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Fall 2009

Study Guide – Final Exam
This guide covers all of the grammar units we have studied this semester.

Subjects and Verbs

The subject of a sentence tells who or what a subject is doing or what is happening.
Example: Our teacher gives us hard tests.

A verb tells what the subject is doing or what is happening.
Ex. My brother collects baseball caps.

Compound subjects are two or more subjects in one sentence.
Ex. Dogs and cats aren’t always enemies.

Compound verbs are multiple verbs used with a subject.
Ex. I both cry and laugh when I watch this movie.

An adjective is used to describe a noun or subject.
Ex. The sneaky ninja did not set off the alarm.

Prepositional phrases are groups of words that begin with a preposition such as in,
across, or after (check your book for a complete list).
Ex. I usually eat oatmeal before school.


A fragment is an incomplete sentence missing a subject or verb; fragments also
occur when a subject and verb are introduced by a dependent word.
Ex. Because I like to read crime novels.

There are five types of fragments:

1) An afterthought fragment occurs when an extra, incomplete thought is added
to a sentence.

Ex. Anthony ate pizza. With mushrooms on it.

2) An –ing fragment occurs when a verb ending in –ing is used as a main verb.

Ex. Falling asleep in the sun. I got a sunburn.

3) A to fragment occurs when the word to is paired with the main verb in a

becomes I’m taking the day off tomorrow. . 5) Relative-clause fragments occur when a dependent clause begins with a relative word (who. I need to fix the dishwasher. which. Which is in Mexico. • Make it into an independent clause. 4) Dependent-clause fragments are incomplete sentences that begin with a subordinating word. There are two ways to correct a fragment: • Connect it to the sentence before or after it. Although bears are afraid of humans. Ex. They should be avoided. That has a lot of horsepower. Ex. whom. My father was born in San Augustin. Run-Ons Two separate statements that are crammed into a single sentence create a run-on. To save money. There are two types: • A fused sentence occurs when two sentences are “fused” together without any punctuation. Ex. I’m taking the day off tomorrow. The movie ended I went home. McBridge English-83 Fall 2009 Ex. The car needs a new engine. My grandfather saves his grocery bags. becomes The car needs a new engine that has a lot of horsepower. that). To fix the dishwasher. Ex. Ex. whose.

they involve much more studying. Joe is allergic to cats. Final exams always stress me out. The only difference between a fused sentence and comma splice is the comma in the comma splice. There are four ways to correct a run-on: 1) Separate the two sentences with a period. 2) Commas with introductory material. 4) Change one of the sentences into an independent clause with a subordinating word. Ex. . Ex. they are listed in groups of past/present/past participle. 3) Separate the two sentences with a semicolon. McBridge English-83 Fall 2009 • A comma splice occurs when two sentences are joined together and separated with a comma. and dust. 2) Separate the two sentences with a comma + FANBOYS. Irregular Verbs Study the following list of irregular verbs. pollen. Am/was/been Are/were/been Be/was/been Begin/began/begun Break/broke/broken Bring/brought/brought Do/did/done Drink/drank/drunk Eat/ate/eaten Forget/forgot/forgotten Get/got/gotten Go/went/gone Has/had/had Have/had/had Hurt/hurt/hurt Is/was/been See/saw/seen Swim/swam/swum Take/took/taken Choose/chose/chosen Wear/wore/worn Write/wrote/written Write/wrote/written Understand/understood/understood Commas We have studied four ways to use commas: 1) Commas with items in a series.

Ex. The students’ grades began to drop after their last quiz. 2) For plural words. use ‘s to show possession. To save time. Ex. 3) Commas with a FANBOYS. Ex. California. chop your ingredients before you begin cooking. use ‘s to show possession. Apostrophes Apostrophes are used to show possession. Edward’s dog knows more than thirty tricks. 3) For irregular plural words. Ex. McBridge English-83 Fall 2009 Ex. Ex. but it taught me a lot. This book was boring. has pleasant weather all year round. use s’ to show possession. there are three ways: 1) For singular words. the most populous state. . 4) Commas with interrupting material. The line into the women’s bathroom seemed a mile long.