67 views

Uploaded by api-19790923

- Mathematics-Permutation-Combination-MCQ.pdf
- Difference in Circumferences of Two Circles through Complex Analysis by Parker Emmerson February-8-2010
- Ziv_Final
- Algorithmic Combinatorial Game Theory.pdf
- Pre Test
- field lesson 3 2f22 math review
- 05494757
- Mr 1 2016 Problems
- The unforgivable deficiencies of our math educational system
- Test
- ARPN Journal
- 20133 Math10 Syllabus Edigner Gail 2635
- mathplayground
- alg
- Ch2
- simons53
- lec3
- Creativity the Spine of Learning [Episode 11] Wired for Success TV
- Magical Revision Tips. Part 1
- Fall 2009 Final Review Answers

You are on page 1of 3

between two points that one would measure with a ruler, which can be proven by repeated

application of the Pythagorean theorem. By using this formula as distance, Euclidean space

becomes a metric space (even a Hilbert space). The associated norm is called the Euclidean

norm.

Older literature refers to this metric as Pythagorean metric. The technique has been

rediscovered numerous times throughout history, as it is a logical extension of the Pythagorean

theorem.

Examples

The Hamming distance between:

• 1011101 and 1001001 is 2.

• 2173896 and 2233796 is 3.

• "toned" and "roses" is 3.

For binary strings a and b the Hamming distance is equal to the

number of ones in a XOR b. The metric space of length-n binary

strings, with the Hamming distance, is known as the Hamming cube;

it is equivalent as a metric space to the set of distances between

vertices in a hypercube graph. One can also view a binary string of

length n as a vector in by treating each symbol in the string as a

real coordinate; with this embedding, the strings form the vertices

of an n-dimensional hypercube, and the Hamming distance of the

strings is equivalent to the Manhattan distance between the

vertices.

History and applications

The Hamming distance is named after Richard Hamming, who introduced it in his fundamental

paper about error-detecting and error-correcting codes (1950) introducing Hamming codes. It is

used in telecommunication to count the number of flipped bits in a fixed-length binary word as

an estimate of error, and therefore is sometimes called the signal distance. Hamming weight

analysis of bits is used in several disciplines including information theory, coding theory, and

cryptography. However, for comparing strings of different lengths, or strings where not just

substitutions but also insertions or deletions have to be expected, a more sophisticated metric like

the Levenshtein distance is more appropriate. For q-ary strings over an alphabet of size q ≥ 2 the

Hamming distance is applied in case of orthogonal modulation, while the Lee distance is used for

phase modulation. If q = 2 or q = 3 both distances coincide.

The Hamming distance is also used in systematics as a measure of genetic distance.On a grid

(such as a chessboard), the points at a Hamming distance of 1 constitute the von Neumann

neighborhood of that point.

Algorithm example

The Python function hamdist() computes the Hamming distance between two strings (or other

iterable objects) of equal length.

assert len(s1) == len(s2)

return sum(ch1 != ch2 for ch1, ch2 in zip(s1, s2))

The following C function will compute the Hamming distance of two integers (considered as

binary values, that is, as sequences of bits). The running time of this procedure is proportional to

the Hamming distance rather than to the number of bits in the inputs. It works by XORing the

two inputs, and then counting the number of bits set in the result.

unsigned hamdist(unsigned x, unsigned y)

{

unsigned dist = 0, val = x ^ y;

while(val)

{

++dist;

val &= val - 1;

}

return dist;

}

Summary

Description A branch metric unit

Source self-made

(Reusing this

image)

- Mathematics-Permutation-Combination-MCQ.pdfUploaded byDevashish Karmakar
- Difference in Circumferences of Two Circles through Complex Analysis by Parker Emmerson February-8-2010Uploaded byParker
- Ziv_FinalUploaded byR.A.M
- Algorithmic Combinatorial Game Theory.pdfUploaded byxmisterio
- Pre TestUploaded bySanja Erceg
- field lesson 3 2f22 math reviewUploaded byapi-258575318
- 05494757Uploaded byRuirui Li
- Mr 1 2016 ProblemsUploaded bytroll
- The unforgivable deficiencies of our math educational systemUploaded bysam iam / Salvatore Gerard Micheal
- TestUploaded bySven09
- ARPN JournalUploaded bybaalaajee
- 20133 Math10 Syllabus Edigner Gail 2635Uploaded bySkyezine Via Kit Fox
- mathplaygroundUploaded byapi-250706158
- algUploaded byapi-316781445
- Ch2Uploaded byAlan Vu
- simons53Uploaded bypostscript
- lec3Uploaded byJorge Cristhian Chamby Diaz
- Creativity the Spine of Learning [Episode 11] Wired for Success TVUploaded bywiredforsuccesstv
- Magical Revision Tips. Part 1Uploaded bySam
- Fall 2009 Final Review AnswersUploaded byVinnii Otchkov
- 08s Cpe633 Test2 SolutionUploaded byram_786
- master calendarUploaded byapi-241808268
- Glass 2Uploaded bygarylcy
- June 2005 P2Uploaded byapi-26543952
- GradesUploaded byFrialyn Ermengarde De Leon
- acknkowledge2Uploaded byShera Aldama
- MCE466-1Uploaded byarunprasadkr
- Evolution of Math Dick JardineUploaded byud
- i Nag 110 Final PaperUploaded byJorge Montero Vallejo
- 2x4a64 Pigeonhole PrincipleUploaded bytheawless

- viTTERBIUploaded byapi-19790923
- impvtl-vd-v01Uploaded byapi-19790923
- viterbi science directUploaded byapi-19790923
- impC29.02Uploaded byapi-19790923
- telecom_digsig_anUploaded byapi-19790923
- Viterbi AlgorithmUploaded byapi-19790923
- espacenetDocumentUploaded byapi-19790923
- Hardware implementationUploaded byapi-19790923
- viterbiUploaded byapi-19790923
- Fettweis_G_IEEE_commun_95Uploaded byapi-19790923
- Doc1Uploaded byapi-19790923
- CA31_2003Uploaded byapi-19790923

- 222038_1392900156ISSUE 02:20:14Uploaded byCoolerAds
- PROTECTION COORDINATION OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS EQUIPPED WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATIONSUploaded byAnonymous LSebPS
- As NZS 3813-1998 Plastic Monobloc ChairsUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- Noise robust voice activity detection based on periodic.pdfUploaded byellham2001
- AMP Brochure 2018Uploaded byShubham Srivastava
- 12 Functional Design Document TemplateUploaded byGirish
- Matlab TutorialUploaded byjudith matienzo
- independent-t-test.docUploaded byFlavia Andreea Istrate
- File CUploaded byIan Offemaria
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ce3120.003.09s taught by Tanay Bhatt (tmb018000)Uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Site Acceptance SheetUploaded byJay Totha
- Exercise Chapter 2Uploaded byDonkeyTank
- Dismantling, Cleaning and Reassembling Kontrol S4Uploaded byradovanovd
- Mobile Application DevelopmentUploaded byEffonetechnologies
- Simado Gbr42 v2 System ManualUploaded bywaves communications
- 5 AssamGazette Notification CSCtransaction ChargesUploaded byInformation Point Kapurthala
- Lab1Uploaded byJashandeep Singh Kochhar
- Ravindra ResumeUploaded byravindrabg
- BX80619I73930KUploaded byPlyttz Brownie
- APMRC Guideline & TemplateUploaded byMuhammad Najib Rodhi
- Selenium Webdriver Interview Questions and Answers 2015Uploaded byMikky James
- ID 75766Uploaded bySheriff Dan Mako
- Latex Vtu WsUploaded byashok567
- nwc21guideUploaded bymusicallee35
- DSPQNANSUploaded byEmmanuel Aron Joshua
- Article Load CellsUploaded byjrlr65
- Lecture 1- OO-Basic [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byChande Kasita
- An Introduction to Checkpoint FirewallUploaded byPrab Hu
- Adding Remote Controller Functionality To Any StereoUploaded byATS
- Kinvey How to Make an iOS AppUploaded bypafgoncalves