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Unit # 2 MEASUREMENT

International System of Units (SI)
It is the system established in 1960 by (CGPM) General Conference of Weights and
Measures and abbreviated as SI (System International ) in all languages. In Pakistan,
India, we switched over to metric system of Weights and Measures conforming to SI
units an act of Parliament. This SI like traditional metric system, is based on decimal
arithmetic.
The SI is a coherent_______ system, the sense that the product or quotient_______ of
any two unit quantities in the system in the unit of the resultant quantity. If unit of length
is meter, then unit of area will be square meter and not acres or begs etc.
The seven base SI units established by the General Conference of Weights and Measures
are given under.

S.No Physical Quantity Name of unit Unit symbol Base of Definition
1 Length Meter m Wavelength of red light in
Krypton 86
2 Time Second S Cycles of radiation of cesium
3 Mass Kilogram Kg Platinum cylinder prototype
4 Temperature Kelvin K Absolute zero and water
5 Electric current Ampere A Force between two
conducting wires
6 Luminous intensity Candela cd Intensity of an area of
platinum
7 Quantity of Mole mol Amount of atoms in carbon
substance 12

Standards
The two standard system for linear measurement used throughout the world are English
and Metric (yard and meter0. the various standards now known for linear measurements
are :-
 Line standard
 End standard
 Wavelength standard

Line standard: According to it, yard or meter is defined as the distance between
scribed_____ lines on a bar of metal under certain conditions of temperature. These are
legal standards.
End standard: For all practical measurements in workshop, we employ end
standards for example:- slip gauges, gap gauges, end of micrometer anvils etc Thus the
importance of end standards (which are actually used in general measurement
applications) arose. Length bars and slip gauges were then made which were equal in
length to the legal line standard.

and Mercury 198 are possible sources of radiation of wavelengths suitable as natural standard of length. krypton 86. these could also be designed in five grades as under: Grade 2: This is the work shop grade. positioning milling cutters and checking mechanical widths. as Johannsen them . checking gap gauges and setting dial test indicators to zero. these hardened only at ends up to 800 HV and supported at ‘Airy’ points so that end surfaces are parallel to each other. Type A is guaranteed accurate up to plus or minus four microns per meter. these are also available in four grades of accuracy. Typical uses include setting up machine tools. and length measure for the regulation and adjustment of indicating measuring apparatus and for direct measurement of linear dimensions of industrial component. generally not found in majority of engineering work but in standardizing laboratories etc. the working standard is no more dependent upon the physical standard. These may be used as reference standards for transferring the dimensions of the unit of length from the primary standard to gauge blocks of lower accuracy and for the verification and graduation of measuring apparatus. Cadmium 114. Slip gauges are classified according to their guaranteed accuracy: AA for master slip gauges A for reference purpose. Slip Gauges Slip gauges are often called Johannsen gauges also. AA slip gauges are accurate to plus or minus two microns per meter. Grade 01: Used for more precise work.These are rectangular blocks of steel having a cross-section of about 30 by 10 mm. . These consist of carbon steel round bar about 20 mm in diameter and made in sizes varying from 10 mm to 1200 mm. As regards grades or classes of slip gauges. and B for working slip gauges. There are first hardened to resist wear and carefully stabilized so that they are independent of any subsequent variation in size or shape. a) Reference b) Calibration c) Inspection d) Workshop Wavelength standard: using wavelength of monochromatic____ light which is natural and invariable unit of length. Therefore. such as that carried out in a good-class tool room. Typical uses include setting up sine bars sine tables.End Bars or Length Bars: these are used for the measurement of larger sizes of work. Type B for plus or minus eight microns per meter.

i. Tolerances: . The production machined themselves have some inherent ______inaccuracies___ built onto them and have the limitation to produce perfect parts. It is impossible for an operator to make perfect settings. (pass) 08MR-07 Check by. Except for the calibration grade. ii.Tolerance can be defined as the magnitude of permissible variation of a dimension or measured criterion from the specified value. Tolerances have to be allowed because of the inevitable human failings and machine limitations which prevent ideal achievement during fabrication. but in actual practice it is impossible due to following reasons: i. This means that it is the inspection department only who have access to this grade of slip. and because these slip are not made to specific or set tolerance. all slip gauge sets are manufactured to within specified limits. Variations in the properties of the material being machined introduce errors. square with centre hole. These have no effect on the quality performance of the component or assembly. and its use is confined tool room or machine shop inspection. This chart must be consulted when making up a dimension. The primary purpose of tolerance is to permit variation in dimensions without degradation of the performance beyond the limits established by the specification of the design.Grade 0: This is more commonly known as the inspection grade. A typical example would be the determination of any errors present in the work shop or Grade 2 slip. Functional and Non-functional Dimensions: Functional dimensions are those which have to be machined and fit with other mating components .Non-functional dimensions are those which need not be machined to a high degree of accuracy. iii. some errors are likely to creep in. Calibration grade: This is a special grade. In setting up machine. Prepaid By:. Engg. they are not as expensive as the grade 00 . and square without centre hole. Slip gauges with three basic forms are commonly found. Why tolerance are specified ? Ideal conditions would call for part without any kind of dimensional variation. in adjusting the tool and work piece on the machine . These are rectangular.Tech. with the actual size of the slip stated or calibrated on a special chart supplied with the set. Shehzad Rafiq .e. Basic Forms of Slip Gauges.. Grade 00: This grade would be kept in the standard room and would be kept for work of the highest precision only. the close the limits more expensive the slip gauges.Muhammad Kashif Jamil B.