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• Basic signal analysis (mostly continuous-time)

E 2.5 • Basic system analysis (also mostly continuous systems)

• Time-domain analysis (including convolution)

Signals & Linear Systems

• Laplace Transform and transfer functions

• Fourier Series (revision) and Fourier Transform

• Sampling Theorem and signal reconstructions

Peter Cheung

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering • Basic z-transform

Imperial College London

(Based on course by Tania Stathaki)

URL: www.ee.ic.ac.uk/pcheung/

E-mail: p.cheung@ic.ac.uk

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 1 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 2

X Lectures - around 9 weeks (15-17 hours) X This is what you will be able to do in your 3rd year (helped by this course)

X Study Groups – 1 hr per week X You will be able to design and implement a NOISE CANCELLING system

X Assessment – 100% examination in June

X Handouts in the form of PowerPoint slides

X Text Book

• A. Oppenheim, A. Wilsky, S. Nawab, “Signals and Systems” (original

recommended text), Prentice Hall (~£49) (Famous and standard textbook,

used on many courses)

• B.P. Lathi, “Linear Systems and Signals”, 2nd Ed., Oxford University

Press (~£36) (MY PREFERRED TEXTBOOK – I WILL BE FOLLOWING

THIS CLOSELY. IN MY VIEW, THIS IS A CHEAPER BOOK, HARDBACK,

AND EXPLAINS THE UNDERLINING CONCEPT BETTER.)

X Notes from original course by Dr Stathaki on

• www.commsp.ee.ic.ac.uk/~tania/

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 3 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 4

Examples of signals (1)

Lecture 1

(Lathi 1.1-1.5; Oppenheim 1.0-1.4)

Peter Cheung

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering

Imperial College London

URL: www.ee.imperial.ac.uk/pcheung/

E-mail: p.cheung@imperial.ac.uk

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 5 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 6

X Stock Market data as signal (time series) X Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) data as 2-dimensional signal

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 7 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 8

Size of a Signal x(t) (1) Size of a Signal x(t) (2)

X Measured by signal energy Ex: X If amplitude of x(t) does not → 0 when t → ∞, need to measure power Px instead:

X Generalize for a complex valued signal to: X Again, generalize for a complex valued signal to:

Section 1.1

L1.1 L1.1

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 9 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 10

Size of a Signal x(t) (3) Useful Signal Operations –Time Shifting (1)

X Signal with finite energy (zero power) X Signal may be delayed by time T:

X or advanced by time T:

φ (t – T) = x (t)

L1.1 L1.2.1

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 11 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 12

Useful Signal Operations –Time Scaling (2) Useful Signal Operations –Time Reversal (3)

X Signal may be compressed in time (by a X Signal may be reflected about the

factor of 2): vertical axis (i.e. time reversed):

operations.

X For example, the signal x(2t - 6) can

be obtained in two ways;

φ (2t ) = x(t ) • Delay x(t) by 6 to obtain x(t - 6),

and then time-compress this

signal by factor 2 (replace t with

X Same as recording played back at 2t) to obtain x (2t - 6).

twice and half the speed • Alternately, time-compress x (t)

respectively by factor 2 to obtain x (2t), then

delay this signal by 3 (replace t

with t - 3) to obtain x (2t - 6).

L1.2.2 L1.2.3

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 13 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 14

1. Continuous-time and discrete-time signals X Continuous-time

2. Analogue and digital signals

3. Periodic and aperiodic signals

4. Energy and power signals

5. Deterministic and probabilistic signals

6. Causal and non-causal

7. Even and Odd signals

X Discrete-time

L1.3 L1.3

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 15 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 16

Signal Classification (3) – Analogue vs Digital Signal Classification (4) – Periodic vs Aperiodic

Digital, continuous

Analogue, continuous

X The smallest value of To that satisfies the periodicity condition of this

equation is the fundamental period of x(t).

L1.3 L1.3

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 17 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 18

Signal Classification (5) – Deterministic vs Random Signal Classification (6) – Causal vs Non-causal

Deterministic

Causal

Non-causal

Random

L1.3

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 19 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 20

Signal Classification (7) – Even vs Odd Signal Models (1) – Unit Step Function u(t)

Even

at t = 0 (i.e. causal signal).

Odd X For example, the signal

represents an everlasting exponential

that starts at t = -∞.

X The causal for of this exponential can

be described as:

L1.4.1

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 21 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 22

Signal Models (2) – Pulse signal Signal Models (3) – Unit Impulse Function δ(t)

X A pulse signal can be presented by two step functions: X First defined by Dirac as:

Approximation of

Unit Impulse an Impulse

L1.4.1 L1.4.2

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 23 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 24

Signal Models (4) – Unit Impulse Function δ(t) Multiplying a function Φ(t) by an Impulse

X May use functions other than a rectangular pulse. Here are three X Since impulse is non-zero only at t = 0, and Φ(t) at t = 0 is Φ(0), we get:

example functions:

X Note that the area under the pulse function must be unity

L1.4.2 L1.4.2

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 25 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 26

Sampling Property of Unit Impulse Function The Exponential Function est (1)

X Since we have: X This exponential function is very important in signals & systems, and the

parameter s is a complex variable given by:

X It follows that:

X If we want to sample Φ(t) at t = T, we just multiple Φ(t) with

L1.4.2 L1.4.3

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 27 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 28

The Exponential Function est (2) The Exponential Function est (2)

frequency of ω

X Therefore the complex variable s = σ + jω is the complex

frequency

X The function est can be used to describe a very large class of

signals and functions. Here are a number of example:

L1.4.3 L1.4.3

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 29 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 30

s on y-axis

s on right of y-axis

-σ +σ

X A real function xo(t) is said to be an odd function of t if

s on left of y-axis

s on x-axis

-jω L1.4.3 L1.5

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 31 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 32

Even and Odd functions (2) Even and Odd functions (3)

X Even and odd functions have the following properties: X Consider the causal exponential function

• Even x Odd = Odd

• Odd x Odd = Even

• Even x Even = Even

odd components because:

L1.5 L1.5

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 33 PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 1 Slide 34

this lecture was covered in the 1st year Communications

course (lectures 1-3)

X This is mostly an introductory and revision lecture

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