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Organ Systems

Anatomy and Physiology


NERVOUS SYSTEM
Prepared and presented by
Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

Reference and source of graphics:
Colbert BJ et. Al. Chapter 7 The Nervous System , An Integrated Approach to Health
Sciences 2e, Delmar Cengage Learning 2012:80-97


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Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to
Differentiate between the central nervous system (CNS)
and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Describe the basic components of the nervous system at
the cellular, tissue, and organ levels
Contrast the types of neurons and their modes of
conduction
Define and describe the various components of the CNS
Relate diseases of the CNS
Describe the components and responses of the
autonomic branch of the PNS
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Key Terms
acetylcholine (ACh)
(AS-eh-till-KOH-leen)
acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
(AS-eh-till-KOH-lin-ESSter-ase)
action potential
aphasia (ah-FAY-zee-ah)
arachnoid membrane
(ah-RACK-noid)
associative neurons
autonomic nerves
axon
brachial plexus
(BRAY-kee-all PLECK-sus)
brain
cell body
central nervous system (CNS)
central processing unit (CPU)
cerebellum (ser-eh-BELL-um)
cerebral cortex
(seh-REE-brawl)
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
(SER-eh-bro-VAS-kyou-lar)
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Key Terms (2)
cervical plexus (SER-vih-kal)
choroid plexus (KOH-roid)
conductivity
corpus callosum
(KOR-pus; kah-LOW-sum)
cranial nerves
dendrite
diencephalon (die-in-SEF-ah-
lawn)
dorsal root
dorsal root ganglia
dura mater (DOO-rah MAY-ter)
emboli (EM-boh-lie)
encephalitis (en-SEF-ah-LYE-tis)
epinephrine (E-ih-NEF-rin)
fight-or-flight response
frontal lobe
ganglia (GANG-glee-ah)
glia cells (GLEE-uh)
gyri (JIGH-rye)
Heimlich maneuver (HIME-lick)
hemiplegia (hem-ee-PLEE-jee-ah)
homeostasis
(HOH-me-oh-STAY-sis)
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Key Terms (3)
hypothalamus
(high-poh-THAL-ah-mus)
irritability
lumbar plexus
meninges (meh-NIN-jeez)
meningitis (men-in-JIGH-tis)
midbrain
motor cortex
motor neurons
myelin sheath (MY-eh-lin)
nerve plexuses (PLECK-us-sus)
nerves
neuroglia (new-ROG-lee-ah)
neuron (NEW-ron)
neurotransmitter substance
norepinephrine (NE)
occipital lobe
olfactory (ol-FAK-toh-ree)
paraplegia (par-ah-PLEE-jee-ah)
parasympathetic nervous system
parietal lobe (pah-RYE-eh-tal)
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
peristalsis (per-ih-STAL-sis)
phagocytosis (fag-oh-sye-TOH-sis)
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Key Terms (4)
phrenic nerve (FREN-ick)
pia mater (PEE-ah MAY-ter)
piloerection (PIE-low-ee-RECK-shun)
quadriplegia (KWAD-rih-PLEE-jee-ah)
sacral plexus (SACK-ral PLEX-us)
sensory neurons
somatic muscles (so-MAT-ick)
somatic nerves
spinal cord (SPY-nal)
spinal nerves
stimulus
stroke
subarachnoid space
(sub-ah-RACK-noyd)
sulci (SUL-kye)
sympathetic nervous system
synapse (SIN-apps)
temporal lobe
thalamus (THAL-ah-mus)
ventral root
white matter
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The components of the nervous
system with computer analogy
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The divisions of the nervous system
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Generic Neuron Anatomy
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The neuron and its signal transmission
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Types of neurons
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The neurochemical transmission of a
nerve signal or impulse
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Cutaway view showing the major
divisions of the brain
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Superior view of brain
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Structural areas of the brain and their
functions
Lateral view of brain
Functional areas of cerebrum
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The spinal column
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Spinal cord
nerve plexuses
and areas they
serve
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The knee jerk reflex
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The meninges
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Diseases of the CNS can affect the brain and/or spinal cord.
An infection of the brain is called encephalitis (encephalo meaning brain, itis
meaning inflammation).
These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and even
fungi.
Infection of the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord is called
meningitis.
One of the most common brain disorders is called a cerebrovascular accident
(CVA) or stroke.
This is caused by a rupture of the blood vessels within the brain or some
sort of blockage of blood flow.
Blood clots, or emboli (blood clots that travel), can become lodged within the
brain and disrupt blood flow to tissue, thereby resulting in tissue damage or
death.
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An MRI of a visible bleed of the brain
The pressure builds up rapidly
because the brain, unlike other parts
of the body, has very little give; it is
encased within a rigid skull. Because
it involves the brain and its blood
supply, a stroke is also referred to as
a cerebrovascular accident, or CVA.
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Symptoms of left and right CVA
Sometimes a stroke causes paralysis
to the half of the body (hemi)
opposite to where the brain was
damaged.
This is because, generally speaking,
the right side of the brain controls the
left side of the body, and vice versa.
A right brain stroke, therefore, may
cause hemiplegia (plegia meaning
paralysis) to the left half of the
body.
The stroke sufferer may also
experience aphasia (a meaning
without, phasia meaning speech)
and, thus, lose the ability to speak,
write, or effectively communicate
There are many forms of aphasia
depending on the area of the brain
affected.
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Accidents, violence, and
sports activities can lead to
injury of the spinal cord.
When an injury to the spinal
cord occurs, the result can be
loss of sensation and
movement of body. If only the
lower body is affected, this is
called paraplegia; if all four
limbs are affected, it is called
quadriplegia (quadri meaning
four).
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Schematic representation of the CNS and the PNS
showing synapses and neurochemical transmitter
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The Actions of the Parasympathetic
and Sympathetic Nervous Systems
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Following are some of the physiologic processes that occur during the
fight or-flight response.

The pupils of the eyes dilate (become larger), thus allowing more light to be
brought in for enhanced vision.
The heart rate and force of contraction Increase
The airways of your lungs (bronchi) dilate to take in more oxygen from the
atmosphere.
Body metabolism is now at its peak
Nonessential areas are shut down; in this way all the energy can be
concentrated where it is needed most.
For example, your digestive, or gastrointestinal, tract is basically shut
down.
Finally, sweat gland production increases and the muscles attached to your hair
contract, causing the hair to stand erect (a process known as piloerection); you
have sweaty palms and you can feel the hair on the back
of your neck stand up.