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Organ Systems

Anatomy and Physiology


THE CARDIOVASCULAR
Prepared and presented by
Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.

Reference and source of graphics:
Colbert BJ et. Al. Chapter 7 THE CARDIOVASCULAR AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS, An
Integrated Approach to Health Sciences 2e, Delmar Cengage Learning 2012:80-97


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BEPAA Integrated Health Sciences Program
Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to
List the major components of the cardiovascular system
Describe the functions of these components
List the major components of blood and state their purposes
Describe how the respiratory system and cardiovascular system
are interrelated
Describe factors that affect the exchange of gas at the alveolar-
capillary membrane
Describe factors that affect the exchange of gases at the tissue
level
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Key Terms
adenoids (AD-eh-noids)
angina pectoris
(an-JIGH-nahpeck-TORE-is)
antibodies
aorta (ay-OR-tah)
aortic valve
(ay-OR-tick)
arteries
arterioles (ar-TEER-ee-ohlz)
arteriosclerosis
atrioventricular node (AY-treeoh-
ven-TRICK-you-lahr)
atrium (AY-tree-um)
bundle of His (HISS)
capillaries
cardiac arrhythmias
cardiac cycle
cardiovascular
(KAR-dee-oh-VAS-kyou-lar)
central chemoreceptors
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
(SIR-eebroh-SPY-nal)
cholesterol (koh-LESS-ter-ol)
diastole (dye-AH-stol-ee)
dysrhythmias (dis-RITH-me-ahs)
endocarditis (EN-doh-kar-DYE-tis)
endocardium (EN-doh-KAR-dee-um)
erythrocytes (eh-RITH-roh-sites)
heart failure (HF)
ischemia (iss-KEE-me-ah)
lesion (LEE-zhun)
leukocytes (LOO-koh-sites)
mitral valve (MY-tral)
myocardial infarction
myocarditis (MY-oh-kar-DYE-tis)
myocardium (my-oh-KAR-dee-um)
occlusion (oh-CLUE-zhun)

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Key Terms (2)
pericarditis (PER-ih-kar-DYE-tis)
pericardium (per-ih-KAR-dee-um)
peripheral chemoreceptors
phagocytosis (FAG-oh-sigh-TOH-sis)
plaque (PLAK)
plasma (PLAZ-mah)
prolapse
pulmonary valve
septum (SEP-tum)
sinoatrial node (SIGN-oh-AY-tree-ahl)
stenosis
systole (SIS-toll-lee)
thrombocytes (THROM-boh-sites)
urea (you-REE-ah)
veins
ventricle (VEN-trih-kuhl)
venules (VEN-youls)
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Cardiovascular System (CVS) Overview
With its complex pathways of veins, arteries, and
capillaries, the cardiovascular system keeps life pumping
through you.
The heart, blood vessels, and blood help to transport vital
nutrients throughout the body as well as remove metabolic
waste.
They also help to protect the body and regulate body
temperature.
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CVS Three Main Functions
The CVS consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
This system has three main functions:
1. Transport of nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to cells throughout
the body and removal of metabolic wastes (carbon dioxide,
nitrogenous wastes).

2. Protection of the body by white blood cells, antibodies, and
complement proteins that circulate in the blood and defend the
body against foreign microbes and toxins.
Clotting mechanisms are also present that protect the body
from blood loss after injuries.

3. Regulation of body temperature, fluid pH, and water content of
cells.
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The Blood

The blood consists of cells and cell fragments, called formed
elements, and water with dissolved molecules, called blood plasma
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Blood Cells and Function
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The Blood (2)
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The Blood (3)
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The Heart
The heart is a muscle with a series of chambers located inside.

It is composed of three layers of tissue.
1) The smooth layer of tissue that lines both the heart and the blood
vessels is called the endocardium (end/o meaning inside,
cardium meaning heart).
This material also forms the valves of the heart.
2) The next layer of tissue is the thickest layer; it is called the
myocardium (my/o meaning muscle).
This layer of muscle tissue does the work of pumping
blood.
3) The final layer of tissue is the pericardium (peri meaning
around), a sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart.
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Structures of the heart
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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Blood flow through the heart
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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Pulmonary and
systemic blood flow
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Structures and path of cardiac conduction
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
QUOTES & NOTES
Your heart beats more than 36
million times a year!
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Inside the heart and heart valves
(A) The interior structures of the heart.
(B) Cross sectioned anterior view of the
valves of the heart.
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Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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Cardiac cycle
Cardiac cycle is the term used to describe the orderly cycle
of contraction and relaxation of the heart.

The period of contraction is called systole, and the period
of cardiac rest is called diastole.
As a review
The pumping of blood begins from an electrical
stimulation, which sets up a wave-like contraction.

The right and left atria both contract, squeezing blood
into the right and left ventricles, respectively.

The atria relax, as blood returning from the body fills
the right atrium and blood returning from the lungs fills
the left atrium.

While the atria are filling, a wave-like contraction
squeezes blood out of both ventricles.
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Surface detection of the electrical impulse traveling
through the heart can be recorded by using an
electrocardiograph, which records an
electrocardiogram (ECG, or the German form EKG).
The normal EKG has three distinct waves that
represent specific heart activities.
1) The P wave is the first wave on the EKG and
represents the impulse generated by the SA node
and depolarization of the atria right before they
contract.

2) The next wave is called the QRS complex (a
combination of Q, R, and S waves). It represents
the depolarization of the ventricles that occurs
right before the ventricles contract.

Due to the greater muscle mass of the
ventricles compared to the atria, this wave is
greater in size than the P wave.

3) The final wave is the T wave, which represents the
repolarization of the ventricles where they are at
rest before the next contraction.
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Electrocardiogram
In the recording of a healthy heart, there are set ranges for the height, depth,
and length of time for each of the waves and wave complexes.

Changes in those parameters, or the addition of other abnormal types of
waves, known as cardiac arrhythmias or dysrhythmias, can indicate health
problems that involve the heart.
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There are several itises (i.e., inflammations) of the heart.
Endocarditis literally means an inflammation of the lining of
the hearts cavities, but this term is also used to refer to
inflammatory diseases of the heart valves.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the muscle of the heart.

Pericarditis is an inflammation of the sac that surrounds the
heart or of the serous membrane of the hearts outer surface.

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There may be times when cardiac muscle of the heart itself does not receive a
sufficient blood supply.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a general term for any disease that adversely
affects the arteries that supply blood to heart tissue, thus decreasing blood flow.
As a result of this decreased blood flow, an individual may feel pain in his or her
chest, which can radiate to the left shoulder and arm.
This is known as angina pectoris.
If the closure, or occlusion, of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the
heart muscle is not severe, tissue may become injured because of low oxygen
levels.
This condition is called ischemia.
If the decrease in blood flow is severe enough, however, heart tissue may
actually die, or infarct.
This may lead to a reduction in the hearts ability to pump blood, or even to
death. Myocardial infarction, or MI, is a term used to describe death of heart
tissueor, in lay terms, a heart attack.
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Coronary artery disease treatment
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Balloon angioplasty
Coronary artery disease can be treated with a procedure in which a tiny balloon is inflated
in an occluded coronary artery to reopen the blood flow.
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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CAD Treatment (2)
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A surgical procedure called a coronary bypass (CABG) can also be performed on serious
blockages. Here the blocked artery is bypassed with another grafted healthy blood vessel
to provide a detour for blood to flow through to deliver oxygen to the heart muscle.
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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Types of blood vessels
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QUOTES & NOTES
If you lined up all of your capillaries
end to end, you would have a string
more than 16,000 miles long.
Source: Delmar/Cengage Learning
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Major arteries and
veins of the body
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Arteriosclerosis