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1 MDOF system

Lets say that you have a MDOF system, you are trying to nd the free response. It comes down to solving

a set of dierential equations. For example, your system model may look like

_

m

1

0

0 m

2

_

{ x(t)} +

_

c

1

+c

2

c

2

c

2

c

2

+c

3

_

{ x(t)} +

_

k

1

+k

2

k

2

k

2

k

2

+k

3

_

{x(t)} =

_

F

1

F

2

_

(1)

for a mechanical system.

The uid and thermal systems from your last test (test 3) can be written as

_

A

1

0

0 A

2

_ _

h

1

h

2

_

+

_

g

R

1

g

R

1

g

R1

g

R1

+

g

R2

_ _

h

1

h

2

_

=

_

0

q

in

_

_

C

A

0

0 C

B

_ _

T

A

T

B

_

+

_

1

RA

+

1

RB

1

RB

1

R

B

1

R

A

+

1

R

B

__

T

A

T

B

_

=

_

1

RA

T

o

1

R

A

T

o

_

.

The goal here is to show you how to nd the free and the forced response using the Matrix Exponential,

eigenvalue problem, and modal analysis.

The matrix exponential approach uses the state-space model. If we let state variables (of the mechanical

system) to be

x

1

= x

1

x

2

= x

2

x

3

= x

1

x

4

= x

2

,

where you may recall that x

1

and x

2

are the displacements of the mass 1 and 2, you will nd that the

state-space model is given by

{ x}

41

=

_

0 I

M

1

K M

1

C

_

44

{x}

41

+

_

{0}

21

M

1

{F}

21

_

41

= [A] {x} + [B] {u} ,

where [M] , [C] , and [K] are 2 2 matrices and

[A] =

_

0 I

M

1

K M

1

C

_

, {u} =

_

F

1

F

2

_

(2)

and [B] is a little harder to gure out. If you have numbers for [M] , you will be able to gure out [B] matrix

is given by

[B] =

_

[0]

22

M

1

_

42

1.1 Laplace TransformApproach- EOMin terms of 2nd order Dierential Equa-

tions

Lets consider

[M] { x} + [C] { x(t)} + [K] {x(t)} = {F (t)} .

After taking the Laplace transform, we have

_

s

2

[M] +s [C] + [K]

_

{X (s)} = [M] { x(0)} +s [M] {x(0)} + [C] {x(0)} +{F (t)}

{x(t)} = L

1

_

_

s

2

[M] +s [C] + [K]

_

1

([M] { x(0)} +s [M] {x(0)} + [C] {x(0)} +{F (t)})

_

. (3)

This looks a bit complicated. However, given enough patience, it is doable.

1

1.2 Using Matrix Exponential Approach- EOM in State-Space Model

First, write the system model in the state-space form or

{ x} = [A] {x} + [B] {u} ,

where {x} is a vector of state variables. ALL three system models above can be written in this form.

For the free response, we let {u} = 0. Then, the solution is

{x(t)} = e

[A]t

{x(0)} ,

where e

[A]t

called matrix exponential and given by

e

[A]t

= L

1

_

(s [I] [A])

1

_

.

If you have 4 state variables, e

[A]t

is a 4 4 matrix, and guess HOW MANY inverse Laplace transforms you

need to take to nd {x(t)}????? The answer is 16. If you are interested in x

1

(t) , the rst state variable,

only, HOW MANY inverse Laplace transform do you need to take? The answer is 4.

For the forced response, we start with

{ x} [A] {x} = [B] {u} .

Take a Laplace transform to obtain

(s [I] [A]) {X (s)} {x(0)} = [B] {U (s)}

Solve for {X (s)} ,

{X (s)} = (s [I] [A])

1

([B] {U (s)} +{x(0)})

= (s [I] [A])

1

[B] {U (s)} + (s [I] [A])

1

{x(0)} . (4)

Finally, take the inverse Laplace transform to nd {x(t)} .

Particular solution to Harmonic Input

If you have an harmonic input (only ONE harmonic input), we can nd the amplitude of the particular

solution (remember the frequency response plots?) using the transfer function. Start with

{ x(t)} [A] {x(t)} = [B] F cos

f

t.

The particular solution is

{x

p

(t)} = Re

_

[T (i

f

)] [B] Fe

i

f

_

,

where

[T (s)] = (s [I] [A])

1

.

The amplitude is

{X

p

} = |[T (i

f

)] [B] F|

Why is the particular solution important? It is important because it is also the steady-state solution in a

STABLE system where the transient response dies out as t . Engineers are usually interested in the

steady-state response.

Pros: You will ALWAYS get the solution. No imaginary number appears anywhere in the solution

Cons: TOO many inverse Laplace transforms to perform.

2

1.3 Eigenvalue Problem Approach for the State-Space Model

Free Response

You can solve the same problem in the state-space form. SOLVE the eigenvalue problem to nd the eigen-

values, , and eigenvectors, {u} , of [A] . You do this using your calculator or Matlab ([P lambda]=eig(A)).

If there are 4 state variables, there are 4 sets of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Note that the columns of P

are eigenvectors {u} .

Then, the solution is given by

{x(t)} =

n

i=1

c

i

{u

i

} e

it

,

where c

i

is UNKNOWN constants to be determined from ICs, and n is the number of state variables or the

dimension of [A] .

Forced Response

There is really no good way to nd the forced response

Pros: You have a feel for what the response looks like.

Cons: I have many bad things to say about this method. First, the eigenvalue, , may be COMPLEX.

Then, you have to rewrite the solution in terms of sin and cos. Second, you have to apply the initial

conditions to nd c

i

. If is complex, it will be painful unless you rewrote the solution in terms of sin and

cos. Third, it is not easy to nd the forced response.

1.4 Modal Analysis

For modal analysis, we do NOT start with the state-space model, but a system of 2nd order dierential

equation. Equation 1 is a perfect example. One more thing to note is that modal analysis works for

UNDAMPED system (c = 0) and a very special case of damped system (proportional damping).

If the system model contains damping and forcing, you set them equal to zero temporarily to nd the

natural frequencies and modeshapes. After the damping and forcing terms are stripped away, we are left

with

[M] { x(t)} +{ x(t)} + [K] {x(t)} = {0} .

Free Vibration

1. You solve an EIGENVALUE problem, [K] {u} = [M] {u} , using Matlab ([P lambda] =eig(K,M)) or

using your calulator (eig(M

1

K)). The eigenvalues are the natural frequency squared and the columns

of the eigenvector matrix are the eigenvectors. The eigenvectors are also called the MODESHAPES.

If you are using a calculator, the eigenvalues may not be ordered correctly (must be in ascending order) and

your eigenvectors are most likely NOT normalized properly. You must re-normalize it with respect to [M] .

For example, if your calculator spit out

_

0.707

0.707

_

as one of the eigenvector, the normalized eigenvector is

{u} = c

_

0.707

0.707

_

,

where you nd c from

{u}

T

[M] {u} = 1.

2. The free response is

{x(t)} =

n

i=1

{u

i

} (A

i

cos

i

t +B

i

sin

i

t) ,

where A

i

and B

i

are found using the initial conditions.

3

3. Using the orthogonality, you will nd that

A

i

= {u

i

}

T

[M] {x(0)}

B

i

=

1

i

{u

i

}

T

[M] {x(0)} .

Note that the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the eigenvalue problem resulting from the state-space model,

[A] {u} = {u} , where [A] is given in Equaiton 2, are not the natural frequencies and the modeshapes.

Forced Vibration via Modal Analysis - Still undamped

Let us consider the case where the EOM is given by

[M] { x(t)} + [K] {x(t)} = {F (t)} ,

where there is no damping.

1. Repeat step 1 to nd the natural frequencies and modeshapes.

2. Dend a vector of modal coordinates, {q} , such that

{x(t)} = [P] {q (t)} , (5)

where [P] is the matrix of eigenvectors found in step 1.

3. Transform the equations into

{ q (t)} +

_

diag

2

{q (t)} = [P]

T

{F (t)} = {Q(t)} . (6)

4. Find the modal coordinates using the initial conditions,

{q (0)} = [P]

T

[M] {x(0)}

{ q (0)} = [P]

T

[M] { x(0)} .

5. Form the nal solution,

{x(t)} = [P] {q (t)}

=

N

i=1

{u

i

} q

i

(t)

Forced Vibration via Modal Analysis - damped

If [C] is not zero, modal analysis is possible if we have proportional damping. It means that [C] is a

combination of [M] and [K] or

[C] = [M] + [K] ,

where and are constant numbers. In that case, [P]

T

[C] [P] is diagonal, and the modal coordinates satisfy

{ q (t)} + [diag 2] { q (t)} +

_

diag

2

{q (t)} = [P]

T

{F (t)} = {Q(t)} (7)

instead of Equation 6.

Advantages of Modal Analysis

1. Modal analysis is at its best when we need to visualize the motion. The modeshapes show the shape

of the motion.

2. It is EASY to reduce the degree of freedom. The response can be approximated using the rst couple

of modes (3 at most is sucient). That is, even for a 1000-dof system, we can approximate the response as

{x(t)}

10001

3

i=1

{u

i

}

10001

q

i

(t) .

4

Note that you can estimate all 1000 coordinates (x

11000

(t)).

This CANNOT be done if you are using the Laplace Transform method or matrix exponential method.

If you have 1000 DOF, you have to take an inverse of 10001000 matrix, and take 1,000,000 inverse Laplace

Transforms if you are using the 2nd order DFQ (See Equation 3)

1

, or take an inverse of 2000 2000 matrix,

and take 4,000,000 inverse Laplace Transforms if you are using State-Space model (See Equation 4, and yes

4 million is correct because [A] is not symmetric). COMPARE THAT to solving just THREE dierential

equations, q

i

+ 2

i

i

q

i

+

2

i

q

i

= Q

i

for i = 1, 2, 3. You may say that why dont we use Matlab? Matlab

will have to solve 2000 rst order dierential equations. I would say why not solve for the three modal

coordinates q

13

(t) using Matlab (6 rst order DFQ), and now modal analysis is 2000/6 times better.

3. BECAUSE MODAL ANALYSIS gives you a good estimation in short time, you should try to use

it even if your damping is not proportional. Estimate your damping matrix with a similar one that is

proportional.

1

Actually it is fewer than 1,000,000 inverse LT because

_

s

2

[M] +s [C] + [K]

_

1

is symmetric. For 1000 dof, you need to

take 500,500 inverse Laplace transforms.

5

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