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A Real-Time Way to Turn Urban Environments into Music

Noah Vawter
Thesis Proposal for e!ree of Master of "cience# $all %&&'
Thesis A)visor
*hris *si+s,entmihalyi
Professor of Me)ia Arts an) "ciences
M-T Me)ia .aboratory
Thesis Rea)er
/arry Vercoe
Professor of Me)ia Arts 0 "ciences
M-T Me)ia .aboratory
Thesis Rea)er
ou!las Repetto
irector of Research
*olumbia University# *omputer Music *enter1
Table of Contents
-ntro)uction# Motivation an) -nspiration11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111114
Prior E5plorations11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111116
7verview an) Physical escription11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111118
Analysis# Processin! an) "ynthesis1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111119
As human civili,ation )evises ever more powerful machines# livin! amon! them may
become more )ifficult1 We may fin) ourselves surroun)e) by inci)entally create) soun)s an)
noises# out of synchroni,ation with our momentary nee)s an) )iscor)ant1 *urrently#
le!islatin! noise pollution is the only articulate) solution an) clearly it is not very effective1
7ur impression of soun)# however# may be me)iate) an) manipulate)# transforme) into
somethin! less :arrin!1 "o far# Wal+mans an) soun) cancelin! hea)phones have )one this#
isolatin! us from noise but also from one another1 -n their place# a ne5t !eneration
hea)phone system is propose) which inte!rates environmental soun) into a personal
soun)scape1 -t allows one to synthesi,e music from environmental soun) usin! a number of
)i!ital si!nal processin! ;"P< al!orithms to create a sonic space in which the listener
remains connecte) with his or her surroun)in!s# is also cushione) from the most harsh an)
arrhythmic incursions an) may also be )rawn to appreciate the more subtle an) ele!ant
Introduction, Motivation and Inspiration
The i)ea for this pro:ect came after e5periencin! a hi!h-pitche) s=uealin! an)
e5ten)e) !ratin! of the bus bra+es in the city where - live1 The s=ueal !enerate) by the
friction between the bra+e pa)s an) the rotors ha) a particular character1 "imilar in ori!in to
a bowe) violin strin!# it hel) its pitch as the spee) of the bus slowe)# but resoun)e) throu!h
the sonically hi)eous frame an) panels of the city bus instea) of the critically-)esi!ne) bo)y
of a violin1 -nstea) of the !in!erly-space) overtones of a strin!e) instrument !ently
communicatin! a pitch to my min)# the inharmonic tones of the manma)e vehicle pose) a
=uestion at the hi!hest level of ur!ency> What is !oin! on? - wante) to hear a response to
the blarin! soun)1 Perhaps somethin! soothin!# li+e the e5clamation of @E5cuse meA@
followin! a )is!ustin! belch1
The bus soun)e) as if a )o,en chil)ren with tin whistles each pic+e) a ran)om note
an) pipe) away at it1 -t was hi!hly )issonant# but composers an) con)uctors are able to lea)
instrumental soun) into an) out of )issonances with a terrific )ynamic ran!e1 .ouis *urran#
Professor Emeritus of Music Theory an) Music Bistory at WP-# or!ani,e) compositional
styles by the way they resolve )issonance1 E5trapolatin!# it is possible to create an intelli!ent
system that analy,es soun)scapes an) ma+es them more harmonious1
To )o this# one must in=uire> What partials are in the s=ueal? What harmony )i) it
resemble? What chor) woul) resolve it? $urther soun)s amon! the urban cacophony may
be consi)ere)1 Many have a tonal component# others are rhythmic1 - propose the city may
be seen not in terms of the relationships of the people formin! it or the treasures within it# but
by the vibrations of all its physical ob:ects formin! a continuous an) hapha,ar) concatenation
of )isor)ere) pitches1 This is neither compose) nor improvise)# but may in some cases be
While nearly every soun) means somethin! useful to the person closest to it ;if not in
physical pro5imity then in operation or )esi!n<# in a )ensely populate) environment# one is
)estine) by pro5imity to perceive meanin!less emanations1 We may have !otten use) to this
routine cacophony# but this thesis proposes to e5plore what it woul) be li+e to or)er the
soun)1 Not to re!ulate every soun)-causin! movement within it# but to )evelop )i!ital si!nal
processin! ;"P< techni=ues to simulate human perception of a busy scene an) reconfi!ure
To have complete control however woul) mean isolation# never nee)in! to learn to
ne!otiate an) never !ettin! pleasantly surprise)1 "ince the essence of city life is e5posure to
an) sharin! a variety of i)eas# even if some of them are not imme)iately palatable# elitism
behin) a Wal+man or soun)-cancelin! hea)phones is unacceptable1 Techni=ues for
cushionin! the harshest soun)s# an) a))in! variety to the monotonous ones is more enticin!1
$or e5ample# why must every note soun)e) from the spea+er of a reversin! truc+ have the
same pitch? Why not transform every fourth one into a lea)in! tone? Perhaps a bass line
coul) be a))e)1 The !oal of this pro:ect is to reconfi!ure urban au)io space into a personally
inspirin! an) soothin! environment1
This thesis may lea) to many thin!s1 -t may inspire people to )esi!n more systems
that inte!rate ambient soun) with musical compositions# recallin! some of the ori!inal
impetus for ma+in! live music# before recor)in! was possible1 Also# it may encoura!e
)esi!ners of anythin! soun)-emittin! to more carefully consi)er interactions amon! soun)-
emitters1 $or e5ample# the +eypa) beeps of a):acent automate) teller machines ;ATMs<
coul) be altere) to form a chor)1 -nstea) of varyin! continuously# elevator motors coul) run
at RPMs to form a simple motif1 Maybe =uieter shippin! containers coul) be )esi!ne)1 An)
=uite simply# maybe it will ma+e people more consi)erate to others1
.on!er term# it woul) be nice if this thesis were to lea) to an rise in flaneurs- urban
wan)erers see+in! novelty- because the remi5e) soun) will encoura!e people to re-
e5perience familiar areas throu!h the ears of the )evice# an) lure them into e5plorin! areas
they have never been1 -t may even influence the layout of mo)ern cities1 $or e5ample# it
mi!ht lea) one to consi)er )ifferent# more consonant )esi!ns of au)ible systems li+e
crosswal+ si!nals# automobile mufflers an) subway tunnels1 7nce )esi!ners an) planners
receive a vision of a more consonant-soun)in! city# it mi!ht encoura!e them to locate noisy
artifices li+e chemical plants away from resi)ences1 -t mi!ht persua)e city planners to
consi)er not only volume levels# but pitches in local soun) or)inances1 -t mi!ht inspire
)esi!ners of lar!e machines li+e construction e=uipment to consi)er au)itory harmony an)
rhythm in the mechanical operation1
Prior Explorations
-n their paper @"mart Bea)phones#@ "umit /asu an) Ale5 Pentlan) at the M-T Me)ia
.ab )escribe a reality-me)iation pro:ect base) on hea)phones# microphones an) si!nal
processin! C/asu %&&2D1 -n the conte5t of my pro:ect# their wor+ is interestin! because it
)emonstrates a system with e5ternal co!nition that shapes the perception of a wearerEs
sonic environment1 Their paper be!ins @Thou!h our ears are won)erful instruments# there
are times when they simply cannot han)le everythin! we nee) them to#@ which is similar to
the basis of my ar!ument> -n the millions of years of evolution lea)in! to the construction of
my hearin! system# the inharmonic soun)s of arbitrary metal shapes have probably only
influence) the last 2&&& years to even the tiniest )e!ree1 -t is therefore a strain for the
human min) to interpret some of the new soun)s1
Bowever# /asu an) Pentlan)Es pro:ect resulte) in a )ifferent system1 -t only lets in
human speech from the outsi)e worl)# superimposin! it over prerecor)e) music1 This is an
improvement over certain situations# but in rich environments# censors too much interestin!
information1 -t trea)s on the i)eals of the flFneur who roams the streets in search of @bustle#
!ossip an) beauty1@ C.evi %&&4D Alon! with the hon+in! horns an) crossin! si!nals# one
woul) miss the rin!in! of bells# the clamorin! sirens an) warblin! bir)s1 -t woul) overloo+
cultural )ifferences such as the )istinction between the American RepublicEs sine wave
mo)ulate) police sirens an) the European tritonic version1
Artists have also a))resse) some of these i)eas1 $or e5ample# .ui!i Russolo wrote a
manifesto title) the Art of Noises in 2923 CRussolo 2923D1 This brief )ocument
circumscribes the sonic environment from @ancient life@ until 2923# with prescriptions for the
future1 -t )escribes soun)Es evolution as ever-!rowin! in comple5ity an) from mystery to
ecstasy to te)ium1 Be writes @$or many years /eethoven an) Wa!ner shoo+ our nerves
an) hearts1 Now we are satiate) an) we fin) far more en:oyment in the combination of the
noises of trams# bac+firin! motors# carria!es an) bawlin! crow)s1@ Be beseeches
composers to brea+ out of the monotony of the music of their time by recastin! the soun)s
aroun) him into a composition with han)-built noise-!eneratin! instruments1 Be writes @We
are therefore certain that by selectin!# coor)inatin! an) )ominatin! all noises we will enrich
men with a new an) une5pecte) sensual pleasure1@
- a!ree with his sentiment completely - that ta+in! control of the environment aroun)
oneself an) or)erin! it can be use) to stimulate emotion1 Bowever# - choose to help the
noise become music# rather than perform concerts usin! those noises# which the $uturists
Another artist who e5amine) the soun)s of the city is -ori Na+ai CNa+ai %&&3D1 -n %&&3#
he )emonstrate) @"treetscape@ in .in,1 This is an interactive loo+ at urban acoustics# but
no processin! is involve)1 -n this art piece# map representations of To+yo an) .in, are
presente) to visitors alon! with a stylus1 As the visitor moves the stylus over various parts
of the city# recor)e) soun)s from that re!ion play bac+1 Thus the piece is an inversion of
this thesis1 -t ben)s the !oals of the flFneur in the )irection of voyeur# an) therefore
isolation1 -t is relevant# however for its presentation of soun) as an e5ploration an) a
choice1 "imilarly# my )evice will encoura!e one to e5perience portions of the city outsi)e
oneEs vital paths an) possibly to alter behavior to ten) towar) particularly e5citin! areas1 -n
contrast# my )evice will not enable one to )o this anonymously# nor as rapi)ly1
*oinci)entally# the concepts of anonymity an) rapi)ity of access are +eys to un)erstan)in!
the mo)ern )ebates over public photo!raphy an) privacy1
Another artist who e5perimente) with the mobile hea)phoneGmicrophone combination is
A+itsu!u Maebayashi CMaebayashi %&&&D1 -n %&&&# he e5hibite) a piece which sou!ht to
process the environment althou!h with very mo)est intentions1 Rather than respon) to the
environment in a manner base) on human perception# it simply steppe) throu!h a fi5e)
se=uence of echoes an) reverberation# !enerally causin! an even more )isconcertin!
effect than bein! in the city1 Nevertheless# this piece is important for two reasons1 $irst# it
confirms the appeal of a lively processe) environment1 An) most importantly# it contributes
the i)ea that one can compose a se=uence of processin! parameters# that the
transformation of an environment can have varyin! mo)es1 This superimposes the i)ea of
a @son!@ onto the outsi)e worl)# !ivin! a more reco!ni,able an) repeatable construction1
7ne of the neat thin!s about this is that a flFneur can# as with any !oo) composition# learn
to anticipate chan!es in the soun)# an) relocate his physical presence to one where the
processin! will be especially appropriate1
-n %&&'# - )emonstrate) a pro:ect calle) @"onic Authority@ CVawter %&&'D 1 -n "onic
Authority# manma)e machines with perio)ic waveforms such as air con)itioners# electric
power transformers an) uni)entifie) telephone pole e=uipment were analy,e) to )etermine
the )ominant perceive) tone1 Permanent# official-loo+in! ta!s were printe) an) affi5e) on or
near the )evices )eclarin! the machinesE contribution to the au)ible scene1
$inally# - was inspire) by a se!ment - hear) on a ra)io show in which a man wal+e)
aroun) New Hor+ *ity with a car)boar) tube1 Be ha) calculate) the resonant pitch of the
tube to be /-flat an) was lettin! people listen to the soun)s of the city as they were
sustaine) by the tube1
Related Psychoacoustical Research
The propose) )evice inten)s to manipulate ima!es of the surroun)in! sonic
environments into tonal music1 To )o this# it will measure the sample) soun)Es features# then
process the soun) numerically so it more closely follows the pre-compose) musical structure
store) insi)e1 Not every musical characteristic humans perceive can be reliably computer
calculate)# but it is an active area of research1 The most important musical characteristics in
this conte5t are volume# +ey# )issonance# an) tempo1
Althou!h it may seem simple# the impression of volume has some important nuances1
This is evi)ent in the well-+nown $letcher an) Munson curves an) mas+in! ma+es it even
more )ifficult to pre)ict Cowlin! an) Barwoo) 2986D1 etection of +ey throu!h inte!ration of
overtones is nicely e5plaine) in Wei *haiEs paper Automate) Analysis of Musical "tructure
C*hai %&&'D1 -n 2I%%# Jean-Phillippe offere) a very early loo+ at )issonance# as )erive) from
the ratios of harmonic instruments ;without re!ar) to tonality< CRameau 2I%%D1 The topic of
)issonance an) its role in composition was important throu!hout Western music an) is the
topic of numerous te5tboo+s such as Barmony CPiston 2942D1 -n the secon) half of the %&th
century# computation of )issonance for arbitrary !roups of nonharmonic tones was e5amine)
in the often reference) paper @*onsonance Theory Part --> *onsonance of *omple5 Tones
an) -ts *alculation Metho)@ CKameosha 2969D1 Auto)etection of tempo is notably e5amine)
in @Tempo an) /eat Analysis of Acoustic Musical "i!nals@ C"cheirer 2998D1 $inally# in a))ition
to musical features# the relationship between )issonance# spectra an) the construction of
unevenly space) scales !ets intense scrutiny in Tunin!# Timbre# "pectrum# "cale C"ethares
Overview and Physical Description
The har)ware pro)uce) will be a small pac+a!e which fits in the poc+et of the flFneurEs
clothin!1 -t will listen to the environment surroun)in! the flFneur an) transform it accor)in!
the schemas of a short album of son!s1 -t will have an onGoff switch# volume control an) a
@tunin! a):ustment1@ A pair of over-the-ear hea)phones on a sin!le cable will be attache)1
-n a))ition to the hea)phonesE spea+ers# one small microphone will be mounte) on the
outsi)e of each ear1
The microphonesE purpose is to pro)uce an ima!e of the au)ible worl) surroun)in! the
listener1 The tunin! a):ustment is to select mo)es or son!s1 The pro!ression throu!h the
album will be similar to an E5ten)e) Play recor)# yet implemente) as an analo! ra)io-style
tunin! +nob with simulate) static in or)er to un)erscore the concept of a !ra)e) inte!ration
with the environment# as oppose) to the )i!ital inGout of * player trac+s1 $urthermore# the
fa+e static sustains the impression of the music an) soun) comin! from @out there@ rather
than @in here1@
The har)ware will most li+ely be implemente) usin! a )evelopment boar) base) on the
Analo! evices ;A-< /lac+fin i!ital "i!nal Processor ;"P<1 This is )esirable because it
has a lar!e amount of processin! power ;21' billion multiply an) accumulate operations per
secon) is consi)ere) lar!e for a portable system by to)ayEs stan)ar)s<# can be
pro!ramme) in *LL an) has the .inu5 environment available for it1 At present the
Vic*ore'3M )evelopment boar) from Voice -nterconnect# a Nerman company# is )esire)1
The har)ware will also have a stereo co)ec an) 2G8@ :ac+s for hea)phone output an)
microphone input1 *ustom mo)ification will be necessary to implement the tunin! +nob1
/ase) on unfortunate e5periences with *hiclet# the "P Musicbo5# a protective case will be
)esi!ne) to cover the printe) circuit boar)1
7ne !oal of this pro:ect is to subtly mi5 fantasy an) reality1 This will be )one by carefully
consi)erin! which si!nal processin! al!orithms to apply1 $or e5ample> When it is
necessary to pro)uce as realistic-soun)in! an environment as possible# al!orithms such as
e=uali,ation# linear filterin! ;$-Rs an) --Rs< pitch-scalin!# an) samplin! will be use)1 -n
lesser measure# unnatural soun)in! al!orithms such as waveshapin! )istortion# bit
re)uction# rin! mo)ulation# aliasin! an) wavetableGa))itive synthesis will be use)1
Another !oal of this pro:ect is to ensure that it is not overly sin!ular1 This means that in
the near future# someone else shoul) be able to pic+ it up an) create their own al!orithms
with it1 Therefore# an e5tension lan!ua!e will be create) for operatin! on the environmental
noise1 -t will be similar to *soun)# but have much hi!her level primitives1 The e5tension
lan!ua!e is inten)e) to survive the physical pro:ect1
Analysis, Processin and !ynthesis
The analysis routines will !et their input )ata from the Analo! to i!ital *onverters
;A*s<1 All si!nal paths will be stereo# fi5e)-point )ata at 4412KB, rate for hi!h =uality1 ata
will be operate) on in win)ows whose si,e will be pic+e) base) upon e5perimentation# since
there is a system of tra)eoffs between imme)iacyG)elay# processin! efficiency an) processin!
Analysis an) synthesis are operations which re=uire computational resources# which
are typically measure) in percent of *PU usa!e or number cycles per secon) run time# e1!1
M-P" ;Millions of -nstructions Per "econ)<1 Niven the limite) number of M-P"# allocation
)ecisions must be ma)e1 "ince the )evice will pro)uce a variety of )ifferent outputs# it will
utili,e a number of synthesis techni=ues# each of which will re=uire a varyin! number of
M-P"1 $or simplicity# the analysis an) synthesis routines will each be re=uire) to utili,e less
than '&O of the available M-P"1 -t is e5pecte) that the analysis routines will always occupy
the same number of M-P"1
The basic flow of si!nal processin! will traverse a simple networ+ of analysis#
processin! an) synthesis mo)ules1 "ee $i!ure 21
Illustration 1Block Diagram of Signal Processing Flow
The analysis routines form a mostly se=uential processin! chain# with outputs ta+en at
each lin+ available to the main se=uencer1 -n the first step in the chain# the soun) will be
filtere) usin! the -nnerG7uter ear transform as in @"+eleton@ CJehan %&&4D1 This e=uali,ation
sta!e is )one when processin! microphone input to more closely resemble the au)io a
human ear woul) hear1 -t may also be twea+e) to account for the transfer function of the
microphones1 $ollowin! the E1P1# one stream will be sent to a beat )etection mo)ule# which
will supply the main se=uencer with tempo an) rhythm )ata1 The e=uali,e) soun) stream will
also be continuously supplie) to the $ast $ourier Transform routine1 The fre=uency )omain
)ata will be supplie) to Kameo+a an) Kuriya!awaEs )issonance measurement al!orithm
CKameo+a 2969D1 The fre=uency )omain )ata will also be supplie) to the ominant Pitch
Analysis mo)ule1 The )ominant pitch )ata forwar) )ata to the *hroma!ram computation
-n the previously mentione) wor+ "onic Authority# the analysis be!an with samples of
each )evice1 $or noise immunity# lon!# 3& secon) win)ows were use) 1 Ne5t the $ast
$ourier Transform ;$$T< was compute)1 This resulte) in a spectrum with about 2#&&&#&&&
bins ;442&& samples per secon) Q 3& secon)s<1 To transform this into a )ominant fre=uency#
the bins were use) to compute 2%2 sums# one for each step of the au)ible 2&-octave
chromatic scale1 Each sum in)icates the relative )ominance of one note1 $or e5ample# to
fin) the )ominance of note A-4# the total of every bin whose fre=uency is within %'O of an
inte!er multiple of the 44& B, fun)amental is summe)1 The )ominance levels are then
compare)# an) the most )ominant is reporte)1 This metho) is similar in spirit to computin!
the *hroma!ram C*hai %&&'D an) computin! the *onstant P Transform C/rown 2989D1 $or
e5ample output# see $i!ure %1
7nce compute)# the )ominant fre=uency spectrum is of !reat usefulness1 -ts outputs
can be rea)ily applie) to computin! the +ey of the piece1 This is a useful piece of information
because it can inform how to harmoni,e1 -n practice# the precision of the spectral )ominance
al!orithm varie) with the sample) location1 "ome soun)s resulte) in =uite narrow ban)s#
an) it was possible to name the )ominant pitch by fin)in! the ma5imum value on the 2%2-
value !raph1 7ther soun)s pro)uce) small clusters of )ominance# from 3-9 semitones wi)e#
whose amplitu)es were within 'O of each other1 "uch clusters are hi!hly )issonant# an) it is
the !oal of this pro:ect to turn such )issonance into music an) improve the =uality of the
al!orithm1 There are many ways to interpret such results an) one of the !oals is to e5plore
Techni=ues for the system coul) come from many places1 They will be both
)iscovere) an) inspire) from other musicians1 $or e5ample# :a,, musician Thelonious Mon+
woul) play a cluster of semitones# then release all but one +ey# creatin! a very )issonant
attac+ on an otherwise normal note1 To mimic this effect insi)e the listenerEs environment#
two envelopin! filters woul) be employe)1 $irst# the cluster of notes woul) be attenuate) with
either an array of comb or notch filters1 This woul) virtually eliminate the )issonant soun)
from the environment1 Then# to sustain connection with the listenerEs environment# a secon)
filter or filter ban+ woul) be use) to isolate only one note from the cluster at a time an) remi5
it in1 $urthermore# the reintro)uce) note coul) be varie) with time# creatin! a melo)ic line1
Another response to the )issonant soun) woul) be to harmoni,e with it1 This is the
response offere) by Kelly obson in @Machine Therapy@ Cobson %&&%D1 -n her pro:ect# the
human listener harmoni,es with a machineEs movements an) au)ible vibrations1 *omputer
musicians have ta+en all +in)s of approaches towar) autoharmony1 7ne area to e5plore is
when to mi5 in realistic vs1 fantastic instruments1 A realistic instrument woul) have a similar
harmonic spectrum to the ori!inal1 Wei *haiEs paper# for e5ample# )escribes the comparison
Illustration 2Dominant Pitches in Unidentified Telephone Pole Equipment
of o)) an) even harmonic levels to !et an ima!e of timbre1
Another set of techni=ues is base) on William "etharesE i)eas C"ethares %&&'D1 Be
e5amines the peculiar spectra of naturally-occurrin! roc+s# )escribin! how K0KEs )issonance
al!orithm informs a particular musical scale1 -t woul) be possible to automate his
metho)olo!y in or)er to create scales in real time1 After calculatin! the non-chromatic scale#
an a))itive synthesis metho) woul) be use) to play melo)ies usin! the new instrument1 This
is an important reference point for analy,in! manma)e noise because often physical )esi!n
of machines such as vehicle transmissions create similar !roups of soun)s whose
fun)amental fre=uencies scale at the same rate# but are inharmonic1
December 2005 - -nitial )evelopment activities such as portin! .inu5 to the Vic*ore
)evelopment boar) will ta+e place1
January 2006 - The har)ware# inclu)in! hea)phones# microphones# tunin! +nob# case
an) battery system will be constructe)1
February 2006 - The initial "P mo)ules an) e5tension lan!ua!e will be )evelope)1
emos of each al!orithm will be presente) to rea)ers for criti=ue1
March 2006 - The system will be teste) e5tensively in several cities1 An online au)io
:ournal will be +ept in several cities for rea)ers to criti=ue1
April 2006 - Writin! the thesis will be!in1
May 2006 - Writin! the thesis will continue1
Vic*ore '35-7EM /lac+fin "P evelopment /oar)
-N.77 Parallel Port -*E ;-n *ircuit Emulator<
A reformulate) Wal+man-li+e )evice that transforms the sonic environment into music1
New al!orithms to transform )isor)ere) manma)e noise into music1
An evaluation of which al!orithms are best suite) to the !oals1
C/asu %&&2D /asu# "1 an) Pentlan)# A1 ;%&&2< @"mart Bea)phones#@ Procee)in!s of
*B- %&&2# "eattle# WA1
C.evi %&&4D .evi# .awrence1 ;%&&4< $laneur ma!a,ine# %&&41 /roo+lyn# New Hor+1
CRussolo 2923D Russolo# .1 ;2923< RSThe Art of Noises1S Translate) by Robert $illiou
296I# Nreat /ear Pamphlet# "omethin! Else Press1
CNa+ai %&&3D -ori Na+ai1 ;%&&3< "treetscape1 Ars Electronica# .in, %&&31
CMaebayashi %&&&D Maebayashi# A+itsu!u1 ;%&&< @"onic -nterface@# e5hibite) in To+yo1
CVawter %&&'D Vawter# Noah1 ;%&&'< @"onic Authority1@ e5hibite) in *ambri)!e1
Cowlin! 2986D ownlin! an) Barwoo)# ;2986< Music *o!nition# Aca)emic Press#
7rlan)o1 pp1 46-491
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CRameau 2I%%D Jean-Philippe Rameau ;2I%%<1 Treatise on Barmony# translate) from
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"i!nals1@ J1 Acoust1 "oc1 Am1 2&3>2 ;Jan 2998<# pp '88-6&21
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Transform@ J1 Acoust1 "oc1 Am1 89 4%'-4341
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