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FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

& MANAGEMENT

News Rev i ew Lt d.
U n i v e r s i t y o f G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e
M a s t e r o f B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n


NGUYEN BAO QUAN
STUDENT ID: B0103HOHO0813

News Review Ltd. | FINANCIAL ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT 1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FIGURES LISTS .............................................................................................................................. 2
TABLE LIST ..................................................................................................................................... 2
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 3
ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................................... 4
QUESTION 1. IS THE PROFIT BEFORE TAX SOLE RELEVANT MEASURE FOR COMPANY
PERFORMANCE? ............................................................................................................................................. 4
QUESTION 2. THE INVESTMENT ........................................................................................................... 7
QUESTION 3. THE REMUNERATION & THE APPOINTMENT ................................................... 10
QUESTION 4. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTANT & FINANCIAL MANAGER ............................. 13
CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................................. 15
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................... 16



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FIGURES LISTS
Figure 1. A Model of Strategic Management ............................................................................................... 5
Figure 2. Share Price Maximization ............................................................................................................... 6
Figure 3. Optimized Corporate Organization .......................................................................................... 12

TABLE LIST
Table 1. Initial Investment for News Review Ltd ..................................................................................... 8
Table 2. Assumed Net Cash Flow Table ........................................................................................................ 9
Table 3. NPV Table with cost of capital at 10% ......................................................................................... 9


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INTRODUCTION
Most of everyone dream about owning a rich and successful public company,
building an empire and win in fierce business battlefield. Mark Golledge a 65-years old
businessman also share the same thought. He is the major shareholder of News Review Ltd.,
a private publishing company. He wants to expand his business into e-paper and
newspaper; therefore, he hire Raymond Cash as a Managing Director regarding to the
recommendation of his friends. Raymond proposed some expansion plans for the company,
inclusive of listing on the stock market. Those questions will be covered throughout this
report.
As a result, this report will emphasize on how good or bad those proposals are. We
will state out the solutions as well as recommendations for each that Mark needs us to
support him. We will see if profit before tax would be a good sole objective for a possible-
listing company; how to assess the long-term projects and investment by using the
technique of Net Present Value (NPV); whether the benefit of the Managing Director or CEO
will be stick with the companys goal of achievement and the tools to rate the performance;
and last but not least, seeing how corporate governance play an important role in News
Review Ltd.


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ANALYSIS
QUESTION 1. IS THE PROFIT BEFORE TAX SOLE RELEVANT MEASURE FOR COMPANY
PERFORMANCE?
1. Profit Maximization Cannot Be The Sole Objective:
For long the profit has been the objective and achievement of a lot of firms and
companies. Once someone steps into the business, he/she would like to bring the company
listing on the stock exchange market, becoming a public company or corporation. Then,
when the company is organized as a corporation, it can attract a variety of investors
(Meyers, 2003) and therefore, more cash would be gathered to expand the operation of the
company. However, in order to attract the investors, Raymond states that the company
should put the sole objective of maximizing the profit before tax. Therefore, the profit
before tax would be the sole relevant measure for the companys performance. Actually,
would profit maximization be the sole objective of the company once the company is listed?
However, profit maximization should not be the sole objective of a firm because of the
reasons stated below.
Firstly, the profit maximization would likely link with the increase in the risks. The
philosophy is that there is a straight association between profit and risk high risk, high
return (Thukaram, 2003). In case Raymond the Managing Director put the profit
maximization is the sole objective of the company, the risk factors have the possibility to be
ignored. In the view of Strategic Management, ignoring the risks is not a very smart choice,
especially for a new venture listing public in the first time, scanning the environment,
building the input stage matrix to evaluate the competitors, risky factors (Internal Factors
Evaluation, External Factors Evaluation, Competitive Profile Matrix, etc.) is a very
important step to build up and keep the certain growth of the company (David, 2012).
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Figure 1. A Model of Strategic Management
Source: (Wheelen and Hunger, 2012)
Secondly, if the profit maximization is the sole objective, the timing pattern has the
possibility to be not taken into account. The higher profit does not mean that the investors
can receive the return from the initial investment sooner - the receipt of funds sooner than
later is preferred (Zutter and Gitman, 2012). For example, News Review Ltd applies the
profit maximization as the sole objective; hence, the profit of News Review Ltd would be
quite high in comparison with Daily Journals Ltd a competitor also lists on stock exchange
as well. However, the return flow of News Review Ltd is 7 years whilst Daily Journals Ltd
just needs 4 years. Certainly, Daily Journals Ltd would be much more attractive because the
investors would invest in Daily Journals Ltd first to gain profit quickly, then they will use
that money to invest other company.
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Last but maybe the most important, when the maximizing profit is the sole and
priority objective, the interest of the shareholders is ignored as well. The company can cut
the dividends to invest the cash to increase the future profit (Meyers, 2003). Moreover, in
the point of entrepreneurship view, the company may have the possibility to ignore the
social responsibility toward customers, employees or even companys culture as well. In
the long-term strategic management, when the shareholders, employees, customers
interests are ignored, the company surely cannot survive on the market (Thukaram, 2003).
2. The Solutions:
Since News Review Ltd is possible to list on stock market, there is a solution for this
company to consider instead of putting profit before tax as the sole objectives: maximizing
the shareholders wealth. The wealth of the owners are measured by the price of the share
on the stock market. This price is based on the cash flows timing including of the earnings
per share (EPS) which indicates the firms future return, magnitude and risk factors as well
(Zutter and Gitman, 2012). A popular misunderstanding thought is that if we put the
maximizing the shareholders wealth as a firms objective, the managers can do any greedy
and selfish thing in order to please the shareholders interests (without caring the
employees, customers or suppliers, etc.); and hence, many ethical business issues appear.
However, lets imagine how a manager can increase the share price of stock if the
employees are not loyalty with the company, customers choose to anti the products, and
there is no any good long-term relationship with the suppliers (Meyers, 2003).

Figure 2. Share Price Maximization
Source: (Zutter and Gitman, 2012)
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QUESTION 2. THE INVESTMENT
The Managing Director Raymond Cash tend to expand the business by buying the
new newspaper printing machine and purchasing new office. Actually, when expanding the
business, the company would need to invest a large sum of money for the necessary assets.
Additionally, there are many choices of newspaper printing machines and offices for the
News Review Ltd to choose; we can assign of each suitable choice into different Projects.
Therefore, we will have Project A, B and C, and may be more for the management level to
be able to rate the efficiency of each project. However, it seems that Raymond has not
presented any method in order to present for Mark to see how and when the initial
investment in each project can make the return especially with the shareholders when
they want the optimum return (Meyers, 2003). There are some tools and techniques that
can help the managers to give out decision with the project such as Payback method,
Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Net Present Value (NPV), Profitability Index (PI), etc. Among
of them, Net Present Value (NPV) seems to be the most popular method used by most large
companies (Zutter and Gitman, 2012). The NPV has some advantages:
NPV considers to the time value of money which is the most important concept in
Finance (Hillier et al., 2003).
All cash flow in each period is considered.
The NPV takes account of cost of capital as well.
The formula for NPV can be seen as:


From the formula above, there are two situations that can help the manager making
up his mind:
If the NPV > 0, just accepting the project.
If the NPV < 0, simply rejecting the project.
Now, for illustrate, lets consider one Project for News Review Ltd, the below Board
will reveal what this Project includes:

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Table 1. Initial Investment for News Review Ltd
INITIAL INVESTMENT DESCRIPTION

Source: http://property.joneslanglasalle.co.uk/property-
search/property-details.aspx?t=c&id=JLLATC30188
An office for sale from Jones Lang LaSalle
with the price of 460,000 if the Managing
Director wants to purchase.
This office is based in Unit 3, Yoeman Park,
Test Lane, Nursling, Southampton, SO16
9JX, Hampshire, South East.

Source: http://www.ebay.com/itm/1986-Heidelberg-
102FP-Printing-Press-
/281188110538?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item4178
1e10ca
The 1986 Heidelberg 102FP Printing Press
newspaper printing machine system
bought from EBay with the price of
70,000.


So, regarding to Raymonds proposal, we will have an initial investment inclusive of
a new office and printing machine at: 460,000 + 70,000 = 530,000. We also make an
assumption of News Review Ltd cash flow in 5-years at the cost of capital of 10%:
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Table 2. Assumed Net Cash Flow Table
Year Net Cash Flow ('000)
1 126
2 243
3 398
4 415
5 516

When applying with the NPV, the result would be:

Table 3. NPV Table with cost of capital at 10%
Year Net Cash Flow ('000) Present Value at 10% Discounted Cash Flows ('000)
1 126 0.909 115
2 243 0.826 201
3 398 0.751 299
4 415 0.683 283
5 516 0.621 320
Total 1,218
In Capital 530
NPV 688

According to the table above, we can see that with the NPV at 688,000 (NPV > 0);
this project is worthwhile to be invested. As a result, with this NPV tool, we can consider
and mix with other Projects together. Since Mark is thinking with an e-paper, he can put the
initial investment coming along with spending in e-commerce, online advertising, etc.
Our recommendation is that the Finance & Accounting Department should conduct
the Proforma Costs for initial investment along with the Forecasting Cash Flow in order to
find the most suitable Project or Portfolio for News Review Ltd. Moreover, we also suggest
that the company should correlate with internal audit committee or a 3
rd
party Audit Firm
(such as Deloitte, Ernst & Young) in order to ensure the transparency in Purchasing
process.
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QUESTION 3. THE REMUNERATION & THE APPOINTMENT
1. The Remuneration Of Raymond Cash:
Raymond said that his reward should be connected with the profit before tax in
order to guarantee goal correspondence with companys objective. In our point of view, it is
strongly recommended. Since Raymond is a Managing Director and elected by the
shareholder, he will cope with shareholders interest once he has the right incentives to do
(Meyers, 2003). Now, lets imagine if shareholders pay Raymond a fixed salary, no
incentive, no bonus regarding to the revenue of the company; here are the problems that
shareholders can face:
No effort to boost the revenue: Raymond can find a way to boost the revenue and
maximize shareholders wealth. One of his decision can be using the profit or equity
to invest in other projects that can help expanding more the company and it is
surely a high-pressure job. However, with no incentive or bonus from expanding the
company or increasing the revenue, he can choose a safe way to manage, receiving
monthly salary without any worry.
Safe and small investment with low NPV: as we state in the Question 1 part, High risk
high return; with the fixed salary, when being in a situation of investment decisions
between Projects, Raymond would like to choose a safest one although the others
can help to generate much more NPV. This is quite a waste if the company has
plenty of cash, but giving out limited investment opportunities. This is called
entrenching investment (Meyers, 2003).
In case that Mark Golledge still feels confused about this recommendation, we can
suggest some techniques that can help the shareholders to evaluate the performance of the
Manager:
a. Return on Investment (ROI):
The Return on Investment (ROI) is used to assess the investment gains in
comparison with the investment cost. The ROI can be calculated with the formula:




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For example, in News Review Ltd, if the shareholders decide to invest 530,000 with
the net profit of 124,000 at the cost of capital 10%. Then the ROI will be:


Then, we can deduct with the cost of capital: 23% - 10% = 13%. This 13% will be
added into shareholders value and called Net Return On Investment (NROI).
b. Economic Value Added (EVA ):
Economic Value Added (EVA ), simply, is the value created for shareholders after
deducting all charge of capital. The EVA is also an innovative method because it takes
account of Return on Capital Employed (ROCE); therefore, it also can show for the
shareholders to see how efficient the Managers use the Capital assigned (Vernimmen et al.,
2009) as well as how good the companys operation is.

EVA = Capital Employed (ROCE WACC (Weighted Average Cost of Capital))

2. The Appointment:
Raymond Cash also show his wish to build his own all the Board Members. In News
Review Ltd, the position of Raymond is not same with Mark Golledge major shareholder.
Therefore, at some point, there is some interest conflict between Managing Director and
shareholder. Raymond is responsible for daily operation while Mark cannot take control
over him all the day. As a result, regarding to the Corporate Governance, it is not a good
idea to grant him such power because the Board Members have the responsibility to
manage and supervise the activities of the Managing Directors. Therefore, lets imagine if
Raymond appoint his best friends, his relatives, parents, siblings, etc. into the Board
Members, does it guarantee the efficiency in controlling company daily operation? In
addition, once the company is listed on the stock market, will the investors be attracted
with a company which does not have the transparency in the Management Level? As a
result, an optimized corporate company can be organized as the illustration below:

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Figure 3. Optimized Corporate Organization
Source: (Zutter and Gitman, 2012)
Therefore, regarding to the flow chart, our recommendation is that a Nomination
Committee should be established. This Nomination Committee will conduct the
appointment of Board Members and even the re-election in the future.

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QUESTION 4. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTANT & FINANCIAL MANAGER
Raymond said that he would like to remove the Management Accountant and
Financial Manager in order to reduce the cost for company because the jobs in Finance
Department seem similar. Instead, he will assign the Financial Accountant who is felt to be
competent.
In some companies, especially during the economic crisis time, reduce the human
resource cost to save the budget is an important decision. However, when a Managing
Director wants to remove the Management Accountant and Financial Manager, promoting a
Financial Accountant into those positions because of the similarity in Finances jobs, the
owners have to question first about that Directors ability. We will consider the differences
between Management Accountant and Financial Manager:
MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTANT FINANCIAL MANAGER
The role of Management Accountant will
focus mainly in specific internal activities of
the business, manage those activities record
to support the decision making of the
management. He/she can take deep look
into the non-financial information such as:
how the Sales department chase the
payment of customers, taking care of
transaction contracts detail, etc. The
Management Accountant also takes
responsible for the internal accounting,
producing the balance sheet reports and tax
obligations. The reports can be prepared in
any period.
Financial Manager will take care of the
companys cash, help to raise the capital and
keep the relationship with bank. He/she will
take care in monetary basic, take a look of
the whole business, giving out how the
business trend and historical business
perspective in order to attract more
investment. Financial Manager also ensure
that the short-term cash surplus will be
spent wisely and prepare the financial
statement reports. The reports will be
prepared periodically and in financial
standards formats.
For the reason above, a Financial Accountant can be good in the financial
management part, provide the full financial information monthly to customers and
shareholders, etc. He/she can be good in presenting the whole business data in simple
Profit and Loss perspectives in order to attract the investment. However, regarding to the
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internal accounting management which is also a very important part, News Review Ltd
should keep a controller so as to enhance the cost management, ensure the efficiency in
productivity and resource management. Moreover, since Raymond is a Managing Director,
therefore, he has the right to appoint the Managers. Therefore, according to Corporate
Governance aspect, there should be an internal audit committee which is independent with
the Management level. This internal audit committee will ensure that the resources be used
with the right direction.


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CONCLUSION
In conclusion, shareholders should take a very careful consideration not only
toward the Raymond Cashs proposal but also the actual ability, education background,
experience of the Managing Director as well not just by recommendations from friends.
Moreover, the shareholders should also have a look into the financial investment
techniques, especially the NPV, IRR and ratios (ROCE, ROI, etc.) to augment the usage of
resources. Listing the company on the stock exchange would be a good initial step to
expand the operation, News Review Ltd just need to show how efficient the company
manage the cash, with a good Management Level and internal governance, the company is
ensure to achieve the success and attract more investment.

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REFERENCES
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Finance, 6
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edition, Irwin: McGrawHill Primis.
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International Pvt Ltd Publishers.
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