

29
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR AMRIT CORP. LTD
Year over year, Amrit Corp. Ltd has seen revenues fall from 4.7B to 242.6M. This along with an
increase in income tax expense has led to a reduction in the bottom line from 146.1M to 71.5M.

Currency in As of:Mar 31 Mar 31 Mar 31 Mar 31


Millions of Indian Rupees 2004 2005 2006 2007
Press Press Press Press
Release Release Release Release

Revenues 4,474.9 4,628.4 4,671.4 242.6

Other Revenues 29.8 20.2 23.6 12.2

TOTAL REVENUES 4,504.7 4,648.6 4,695.0 254.7

Cost of Goods Sold 3,164.4 3,238.3 3,055.0 122.7

GROSS PROFIT 1,340.3 1,410.4 1,640.0 132.1

Selling General & Admin Expenses, Total 108.7 119.4 123.1 15.0

Depreciation & Amortization, Total 37.1 54.9 62.4 11.4

Other Operating Expenses 1,081.3 1,125.4 1,264.5 75.5

OTHER OPERATING EXPENSES, TOTAL 1,227.0 1,299.7 1,450.0 101.9

OPERATING INCOME 113.2 110.7 190.1 30.2

Interest Expense -57.3 -59.4 -57.5 -2.7

30
NET INTEREST EXPENSE -57.3 -59.4 -57.5 -2.7

Other Non-Operating Income (Expenses) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

EBT, EXCLUDING UNUSUAL ITEMS 55.9 51.3 132.5 27.6

Other Unusual Items, Total -- 24.0 99.8 72.5

Other Unusual Items -- 24.0 99.8 72.5

EBT, INCLUDING UNUSUAL ITEMS 55.9 75.3 232.3 100.1

Income Tax Expense 11.5 16.3 86.1 28.6

Earnings from Continuing Operations 44.4 59.0 146.1 71.5

NET INCOME 44.4 59.0 146.1 71.5

NET INCOME TO COMMON INCLUDING


44.4 59.0 146.1 71.5
EXTRA ITEMS

NET INCOME TO COMMON 44.4 59.0 146.1 71.5

The revenues fall from 4.7B to 242.6M of Amrit Corp. Ltd because Amrit group splits into
various individual companies in 2006 due to this there is sudden fall in the revenue of Amrit
Corp. The Present turnover of Amrit group is around 1100 crores and that of Rajpura unit is of
800 crores. In terms of turnover Amrit Banaspati Company has been ranked amongst the top
companies of the India.

31
Chapter 3
3.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

• To understand the JOB ENRICHMENT IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION in


detail by interacting with the management, supervision and workers and to see how far the
various measures are implemented and bring out the drawbacks if any and recommended
measures for the betterment of the system.
• To critically evaluate the JOB ENRICHMENT impact on employee motivation as well as
on absenteeism and turnover.

• To study the most extensive changes those are critical for high motivation and
performance.

3.2 Research Methodology

Job Enrichment refers vertical expansion of jobs. It increases the degree to which the worker
controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of work. An enriched job organizes the tasks so
as to allow the worker to do a complete activity, increases the employee’s freedom and
independence, increases job responsibility and provides feedback.
Employee’s job enrichment could be done in number of ways as follows.

• By job rotation, allows workers to do different varieties of tasks.

• By combining tasks, work activities are combined to give more challenging work
assignments.

• By implementing participative management, this allows employees to participate in


decision making and strategic planning.

• By providing autonomy for work , this allows employees to work independently

• By providing feedback for their work, this allows employees to understand how poor or
well they are doing.

32
• By increasing client relationships, this increases direct relationship between employee
and his clients.

The research methodology adopted in this research consists of the following steps:

Procedure followed: Based on above understanding of job enrichment, we have identified


factors which by which job enrichment could be done .These factors are as follows.
• Job redesigning

• Autonomy

• Feedback

• Work place challenge

• Customer interaction

• Participate management

• Flexible working hours

• Use of technical skills

• On the job training

A questionnaire was prepared to see the effect of all of the above factors of employee
motivation, absenteeism and turnover which in turn effects employee satisfaction.

Independent variables for the study: Job Enrichment ( Job redesigning, Autonomy, Feedback,
work place challenge, customer interaction, participative management, flexible working hours,
use of technical skills, on the job training)

Dependent variables for the study: Motivation, Absenteeism, Turnover, Job Satisfaction.

3.3 Design of Research

33
Research design provides the glue that holds the research project together. A design is used to
structure the research, to show how all of the major parts of the research project -- the samples or
groups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of assignment -- work together to try to
address the central research questions. Here, after a brief introduction to research design, I'll
show you how I classify the major types of designs.
Our research design is concentrated with the specification of method and procedures used for
conducting study. The research design of our study is both explanatory as well as descriptive.
Our research is exploratory in initial stages to provide background to the study. Here we explore
general subjects to study.

i) Study of available literature.


ii) Survey of experienced individuals.
iii) Analysis of insight stimulating examples.

Gradually as we proceed we shift to a descriptive research design as we concrete data from


primary sources as well. We choose to make the study descriptive as it is too made regarding
JOB ENRICHMENT IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION of the company.

3.4 Sample Size


Where the frame and population are identical, statistical theory yields exact recommendations on
sample size. However, where it is not straightforward to define a frame representative of the
population, it is more important to understand the cause system of which the populations are
outcomes and to ensure that all sources of variation are embraced in the frame. Large number of
observations is of no value if major sources of variation are neglected in the study. In other
words, it is taking a sample group that matches the survey category and is easy to survey.

The sample size of a statistical sample is the number of observations that constitute it. It is
typically denoted n, a positive integer (natural number). Typically, different sample sizes lead to
different precision of measurement. This can be seen in such statistical rules as the law of large
numbers and the central limit theorem. Population consists of 3000 employees. Our sample
element comprises middle level management and staff managers.

34
Name and proper identification of the employees was taken from the attendance register of the
company.

Our sample unit is AMRIT BANASPATI CO. LTD.

Initial characteristics of the sample size

Sample size taken for study: 30


Age Group: 30-45 yrs
Work Experience: 4-8 years
Average rate of absenteeism: once in 3 months
Job Monotony: average
Job Satisfaction: Satisfied

3.5 Sampling technique

Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual
observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the
purposes of statistical inference. Each observation measures one or more properties (weight,
location, etc.) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects or individuals. Survey
weights often need to be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design. Results from
probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide practice.

The sampling process comprises several stages:

• Defining the population of concern


• Specifying a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to measure
• Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame
• Determining the sample size

35
• Implementing the sampling plan
• Sampling and data collecting
• Reviewing the sampling process

The sampling technique will be probabilistic sampling more specifically the random sampling.
As in probabilistic sampling the select unit for observation with known probabilities so that
statistically sound assumptions are supported from the sample to entire population so that we had
positive probability of being selected into the sample. Since the number of employees at different
level management is quite high so it is not possible to collect data from each individual working
in the company. Here we will use SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING method for selecting the
employees. In this method each member of the population has an equal probability of being the
sample.

3.6 Sources of Data


My purpose is to provide information that will assist you in interpreting Statistics data. The
information (also known as metadata) is provided to ensure an understanding of the basic
concepts that define the data including variables and classifications; the underlying statistical
methods and surveys; and key aspects of the data quality. Direct access to questionnaires is also
provided.

I will used primary source of data that is structured questionnaire will be used. As our research
problem is to study job enrichment impact on employee motivation. This research data collected
from the primary source only. Our method of collecting the data is from the questionnaire that
will be filled by the respondent from the sample, it will be structured questionnaire. The project
report much attention was paid on the subjective study because the topic deals with psycho-socio
behavior of the workers. The research work was carried out by visiting the various department of
A.B.C LTD.

3.7 Test Applied

ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

36
In statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models, and their
associated procedures, in which the observed variance is partitioned into components due to
different explanatory variables. The initial techniques of the analysis of variance were developed
by the statistician and geneticist R. A. Fisher in the 1920s and 1930s, and is sometimes known as
Fisher's ANOVA or Fisher's analysis of variance, due to the use of Fisher's F-distribution as
part of the test of statistical significance.

R.A FISHER,”Analysis of variance is the separation of the variance ascrible to one group of
causes from the variance ascrible to other group.

Two-way anova (also known as a factorial anova, with two factors) when you have one
measurement variable and two nominal variables. The nominal variables (often called "factors"
or "main effects") are found in all possible combinations. For example, let's say you are testing
the null hypothesis that stressed and unstressed rats have the same glycogen content in their
gastrocnemius muscle, and you are worried that there might be sex-related differences in
glycogen content as well. The two factors are stress level (stressed vs. unstressed) and sex (male
vs. female). Unlike a nested anova, each grouping extends across the other grouping. In a nested
anova, you might have "cage 1" and "cage 2" nested entirely within the stressed group, while
"cage 3" and "cage 4" were nested within the unstressed group. In a two-way anova, the stressed
group contains both male and female rats, and the unstressed group also contains both male and
female rats. The factors used to group the observations may both be model I, may both be model
II, or may be one of each ("mixed model").

A two-way anova may be done with replication (more than one observation for each combination
of the nominal variables) or without replication (only one observation for each combination of
the nominal variables).

Assumptions
Two-way anova, like all anovas, assumes that the observations within each cell are normally
distributed and have equal variances

37
Two-way anova without replication

Null hypotheses: When there is only a single observation for each combination of the nominal
variables, there are only two null hypotheses: that the means of observations grouped by one
factor are the same, and that the means of observations grouped by the other factor are the same.
It is impossible to test the null hypothesis of no interaction. Testing the two null hypotheses
about the main effects requires assuming that there is no interaction.

How the test works: The mean square is calculated for each of the two main effects, and a total
mean square is also calculated by considering all of the observations as a single group. The
remainder mean square (also called the discrepance or error mean square) is found by subtracting
the two main effect mean squares from the total mean square. The F-statistic for a main effect is
the main effect mean square divided by the remainder mean square.

Repeated measures: One experimental design that is analyzed by a two-way anova is repeated
measures, where an observation has been made on the same individual more than once. This
usually involves measurements taken at different time points. For example, you might measure
running speed before, one week into, and three weeks into a program of exercise. Because
individuals would start with different running speeds, it is better to analyze using a two-way
anova, with "individual" as one of the factors, rather than lumping everyone together and
analyzing with a one-way anova. Sometimes the repeated measures are repeated at different
places rather than different times, such as the hip abduction angle measured on the right and left
hip of individuals. Repeated measures experiments are often done without replication, although
they could be done with replication.

In a repeated measures design, one of main effects is usually uninteresting and the test of its null
hypothesis may not be reported. If the goal is to determine whether a particular exercise program
affects running speed, there would be little point in testing whether individuals differed from
each other in their average running speed; only the change in running speed over time would be
of interest.

Randomized blocks: Another experimental design that is analyzed by a two-way anova is


randomized blocks. This often occurs in agriculture, where you may want to test different

38
treatments on small plots within larger blocks of land. Because the larger blocks may differ in
some way that may affect the measurement variable, the data are analyzed with a two-way
anova, with the block as one of the nominal variables. Each treatment is applied to one or more
plot within the larger block, and the positions of the treatments are assigned at random. This is
most commonly done without replication (one plot per block), but it can be done with replication
as well

Chapter 4

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

1) Impact of Job redesign on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

Motivation Absenteeism Turnover


Increase 25 2 6
Decrease 2 8 14
No Effect 3 20 10

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication


39
By applying Anova test we can analyzes if there is impact of Job redesign on Motivation,
Absenteeism and Turnover or not.
Step1: State Hypothesis:
Ho: There is no impact of Job redesign on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

Ha: There is an impact of Job redesign on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication


SUMMARY Count Sum Averag Varianc
e e
Row 1 3 33 11 151
Row 2 3 24 8 36
Row 3 3 33 11 73

Column 1 3 30 10 169
Column 2 3 30 10 84
Column 3 3 30 10 16

ANOVA
Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit
Variation
Rows 18 2 9 7.69231 0.934205 6.944276
Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276
Error 520 4 130

Total 538 8

Interpretation:

The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 7.69231, since
calculated value is greater than the tabulated value, hence null hypotheses is rejected. There is
impact of Job redesign on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that
level of motivation was increased on 70% employees while on 6.70% level of motivation was
decreased and 23.30% were not affected.

40
2) Impact of Job Autonomy on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

Motivation Absenteeism Turnover


Increase 24 2 8
Decrease 4 14 12
No Effect 2 14 10

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

By applying Anova test we can analyzes if there are is impact of Job autonomy on Motivation,
Absenteeism and Turnover or not.

Step1: State Hypothesis:


Ho: There is no impact of Job autonomy on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

Ha: There is an impact of Job autonomy on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

41
ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

SUMMARY Count Sum Average Variance


Row 1 3 34 11.33333 129.3333
Row 2 3 30 10 28
Row 3 3 26 8.666667 37.33333

Column 1 3 30 10 148
Column 2 3 30 10 48
Column 3 3 30 10 4

ANOVA
Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit
Variation
Rows 10.66667 2 5.333333 8.54795 0.947378 6.944276
Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276
Error 389.3333 4 97.33333

Total 400 8

Interpretation:

The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 8.59231, since
calculated value is greater than the tabulated value, hence null hypotheses is rejected. There is
impact of Job autonomy on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that
level of motivation was increased on 66.67% employees while on 13.33% level of motivation
was decreased and 20.00% were not affected.

42
3) Impact of Feedback on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

Motivation Absenteeism Turnover


Increase 16 6 5
Decrease 4 9 13
No Effect 10 15 12

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

By applying Anova test we can analyzes if is impact of Feedback on Motivation, Absenteeism


and Turnover or not.

Step1: State Hypothesis:


Ho: There is no impact of Feedback on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

Ha: There is an impact of Feedback on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

43
ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

SUMMAR Count Sum Average Variance


Y
Row 1 3 27 9 37
Row 2 3 26 8.666667 20.33333
Row 3 3 37 12.33333 6.333333

Column 1 3 30 10 36
Column 2 3 30 10 21
Column 3 3 30 10 19

Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit


Variation
Rows 24.66667 2 12.33333 0.387435 0.701774 6.944276
Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276
Error 127.3333 4 31.83333

Total 152 8

Interpretation:

The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 0.387435,
since calculated value is less than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is accepted.
There is no impact of feedback on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also
interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 20.00% employees while on 30.00%
level of motivation was decreased and 50.00% were not affected.

44
4) Impact of Work Challenges on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

Motivation Absenteeism Turnover


Increase 21 8 6
Decrease 5 8 16
No Effect 4 14 8

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

By applying Anova test we can analyzes if is impact of work challenges on Motivation,


Absenteeism and Turnover or not.

Step1: State Hypothesis:


Ho: There is no impact of work challenges on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

Ha: There is an impact of work challenges on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

45
ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

SUMMARY Count Sum Average Variance


Row 1 3 35 11.66667 66.33333
Row 2 3 29 9.666667 32.33333
Row 3 3 26 8.666667 25.33333

Column 1 3 30 10 91
Column 2 3 30 10 12
Column 3 3 30 10 28

ANOVA
Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit
Variation
Rows 14 2 7 7.112903 0.895985 6.944276
Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276
Error 248 4 62

Total 262 8

Interpretation:

The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 7.112903,
since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is rejected.
There is impact of work challenges on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also
interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 70.00% employees while on 16.67%
level of motivation was decreased and 13.33% were not affected.

46
5) Impact of customer interaction on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

Motivation Absenteeism Turnover


Increase 18 4 2
Decrease 3 7 8
No Effect 9 19 20

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

By applying Anova test we can analyzes if is impact of Customer interaction on Motivation,


Absenteeism and Turnover or not.

Step1: State Hypothesis:


Ho: There is no impact of Customer interaction on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

Ha: There is an impact of Customer interaction on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

47
ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

SUMMARY Count Sum Averag Varianc


e e
Row 1 3 24 8 76
Row 2 3 18 6 7
Row 3 3 48 16 37

Column 1 3 30 10 57
Column 2 3 30 10 63
Column 3 3 30 10 84

ANOVA

Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit


Variation
Rows 168 2 84 1.4 0.346021 6.944276
Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276
Error 240 4 60

Total 408 8

Interpretation:

The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 1.4, since
calculated value is less than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is accepted. There is
no impact of Customer interaction on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also
interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 13.33%employees while on 23.34%
level of motivation was decreased and 63.33%were not affected.

48
6) Impact of Participative Decision on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

Motivation Absenteeism Turnover


Increase 24 2 5
Decrease 4 10 16
No Effect 2 18 9

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

By applying Anova test we can analyzes if there is impact of Participative Decision on


Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover or not.
Step1: State Hypothesis:
Ho: There is no impact of Participative Decision on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

Ha: There is an impact of Participative Decision on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

49
ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

SUMMARY Count Sum Average Variance


Row 1 3 31 10.33333 142.3333
Row 2 3 30 10 36
Row 3 3 29 9.666667 64.33333

Column 1 3 30 10 148
Column 2 3 30 10 64
Column 3 3 30 10 31

ANOVA

Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit


Variation
Rows 0.666667 2 0.333333 9.002747 0.997258 6.944276
Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276
Error 485.3333 4 121.3333

Total 486 8

Interpretation:

The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 9.002747, since
calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is rejected. There is
impact of Participative Decision on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also
interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 80.00%employees while on 13.33%
level of motivation was decreased and 6.67%were not affected.

50
7) Impact of Flexible Working Hours on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

Motivation Absenteeism Turnover


Increase 15 3 2
Decrease 7 11 18
No Effect 8 16 10

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

By applying Anova test we can analyzes if there is impact of Flexible Working Hours on
Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover or not.
Step1: State Hypothesis:
Ho: There is no impact of Flexible Working Hours on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

Ha: There is an impact of Flexible Working Hours on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

51
ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

SUMMARY Count Sum Average Varianc


e
Row 1 3 20 6.666667 52.33333
Row 2 3 36 12 31
Row 3 3 34 11.33333 17.33333

Column 1 3 30 10 19
Column 2 3 30 10 43
Column 3 3 30 10 64

ANOVA
Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit
Variation
Rows 50.66667 2 25.33333 7.503311 0.638308 6.944276
Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276
Error 201.3333 4 50.33333

Total 252 8

Interpretation:

The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 7.503311,
since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is rejected.
There is impact of Flexible Working Hours on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is
also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 50.00%employees while on 23.33%
level of motivation was decreased and 26.67%were not affected.

52
8) Impact of Technical skills on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

Motivation Absenteeism Turnover


Increase 24 2 9
Decrease 2 10 10
No Effect 4 18 11

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

By applying Anova test we can analyzes if there is impact of Technical skills on Motivation,
Absenteeism and Turnover or not.
Step1: State Hypothesis:
Ho: There is no impact of Technical skills on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

Ha: There is an impact of Technical skills on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

53
ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

SUMMARY Count Sum Average Varianc


e
Row 1 3 35 11.66667 126.3333
Row 2 3 22 7.333333 21.33333
Row 3 3 33 11 49

Column 1 3 30 10 148
Column 2 3 30 10 64
Column 3 3 30 10 1

ANOVA
Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit
Variation
Rows 32.66667 2 16.33333 9.166102 0.852516 6.944276
Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276
Error 393.3333 4 98.33333

Total 426 8

Interpretation:

The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 9.166102,
since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is rejected.
There is significant difference in impact of Technical skills on Motivation, Absenteeism and
Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 80.00%employees
while on 6.7% level of motivation was decreased and 13.33%were not affected.

54
9) Impact of on the Job training on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover

Variables Motivation Absenteeism Turnover


Increase 27 6 11
Decrease 0 7 10
No Effect 3 17 9

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

By applying Anova test we can analyzes if there is impact of on the Job training on Motivation,
Absenteeism and Turnover or not.
Step1: State Hypothesis:
Ho: There is no impact of on the Job training on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

Ha: There is an impact of on the Job training on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover.

55
ANOVA: Two-Factor without Replication

SUMMARY Count Sum Average Varianc


e
Row 1 3 44 14.66667 120.3333
Row 2 3 17 5.666667 26.33333
Row 3 3 29 9.666667 49.33333

Column 1 3 30 10 219
Column 2 3 30 10 37
Column 3 3 30 10 1

ANOVA
Source of SS df MS F P-value F crit
Variation
Rows 122 2 61 9.622449 0.581629 6.944276
Columns 0 2 0 0 1 6.944276
Error 392 4 98

Total 514 8

Interpretation:

The table value at 5% level of significance is 6.944276 and calculated value is 9.622449,
since calculated value is more than the tabulated value, hence a null hypothesis is rejected.
There is impact of on the Job training on Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also
interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 90.00% employees while on 0% level of
motivation was decreased and 10%were not affected.

56
Findings:

1. After doing the survey it is found that 68.89% of the employees believe that Job Enrichment
increases their motivation and 11.48% decrease their motivation.
2. 19.6% of the employees believe that job enrichment does not effect their motivation.
3. Job Enrichment does not affect absenteeism for 56.3% of the employees and 32.96% of the
employee’s feels that absenteeism will decrease with job enrichment.
4. 42.96% of the employees feel that job enrichment will decrease the turnover and
36%of employees feel that job enrichment will have no effect on turnover.

5. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased through Job redesigning
on 70% employees while on 6.70% level of motivation was decreased and 23.30% were not
affected.

6. It is found that there is significant difference on impact of Job autonomy on


Motivation, Absenteeism and Turnover. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was
increased on 66.67% employees while on 13.33% level of motivation was decreased and
20.00% were not affected.

7. It is found that absenteeism was increased on 20.00% employees while on 30.00%


level of motivation was decreased and 50.00% were not affected through feedback.

8. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 80.00%employees


while on 6.7% level of motivation was decreased and 13.33%were not affected through
technical skills.

9. It is found that level of motivation was increased on 90.00% employees while on


0% level of motivation was decreased and 10%were not affected through on the job
training.

10. It is also interpreted that level of motivation was increased on 50.00%employees


while on 23.33% level of motivation was decreased and 26.67%were not affected through
flexible work hours.

57
EFFECT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON MOTIVATION

Increase Decrease Will not affect


Job redesigning 70.00% 6.70% 23.30%
Autonomy 66.67% 13.33% 20.00%
Feedback 53.33% 13.33% 33.33%
Work challenge 70.00% 16.67% 13.33%
Customer interaction 60.00% 10% 30.00%
Participative decision 80.00% 13.33% 6.67%
Flexible working hours 50.00% 23.33% 26.67%
Use of technical skills 80.00% 6.7% 13.33%
On the job training 90% 0% 10%
Average 68.89% 11.48% 19.6%

58
EFFECT OF JOB ENRICHMENT ON ABSENTEEISM

Increase Decrease Will not affect


Job redesigning 0.00% 33.33% 66.67%
Autonomy 6.66% 46.67% 46.67%
Feedback 20.00% 30.00% 50.00%
Work challenge 26.67% 26.67% 46.66%
Customer interaction 13.33% 23.34% 63.33%
Participative decision 0.00% 40.00% 60.00%
Flexible working hours 10.00% 36.67% 53.33%
Use of technical skills 0.00% 36.67% 63.33%
On the job training 20.0% 23.33% 56.67%
Average 10.74% 32.96% 56.3%

59
EFFECT OF JOB
ENRICHMENT ON TURNOVER
Increase Decre Will not
ase affect
Job redesigning 23.33% 43.34 33.33%
%
Autonomy 26.67% 40.00 33.33%
%
Feedback 16.66% 43.34 40.00%
%
Work challenge 20.00% 53.33 26.67%
%
Customer interaction 6.67% 26.67 66.66%
%
Participative decision 16.67% 53.33 30.00%
%
Flexible working hours 6.67% 60.00 33.33%
%
Use of technical skills 30.00% 33.33 36.67%
%
On the job training 36.67% 33.33 30.00%
%
Average 20.37% 42.96 36.7%
%

60
Chapter 5
Conclusion:

From the above study we can deduce that the job enrichment helps in increasing motivation
and reducing turnover but does not help much to reduce absenteeism. All these effects
combined together help in increasing job satisfaction of an employee
Employers often use in their speeches the cliché that “Employees are our most important asset”
without doing much to improve working conditions and the motivation of employees to do their
best for the organization. In today’s fast changing environment employees are faced with
increasing demands from various sources. Also with the rising level of education employees
aren’t anymore satisfied with repetitive, not meaningful, tasks. Job enrichment offers a good way
to increase the variety of work and to motivate employees to truly commit themselves for the
benefit of the whole organization. In increasingly competitive environment, management finds
that the best way to achieve corporate goals is to work together with the persons who are closest

61
to the actual work. Companies that implement programs that enhance employees’ knowledge,
abilities, and experience and allow them to apply these new skills in their work will be profitable
in the future.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Although the sincere efforts have been done to collect authentic and relevant information,
the study may have the following limitation:

o Hard enough to fetch information. It was not an easy task to get information
from middle level management. The respondents were not always open and forthcoming
with their views, even agitates and not disclosing.

o Limited scope. Scope of study is limited ABC only and because of limited time
and money. So, results of study may not generalize for India as a whole.

62
o Results may be inaccurate. The study is based on the assumption that responses
are true and factual although at times that may not be the case.

o Existence of biases. The chances of biased responses cannot be eliminated


though all necessary steps were taken to avoid the same.

o Small sample size: the sample size taken is small and may not be sufficient to
predict the results with 100 % accuracy and findings may not be generalized.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS

 Jain.T.R, Statistics for MBA, 2nd Edition


 Ashwatthapa, Human Resource Management, 7th Edition

WEBSITES
 www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem
 www.articlesbase.com/management-articles/job-enrichment
 www.eurofound.europa.eu/emire/IRELAND/JOBENRICHMENT
 www.smartmanager.us/eprise/main/web/us/
 www.collegeresearch.us/show_essay/11689.html
 www.bookpump.com/dps/pdf-b/1120699b.pdf
 www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/eb003472
 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/eb055
 www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/1463444971019547

63
 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/EUM0000000003126
 www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/01437720510587307
 http://www.joe.org/joe/1997october/iw1.html.
 http://edweb.sdsu.edu/people/arossett/pie/Interventions/jobdesign_1.htm
 www.bls.gov/osmr/abstract/ec/ec060010.htm
 www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_81.htm
 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job enrichment
 www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-enrichment.
 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/eb055232
 http://hum.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/32/3/189
 http://faculty.washington.edu/~janegf/jeguide.pdf.
 http://www.siu.edu/departments/cola/psych/psyc323/chat07/index.htm.
 http://academic.emporia.edu/smithwil/001fmg456/eja/kotila456.html.
 http://www.changeboard.com/hrcircles/blogs/hrarticles/archive/2008/02/15/absenteeism-
how-to-manage.aspx

JOB ENRICHMENT IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION


A SPECIAL STUDY OF A.B.C. LTD. RAJPURA
AMRIT BANASPATI COMPANY LIMITED, RAJPURA (PUNJAB)

NAME GENDER M/F


PLACE CONTACT NO:

1. Years of Experience:

a. 0 Years 1-2 Years 2-5 Years


b. 5-8 Years Above

2. If your job is redesigned in terms of task variety i.e. if more tasks are added to your
current job, how it will affect the followings for you

Will increase will decrease will have no effect


Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

64
3. If you are allowed to do your job the way you want, i.e. there is no interference by your
immediate bosses. (Autonomy) how it will affect the followings for you
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

4. If your job work is evaluated everyday and respective feedback is given to you, which
will enhance your learning in an organization, how it effect the followings
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

5. If your job is made to have challenges everyday, how it will affect the followings for you
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

10. If your job includes interacting with customers, how it will affect the
followings
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

11. If company starts implementing decisions proposed by you, how it will affect the
followings
Will increase will decrease will have no effect
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

12. If you are allowed flexible working hours, how it will affect the followings

Will increase will decrease will have no effect


Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

13. If you are allowed to use your technical skills in job more frequently, how it
will affect the followings

Will increase will decrease will have no effect

65
Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

14. If your current company involves you in the training how it will affect the
followings?

Will increase will decrease will have no effect

Motivation
Absenteeism
Turnover

66