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BEPAA

Board for the Education of People of African Ancestry


286 Convent Avenue New York, NY 10031

Integrated Health Sciences Program
For H.S. students interested in pursuing careers in the health professions.





Designed and Facilitated by
Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.
drcray@imhotepvirtualmedsch.com

MODULE I
Anatomy and Physiology with Clinical Relevancy
CURRIULUM ORIENTATION &
LESSONS GUIDEBOOK
(A *STEM Standards Compliant Program)
Academic Alignment
All content and methods deployed from the BEPAA
Integrated Health Sciences (IHS) Program
curriculum have been aligned to the NYS Next
Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and
National Science Education Benchmarks (at
Grades 9-12) contained in specific math and
science core academic courses.
Link to learn more
BEPAA- STEM Standards, NGSS, NY MST and Other
Documentation
* desktop
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NYS STEM Ed Collaborative working
definition of "STEM Education"
STEM Education refers to utilizing the
NYS MST Standards in the teaching and
learning of the Science, Technology
Education, Engineering and Math (STEM)
disciplines, in an innovative, integrated,
collaborative, and applied fashion to a
level of challenge sufficient for college
and/or career readiness.
NGSS Website
(Next Generation Science Standards)
BEPAA- STEM Standards, NGSS, NY MST and
Other Documentation
4
Anatomy and Physiology
Mathematics
Chemistry and Physics
Medical Microbiology
Four 10 Week (sequenced) Modules
FULL COURSE OF STUDY (120 Hours)
40 LESSONS @ 3 Hours per Session
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Logistics (Management of the flow of resources between
the point of origin and the point of consumption)
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Program Number IMPF-AP #01-04-14
Sponsor BEPAA | James McIntosh, M.D. Chairman
Target Audience H.S. Grade Levels 9-12
Course Length (30 hrs.) 10 Week@3 hours per session
Teacher / Facilitator Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.
Class Time See distributed daily schedule
Location Clarke House, 286 Convent Avenue New York, NY 10031
Point of Contact ome@imhotepvirtualmedsch.com or BEPAA Ph. 212-283-7287
Textbooks An Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e, Delmar Cengage Learning 2012

Learning Tools Cloud
Folders
https://drive.google.com/a/imhotepvirtualmedsch.com/folderview?id=0B-
tlCbPSHvfZR3YwTUwxejRpQW8&usp=sharing#

Reference Website https://www.youtube.com/user/drimhoteptv
Public Web Network https://plus.google.com/116076656300830754274/posts
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
How It Works
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BEPAA IHS curriculum integrates science and math subject matters and
applies the theoretical to real-life clinical relevancy, making learning
easier, faster and fun
Humor is integrated to engage; and video animations, 3D simulations
and graphics are incorporated throughout the curriculum to enhance
the learning experience
-------------------------------------
Tools Needed to fully engage the curriculum
A computer or mobile device with Internet access
(for out-of-class reading and homework assignments)
A four subject loose-leaf notebook and writing utensil
A calculator (particularly for math, chemistry and physics modules)
Accessing Learning/ Teaching Tools Video

BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Learning Tools Cloud Folders/ Facilitator View
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Learning Tools Cloud Folders/ Learners View (clickable)
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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HISTORICAL DATA
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Two Classic Books
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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(clickable)
Africans, Medicine and Science
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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(clickable) Syllabus, Textbook, Guides, Notes and Tools
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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(clickable)
STEM Standards, NGSS, NY MST and Other Documentation
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Learning Components of Each Lesson
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1. Objectives and Key Terms
Objectives and key terms are presented at the beginning of
each lesson to help easily identify key topics, concepts and
mechanisms
It is also helpful to review the objectives and key terms after
you have completed independent-study review of a lesson

Test yourself to see whether you can answer each objective
and define each key term
If you cannot answer each objective and define each key
term, you will know which areas to study again

2. Phonetic pronunciations follow selected key terms to assist the
learner with pronouncing medical terms correctly

BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Learning Components of Each Unit (2)
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3. Special Focus
The Special Focus feature provides in-depth information on areas of
particular interest that relate to concepts presented in the respective
lectures and textbook reading
Two of the main classic example we will cover are homeostasis
and the fight-or-flight response

4. Quotes , Notes and Pearls
The Quotes and Notes feature gives health science related tidbits and
facts along with learning hints and inspirational messages

These quotes and notes will also include professional caveots and
pearl of wisdom regarding keys to success in academics and career
pursuits in the biomedical sciences from the primary facilitators
experience

BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Learning Components (3)
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5. Clinical Relevancy
The Clinical Relevancy component helps bridge the gap between theory
and practice
Real-life clinical medicine analogies and examples illustrate how
theoretical material in life science and math applies to the scientific
foundation of clinical medicine, thus re-enforcing learning and
encourages further study
6. Professional Profiles
The Professional Profiles describe a variety of health professions, and include
informational documents that serve as a portal of entry into detailed online
resources in healthcare professions
(The cloud Healthcare careers folder has four areas of focus) , Including
Allied Healthcare professions, Nursing , Medical Technology and
Physician, Surgeon and Psychiatrist (M.D.)
*N.B.-The learner is encouraged to visit the healthcare careers folder to discover
health careers and opportunities that might meet their aptitude and interest
------------------------------------
*Latin phrase nota bene , meaning note well. It is used to emphasize an important point.
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Learning Components (4)
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7. Pop-Quiz and and Review
The Pop- Quiz and Review at the end of lessons facilitate group participation,
reinforcement of learning, global reflection
8. Video-Animations (all clips are professionally produced evidence-based medical
science presentations.)
This component is most critical to the learners appreciation of the richness, fun
and long term reward of the learning experience, particularly for those with a
desire to pursue high-end careers in the healthcare industry
The curriculum cloud folders are organized into numerous 1 to 5 min. video
clips|animations
Topics include molecular and cell biology, anatomy/autopsy cases (45 min.
each), physiology, pathophysiology and pathology, microbiology and
immunology, biochemistry and pharmacology
reinforce material learned in the classroom
N.B.-The learner is encouraged to view all video clips corresponding to
lecture topics provided as to receive the most out of this enrichment program
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Learning Components (5)
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9. Full-Color Illustrations and Photos (textbook)
Full-color illustrations and photos help clarify the lectures, classroom
discussions text and visually reinforce concepts and mechanism.
Cartoon graphics support learning through humor

FOR SUPER-LERNERS
Chapter Reviews in the Book
The Chapter Review section of the primary text includes review
questions, a real-life issues, a applications section, and suggested
additional learning activities

This combined review approach helps learners assess their
understanding of the unit/ chapter material and develop a
health science mind-set and higher order thinking skills, in
addition to enhancing their problem-solving and critical-thinking
skills
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Evaluation Methods
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1. The facilitator will use oral quizzing and the Socratic Method throughout
the enrichment experience to access student progress
2. A Summative Examination with a combination of MCQ, Fill in the
Blank, Matching and Short-answer format questions will be administered
at the end of each module
3. A learner s performance evaluation instrument will be filled on each
student accessing class participation, peer and facilitator interaction, ability
to gather and record of information, homework assignment completion,
organizational skills, understanding of the scientific concepts, mechanisms and
theories of health science, research skills and overall academic growth in the
biological and chemical science and related mathmethics

All of the above will be weigh together by the facilitator and the learner will
be provided performance feedback on an H= Honors, HP= High Pass, P=Pass,
F= Fail scale.
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Module I
Anatomy and Physiology
Rational:
This course of study leads-off with anatomy and
physiology because you will be dealing with the human
body in your chosen health profession

Also, having a fund of knowledge in anatomy and
physiology will facilitate your understanding of the
examples used later in the chemistry, math, and medical
microbiology modules
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ANATOMY AND CHEMISTRY BASICS NOTES
Cloud
TONICITY, OSMOSIS, OSMOTIC PRESSURE, AND
CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY ILLUSTRATED, with
MEDICAL RELAVANCY NOTES
Cloud
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Anatomy and Physiology
Units/Lessons
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I. Medical Terminology: The Language of Medicine
II. Overview of the Human Body
III. The Raw Materials: Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Systems
IV. The Integumentary System
V. The Skeletal System
VI. The Muscular System
VII.The Nervous System
VIII.The Endocrine System
IX. The Respiratory System
X. The Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
XI. The Gastrointestinal System
XII. Urinary and Reproductive Systems
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
UNIT I Medical Terminology:
The Language of Medicine
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Objectives
Upon completion of this unit, you should be able to
Define the components of a medical term
List several medical roots, combining forms, prefixes, and
suffixes, along with their meanings
Relate several medical abbreviations and their
meanings
Construct proper medical terms
MEDICALESE: the specialized terminology of the medical profession
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Whats in a word?
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BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
General Schema
Prefix + Root + Suffix
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A medical term may be taken apart to determine its meaning.
Hypogastric means pertaining to below the stomach
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
In general we read and interpret medical terms
starting with the suffix to the prefix to the root
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Key Terms
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abdominal (ab-DOM-ih-nal)
bacteriology
(back-TEER-ih-OL-oh-jee)
cardiology (kar-dee-OL-oh-jee)
combining form
compound words
cytologist (sigh-TOL-oh-jist)
cytology (sigh-TOL-oh-jee)
cytoplasm (SIGH-toh-plaz-im)
dermatitis (der-mah-TYE-tis)
dermatologist
(der-mah-TOL-oh-jist)
endorphins (en-DORF-fins)
epinephrine (ep-ih-NEF-rin)
erythrocytes (eh-RITH-roh-sites)
histologist (hiss-TOL-oh-jist)

histology (hiss-TOL-oh-jee)
hypertension
(high-per-TEN-shun)
hypotension
(high-poh-TEN-shun)
immunology
(im-you-NOL-oh-jee)
leukocytes (LOO-koh-sites)
leukocytopenia (LOO koh SIGH
toe PEE nee ah)
pathogen (PATH-oh-gen)
pathologist (pah-THOL-oh-jist)
prefix
prenatal (pre-NAY-tal)
suffix
word root

superior
system
thoracic (tho-RASS-ick)
tissue
transverse plane (trans-VERSE)
venous system (VEE-nus)
ventral (VEN-tral)
vertebral (VER-teh-brall)

BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
TABLE 1-1
Common Word Roots and Their Combining Forms
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Redrawn after An Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e, Delmar Cengage Learning 2012: TABLE 1-1, pg. 6
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
TABLE 1-2 Common Prefixes
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Redrawn after An Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e,
Delmar Cengage Learning 2012: TABLE 1-1, pg. 6
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
TABLE 1-3 Common Suffixes (1)
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Redrawn after An Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e, Delmar
Cengage Learning 2012: TABLE 1-1, pg. 7
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
TABLE 1-3 Common Suffixes (2)
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Redrawn after An Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e, Delmar
Cengage Learning 2012: TABLE 1-1, pg. 7
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Word roots for parts of the human body
Source: An Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e,
Delmar Cengage Learning 2012: FIGURE 1-4, pg. 9
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Explaining Medicalese in Plain English
You are working at a large urban medical center. The patients doctor wants to
explain the patients condition to the patients family. The problem is that the doctor
speaks only *medicalese

Read the following excerpt from the patients chart. Using common, nonmedical terms,
how would you explain the patients condition to the family?

Pt. with COPD and ASHD admitted to hospital with rt. lower quadrant pain and
FUO. EKG with normal parameters, slight hypertension noted. CBC normal with
exception of elevated WBCs. Prepped for OR for laparoscopy. Procedure
revealed appendicitis. Following excision, pt. returned to room. Will consult
cardiologist and monitor for post-op complications


*Learn more: How to Turn Medicalese into Plain English, by Neil Wagner
http://www.thedoctorwillseeyounow.com/content/healthcare/art2681.html

Real Life Issues and Applications
From: An Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e, Delmar Cengage Learning 2012: pg. 13

BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Inside the Living Body
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BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
National Geographic - Inside the Living Body
P.J. Brown (Actor), Kate Burton (Actor), Kirk Simon (Director), Karen Goodman (Director) (07)
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National Geographic provides a whole new perspective on
the extraordinary processes involved in human life with this
primarily internal look at the human life cycle from
conception through old age. Thanks to amazing
technological advances like camera pills and high-
definition endoscopes, physicians and scientists can now
obtain actual camera footage and images of body
processes as well as create elaborate computer simulations
to aid in the research and understanding of how the human
body works. This 95-minute exploration of the human body
and its processes follows human life from fetal
development through the amazing changes demanded of
virtually every organ in the hours after birth, childhood,
adolescence, adulthood, and old age View the video
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Common Medical Abbreviations(1)
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Redrawn after An Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e, Delmar Cengage Learning 2012: TABLE 1-4, pg.10
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Common Medical Abbreviations(2)
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Redrawn after An Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e, Delmar Cengage Learning 2012: TABLE 1-4, pg.10
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Pop Quiz|Review of Med. Abbrs.
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Give the medical abbreviation for the following:
a. ______ a drug is to be given twice a day
b. ______ procedure performed on a pulseless person
c. _______ an electrical recording of the heart
d. ______ the unit patients are taken to when they have a heart
attack
e. ______ as part of prep for surgery, patient is not allowed to eat
or drink anything
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
UNIT II: Overview of the Human Body
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Objectives
Upon completion of this units, you should be able to
Define and differentiate the terms anatomy and physiology
Define and state the relationship between cells, tissues, organs, and
systems
Describe the various directional terms in relationship to the human
organism
Discuss the concept of cyanosis
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Key Terms
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abdominal
acrocyanosis
(AK roh SIGH ah NO sis)
anatomy (ah-NAT-oh-me)
anterior (an-TEER-ee-or)
arterial (ar-TEER-ree-al)
body planes
caudal (KAWD-al)
cavity
cells
central cyanosis
cranial (KRAY-nee-al)
cyanosis (sigh-ah-NO-sis)
deoxygenated
(dee-OK-see-jen-AY-ted)
distal (DIS-tal)
dorsal (DOOR-sal)
erythrocyte (eh-RITH-roh-site)
frontal plane
hemoglobin
(HE-moh-GLOW-bin)
horizontal
inferior
lateral
medial (MEE-dee-all)
median plane (MEE-dee-an)
midsagittal plane
(mid-SADJ-ih-tal)
organ
pathophysiology
pelvic (PEL-vick)
peripheral (per-IF-er-al)
physiology (fiz-ee-OL-oh-gee)
posterior (pos-TEER-ee-or)
superior
system
thoracic (tho-RASS-ick)
tissue
transverse plane (trans-VERSE)
venous system (VEE-nus)
ventral (VEN-tral)
vertebral (VER-teh-brall)
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
What are Anatomy and Physiology?
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Anatomy is the
study of the form
and structure
of an organism.
Physiology is the
study of the
processes
of an organism, or
in other words,
how and why
something works.
Anatomy and Physiology
Video-Animations I
Anatomy and Physiology
Video Animations II
Anatomy for Beginners
via Autopsy-Digestion
and Circulation
Autopsy Cases Learning
Series
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Clinical Relevancy
ANATOMICAL IMAGING
View document
Source of graphics: Seeley R R. et al. Anatomy & Physiology, 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013:Table 1.1. 3.
Anatomical imaging has made a major
contribution to the progress of medicine.
It allows medical personnel to look inside the
body with amazing accuracy and without the
trauma and risk of exploratory surgery.
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Makeup of the Human Body
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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The components of the
human organism
Source: An Integrated Approach to
Health Sciences 2e, Delmar Cengage
Learning 2012: FIGURE 2-1, pg.18
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Anatomical Landmarks|Body Planes and
Directional Terms
The median (midsagittal) plane, transverse plane, and frontal plane with their corresponding directional terms.
Source: An Integrated Approach to Health
Sciences 2e, Delmar Cengage Learning
2012: FIGURE 2-3, pg.19
Normal Anatomical Position
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Pop Quiz|Review on Anatomical Position
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a. List five anatomical structures found on the
anterior, or ventral, surface of the body.

b. List five anatomical structures found on the
posterior, or dorsal, surface of the body.
QUOTES & NOTES
An additional important directional concept is left versus
right.
In assessing and treating patients, you ALWAYS refer to the
patients left and right.
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Source: An Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e, Delmar
Cengage Learning 2012: FIGURE 2-4, pg. 21
The dorsal body cavities (cranial cavity and vertebral cavity) and the ventral
body cavities (thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, and pelvic cavity).
Body Cavities (5)
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Notes and Quotes:
If you removed the small intestine from the cavity and stretched it out
on the floor and measured it, it would be approximately 23 feet long!
Anterior view of organs within the body cavities
Source: An Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e, Delmar Cengage Learning 2012: FIGURE 2-5, pg. 22
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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The abdominal cavity is such a large region
and houses so many organs that it is even
further subdivided into smaller units called
quadrants for clinical assessment.
These quadrants help identify the underlying
problem.
For example
A patient complaining of pain the right
lower quadrant (RLQ) would need to be
tested for appendicitis.

A patient complaining of pain in the left
upper quadrant (LUQ) would be
suspicious for stomach problems.
Source: An Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e,
Delmar Cengage Learning 2012: FIGURE 2-6, pg. 22
Clinical Relevancy
The Abdominal Quadrants
Abdominal quadrants and corresponding organs.
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Pop Quiz|Review
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Give the opposite of the following terms:
a. central _________________
b. distal _________________
c. caudal ________________
d. anterior ________________
e. dorsal ________________
f. medial __________________
List the cavity where the following organs are found:
g. spleen ________________
h. urinary bladder ________________
i. lungs ________________
j. large intestine ________________
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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UNIT III: The Raw Materials: Cells, Tissues,
Organs, and Systems
Objectives
Upon completion of this unit, you should be able to
Discuss the various functions that cells need to perform
Define and identify common cellular structures and their functions
List and describe two methods of cellular transport across the cell membrane
Describe the processes of mitosis and meiosis
Define and discuss concepts pertaining to body tissues
Differentiate epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve tissues
Differentiate organs and systems
List and describe the organs contained within the body systems
Relate medical terminology to body organs and systems
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BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
*Biochemistry vs. Molecular Biology vs. Cell Biology
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Molecular biology focuses on DNA, RNA, replication,
transcription, translation and regulation of these mechanisms, as
well as protein production in the cell.
Biochemistry is more focused on enzymes, vitamins, nutrients,
bioenergetics, intermediary metabolism and inborn errors of
metabolism
Cloud Folder:
Biochemistry Video Animations-DNA, RNA, PROTEIN and ENZYMES

Cell biology focuses on the whole cells, cell types and IDing them,
the cell cycle, the condition of cells, cellular organelles (Golgi
apparatus , ER, mitochondria etc.), culturing cells
*As you can see there is large overlap between the disciplines
We will demonstrate those relationship by way of integrated learning|teaching
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Key Terms
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axon (ACK-son)
cardiovascular system
cartilage (KAR-tih-lidj)
cell
centriole (SEN-tree-ol)
centrosome (SEN-tro-sohm)
chromatin (KRO-mah-tin)
chromosomes
(KROH-moh-sohmz)
connective tissue
deoxyribonucleic acid (dee AWK
see RYE boh new KLEE ick)
diffusion
endoplasmic reticulum
(en-doe-PLAZ-mik ree-TICKyou-lim)
endothelium (en-doh-THEE-lee-um)

epithelium (ep-ih-THEE-lee-al)
genes
Golgi apparatus (GOAL-je)
lysosomes (LIE-so-sohmz)
microorganism
mitochondria (my-toe-KON-dree-ah)
mitosis (my-TOH-sis)
neurons (NEW-rons)
nucleolus (NEW-klee-OL-us)
nucleus (NEW-klee-us)
organelle (or-gah-NEL)
osmosis
protoplasm (PRO-toe-plaz-im)
respiration
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
ribosomes (RYE-boh-sohmz)
semipermeability
tissue
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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The CELL:
The fundamental microscopic structure of life
Source: An Integrated Approach to
Health Sciences 2e, Delmar Cengage
Learning 2012: FIGURE 2-5, pg. 22
Major components of the cell.
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Diagram of a typical animal cell.
Organelles are labeled as follows:
Companion notes: Cell Biology

1. Nucleolus
2. Nucleus
3. Ribosome (the dots)
4. Vesicle
5. Rough endoplasmic
reticulum
6. Golgi apparatus
7. Cytoskeleton
8. Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum
9. Mitochondrion
10. Vacuole
11. Cytosol
12. Lysosome
13. Centriole
14. Cell membrane
Cell Biology Video-Animations
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Illustration depicting major structures inside a eukaryotic
animal cell
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Cellular Structure and Function Table
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The Cell and Fluid Homeostasis
Teacher Desktop
Online Cloud
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus meaning kernel-
a membrane-enclosed organelle found in
eukaryotic cells

It contains the cell's genetic material,
organized as multiple long linear DNA
molecules that form chromosomes

The genes within these chromosomes are the
cell's nuclear genome

The function of the nucleus is to maintain the
integrity of these genes and to control the
activities of the cell by regulating gene
expression
the nucleus is, therefore, the control
center of the cell.
Cells stained for the cell nucleus DNA with the
Blue Hoechst dye. The central and rightmost
cell are in interphase, thus their entire nuclei
are labeled. On the left, a cell is going
through mitosis and its DNA has condensed.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HeLa_cells_s
tained_with_Hoechst_33258.jpg

Nucleus- Controls most cellular
activity and reproduction
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Found in the nucleus of cells

It forms around specific
chromosomal regions in the
nucleus of eukaryotic cells

Made up of proteins and
ribonucleic acids

Function to transcribe ribosomal
RNA (rRNA) and combine it with
proteins to form incomplete
ribosomes
Nucleolus-Build and repair
Contains ribosomes made of RNA;
synthesizes and produces protein
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/comm
ons/3/38/Diagram_human_cell_nucleus.svg
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Ribosome- translational apparatus

The ribosome (from ribonucleic acid and
the Greek soma, meaning "body") serves
as the primary site of biological protein
synthesis (translation)

Ribosomes link amino acids together in the
order specified by messenger RNA
(mRNA) molecules

Ribosomes consist of two major subunits
the small ribosomal subunit reads the
mRNA, while the large subunit joins amino
acids to form a polypeptide chain

Each subunit is composed of one or more
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and a
variety of proteins
The ribosome assembles polymeric protein molecules whose
sequence is controlled by the sequence of messenger RNA
molecules. This is required by all living cells and associated
viruses. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peptide_syn.png
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Protein_translation.gif
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Ribosome (2)

Large (red) and small (blue) subunit fit together
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ribosome_shape.png
Ribosomes consist of two subunits that fit together and
work as one to translate the mRNA into a polypeptide
chain during protein synthesis
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Ribosome (3)

Prokaryotes have 70S ribosomes, each consisting of a small (30S) and a large (50S)
subunit.
Eukaryotes have 80S ribosomes, each consisting of a small (40S) and large (60S)
subunit.
Atomic structure of the 30S Subunit.
Proteins are shown in blue and the single
RNA chain in orange.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:10_sm
all_subunit.gif

Atomic structure of the 50S Subunit Proteins
are shown in blue and the two RNA chains in
orange and yellow. The small patch of green
in the center of the subunit is the active site.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:10_large_s
ubunit.gif
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Vesicle
Enclosed by lipid bilayer, vesicles can
form naturally, for example, during
endocytosis.

Alternatively, they may be prepared
artificially, in which case they are called
liposomes
Because it is separated from the cytosol,
the inside of the vesicle can be made to
be different from the cytosolic
environment.

Vesicles are a basic tool used by the cell
for organizing cellular substances.

Vesicles are involved in metabolism,
transport, buoyancy control and enzyme
storage.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7
/74/Sarfus.LipidVesicles.jpg
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Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Intracellular communication
Network of tubes that facilitates transport
of materials in and out of nucleus

Synthesizes and stores protein

The membranes of the ER are continuous
with the outer membrane of the nuclear
envelope.

The outer (cytosolic) face of the rough
endoplasmic reticulum is studded with
ribosomes that are the sites of protein
synthesis.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum is especially
prominent in cells such as hepatocytes
where active protein synthesis occurs.

Micrograph of rough endoplasmic reticulum network around
the nucleus (shown in lower right-hand side of the picture).
Dark small circles in the network are mitochondria.
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Blausen_0350_
EndoplasmicReticulum.png
BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
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Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Abbreviated SER- has functions in several metabolic processes

It synthesizes lipids, phospholipids, and steroids
Cells which secrete these products, such as those in the testes,
ovaries, and skin oil glands have a great deal of SER
SER also carries out the metabolism of carbohydrates, drug
detoxification steroid metabolism

In muscle cells, it regulates calcium ion concentration and is called
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)

The endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes molecules, while the
sarcoplasmic reticulum stores and pumps calcium ions.
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Golgi apparatus-Stores and packages
secretions for removal
Also known as the Golgi
complex, Golgi body, or
simply the Golgi

Packages proteins inside the
cell before they are sent to
their destination

Important in the processing of
proteins for secretion

Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of
semicircular black rings near the bottom. Numerous
circular vesicles can be seen in proximity to the
organelle.
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Cells synthesize a large number of
different macromolecules

GA is integral in modifying,
sorting, and packaging
macromolecules for cell secretion
(exocytosis) or use within the cell

Proteins are delivered from the
rough endoplasmic reticulum to the
Golgi

Golgi also involved in the transport
of lipids around the cell, and
the creation of lysosomes
Golgi apparatus (2)
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http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
d/df/Blausen_0435_GolgiApparatus.png
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Cytoskeleton

The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are shown in
red, microtubules in green, and the nuclei are in blue.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Fluore
scentCells.jpg
Also CSK-It is a cellular scaffolding or
skeleton contained within a cell's
cytoplasm.

It forms structures such as flagella and
cilia and plays important roles in both
intracellular transport (the movement of
vesicles and organelles, for example) and
cellular division

The cytoskeleton allows certain cells such
as neutrophils and macrophages to make
amoeboid movements

The network is composed of three
elements: microtubules, actin filaments,
and intermediate fibers

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Mitochondrion
The mitochondrion (plural
mitochondria) is a membrane-bound
organelle found in most eukaryotic
cells (the cells that make up
plants, animals, fungi).

Mitochondria range from 0.5 to 1.0
micrometer (m) in diameter.

Known as "cellular power plants"
because they generate most of the
cell's supply of adenosine
triphosphate (ATP), used as a source
of chemical energy
Two mitochondria from mammalian lung tissue
displaying their matrix and membranes as shown
by electron microscopy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mitochondria,_
mammalian_lung_-_TEM.jpg
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Mitochondrion (2)
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/Blaus
en_0644_Mitochondria.png
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Cytosol
The cytosol or intracellular fluid (ICF) or
cytoplasmic matrix is the liquid found
inside cells

The cytosol is a complex mixture of
substances dissolved in water. Water
forms the large majority of the cytosol

The concentrations of ions such as sodium
and potassium are different in the cytosol
than in the extracellular fluid; differences
in ion levels are important in processes
such as osmoregulation and cell signaling.

Cytosol also contains large amounts of
macromolecules
Picture of cytosol, showing microtubules (light blue), actin
filaments (dark blue), ribosomes (yellow and purple),
soluble proteins (light blue), kinesin (red), small molecules
(white) and RNA (pink).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Crowded_cytosol.png

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Lysosome
Lysosomes (derived from the Greek words
lysis, meaning "to separate", and soma,
"body") are the cell's waste disposal system
and can digest some compounds.

They are used for the digestion of
macromolecules from phagocytosis (ingestion
of other dying cells or larger extracellular
material, like foreign invading microbes),

Endocytosis (where receptor proteins are
recycled from the cell surface), and

Autophagy (wherein old or unneeded
organelles or proteins, or microbes that have
invaded the cytoplasm are delivered to the
lysosome).

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Centriole
Centrioles are cylindrical structures that
are composed of groupings of
microtubules arranged in a 9 + 3
pattern.

The pattern is so named because a
ring of nine microtubule "triplets" are
arranged at right angles to one
another.

Centrioles help to organize the
assembly of microtubules during cell
division. Centrioles replicate during the
interphase stage of mitosis and meiosis.

Centrioles called basal bodies form
cilia and flagella.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cytokinesis-
electron-micrograph.jpg
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Centriole (2)
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Cell membrane
Also the present topic should not be confused
with what are sometimes called "internal cell
membranes," such as the nuclear membrane
that surrounds the cell nucleus.

The 'cell membrane' (also known as the
plasma membrane or cytoplasmic
membrane) is a biological membrane that
separates the interior of all cells from the
outside environment.

The cell membrane is selectively permeable
to ions and organic molecules and controls
the movement of substances in and out of
cells. The basic function of the cell membrane
is to protect the cell from its surroundings.

It consists of the phospholipid bilayer with
embedded proteins.
Illustration of a Eukaryotic cell membrane
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3a/
Cell_membrane_detailed_diagram_4.svg

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Cell membrane(2)
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A detailed diagram of the cell membrane
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/Cell_membrane_detailed_diagram_en.svg
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1. Nuclear membrane
2. Nuclear pore
3. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
(rER)
4. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(sER)
5. Ribosome attached to rER
6. Macromolecules
7. Transport vesicles
8. Golgi apparatus
9. Cis face of Golgi apparatus
10.Trans face of Golgi apparatus
11.Cisternae of Golgi apparatus
Secretory pathway diagram,
including nucleus, endoplasmic
reticulum and golgi apparatus.
Summary sequence of protein
production and secretion
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6
/Nucleus_ER_golgi.svg
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The stages of mitosis
(1) Chromosome duplication (Interphase).
(2) Prophase. (3) Metaphase. (4) Anaphase.
(5) Telophase. (6) Two new identical cells.
2. Prophase (pro = before). Here the
nucleus disappears in the original cell and
the chromosomes become visible.
Centrioles separate and spindle fibers
form to function as anchor lines.
3. Metaphase (meta = between). The
chromosomes line up in the center of the
cell.
4. Anaphase (an = without). The
chromosomes split with the spindle fibers
pulling them apart.
5. Telophase (tele = the end). Here the
divided chromosomes go to the far end
of the cell.
6. The spindle fibers then begin to
disappear, and the two nuclei reappear.
Now we have two identical cells
formed from one original cell.
The M Phase of the Cell Cycle
Molecular Biology
and Genetics
Genetics Videos-Animations
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Mitosis- simplified
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Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Major_events_in_mitosis.svg
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Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual
reproduction in eukaryotes
The number of sets of chromosomes in the cell undergoing meiosis is
reduced to half the original number, typically from two sets (diploid) to one
set (haploid)
The cells produced by meiosis are gametes
In humans gametes are called sperm in males and egg cells or ova in
females.
Since meiosis has halved the number of sets of chromosomes, when two
gametes fuse during fertilization, the number of sets of chromosomes in
the resulting zygote is restored to the original number

Meiosis
Events involving meiosis, showing chromosomal crossover
. The two grey chromosomes represent one set and the two
red chromosomes another set, each set originally from one
of the two parents
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Source website: http://courses.bio.indiana.edu/L331-Surzycki/
Human chromosomes hybridized with
chromosome painting probes.
http://courses.bio.indiana.edu/L331-Surzycki/html2.jpg
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The cell cycle
83
The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a
cell leading to its division and duplication (replication) that produces two
daughter cell.

In cells without a nucleus (prokaryotic), the cell cycle occurs via a process
termed binary fission.

In cells with a nucleus (eukaryotes), the cell cycle can be divided in three
periods: interphaseduring which the cell grows, accumulating nutrients
needed for mitosis preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNAand
the mitotic (M) phase, during which the cell splits itself into two distinct cells
called "daughter cells" and the final phase, cytokinesis, where the new cell
is completely divided.

The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized
egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair,
skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed.
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Table of the cell cycle states
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Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_cycle
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Schematic of the cell cycle
85
Outer ring:
I = Interphase,
M = Mitosis;
Inner ring:
M = Mitosis,
G1 = Gap 1,
G2 = Gap 2,
S = Synthesis;
Not in ring:
G0 = Gap 0/Resting. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_cycle
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*Nucleus and Chromosomes Illustrated
Interphase nucleus and
metaphase human
chromosomes with
centromeres stained
yellow.

*If you are viewing this slide while
online you may click the image for an
expanded view or follow the link to the
webpage for context.
Source website : http://courses.bio.indiana.edu/L331-Surzycki/

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Nucleic acids are polymeric macromolecules, or large
biological molecules, essential for all known forms of life.
Nucleic acids, which include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
and RNA (ribonucleic acid), are made from monomers
known as nucleotides

Each nucleotide has three components:
1. a 5-carbon sugar,
2. a phosphate group, and
3. a nitrogenous base
If the sugar is deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA.
If the sugar is ribose, the polymer is RNA.

What is a Nucleic acid
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What is a Nucleic acid (2)
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Together with proteins, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are
the most important biological macromolecules; each is
found in abundance in all living things, where they function in
encoding, transmitting and expressing genetic information

In other words, information is conveyed through the nucleic
acid sequence, or the order of nucleotides within a DNA or
RNA molecule

Strings of nucleotides strung together in a specific sequence
are the mechanism for storing and transmitting hereditary, or
genetic, information via protein synthesis
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There are many naturally
occurring purines
Two of the five bases
in nucleic acids,
adenine and guanine
are purines
In DNA, these bases form
hydrogen bonds with their
complementary pyrimidines
thymine and cytosine,
respectively
Nitrogenous bases- Notable Purines
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purine
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Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/RNA-
comparedto-DNA_thymineAndUracilCorrected.png
Two of the five bases in
nucleic acids, adenine and
guanine are purines.

In DNA, these bases form
hydrogen bonds with their
complementary
pyrimidines thymine and
cytosine, respectively
Science or Science Fiction - 11 More Cutting-Edge Advances in Medicine
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The HGP and Genomic Medicine

Human Genome Project Cloud Folder
91
Also see Mitochondrial DNA
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Clinical Relevancy: Gene therapy
Gene therapy is the use of DNA as a
pharmaceutical agent to treat disease.
It derives its name from the idea that DNA can
be used to supplement or alter genes within an
individual's cells as a therapy to treat disease.
The most common form of gene therapy
involves using DNA that encodes a functional,
therapeutic gene to replace a mutated gene.
Other forms involve directly correcting a
mutation, or using DNA that encodes a
therapeutic protein drug (rather than a natural
human gene) to provide treatment. In gene
therapy, DNA that encodes a therapeutic
protein is packaged within a "vector", which is
used to get the DNA inside cells within the body.
Once inside, the DNA becomes expressed by the
cell machinery, resulting in the production of
therapeutic protein, which in turn treats the
patient's disease.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_therapy
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Tissues
94
As stated earlier, a grouping of similar cells
can form tissues that will have specialized
functions in the human body.

This section will discuss the various tissues that
comprise the human body and the purposes
they serve.
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Cells Tissues
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Cells that are alike
will join together to
form tissues
The four main groups
of tissues formed are
1. epithelial,
2. connective,
3. nerve, and
4. muscle
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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Epithelial Tissues
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Found in the skin and envelops the
body.
Also lines body cavities and organs
such as the lungs and intestines and
forms the glands in our bodies.
Two types of epithelial tissue:
epithelium and endothelium.
Epithelium (epi meaning
outer) covers the outside of
the body. The skin is an
example of epithelium tissue.
Endothelium (endo meaning
within) is the specialized
forms the lining of internal
organs and blood vessels.
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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Connective Tissues
97
The primary purposes of
connective tissue are support
and protection. There are two
types of connective tissue:

1. soft connective tissue, which is
2. also called adipose or fatty
tissue, hard connective tissue,
which forms cartilage and
bone.
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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Nerve Tissues (excitable)
98
The third type of tissue is nerve
tissue. This tissue is made up of the
specialized nerve cells called
neurons.
This tissue allows messages to be
conducted to and from the brain
and throughout the entire body.
Nerve tissue is, of course, found in
the nervous system, which comprises the
brain, spinal cord, and various nerves.
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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Muscle Tissues
99
Necessary for movement, allows
you to walk, run, and do work
Muscle tissue, which has the
ability to contract, can be
broken down into three main
types:
1. skeletal,
2. cardiac, and
3. smooth
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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Muscle Tissues (excitable)
Skeletal muscle -voluntary muscle
Skeletal muscles attach to our bones in order to accomplish motion
Because this muscle has a striped appearance, it is also sometimes called
striated muscle
The second type of muscle tissue is cardiac muscle
This specialized tissue causes the heart to beat
Finally, the third type smooth muscle, which lines the walls of
many of our internal organs
Because organs are also called viscera, smooth muscle is sometimes
referred to as visceral muscle
This type of muscle helps provide movement in the digestive tract, blood
vessels, bronchial vessels (airways), and ducts (passageways) leading
from the glands

N.B-Because cardiac and smooth muscles cannot be controlled at will,
they are classified as involuntary muscles
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Organs and Body Systems
Source: Seeley R R. et al. Anatomy & Physiology, 10th ed. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 2013: Figure1.2. 6.
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Body Systems
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Body Systems
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Body Systems
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The integumentary, skeletal, and muscular systems of the body.
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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The nervous, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems of the body.
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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The lymphatic, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems of the body.
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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The urinary and reproductive systems of the body.
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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Homeostasis
(A responsibility of the ANS and Endocrine System)
The physiologic process of maintaining an internal environment
(ECF environment) compatible with normal health
Autonomic reflexes maintain set points and modulate organ
system functions via negative feedback in pursuit of homeostasis
Human-homeostasis/PDF
Negative feedback is the major control process used to maintain a
stable internal environment
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ERROR
SIGNAL
COMPARATOR
SET
POINT
+
-
CONTROLLED
VARIBLE
(SEE NEXT SLIDE)
SENSOR
EFFECTOR
-
NEGATIVE
FEEDBACK
Negative feedback:
Initiation of responses that
counter deviations of
controlled variables from
their normal range
Measures control variable
Recognizes deviation of
normal set point value
Redrawn after: Kibble JD, Halsey CR, Homeostasis: In Medical
Physiology -The Big Picture; McGraw-Hill ,2009:2
Attempt to restore
set point value
Important variable maintained
within a normal range
Effector opposes stimulus
stretch receptors, chemo-, baro-
, osmo-, and thermo-receptors
etc.
Components of a negative feedback
control system
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Controlled Variable Typical Set Point Value
(Arterial Blood Sample)
Arterial O2 partial pressure
Arterial CO2 partial pressure
Arterial blood pH
Glucose
Core body temperature
Serum Na+
Serum K+
Serum Ca2+
Mean arterial blood pressure
Glomerular filtration rate
100 mm Hg
40 mm Hg
pH 7.4
90 mg/dL (5 mM)
98.4F (37C)
140 mEq/L
4.0 mEq/L
4.5 mEq/L
90 mm Hg
120 mL /min


Adopted from: Kibble JD, Halsey CR, Homeostasis: In Medical Physiology
-The Big Picture; McGraw-Hill ,2009:3
Examples of Physiologic
Controlled Variables
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END OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
GUIDEBOOK PRESENTATION


Thank you for your participation and attention.
Dr.Cray