CHAPTER 9

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CHAPTER NINE - ±EBRTAR IHABA
NOW AND THEN - TEHEPB H PAHBmE
In Chapter Nine you will learn how to do the following:
1. to talk about past events
2. to say when things happened
3. to ask about things and reply in the past (affirmative and negative)
You will learn the following points of grammar:
1. the past tense of regular verbs
2. the instrumental case after the verbs õm1t, c1a1t, paõo1a1t
3. the reflexive verbs (present and past tense)
4. dates (years - n 2003 ro(y)
Activity One - Hepnoe sa(anne
Reading /Listening Look at the photographs and read text A, then read and listen
to text I and answer the questions after the texts. 
* In Russian the Second World War is usually called Be¬nxa× O1enec1nenna× nonna (the Great Patriotic War).
nencn× pension nana¬o beginning noc1ynn1i (II) to enrol
nnyx/nnynxa grandson/granddaughter n1oµa× xnµona× nonna World War II xe,nnnncxnn medical
ncnoxnna1i (I) to remember noc¬e (¹ gen) aIter qaxy¬i1e1 Iaculty
nµom¬oe (n) the past c1a1i (¹ instr) to become ,e1cxnn children`s
xo¬o,oc1i (I) youth co¬,a1 soldier 6o¬innna hospital
A 51o B¬a,nxnµ Hnanonnn Ie¬on. Lxy 74
io,a. On »nne1 n Mocxne. Cennac on ne
µa6o1ae1, on na nencnn. On oneni ¬n6n1 nn1a1i
µoxani, iy¬×1i n naµxe n niµa1i n maxxa1i.
V neio ec1i cin n nnyx, no onn »nny1 n Canx1-
He1eµ6yµie. B¬a,nxnµ Hnanonnn nac1o
ncnoxnnae1 nµom¬oe.
I B xo¬o,oc1n
B ¬ a , n x n µ
Hnanonnn »n¬
n C a n x 1 -
He1eµ6yµie. On
xo1e¬ ynn1ic× n
ynnneµcn1e1e, no
c1a¬ co¬,a1ox,
no1oxy n1o 51o
6i¬ 1941 io,.
51o1 io, - nana¬o n1oµon xnµonon nonni* n
Poccnn. Hoc¬e nonni on noc1ynn¬ n Mocxoncxnn
ynnneµcn1e1 na xe,nnnncxnn qaxy¬i1e1. Hoc¬e
ynnneµcn1e1a on µa6o1a¬ nµanox n ,e1cxon
6o¬innne.
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1. Which text is about the present and which one is about the past?
2. Find an example oI the past tense oI the verb xo1e1i.
3. What is the last letter oI this verb in the past tense?
4. What is the last letter oI the other verbs in text I?
5. What gender are these verbs?
6. Complete the Iollowing rule:
To Iorm the masculine past tense remove ¸¸¸ Irom the inIinitive and replace it with ¸¸¸.
Note: in order to Iorm the Ieminine, neuter and plural past tense add -a, -o or -n respectively to the masculine past
tense.
nn1a1i (inIinitive) nn1a¬ (past m) nn1a¬a (past I) nn1a¬o (past n) nn1a¬n (past pl)
Activity Two - B1opoe sa(anne
Listening/Writing Read text B and fill in the gaps choosing the appropriate verb from
the box below. Use the past tense in each case. Listen to the tape to check your answers.
nc1µe1n1i ¬n6n1i 6i1i cxyna1i xynn1i
:a6o¬e1i c1a1i »n1i nµo»n1i e:,n1i
B B 6o¬innne on cnon
6y,ymyn »eny. Ona
xe,cec1µon. Onn oneni ,µyi
,µyia n nxec1e 35 ¬e1. 5 ¬e1
na:a, ona n yxeµ¬a.
B¬a,nxnµ Hnanonnn ,o¬io
o,nn, no ne,anno on co6axy
n 1eneµi exy ne 1ax o,nnoxo. B nnne
B¬a,nxnµ Hnanonnn n
He1eµ6yµi n y cina, a co6axa
nc1µe1n1i (II) to meet ,o¬io Ior a long time
cnon ones (own) ne,anno recently
6y,yma× »ena Iuture wiIe exy ne 1ax o,nnoxo he is not so lonely
¬n6n1i (II) ,µyi ,µyia to love each other e:,n1i (II) to go (by transport)
nµo»n1i nxec1e to stay together ioc1n1i (II) y (¹ gen) to stay with
5 ¬e1 na:a, 5 years ago coce,/coce,xa (I) neighbour
:a6o¬e1i to Iall ill cxyna1i (I) ,µyi no ,µyiy to miss each other
yxeµ¬a (I) died
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n Mocxne c coce,×xn. Onn
oneni ,µyi no ,µyiy.


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Activity Three - Tpe1te sa(anne
Reading/Writing Complete the sentences below matching a part of the sentence
from column A with a part from column B. Put the verbs in column B into the past tense.
A B
1. Hoc¬e nonni ... xi ____________ (nµo»n1i) nxec1e
25 ¬e1.
2. × c1a¬ co¬,a1ox n 1941 io,y, ... ona ____________ (µa6o1a1i)
xe,cec1µon.
3. Cennac × »nny n Mocxne, ... × ____________ (noc1ynn1i) n
ynnneµcn1e1.
4. × nc1µe1n¬ cnon 6y,ymyn »eny no1oxy n1o +1o1 io, ____________
n 6o¬innne, ... (6i1i) io,ox nana¬a nonni n
Poccnn.
5. Mi oneni ¬n6n¬n ,µyi ,µyia n ... ne,anno × ____________ (e:,n1i) x
nnx.
6. Mon cin n nnyx »nny1 no ,o nonni × ____________ (»n1i)
n He1eµ6yµie, ... n Canx1-He1eµ6yµie.
Activity Four - He1nëp1oe sa(anne
Speaking Pairwork. Ask and answer questions using the phrase Koi,a 1i n
noc¬e,nnn µa: ...' - When did you last ...?, plus a follow-up question each time. Make a
note of your partner `s answers and tell the class what you learned about him/her. Use the
expressions from the list below.
y1µox ~ instr morning nµom¬on nonin ~ instr last night
nneµa ,nex ~ instr aIternoon n nµom¬in none,e¬innx ~ acc last Monday
yesterday neneµox~ instr evening n nµom¬yn n×1nnny ~ acc last Friday
n nµom¬ox io,y ~ prep last year
n nµom¬ox xec×ne ~ prep last month
na nµom¬on ne,e¬e ~ prep last week
- Tan×, xoi,a 1i n noc¬e,nnn µa: o6e,a¬a n µec1oµane'
- Ha nµom¬on ne,e¬e.
- H n1o 1i e¬a'
- × e¬a 6oµm n µi6y.
Reporting back: B noc¬e,nnn µa: Tan× o6e,a¬a n µec1oµane na nµom¬on
ne,e¬e, ona e¬a 6oµm n µi6y.
You may like to use the Iollowing ideas Ior your questions:
1. xo,n1i n xaia:nn 6. nn1a1i µoxan
2. »n1i n ioc1nnnne 7. 6i1i n 1ea1µe
3. cxo1µe1i nn,eo 8. ionoµn1i no 1e¬eqony
4. c¬yma1i xy:ixy 9. ec1i moxo¬a,
5. nn1i maxnancxoe 10. nnca1i nncixo
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Activity Five - Hn1oe sa(anne
Writing Look at the pictures below and complete the sentences. Use the verbs in
brackets in the appropriate tense.
Note: the Russian verbs 6i1i, c1a1i, µa6o1a1i take the Instrumental case oI the Iollowing noun
in constructions like on xone1 6i1i nµanox - he wants to be a doctor; ona µa6o1ae1 nµanox - she
works as a doctor; onn c1a¬n nµanaxn - they became doctors. This rule applies to all tenses.
However, remember that the verb to be - 6i1i does not have a present tense Iorm in Russian, thereIore
the Nominative is used: on nµan - he is a doctor.
Panime Teneµi
1. B¬a,nxnµ (6i1i) _____________. 1. On (6i1i) ____________________.
2. Maµnna (xo1e1i) c1a1i __________. 2. Ona (xo1e1i) c1a1i _____________.
3. He1µ n O¬ei (µa6o1a1i) _________. 3. Onn (µa6o1a1i) ________________.
4. Cne1a (xo1e1i) 6i1i ____________. 4. Ona (xo1e1i) 6i1i _____________.
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Activity Six - mec1oe sa(anne
Writing/Listening Translate the following sentences into Russian, then listen to the
texts A, B and B from Activities One and Two. Can you find these sentences in the texts?
Number them in order of their appearance.
N ... She was a nurse.
N ... He wanted to study at university, but became a soldier.
N ... AIter university he worked as a doctor at a children`s hospital.
Activity Seven - Ce(tuoe sa(anne
Speaking Role-play. You play the part of A and your partner the role of B, then
reverse the roles. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
A B
Say hi (informal). Reply appropriately.
Ask your partner how he/she Ieels. Describe how you Ieel and ask the same
question.
Say you are well. Ask what job your partner is doing now.
Say you are a doctor. Say you remember that your partner
wanted to be a teacher and work with children.
Say you did work as a teacher Ior two years but Say you work as an engineer at a big Iactory
recently became a doctor. Ask your partner where as you always wanted.
he/she is working.
Say you were pleased to meet your Iriend Respond appropriately.
and goodbye.
B õmpo no 1py(oyc1ponc1ny - At the job centre
A (client) B (official)
Say good morning. Respond appropriately.
Say you work as a secretary but would like a Ask what else (¹1o eme ...') your client
new job. can do.
Say you speak French and Russian well. Say there is a vacancy at the local school
and ask whether you client would like to
work as a teacher.
Say you don`t want to be a teacher. Ask what your client would like to do.*
Say you would like to work as an interpreter. Say there is a vacancy in an oil Iirm in
London.
Say that is interesting and thank him/her. Say: 'I wish you luck.¨ (Xe¬an y,ann)
Say: 'Thank you very much, goodbye.¨ Reply appropriately.
* When asking about occupations, the phrase what would you like to do ...?` is usually rendered in the
Iollowing way - xex 1i xonemi / ni xo1n1e µa6o1a1i ...?
noxnn1i (II) to remember yxe1i to be able (to do) neq1×na× qnµxa oil Iirm
naxancn× vacancy xec1nin local nn1eµecno interesting
qa6µnxa Iactory neµeno,nnx interpreter »e¬a1i (I) (+ gen) to wish
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Activity Eight - Boctuoe sa(anne
Writing/Listening Look at the pictures below and complete the questions with the
appropriate verb from the box. Use the verbs in the past tense. Listen to the tape, paying
particular attention to the intonation of the questions.
nn1i cxo1µe1i ionoµn1i e:,n1i c¬yma1i ¬e1a1i
100 ¬e1 na:aµ ¬nµn ...
_____________ µa,no' ________ na xamnne' _________ 1e¬enn:oµ'
________ na caxo¬e1e' _______ no 1e¬eqony' _________ xoxa-xo¬y'
Remember the Iollowing rule:
To ask a question about an event which occurred in the past, simply emphasize the verb
in the past tense by raising your voice.
Activity Nine - ±enn1oe sa(anne
Speaking Pairwork. Using the model below answer the questions from Activity Seven,
take turns with your partner asking and answering.
Question Possible answer
- ,a, c¬yma¬n.
(Yes, they did.)
- ¹n,n c¬yma¬n xy:ixy c1o ¬e1 na:a,' - He1, ne c¬yma¬n.
(No, they didn`t.)
- × ne yneµen(a).
(I am not sure.)
Remember the Iollowing rule:
To make a negative statement about an event which occurred in the past, simply put the
negative particle ne beIore the verb in the past tense.
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Activity Ten - ±ecn1oe sa(anne
Reading Read the text about the life of the Russian writer Anton Chekhov.
You will need to know the Russian Ior in 1884` and other dates. This is very simple: the Iirst three
numbers are used in the Nominative case and the last one in the Prepositional (n 1ic×na nocexico1
nocexi,ec×1 ne1neµ1ox io,y). II the date ends in zero, the last two digits are used in the Preposi-
tional case; e.g. in 1920` - n 1ic×na ,en×1ico1 ,na,na1ox io,y.
An1on Han¬onnn ¹exon (1860 - 1904)
An1on Han¬onnn ¹exon - ne¬nxnn µyccxnn
nnca1e¬i-µea¬nc1. Lio µaccxa:i n nieci
n:nec1ni no xnoinx c1µanax.
On µo,n¬c×* n 1860 io,y n Taianµoie, na
nie Poccnn. Lio o1en 6i¬ xoxxeµcan1ox n
co,eµ»a¬ ne6o¬imyn ¬anonxy. On yn¬exa¬c×
xy:ixon, xoµomo µncona¬ n ne¬. An1on 1o»e
¬n6n¬ xy:ixy, no 6o¬ime nceio exy nµann¬c×
1ea1µ. On nac1o niµa¬ n ,oxamnnx cnex1ax¬×x.
B 1876 io,y »n:ni An1ona n:xenn¬aci. Lio
o1en µa:oµn¬c×, n nc× cexi× yexa¬a n Mocxny.
B Mocxne An1on ynn¬c× n ynnneµcn1e1e na xe,nnnncxox qaxy¬i1e1e n
:axonnn¬ eio n 1884 io,y. Cnon neµnin c6oµnnx µaccxa:on on ony6¬nxona¬ n
1886 io,y. On »n¬ n Mocxne n×1i ¬e1, µa6o1a¬ nµanox n nnca¬ µaccxa:i. Ho1ox
on :a6o¬e¬ 1y6eµxy¬e:ox, neµeexa¬ n Kµix n »n¬ n ׬1e. 3,eci on nannca¬
cnon :naxenn1ie nieci «,×,× Ban×» (1900), «Tµn cec1µi» (1901) n «Bnmne-
nin ca,» (1903). On »enn¬c× n 1901 io,y na ax1µnce O¬iie Knnnneµ, a n 1904
io,y on yxeµ.
* The verb µoµn¬c× is a masculine past tense oI the inIinitive µoµn1ic×. All Russian verbs ending
with the particle -cn in the inIinitive are called reflexive verbs. In order to Iorm the past tense oI reflexive
verbs Iollow the usual rule leaving the particle in place. However, the particle -cn changes to -ct when
preceded by a vowel:
infinitive past (m sing) past (f sing) past (n sing) past (pl)
µo,n1ic× µo,n¬c× µo,n¬aci µo,n¬oci µo,n¬nci
ne¬nxnn great µncona1i to draw neµeexa1i n (+ acc) to move to
nnca1e¬i (m) writer ne1i to sing Kµix Crimea
µo,n1ic× (II) to be born 1ea1µ theatre «,×,× Ban×» Uncle Vanya
ni south ,oxamnnn domestic «Tµn cec1µi» Three Sisters
nieca play cnex1ax¬i (m) perIormance «Bnmnenin ca,» The Cherry Orchard
n:nec1ni (pl) known µa:oµn1ic× (II) to go bankrupt n:xenn1ic× (II) to change
µaccxa: short story :axonnn1i (II) to graduate ynn1ic× (II) to study
xoxxeµcan1 businessman ¬anonxa small shop yxeµ (m) died
co,eµ»a1i (II) to own c6oµnnx volume »enn1ic× (II) na to marry, get
yn¬exa1ic× (I) (¹ instr) to be keen on 1y6eµxy¬e: TB (+ prep) married to
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Activity Eleven - O(nnna(na1oe sa(anne
Writing Look at the pictures below and complete the sentences. Use the verb
po(n1tcn in its appropriate form.
Bekcnnp¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸n Onn¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ n Mapnna¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸n
Anrnnn ×nonnn Poccnn
Activity Twelve - ±nena(na1oe sa(anne
Reading Indicate whether the following sentences are True (H) or Ealse (H). Correct
the Ialse sentences in English. The Iirst sentence is done Ior you.
1. Anton Chekhov wrote poems. H (No, he wrote short stories and plays)
2. His Iather was a businessman. ( )
3. Anton was keen on drawing. ( )
4. His Iather was very keen on theatre. ( )
5. Anton studied medicine in Moscow. ( )
6. He leIt Ior Yalta aIter graduation. ( )
7. He wrote his plays in Moscow. ( )
8. He was ill with tuberculosis. ( )
Activity Thirteen - Tpnna(na1oe sa(anne
Speaking Answer the following questions in Russian.
1. Koi,a n i,e µo,n¬c× An1on Han¬onnn ¹exon'
2. Kex 6i¬ eio o1en'
3. ¹ex on yn¬exa¬c×'
4. ¹1o nµann¬oci An1ony 6o¬ime nceio'
5. Honexy »n:ni An1ona n:xenn¬aci n 1876 io,y'
6. I,e on ynn¬c× n Mocxne'
7. Kex on µa6o1a¬ noc¬e ynnneµcn1e1a'
8. Honexy on neµeexa¬ n Kµix'
9. Koi,a n na xox on »enn¬c×'
10. Kaxne nieci on nannca¬ n Kµixy'
Activity Fourteen - He1mpna(na1oe sa(anne
Writing Write, in Russian, about your past. Use the guide below to help you.
Poµn¬c×/ µoµn¬aci Poµn1e¬n mxo¬a O1µix Pa6o1a/ Vnnneµcn1e1
i,e' no:µac1' xoi,a' xo66n' xaxa×/xaxon'
xoi,a' µa6o1a' i,e' cnoµ1' xoi,a'
cxo¬ixo nax ¬e1' i,e' nµe,xe1i' ,µy:i×' i, e'
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Activity Fifteen - Hn1na(na1oe sa(anne
Listening Two people on the tape talk about how they met their spouse. Split up into
two groups. Group A listens to Marina`s story and group B listens to Igor `s story. Then
answer, in English, the questions about your couple.
How we met - Kax um nc1pe1nunct
1. When did they meet?
2. How did they meet?
3. What do they do now?
4. What did they do when they met?
5. When did they get married?
6. Do they have any children?
7. Where do they live?
8. What is Marina`s husband`s name?
9. Why did he change his job?
10. What is Igor`s wiIe`s name?
11. What did she study at university?
Activity Sixteen - mec1na(na1oe sa(anne
Speaking Eind a partner from the other group and compare information. Ask and
answer questions in Russian. Look at the photographs of the two couples. How old do you
think they are? How old were they when they met? Tell your own story or your parents`
story. Use the questions below to help you.
You will need to know the Russian Ior he/she was ... years old` - exy / en 6i¬o ... ¬e1/io,/io,a.
Note: iI you want to give an approximate age, he/she is/was about 19/23 years old`, simply place the
words ¬e1/ioµ/ioµa beIore the number - exy/en 6i¬o ¬e1 19 / ioµa 23.
1. Ti :axy»ex / »ena1'
2. V 1e6× ec1i ,enymxa / naµeni'
3. Koi,a n i,e ni nc1µe1n¬nci'
4. Cxo¬ixo nax 6i¬o ¬e1, xoi,a ni
nc1µe1n¬nci'
5. I,e ni 1oi,a »n¬n'
6. I,e ni 1oi,a µa6o1a¬n / ynn¬nci'
7. ¹1o ni ,e¬ae1e cennac'
8. ¹1o ,e¬ae1 1no× ,enymxa / 1non naµeni'
9. I,e on(a) µanime µa6o1a¬(a) /
ynn¬c× (ynn¬aci)'
nc1µe1n1ic× (II) to meet (each other) cnnxa1i (I) xnaµ1nµy to rent a Ilat
qo1oxoµµecnon,en1 photo correspondent :aµn¬a1a salary
xo¬o,e»nin Ior young people 6o¬ime nex more than
qo1oiµaqn× photography, photograph »yµna¬nc1nxa journalism
xo66n (n indeclinable) hobby nn×: Ioreign languages Iaculty
no,µa6a1ina1i (I) to earn extra c¬ynanno by chance
qo1oa1e¬ie photo studio 1µexxoxna1na× three-room
(n indeclinable) xnaµ1nµa Ilat
»ena1 (m) / :axy»ex (I) married naµeni (m) / ,enymxa (I) boyIriend / girlIriend
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GRAMMAR
THE PAST TENSE OF REGULAR VERBS
1. The masculine past tense oI verbs with an inIinitive ending in -1t is Iormed by replacing
-1t with -u:
infinitive past (m)
nnca1i on nnca¬ he was writing/wrote
ionoµn1i on ionoµn¬ he was talking/talked
non1oµ×1i on non1oµ×¬ he was repeating/repeated
6o¬e1i on 6o¬e¬ he was ill
2. The Ieminine, neuter and plural Iorms are Iormed by adding endings -a, -o and -n
respectively to the masculine Iorm:
past (m) past (f) past (n) past (pl)
on nnca¬ ona nnca¬a ono nnca¬o onn nnca¬n
on ionoµn¬ ona ionoµn¬a ono ionoµn¬o onn ionoµn¬n
on non1oµ×¬ ona non1oµ×¬a ono non1oµ×¬o onn non1oµ×¬n
on 6o¬e¬ ona 6o¬e¬a ono 6o¬e¬o onn 6o¬e¬n
3. The past tense agrees with the subject oI the verb in number (sing, pl) and gender (m, I, n):
× nnca¬ I was writing (male subject)
× nnca¬a I was writing (Iemale subject)
1i nnca¬ you were writing (male subject)
1i nnca¬a you were writing (Iemale subject)
xi, ni, onn nnca¬n we, you, they were writing (plural)
Some types oI verbs have no -u in the masculine past tense, but in all other Iorms they Iollow
the usual rules. In this chapter you came across one such verb, namely yxeµe1i (to die).
All verbs ending with -epe1t Iollow the same pattern: remove -e1t Irom the inIinitive in
order to Iorm the masculine past tense; add -u and the appropriate endings Ior the Ieminine,
neuter and plural past Iorms:
yxeµe1i (inI) yxeµ (past m) yxeµ¬a (past I) yxeµ¬o (past n) yxeµ¬n (past pl)
To ask a question about the past simply emphasize the verb in the past tense by raising your
voice. The word order doesn`t change in Russian as in English: on xo,n¬ n xnno - he went
to the cinema; on xo,n¬ n xnno' - did he go to the cinema?
To give a negative reply about the past, use the negative particle ne beIore the verb in the
past tense:
- Ti nn1a¬ +1y xnniy' Did you read this book?
- He1, ne nn1a¬. No, I didn`t.
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Activity Seventeen - Ceuna(na1oe sa(anne
Speaking Pairwork. Choose a verb from the box below and make up a sentence in
the past tense. Use the nonsense verb BB(-B, -, ->) (which is something like English
blah-blah) instead of the verb you chose. Your partner should give the past tense of the
missing verb, then you should change roles if the missing verb is named correctly.
nn1a1i nnca1i ncnoxnna1i noc1ynn1i :axonnn1i
:a6o¬e1i nc1µe1n1i e:,n1i 6i1i c¬yma1i
yxeµe1i ¬n6n1i µa6o1a1i c1a1i xynn1i
A - Bneµa × B nn1eµecnyn xnniy.
I - nn1a¬
I - Ona BB ynnneµcn1e1 n 1989 io,y.
A - :axonnn¬a
Activity Eighteen - Boceuna(na1oe sa(anne
Listening/Reading You will hear people answering the questions given below. Before
you listen, read the sentences in the table. Indicate in the spaces provided which speaker you
think will use each one. Then listen to the tape and check your answers. The first one is done
for you.
A Koi,a ni n noc¬e,nnn µa: nn¬n maxnancxoe'
I Koi,a ni n noc¬e,nnn µa: 6i¬n :a iµannnen'
B Koi,a ni n noc¬e,nnn µa: io1onn¬n o6e,'
I Koi,a ni n noc¬e,nnn µa: xo,n¬n n 1ea1µ'
Tax 6i¬o oneni »aµxo.
Bcex nonµann¬c× ,eceµ1.
× oneni ¬n6¬n xy:ixy ¹anxoncxoio.
A Ha cna,i6e ,µyia.
51o +x:o1nnecxa× c1µana.
M×co c onomaxn.
A On »enn¬c× na ani¬nnanxe.
«Lniennn Oneinn»
Bce 6i¬o oneni nxycno.
Activity Nineteen - ±enn1na(na1oe sa(anne
Listening/Writing Listen to the tape again and write down in Russian when each
activity happened.
1. On n noc¬e,nnn µa: nn¬ maxnancxoe
2. Ona n n noc¬e,nnn µa: 6i¬a :a iµannnen
3. Ona n noc¬e,nnn µa: io1onn¬a o6e,
4. On n noc¬e,nnn µa: 6i¬ n 1ea1µe
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Activity Twenty - ±na(na1oe sa(anne
Writing Look at the picture of Sveta and her husband Boris. They never do the
same things on the same day, for example:
Bneµa Cne1a xoµn¬a n xaia:nn.
Bneµa Ioµnc ne xoµn¬ n xaia:nn.
Write down what else happened or didn`t happen yesterday.
1. Cne1a ne cxo1µe¬a 1e¬enn:oµ.
Ioµnc
2. Ioµnc nn1a¬ ia:e1y.
Cne1a
3. Cne1a io1onn¬a y»nn.
Ioµnc
4. Ioµnc nn¬ nnno.
Cne1a
5. Cne1a e¬a moxo¬a,.
Ioµnc
Activity Twenty-One - ±n(a(na1t nepnoe sa(anne
Reading/Listening/Writing Read and translate the two texts below. There are
three factual mistakes in each text. Listen twice to the tape and find the correct details.
Write them down, as in the model provided.
Hépnmn ueuonéx n xocuóce
Cone1cxnn ¬e1nnx Iµnn Iaiaµnn c1a¬ neµnix ne¬onexox, xo1oµin no6ina¬
n xocxoce. 31o nµon:om¬o n 1961 io,y, ,nena,na1oio anµe¬×. Iaiaµnn nneµnie
o6¬e1e¬ 3ex¬n na xocxnnecxox xoµa6¬e «Boc1ox», xo1oµin necn¬ 5 1onn.
Ho¬e1 nµo,o¬»a¬c× 100 xnny1. Maxcnxa¬ina× nico1a 6i¬a 200 xn¬i.
1. Ho¬ë1 nµo,o¬»a¬c× ne 100 xnny1. On nµo,o¬»a¬c× 108 xnny1.
2.
3.
Glossary
conercknn nërunk the Soviet pilot oôneren 3emnn Ilew around the Earth
Iarapnn cran nepntm Gagarin was the Iirst na kocmnueckom in a space ship
uenonekom, koroptn man in space kopaône
noôtnan n kocmoce koroptn necnn which weighed
5ro nponsomno it happened nonër npoµonxancx the flight lasted
µnenaµnaroro anpenx on the 12th oI April makcnmantnax ntcora the maximum hight
nnepnie Ior the Iirst time 200 mnnt 200 miles
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Hépnmn ueuonéx na Hyné
Heµnin ne¬onex no6ina¬ na ¹yne n 1967 io,y. 51o nµon:om¬o ,na,na1i
neµnoio nn¬× n 3 naca 58 xnny1 y1µa. Axeµnxancxnn ac1µonan1 Hn¬
Aµxc1µoni noxnny¬ xocxnnecxnn xoµa6¬i «Ano¬¬o - 12» n c,e¬a¬ neµnin mai
na ¹yne.
Glossary
noôtnan na hyne was on the Moon amepnkancknn acrponanr the American astronaut
µnaµnart nepnoro nnnx on the 21st of July noknnyn kocmnuecknn kopaônt left the space ship
n 3 uaca 58 mnnyr yrpa at 3.58 a.m. cµenan nepntn mar made the first step
1.
2.
3.
The past tense when used to denote age
The neuter singular Iorm is used in phrases expressing age in the past tense:
Mne 6i¬o 18 ¬e1 Te6e 6i¬o 23 io,a Ln 6i¬o 8 ¬e1 Lxy 6i¬o 30 ¬e1 Hx 6i¬o 19 ¬e1
I was 18 years old You were 23 She was 8 He was 30 They were 19
years old years old years old years old
Note: iI the last digit oI the number is 1 (except in the case oI 11 which complies with the above rule) the
masculine singular Iorm is used:
Mne 6i¬ 21 io, Te6e 6i¬ 31 io, Ln 6i¬ 1 io, Lxy 6i¬ 41 io, Hx 6i¬ 51 io,
Activity Twenty-Two - ±na(na1t n1opoe sa(anne
Writing Look at the pictures below and write down, in Russian, how old these
people are now and how old they were at different times in the past.
10 ¬e1 24 io,a 56 ¬e1
Cennac exy 10 ¬e1. Cennac ______________ Cennac ______________
2 io,a na:a, _________ 3 io,a na:a, _________ 6 ¬e1 na:a, __________
7 ¬e1 na:a, __________ 5 ¬e1 na:a, __________ 15 ¬e1 na:a, _________
9 ¬e1 na:a, __________ 13 ¬e1 na:a, _________ 18 ¬e1 na:a, _________
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REFLEXIVE VERBS
All Russian verbs ending with the particle -cn in the inIinitive are called reIlexive verbs. In the
present tense they conjugate like any other verb oI a given type. To determine the type oI the
reIlexive verb simply ignore the particle; Ior example, the verb »enn1ic× is oI the same
type as the verb ionoµn1i. The only thing to keep in mind is that the particle -cn changes
to -ct when preceded by a vowel:
Present tense
ionoµn1i »enn1ic×
× ionoµn × »enn - ci
1i ionoµnmi 1i »ennmi - c×
on/ona/ono ionoµn1 on/ona/ono »enn1 - c×
xi ionoµnx xi »ennx - c×
ni ionoµn1e ni »enn1e - ci
onn ionoµ×1 onn »en×1 - c×
Past tense
In order to Iorm the masculine past tense oI reIlexive verbs replace the -1t oI the inIinitive
by -u, leaving the particle -cn in place:
nc1µe1n1ic× (inIinitive) - nc1µe1n¬c× (past m)
In order to Iorm the Ieminine, neuter and plural Iorms in the past tense add -a, -o and -n
respectively to the masculine Iorm. The particle -cn changes to -ct when preceded by a
vowel:
nc1µe1n¬c× (past m), nc1µe1n¬aci (past I), nc1µe1n¬oci (past n), nc1µe1n¬nci
(past pl)
Activity Twenty-Three - ±na(na1t 1pe1te sa(anne
Writing The table below is partially completed with reflexive verbs from the text in
Activity Nine. Eill in the remaining spaces in the table.
infinitive past (m sing) past (f sing) past (n sing) past (pl)
poµnrtcx
ynnekancx
npannrtcx npannnoct
nsmennnoct
xennrtcx* 0 0
pasopnnnct
yunncx
* This verb applies only to men; a different one ntnrn samyx :a (¹ acc) is used for women.
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Activity Twenty-Four - ±na(na1t ue1nëp1oe sa(anne
Writing Eill in the gaps using the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense and form.
1. Iµnn Iaiaµnn ___________ (µo,n1ic×) n 1934 io,y, a eio c1aµma× ,oni
___________ (µo,n1ic×) n 1959 io,y. 2. Cennac Maxcnx ___________ (ynn1ic×)
n Mocxoncxox ynnneµcn1e1e, a µanime on ___________ (ynn1ic×) n mxo¬e. 3. B
nµom¬ox io,y Cne1a oneni ___________ (yn¬exa1ic×) non-xy:ixon, a cennac
en 6o¬ime ___________ (nµann1ic×) x¬accnnecxa× xy:ixa. 4. Mon µo,n1e¬n
___________ (nc1µe1n1ic×) 20 ¬e1 na:a,. 5. Mi c cec1µon __________ (µo,n1ic×)
n o,nn n 1o1 »e ,eni. 6. Cennac × ___________ (yn¬exa1ic×) 1ea1µox n
¬n1eµa1yµon, a xon 6µa1i× ___________ (yn¬exa1ic×) 1ennncox n qy16o¬ox.
7. Hioµi ___________ (nc1µe1n1ic×) c Maµnnon 2 io,a na:a, n .___________
(»enn1ic×) na nen n nµom¬ox io,y.
How to answer the question B xaxox ioµy ...' (In which year ...?`)
Years in Russian are expressed by ordinal numerals; e.g. cennac 1ic×na ,en×1ico1 ,en×noc1o n×1in
io, - it is 1995 now` (literally: it is the 1995th year now`).
To answer the above question use the Prepositional case. In Chapter Seven you learned that in
compound numbers only the the Iinal component has the Iorm oI an ordinal number and is declined.
ThereIore, iI you want to say in 1995`, only the last digit should be used in the Prepositional case:
n 1ic×na ,en×1ico1 ,en×noc1o n×1ox io,y - in 1995
Note that the Iinal component oI a compound number may contain more than one digit:
n 1ic×na ,en×1nco1ox* io,y in 1900 (three digits)
n 1ic×na ,en×1ico1 nocixn,ec×1ox io,y in 1980 (two digits)
* Remember: ordinal numbers Irom 50th to 80th and Irom 500th to 900th have a central -n- which appears
in place oI the central -t- in cardinal numbers. The central -n- appears in all cases:
1ic×na mec1nco1in io, / n 1ic×na mec1nco1ox io,y 1600 / in 1600
1ic×na ,en×1ico1 mec1n,ec×1in io, / n 1ic×na ,en×1ico1 in 1960
mec1n,ec×1ox io,y
Activity Twenty-Five - ±na(na1t nn1oe sa(anne
Speaking Say in Russian in which year each of the people pictured below was born
and died.
mexcnnµ Hymxnn Meµn¬nn Monµo
(1564 - 1616) (1799 - 1837) (1926 - 1962)
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THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE AFTER THE VERBS BBTB, CTATB AND PABOTATB
The Russian verbs 6i1i, c1a1i and µa6o1a1i take the Instrumental case oI the Iollowing noun in
constructions like 6i1i/c1a1i nµanox - to be/become a doctor` and µa6o1a1i nµanox - to work
as a doctor`. This rule applies to all tenses. However, remember that the verb to be - 6i1i does not have
a present tense Iorm in Russian, thereIore the Nominative case is used: on nµan - he is a doctor`.
Activity Twenty-Six - ±na(na1t mec1oe sa(anne
Reading/Speaking Read the Curriculum Vitae given below and tell the story of
Alexander`s life in Russian.
An1o6noiµa]n×
Hx×, qaxn¬n×, o1nec1no: A¬excan,µ B¬a,nxnµonnn 3axaµon
Io, µo»,enn×: 1960
Mec1o µo»,enn×: Mocxna
O6µa:onanne: Mocxoncxa× mxo¬a N3, 1967 - 1977
Mocxoncxnn ynnneµcn1e1, 1977 - 1982
Hµoqeccn×: 6no¬oi
Pa6o1a: 1982 - 1984 ynn1e¬i 6no¬oinn (mxo¬a N 15)
1984 - 1989 nµeno,ana1e¬i 6no¬oinn
(ne,nnc1n1y1)
1989 - 1990 6e:µa6o1nin
1990 - ,o nac1o×meio nµexenn 6no¬oi -
xoncy¬i1an1 (Hnc1n1y1 oxµani nµnµo,i )
Cexi×: o1en - B¬a,nxnµ He1µonnn 3axaµon,
nencnoneµ
xa1i - Hnna Hnanonna 3axaµona, nµan
(6o¬innna N1)
Iµax: 1985, »ena - O¬iia Ioµnconna Iµanena,
neµeno,nnx
,e1n: ,oni (io, µo»,enn× - 1987)
Xo66n: aµxn1ex1yµa, 1ea1µ, 1ennnc
Activity Twenty-Seven - ±na(na1t ce(tuoe sa(anne
Speaking/Writing Pairwork. Enquire about your partner `s Curriculum Vitae in
Russian and write down the details. Tell the group what you have found out. (You haven`t yet
learnt how to use the phrase for from ... to ...`with dates, so avoid this construction.)
an1o6noiµaqn× curriculum vitae 6e:µa6o1nin/-a× unemployed
io, µo»,enn× year oI birth ,o nac1o×meio nµexenn until the present time
xec1o µo»,enn× place oI birth xoncy¬i1an1 consultant
o6µa:onanne education Hnc1n1y1 oxµani Environmental Protection
6no¬oi biologist nµnµo,i Institute
6no¬oin× biology nencnoneµ pensioner
nµeno,ana1e¬i (m) lecturer, teacher 6µax marriage
ne,nnc1n1y1 pedagogical institute aµxn1ex1yµa architecture
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Faôymka, µeµymka n nnyk

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