ROBOT Millennium Version 20.

0 - Training Manual page: 1
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Table of Contents
1. 3D FRAME (WITH THE USE OF THE ROBOT MILLENNIUM LAYOUTS)............................... 5
1.1 STRUCTURE MODEL DEFINITION.................................................................................................. 6
1.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS................................................................................................................. 10
1.3 RESULT ANALYSIS......................................................................................................................... 10
1.4 STEEL DESIGN................................................................................................................................ 11
1.5 DESIGN OF STEEL CONNECTIONS............................................................................................... 12
1.6 STRESS ANALYSIS.......................................................................................................................... 13
2. 2D FRAME (WITHOUT THE USE OF THE ROBOT MILLENNIUM LAYOUTS) .................... 15
2.1 STRUCTURE MODEL DEFINITION................................................................................................ 16
2.1.1 Structure Bar Definition .............................................................................................................. 17
2.1.2 Library Structure Definition ........................................................................................................ 18
2.1.3 Support Definition ....................................................................................................................... 20
2.1.4 Load Case Definition................................................................................................................... 21
2.1.5 Definition of Loads for Generated Cases ..................................................................................... 21
2.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS................................................................................................................. 23
2.3 RESULT ANALYSIS......................................................................................................................... 23
2.4 RC BEAM DESIGN WITH TORSION CONSIDERED...................................................................... 25
2.5 RC COLUMN DESIGN ..................................................................................................................... 26
2.6 DESIGN OF RC MEMBERS ............................................................................................................. 29
3. CONCRETE SLAB............................................................................................................................ 31
3.1 STRUCTURE MODEL DEFINITION................................................................................................ 31
3.1.1 Contour Definition....................................................................................................................... 31
3.1.2 Mesh Definition........................................................................................................................... 32
3.1.3 Slab Properties ............................................................................................................................ 32
3.1.4 Opening Properties...................................................................................................................... 33
3.1.5 Support Definition ....................................................................................................................... 33
3.1.6 Load Case Definition................................................................................................................... 34
3.1.7 Definition of Loads for Generated Cases ..................................................................................... 35
3.1.8 Display of Generated Load Cases................................................................................................ 36
3.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS / RESULTS (MAPS ON PANELS CUTS)................................................ 38
3.3 CALCULATIONS OF THE REQUIRED (THEORETICAL) REINFORCEMENT AREA.................. 40
3.4. CALCULATIONS OF THE PROVIDED (REAL) REINFORCEMENT AREA................................. 41
3.4.1 Verification.................................................................................................................................. 42
4. EXAMPLES OF STRUCTURE DEFINITIONS (EXTRUDE AND REVOLVE OPTIONS).......... 44
4.1 SILO.................................................................................................................................................. 44
4.2 COOLER............................................................................................................................................ 49
4.3 PIPELINE.......................................................................................................................................... 51
4.4 AXISYMMETRIC STRUCTURES .................................................................................................... 54
5. DESIGN OF A 2D FRAME................................................................................................................ 59
5.1 STRUCTURE MODEL DEFINITION................................................................................................ 60
5.2 DEFINITION OF LOAD CASES AND LOADS ................................................................................ 61
5.3 DEFINITION OF SNOW/WIND LOADS .......................................................................................... 62
5.4 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS................................................................................................................. 63
5.5 DETAILED ANALYSIS.................................................................................................................... 63
5.6 STRUCTURE DESIGN...................................................................................................................... 65
5.7 GLOBAL ANALYSIS........................................................................................................................ 67
5.8 DESIGN OF STEEL CONNECTIONS............................................................................................... 68
5.9 PRINTOUT COMPOSITION............................................................................................................. 69
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6. DEFINITION OF MOVING LOADS FOR A 2D FRAME............................................................... 71
6.1 DEFINITION OF THE STRUCTURE MODEL.................................................................................. 72
6.1.1 Definition of Structure Bars......................................................................................................... 72
6.1.2 Definition of Library Structures (a Roof and an Overhead Traveling Crane Beam)...................... 73
6.1.3 Support Definition ....................................................................................................................... 75
6.1.4 Definition of Structure Loads....................................................................................................... 76
6.1.5 Definition of a Moving Load Applied to the Structure.................................................................. 77
6.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS................................................................................................................. 79
6.3 PRESENTATION OF THE VEHICLE AND THE MOVING LOAD CASE....................................... 80
6.4 RESULT ANALYSIS......................................................................................................................... 80
6.5 INFLUENCE LINES.......................................................................................................................... 81
7. 3D WORKSHOP WITH A MOVING CRANE................................................................................. 83
7.1 DEFINITION OF THE STRUCTURE MODEL.................................................................................. 84
7.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS................................................................................................................. 96
7.3 STRUCTURE DESIGN...................................................................................................................... 98
7.4 INFLUENCE LINES........................................................................................................................ 102
8. 3D BRIDGE WITH A MOVING LOAD......................................................................................... 105
8.1 DEFINITION OF THE STRUCTURE MODEL................................................................................ 108
8.1.1 Definition of Structure Geometry............................................................................................... 108
8.1.2 Load Definition.......................................................................................................................... 114
8.1.3 Definition of the Moving Load Applied to the Bridge Floor ....................................................... 117
8.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS............................................................................................................... 121
8.2.1 Result Presentation in the Form of Maps ................................................................................... 121
8.3 STRUCTURE MEMBER DESIGN .................................................................................................. 122
8.3.1 Structure Design........................................................................................................................ 124
8.4 TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS .......................................................................................................... 129
9. VOLUMETRIC STRUCTURE........................................................................................................ 134
9.1 DEFINITION OF STRUCTURE MODEL........................................................................................ 135
9.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS............................................................................................................... 149
9.3 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS IN THE FORM OF MAPS........................................................... 149
10. BAR STRUCTURE DESIGN (ELASTO-PLASTIC ANALYSIS) .............................................. 150
10.1 DEFINITION OF THE STRUCTURE MODEL.............................................................................. 151
10.1.1 Code Selection......................................................................................................................... 151
10.1.2 Definition of Structural Axis .................................................................................................... 152
10.1.3 Definition of Structure Bars..................................................................................................... 153
10.1.4 Definition of a Library Structure.............................................................................................. 154
10.1.5 Addition of an Auxiliary Node.................................................................................................. 156
10.1.6 Definition of Brackets on Bars................................................................................................. 156
10.1.7 Definition of Supports.............................................................................................................. 156
10.1.8 Definition of Geometrical Imperfections .................................................................................. 157
10.1.9 Definition of Load Cases.......................................................................................................... 157
10.1.10 Definition of Loads for the Generated Load Cases................................................................. 158
10.1.11 Snow/Wind Load Generation.................................................................................................. 158
10.1.12 Generation of Automatic Code Combinations ........................................................................ 159
10.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND RESULT VERIFICATION......................................................... 159
10.3 ELASTO-PLASTIC ANALYSIS.................................................................................................... 160
10.3.1 Change of Load Case Definitions............................................................................................. 160
10.3.2 Structure Analysis.................................................................................................................... 160
10.3.3 Change of Bar Sections for Elasto-Plastic Analysis ................................................................. 161
10.3.4 Structure Analysis and Result Verification............................................................................... 161
11. DESIGN OF A BAR STRUCTURE WITH ADDED MASSES .................................................. 162
11.1 DEFINITION OF THE STRUCTURE MODEL.............................................................................. 163
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11.2 CALCULATIONS AND RESULT ANALYSIS.............................................................................. 171
12. DEFINITION OF A PUSHOVER ANALYSIS CASE................................................................. 173
12.1 STRUCTURE MODEL DEFINITION............................................................................................ 174
12.2 DEFINITION OF THE PUSHOVER ANALYSIS CASE................................................................ 177
12.3 DEFINITION OF A NON-LINEAR HINGE................................................................................... 178
12.4 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS............................................................................................................. 181
12.5 RESULT ANALYSIS..................................................................................................................... 181
12.6 RESULTS - DIAGRAMS OF PUSHOVER ANALYSIS................................................................. 181
12.7 RESULTS ÿ CAPACITY CURVE................................................................................................. 182
13. RC BEAM DESIGN - ACI CODE (ROBOT STAND-ALONE MODE) .................................... 183
13.1 CONFIGURATION (PROGRAM PREFERENCES)....................................................................... 183
13.2 BEAM DESIGN............................................................................................................................. 184
14. RC COLUMN DESIGN - ACI CODE (ROBOT STAND-ALONE MODE) .............................. 190
14.1 CONFIGURATION (PROGRAM PREFERENCES)....................................................................... 190
14.2 COLUMN DESIGN........................................................................................................................ 191
15. RC FOUNDATION DESIGN - ACI CODE (ROBOT STAND-ALONE MODE)...................... 196
15.1 CONFIGURATION (PROGRAM PREFERENCES)....................................................................... 196
15.2 SIMPLE FOOTING DESIGN......................................................................................................... 197
16. DEFINITION OF A 2D FRAME ................................................................................................. 203
16.1 STRUCTURE DEFINITION.......................................................................................................... 203
16.1.1 Definition of a Working Language and Codes.......................................................................... 203
16.1.2 Structure Axis Definition.......................................................................................................... 205
16.1.3 Structure Axis Modification ..................................................................................................... 205
16.1.4 Column and Beam Definition................................................................................................... 206
16.1.5 Truss Definition....................................................................................................................... 207
16.1.6 Definition of Releases on the Ends of Diagonals...................................................................... 212
16.1.7 Support Definition ................................................................................................................... 212
16.1.8 Load Definition........................................................................................................................ 212
16.1.9 Structure Modification............................................................................................................. 216
16.1.10 Additional Load Definition .................................................................................................... 218
16.1.11 Load Combination Definition................................................................................................. 218
16.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS............................................................................................................. 219
16.3 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS IN THE GRAPHICAL FORM.............................................................. 219
16.4 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS IN THE TABLE FORM....................................................................... 220
16.5 DETAILED ANALYSIS OF BARS................................................................................................ 221
16.6 DIMENSION LINES...................................................................................................................... 222
16.7 CODE PARAMETERS FOR STEEL DESIGN............................................................................... 224
16.8 STEEL MEMBER VERIFICATION AND DESIGN...................................................................... 225
16.9 GROUP DEFINITION, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION.................................................. 227
16.10 STRESS ANALYSIS.................................................................................................................... 229
17. DEFINITION OF AN RC SLAB.................................................................................................. 230
17.1 STRUCTURE DEFINITION.......................................................................................................... 230
17.2 DEFINITION OF SLAB LOADS ................................................................................................... 237
17.3 MESHING OPTIONS..................................................................................................................... 240
17.4 DEFINITION OF BEAMS SUPPORTING THE SLAB.................................................................. 242
17.5 DEFINITION OF THE BEAM SUPPORTING THE ARC-SHAPED SLAB................................... 243
17.6 DEFINITION OF CONCENTRATED FORCES ............................................................................ 245
17.7 DEFINITION OF LOAD COMBINATIONS.................................................................................. 246
17.8 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS............................................................................................................. 247
17.8.1 Results in the Map Form.......................................................................................................... 247
17.8.2 Results in the Table Form........................................................................................................ 248
17.9 REINFORCEMENT DEFINITION................................................................................................ 249
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17.9.1 Structure Analysis.................................................................................................................... 250
17.9.2 Reinforcement Calculations..................................................................................................... 250
17.9.3 Analysis of Reinforcement Results............................................................................................ 251
17.9.4 Results in the Text Form.......................................................................................................... 252
18. 2D STRUCTURE (MIXED RC AND STEEL STRUCTURE) .................................................... 254
18.1 STRUCTURE GEOMETRY........................................................................................................... 254
18.1.1 Section Definition.................................................................................................................... 255
18.1.2 Bar Definition.......................................................................................................................... 256
18.1.3 Support Definition ................................................................................................................... 256
18.1.4 Load Definition........................................................................................................................ 257
18.1.5 Definition of Snow/Wind Loads............................................................................................... 258
18.1.6 RC Beam Design...................................................................................................................... 259
18.1.7 RC Column Design .................................................................................................................. 261
18.1.8 Change of the Structure Geometry and Type............................................................................ 264
18.1.9 Slab Definition......................................................................................................................... 266
18.1.10 Offset Definition .................................................................................................................... 268
18.1.11 Front Wall Definition............................................................................................................. 270
18.1.12 Definition of Supports on Wall Edges..................................................................................... 272
18.1.13 Definition of Additional Loads to Be Applied to the Slab ....................................................... 272
18.1.14 Definition of Combinations .................................................................................................... 273
18.1.15 Definition of Meshing Options ............................................................................................... 273
18.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS............................................................................................................. 274
18.3 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS............................................................................................................. 274
18.4 STRESS ANALYSIS FOR ALL STRUCTURE BARS ................................................................... 276
19. 3D STEEL STRUCTURE (MODAL AND TIME HISTORY ANALYSES) .............................. 278
19.1 STRUCTURE GEOMETRY........................................................................................................... 278
19.2 LOAD DEFINITION...................................................................................................................... 285
19.3 LOAD COMBINATION DEFINITION.......................................................................................... 288
19.4 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS............................................................................................................. 290
19.5 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS............................................................................................................. 290
19.6 MODAL ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................................... 291
19.6.1 Analysis of Vibration Eigenmodes............................................................................................ 292
19.7 TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................ 293
20. DEFINITION OF AN RC CONTAINER..................................................................................... 296
20.1 STRUCTURE DEFINITION.......................................................................................................... 296
20.2 LOAD DEFINITION...................................................................................................................... 308
20.3 DEFINITION OF LOAD COMBINATIONS.................................................................................. 310
20.4 RESULT ANALYSIS..................................................................................................................... 311
20.5 REINFORCEMENT CALCULATIONS......................................................................................... 313
20.6 MESH REFINEMENT................................................................................................................... 314
21. DEFINITION OF A STEEL CONTAINER................................................................................. 318
21.1 STRUCTURE DEFINITION.......................................................................................................... 318
21.2 LOAD DEFINITION...................................................................................................................... 319
21.3 DEFINITION OF LOAD COMBINATIONS.................................................................................. 323
21.4 RESULT ANALYSIS..................................................................................................................... 324
22. DEFINITION OF A SOLID / THIN-WALLED SECTION........................................................ 327
22.1 SOLID SECTION........................................................................................................................... 327
22.2 THIN-WALLED SECTION ........................................................................................................... 329
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NOTE: In the examples below the following rule has been assumed to indicate definition of
the beginning and end of a structure bar:
for example, (0,0,6) (8,0,6) means that a bar beginning is positioned at a node with
the coordinates as follows x = 0.0, y = 0.0 and z = 6.0 and a bar end - at a node with
the coordinates as follows x = 8.0, y = 0.0 and z = 6.0. The separator (set in the
Windows operating system) which separates successive coordinates is in this case
a comma ÿ,ÿ.
1. 3D Frame (with the Use of the ROBOT Millennium
Layouts)
This example presents definition, analysis and design of a simple steel 3D frame illustrated in the
figure below.
Data units: (ft) and (kip).
Four load cases have been assigned to each of the structure frames and three of them are displayed
in the drawings below.
LOAD CASE 2 LOAD CASE 3 LOAD CASE 4
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT program (press the appropriate icon or select the
command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be
displayed on the screen and the last but one icon in the first row (Frame 3D Design)
should be selected.
NOTE: The American section database (AISC) has been used in this example.
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1.1 Structure Model Definition
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Structure Model/Bars
Selects the BARS layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts.
LMC on the Bar Type field and
select Column
LMC on the Section field and select
(W 14x211)
Selects bar properties. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
Note: If the W 14x211 section is not available on the list,
one should press the (
ÿ
) button located beside the
Section field and add this section to the active section
list in the New section dialog box
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of bars in the structure (structure columns).
Enter the following points in the
Beginning and End field.
(0,0,0) (0,0,10) Add
(20,0,0) (20,0,10)
Add
Defines two columns of the frame.
LMC on the Bar Type field in the
Bars dialog box and select Beam
LMC on the Section field and select
(W 12x190)
Starts definition of a beam and selects its properties.
The section from the American section database (AISC)
has been used.
Note: If the W 12x190 section is not available on the list,
one should press the (
ÿ
) button located beside the
Section field and add this section to the active section
list in the New section dialog box
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of a beam in the structure.
Enter the following points in the
Beginning and End field.
(0,0,10) (20,0,10),
Add
Defines a beam.
LMC on the field for selection of the
Robot Millennium program layouts
Structure Model/Supports
Selects the ROBOT Millennium layout which allows
support definition.
In the Supports dialog box, LMC on
the Current Selection field (cursor is
blinking in the field)
Selects structure nodes for which supports will be defined.
Switch to the graphic viewer;
pressing the left mouse button select
with the window all lower column
nodes
Selected nodes 1 and 3 will be entered to the Current
Selection field.
From the Supports dialog box
select the fixed support icon (the
icon will be highlighted)
Selects the support type.
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Apply Selected support type will be assigned to chosen structure
nodes; the defined structure is displayed on the drawing
below.
LMC on the field for the selection of
the ROBOT Millennium program
layout
Structure Model/Start
Selection of the initial ROBOT Millennium program layout.
Note: If the structure is not visible in the graphic viewer,
press the Zoom All icon.
CTRL+A Selects all bars.
Edit / Edit / Vertical Mirror Mirrors selected bars.
Graphically locate the vertical
symmetry axis in the place of the
right column (x = 20), LMC, Close
Performs the axial symmetry of selected bars and closes
the Vertical Mirror dialog box.
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium layout
Structure Model/Loads, press
to show the whole structure
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout allowing
for the structure load definition.
LMC on the New button located in
the Load Types dialog box
Defines a dead load (self-weight) with a standard name
DL1.
LMC on the Nature field
(Wind)
Selects the type of load case wind.
LMC on the New button
LMC on the New button
Defines two cases of wind load with the standard names:
WIND1 and WIND2
LMC on the Nature field
(Live)
Selects the type of load case live.
LMC on the New button Defines a live load with a standard name LL1.
The self-weight load was automatically applied in the first
row to all structure bars (in the ýZü direction).
LMC on the second field in the Case
column, select the 2
nd
load case
WIND1 from the list
Defines loads for the second load case.
LMC on the field in the Load Type
column, select (nodal force) as
a load type
Selects the load type.
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LMC on the field in the List column,
select the upper node of the left
column (no. 2) in a graphic way
Selects nodes to which a nodal force load will be applied.
LMC on the field in the "FX="
column and enter the value: (50.0)
Selects the direction and value of the force load.
LMC on the third field in the Case
column, select the 3
rd
load case
WIND2 from the list
Defines loads for the third load case.
LMC on the field in the Load Type
column, select the (uniform) load
Selects the load type.
LMC on the field in the List column,
select graphically the right edge
column (bar no. 4)
Selects bars to which the uniform load will be applied.
LMC on the field in the "PX="
column and enter the value: (-10.0)
Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.
LMC on the fourth field in the Case
column, select the 4
th
load case LL1
from the list
Defines loads for the fourth load case.
LMC on the field in the Load Type
column, select the (uniform) load
Selects the load type.
LMC on the field in the List column,
select graphically both beam spans
(bars nos. 3 and 5)
Selects bars to which the uniform load will be applied.
LMC on the field in the "PZ="
column and enter the value: (-2.0)
Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.
Note: 2 bars can be selected simultaneously by means of
window or by indicating successive bars with CTRL
button pressed.
LMC in the View viewer
CTRL + A Selects all structure bars.
While the graphic viewer with the
structure model is active, select Edit
/ Edit / Translate
Opens the Translation dialog box.
LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ),
(0,24,0)
Defines the translation vector.
LMC on the Number of Repetitions
field
(1)
Defines the number of repetitions for performed translation
operations.
Execute, Close Translates the column and closes the Translation dialog
box (proceed to the next step to see changes).
View / Projection / 3d xyz Selects the isometric structure view (see the drawing
below).
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LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program layout
Structure Model/Bars
Selects the ROBOT Millennium layout which allows
definition of the bars.
LMC on the Bar Type field and
select: Beam
LMC on the Section field and select
(W 14x211)
Selects bar properties. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of bars in the structure.
Enter the following points in the
Beginning and End field.
(40,0,10) (40,24,10), Add
Defines a beam between the 6 and 12 nodes in
the structure.
Structure Model/
Sections and Materials
Selects the SECTIONS AND MATERIALS layout from the
list of available ROBOT Millennium layouts.
in the Section dialog box
Opens the New Section dialog box.
Selection of the angle family,
in the Section field selection of the
(L 4x4x0,25) section
Add, Close
Defines a new section. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
Structure Model/ Bars
Selects the BARS layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts.
LMC in the Bar Type field and
select: Simple bar
LMC on the Section field and select
(L 4x4x0.25)
Selects bar properties.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
(40,0,10) (40,24,0), Add
(40,24,10) (40,0,0), Add
Bracing definition.
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LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model / Start
Selects the initial layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program.
LMC on the View edit viewer;
Select three recently defined bars
(beam and bracing) - while the
CTRL key is pressed LMC on three
bars
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ),
(-20,0,0)
Defines the translation vector.
LMC on the Number of Repetitions
(2)
Defines the number of repetitions for performed translation
operations.
Execute, Close Column translation; closes the Translation dialog box.
1.2 Structure Analysis
Starts calculations for the defined structure
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Results/Results
The RESULTS layout of the ROBOT Millennium program
opens. The screen is divided into three parts: a graphic
viewer containing the structure model, the Diagrams dialog
box and a table with reaction values.
1.3 Result Analysis
Select 4: LL1
Displays results for the fourth load case.
Select the Deformation tab from the
Diagrams dialog box
Turn on the Deformation option
Displays structure deformation for the selected load case.
Apply Displays structure deformation (see the drawing below).
In a similar way, diagrams that exhibit other values
available from the Diagrams dialog box can be viewed.
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Turn off the Deformation option in
the Diagrams dialog box,
Apply
LMC in the Reactions table on the
field with the name of FZ
Selects the whole column FZ.
Format / Alignment / Centered and
Format / Font / Bold
Edits result presentation for the Fz force.
RMC on the Reactions table Calls up the context menu.
Table Columns Selects the Table Columns option and opens the dialog box
LMC on the Supports tab, select
the Support Code option, OK
(Scroll to the left to reach the Supports tab). An additional
column with codes defined for the structure supports
appears.
1.4 Steel Design
Code: LRFD
LMC on the box for the selection of
the ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Design /
Steel/Aluminum Design
Starts steel member design. The screen will be divided into
three parts: a graphic viewer containing the structure
model, the Definitions dialog box and the Calculations
dialog box.
LMC on the List button in
the Member Verification row from
the Calculations dialog box
Opens the Member Selection dialog box.
Enter 1to10 in the field located
above the Previous button, Close
Selects members for verification.
LMC on the Load Case Selection
button in Calculations dialog box
Opens the Load Case Selection dialog box.
LMC on the All button, Close Selects all load cases.
LMC on the Calculations button Starts verification of selected structure members;
the Member Verification dialog box shown below will be
displayed on the screen.
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LMC on the row containing
simplified results for member No. 3
Opens the Simplified Results ÿ LRFD dialog box for the
selected member.
LMC on the Simplified Results tab Displays design results for member No. 4 (see the dialog
box presented below).
Close Results - Member
Verification and Results dialog
boxes
1.5 Design of Steel Connections
Code: Eurocode 3
LMC the field of the ROBOT
Millennium program layout
selection
Structure design / Connections
Design of steel connections in a structure starts. The
monitor screen will be divided into two parts: the Object
Inspector dialog box (Steel Connections) and the graphical
viewer; at the bottom of the graphical viewer there are
three tabs: Scheme, 3D View and Structure.
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Move on to the Structure tab and
while having the graphical field
displaying structure view active
(highlighted), select from the menu:
View / Projection / zx
The structure will be presented as projected on the zx plane
(y coordinate is assumed to equal 0).
Select the utmost left column and
the left span of the beam - while
pressing the CTRL button, click the
left mouse button on the mentioned
bars
Selection of bars for which the connection will be verified.
The selected bars are pointed out with arrows in the figure
below.
Connections / New Connection for
Selected Bars
A connection is defined between the selected bars. The
Connection Definition dialog box starts to display several
tabs.
Select the Welds option located in
the Connection Definition dialog
box (the Sections tab),
Apply, OK
Selection of the type of the defined steel connection
Connections / Calculations Opening the Connection calculations dialog box
LMC the List field in the Load cases
field
Definition of load cases considered during the connection
verification
Enter here (1to4) Selection of all the load cases
LMC the Calculations button Verification of the connection starts; short results are
presented in the Object Inspector dialog box and a
detailed calculation note is displayed on the Results tab
(this tab is accessible only after calculations of the
connection are performed).
1.6 Stress Analysis
LMC the field of the ROBOT
Millennium program layout
selection
Results / Stress Analysis -
structure
Starts structure stress analysis. The screen will be
divided into three parts: graphical viewer presenting
a structure model, the Stress Analysis dialog box and
the Stress Analysis - structure result table.
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From the top selection toolbar
choose the second load case 2:
WIND1
Selects the second load case.
On the Diagrams tab located in the
Stress Analysis - structure dialog
box select the Max option from the
Mises field
On the Maps - Deformation tab
select the Deformation option
Apply
Starts calculations and presents stress values
on structure bars (the table displays values of the
appropriate stresses).
While in the window presenting the
structure view - View / Projection /
3d xyz
Selects the axonometric structure view.
Move to the Stress Analysis -
structure table
View / Dynamic View 3D
Sets the 3D view that allows presenting the structure
together with shapes of the sections and detailed stress
maps on these sections (the defined structure with the
selected stresses is shown in the figure below).
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2. 2D Frame (without the Use of the ROBOT Millennium
Layouts)
This example is used to show the definition, analysis and design of a simple 2D frame illustrated in
the figure below. The frame is made of the RC frame and the truss generated by using the library
of typical structures available in the ROBOT Millennium program.
Data units: (ft) and (kip).
Four out of five load cases applied to the structure are displayed in the drawing below.
LOAD CASE 2 LOAD CASE 3
LOAD CASE 4 LOAD CASE 5
The following rules will apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT Millennium program (press the appropriate icon or
select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in the chapter 2.1 of the
manual) will be displayed on the screen and the first icon (2D Frame Design ) should be
selected.
NOTE: The American section database (AISC) has been used in this example.
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2.1 Structure Model Definition
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Starts definition of structural axes. The Structural Axis
dialog box appears on the screen.
On the X tab:
Position: (0)
Number of repetitions: (4)
Distance: (18)
Numbering: (1, 2, 3 ...)
Defines vertical axis parameters.
LMC on the Insert button Vertical axes have been defined and will be presented in
the Set of Created Axis field.
LMC on the Z tab Starts definition of horizontal axis parameters.
On the Z tab:
Position: (0)
Number of Repetitions: (3)
Distance: (9)
Numbering: (A, B, C ...)
Defines horizontal axis parameters.
LMC on the Insert button Horizontal axes have been defined and will be presented in
the Set Of Created Axes field.
Apply, Close Creates defined structural axes and closes the Structural
Axes dialog box. Structural axes will be displayed on the
screen, as on the figure below.
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2.1.1 Structure Bar Definition
Opens the Sections dialog box.
Opens the New Section dialog box.
Selection of the I family,
in the Section field selection of the
(W 8x10) section
Add
Defines a new section. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
LMC in the Section Type field,
selection of the RC beam option, in
the Label field enter B18x24
in fields b = (18) in., h = (24) in.
Add, Close
Defines an RC beam section.
Close Closes the Sections dialog box.
Opens the Bars dialog box.
LMC on the Bar Type field and
select RC Column
LMC on the Section field and select
the type: (C18x18)
Selects bar properties.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of bars in the structure (structure columns).
Enter the following points in the
Beginning and End field.
(0,0) (0,9), Add
(0,9) (0,18), Add
Defines the first two bars located on structural axis
number 1.
RMC on any point in the viewer with
the structure view and choose Select
command from the context menu
Opens context menu and switches to selection mode.
The mouse cursor changes its shape to ýhandü.
CTRL+A Selects all bars. (Remember to activate the View window
first.)
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
LMC on the field (dX,dZ),
(18,0)
LMC on the fields: Numbering
Increment Nodes and Numbering
Increment Elements
(1) (1)
Defines the translation vector and numbering increment
for nodes and bars.
LMC on the Number of Repetitions
field
(4)
Defines the number of repetitions for performed translation
operations.
Execute, Close Column translation; closes the Translation dialog box.
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LMC on the Bar Type field in the
Bars dialog box and select RC
Beam
LMC on the Section field and select
(B18x24)
Starts definition of beams in the structure and selects their
properties.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of bars in the structure.
(0,9) (18,9), Add
(18,9) (36,9), Add
(36,9) (54,9), Add
(54,9) (72,9), Add
Defines the RC beam located on the structural axis B.
Close Closes the Bars dialog box.
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
Sections tab
Section - shape (turn on that box),
Apply
Option allows for the display of section shapes for the
defined structure bars. Bars presented on the figure below
will be displayed on the screen.
2.1.2 Library Structure Definition
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box
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Structure tab
Turn on the Node Numbers option,
Apply, OK
Opens the Typical Structures dialog box and starts
definition of a library structure.
LMC (double-click) on the icon
(first icon in the last row)
Selects a triangular truss of type 1. The Merge Structure
dialog box appears and truss parameters can be defined.
LMC on the Length L field on the
Dimensions tab
(72)
Defines the truss length (it can also be defined graphically
in the graphic viewer).
LMC on the Height H field
(9)
Defines the truss height (it can also be defined graphically
in the graphic viewer).
LMC on the Number of Fields field
(12)
Defines the number of fields into which the truss will be
divided.
LMC on the Sections tab;
To all truss bars (Upper and Lower
Chords, Diagonals, Posts) assign (W
8x10)
Assigns the section to the truss bars.
LMC on the Insert tab
LMC on the Insertion Point field,
select the node number 3 of the
following coordinates (0,0,18)
Defines the truss beginning node.
Apply, OK Locates the defined structure in the appropriate place and
closes the Merge Structure dialog box. The defined
structure is presented on the drawing below.
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View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
Structure tab
Turn off the Node Numbers option
Others tab
Turn off the Structural Axis option,
Apply, OK
Geometry / Releases Opens the Releases dialog box.
LMC on the Pinned-Fixed release
type
Chooses the release type that will be assigned to a truss
bar.
LMC on the Current selection field,
switch to the graphic viewer and
indicate the highest post of the truss
(the bar between the nodes 9 and
29)
Selects the truss bar; ATTENTION: take note of the arrows
that appear on the highlighted truss bar û while indicating
the bar the arrows should be pointed up (the direction of the
release is significant: at the first node the pinned
connection remains, whereas at the second one û the fixed
connection is defined)
Close Closes the Releases dialog box.
2.1.3 Support Definition
Opens the Supports dialog box.
LMC on the Current Selection field
on the Nodal tab (the cursor should
be blinking in that field)
Selects structure nodes in which supports will be defined.
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Switch to the graphic viewer by
pressing the left mouse button;
select all lower column nodes with
the window
Selected nodes: 1to13by3 will be entered to the Current
Selection field.
In the Supports dialog box select
the fixed support icon (the support
will be highlighted)
Selects the support type.
Apply, Close Selected support type will be assigned to selected structure
nodes, closes the Supports dialog box.
2.1.4 Load Case Definition
Opens the Load Types dialog box.
LMC on the New button Defines a dead load (self-weight) with a standard name
DL1.
LMC on the Nature field
(Live)
Selects the load nature: live.
LMC on the New button
LMC on the New button
Defines two live load cases with standard names LL1
and LL2.
LMC on the Nature field
(Wind)
Selects the load case nature: wind.
LMC on the New button Defines a wind load case with a standard name WIND1.
LMC on the Nature field
(Snow)
Selects the load case nature: snow.
LMC on the New button, Close Defines a snow load case with a standard name SN1
and closes the Load Types dialog box.
2.1.5 Definition of Loads for Generated Cases
Loads / Load Table Opens a table for loads acting in defined load cases.
,
place the table in the lower part of
the screen in such a way so that it is
adjusted to its width and the defined
structure model is displayed.
Decreases the table size so that the load graphic definition
is possible. (You can use Windows/Align Windows after the
loads window is resized.)
Dead Load (direction ý-Zü) automatically applied to all
structure bars.
LMC on the second field in the Case
column, select the 2
nd
load case LL1
from the list
Defines loads for the second load case.
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LMC on the field in the Load Type
column, select the uniform load
Selects the load type.
LMC on the field in the List column,
select all the concrete beams in the
graphic viewer (bars 11to14)
Selects bars to which the uniform load will be applied.
LMC on the field in the "PZ="
column and enter the value: (-3)
Selects the direction and sign of the uniform load.
LMC on the next field in the Case
column, select the 3
rd
load case LL2
from the list
Defines loads for the third load case.
LMC on the Load Type column,
select the trapezoidal load (2p)
Selects the load type.
LMC on the field in the List column,
select graphically in the graphic
viewer the first left span of the
concrete beam (bar 11)
Selects bars to which the trapezoidal load will be applied.
LMC on the field in the "PZ1="
column and enter the value: (-2)
LMC on the X2 field and enter value
(1.0)
LMC on the field in the "PZ2="
column and enter the value: (-4)
Selects the direction and sign of the trapezoidal load
LMC on the next field in the Case
column, select the 4
th
load case
WIND1 from the list
Defines loads for the fourth load case.
LMC on the field in the Load Type
column, select the uniform load
Selects the load type.
LMC on the field in the List column,
Select graphically in the graphic
viewer the left edge column (bars 1
and 2)
Selects bars to which the uniform load will be applied.
LMC on the field in the "PX="
column and enter the value: (1.0)
Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.
LMC on the field in the Case
column, select the 5
th
load case SN1
from the list
Defines loads for the fifth load case.
LMC on the field in the Load Type
column, select nodal force as a load
type
Selects the load type.
LMC on the field in the List column,
select graphically in the graphic
viewer the nodes on the upper truss
chords (without the edge nodes)
(nodes 24to34)
Selects nodes to which the nodal force load will be applied.
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LMC on the field in the "FZ="
column and enter the value: (-0.25)
Selects the direction and the load value.
Close the Load table
2.2 Structure Analysis
Tools / Job Preferences Opens the Job Preferences dialog box
Units and Formats / Other Selects the option that enables defining a number of
decimal places for selected quantities.
Increase of the number of decimal
places for linear displacements to 4
Increases the number of decimal places for linear
displacements to 4.
OK Accepts assumed parameters and closes the Job
Preferences dialog box
Starts calculations for the defined structure.
LMC in the ROBOT program layout
selection, Results / Results
The RESULTS layout of the ROBOT Millennium program
opens. The screen will be divided into three parts (as
shown in the drawing below): a graphic field containing the
structure model, the Diagrams dialog box and a table with
reaction values.
2.3 Result Analysis
LMC Reactions table
Select 2: LL1
Displays the results for the second load case.
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Turn on the My Moment option on
the NTM tab in the Diagrams dialog
box
Selects the bending moment My for presentation.
Apply Displays a diagram of the bending moment for structure
bars (see the drawing below). In a similar way, diagrams
that exhibit other values available from the Diagrams
dialog box can be displayed.
Turn off the My Moment option in
the Diagrams dialog box,
Apply
Opens a table containing structure displacements.
LMC on the Global Extremes tab in
the Displacements table
Displays the maximum and minimum displacements
obtained in structure nodes (see the drawing below).
LMC on the Values tab
RMC on the Displacements table Calls up the context menu.
Table Columns Selects the Table Columns option and opens the dialog
box.
LMC on the General tab, select the
Coordinates option, OK button
Two additional columns containing node coordinates
appear.
Close the Displacements table
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2.4 RC Beam Design with Torsion Considered
NOTE: The code calculations are performed according to British code BS 8110.
RMC on the graphic viewer and
choose the Select option from the
context menu; select all RC beams
from the window
Selects the beams for design.
Analysis / Design of RC Structure
Elements / RC Beam Design
Runs a module that allows for concrete beam design. Data
on the beam together with the static analysis results will be
loaded to this module.
Simple Cases
OK
Selects the Simple Cases option in the Load Selection
dialog box.
LMC move to the Beam - Section
viewer
Selects a view presenting the beam section.
Analysis / Calculation Options Opens the Calculation Options dialog box.
On the General tab press the
Advanced button and next, select
the Torsion taken into account
option, OK, OK
Opens the Advanced Options dialog box, includes
a torsional moment in calculations.
Closes the Advanced Options dialog box. Closes the
Calculation Options dialog box.
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Layout: RC Beams / Beam -
Results
Graphic and tabulated presentation of obtained results
(cross section force diagrams for various limit states and
diagrams of reinforcement area along the beamþs length).
NOTE: Design of an RC beam starts automatically.
RC Beams / Beam -
Reinforcement
Graphic and tabulated presentation of reinforcement in the
beam (see the drawing below).
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Results / Drawings Displays a working drawing of the first span of the designed
beam.
RC Beams / Beam -
Reinforcement
Returns to the BEAM - REINFORCEMENT layout
Results / Calculation Note
OK
Opens the Calculation Note dialog box where one can
select the components of the calculation note and starts the
ROBOT Millennium program editor for presentation of
data and results for the beam.
Close the editor with the calculation
note
2.5 RC Column Design
NOTE: The code calculations are done according to British code BS 8110.
Structure Model / Start
Selects the START layout from the list of available layouts
of the ROBOT Millennium program
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While in the graphical viewer RMC
and choose the Select option; select
with the window the outermost
bottom left column (bar 1)
Selects the column that will undergo design
Analysis / Design of RC Structure
Elements / RC Column Design
Runs module that enables RC column design. Data on the
column together with the static analysis results will be
loaded to this module.
Simple cases,
OK
Selects the Simple cases option in the Load Selection
dialog box.
LMC move to the Column - Section
viewer
Selects a view presenting the column section.
Starts calculations of the reinforcement required according
to the adopted parameters.
LMC the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program layout
RC Columns / Column - Results
The screen presents surfaces (curves) of the interactions
N-M, My-Mz.
Open the context menu by means of
RMC in the right graphical viewer,
select the Governing case option
Opens the Intersection dialog box.
From the list of available
combinations located on the left side
of the Intersection dialog box select
the first combination from the top
Presents the column section with the following elements
marked on it: neutral axis, compressive and tensile zones
together with the appropriate safety factors for the selected
combination.
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Close Closes the Intersection dialog box
LMC the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program layout
RC Columns / Column -
Reinforcement
Presents the obtained reinforcement in the column
graphically and in the form of a table (see the drawing
below)
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2.6 Design of RC Members
Code BS 8110
Structure model / Start
The START layout is selected from among those provided
by the ROBOT Millennium program
Analysis / Design of RC Structure
Elements / RC Member Design /
Calculations
The Calculations According to BS 8110 dialog box is
opened
Introduce the list of bars 1to14 in the
Calculations field (with the Design
option active)
Selection of members that will undergo the design process
Introduce the list of the load cases
(1to5) applied to the structure and
used during its design into the Lists
of cases field
Selection of all load cases
LMC the ULS option in the Design
simple cases according to field
Selection of the limit state that will set the requirements to
be verified during member design
For the Calculate option for beams
assume the following parameters:
in (11) points
Determination of the parameters of searching for the
theoretical (required) area of reinforcement for the selected
members of the structure
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LMC the Calculate button Calculations of the theoretical (required) area of
reinforcement for the selected members of the structure
and the adopted calculation parameters are started.
Close in the RC Member
Calulations: Report dialog box
Display of a window containing calculation warnings and
errors concerning member theoretical (required)
reinforcement
Close the Calculations According
to BS 8110 dialog box
Results / Reinforcement /
RC Member Reinforcement
Opens the Results for required member reinforcement table
in which calculation results of theoretical (required)
reinforcement for selected RC member sections will be
displayed
Close the Results for required
member reinforcement table
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3. Concrete Slab
This example will demonstrate step-by-step how the user can define and analyze a simple slab with
an opening.
Data units: (m) and (kN).
A slab with an opening will be generated and analyzed. The slab will consist of concrete elements.
All the steps required will be presented. Four load cases will be defined (self-weight and three live
load cases). Five structure modes will also be found.
The following rules will apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT Millennium program (press the appropriate icon or
select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in the chapter 2.1 of the
manual) will be displayed on the screen and the first icon in the second row (Plate Design)
should be selected.
3.1 Structure Model Definition
3.1.1 Contour Definition
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
View / Grid / Grid Step Definition Opens the Grid Step Definition dialog box.
Dx = Dy =1.0 Defines grid step on the screen (equal in both directions)
Apply, Close Accepts the defined parameters and closes the Grid Step
Definition dialog box.
Selects polyline to define a rectangle.
LMC on Polyline option in Definition
Method
Selects polyline to define a slab contour.
Using mouse select the following
points in the graphical window:
(-7, -5)
(-7, 5)
(7, 5)
(7, -5)
(-7, -5)
Defines a rectangle contour.
(-4, 2) (-4, 0) (-1, 0) (-1, 2) (-4, 2) Defines a rectangle contour by entering four rectangle
vertexes and the fifth point to make a closure. It models
dimensions of an opening in the slab.
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Close Closes Polyline - contour dialog box.
3.1.2 Mesh Definition
Tools / Job Preferences / Meshing
Options
Opens the window of the mesh options.
In the Meshing Type field select:
User, LMC Modification button
Selects user defined meshing type.
LMC in Available Meshing Methods
/ Delaunay
Selects Delaunayþs option.
Mesh Generation / Division 1 and
Division 2: (7)
Defines the size of the mesh size.
OK Accepts changes in the Meshing Options dialog box.
OK Accepts changes in the Job Preferences dialog box.
3.1.3 Slab Properties
Opens window where the slab thickness will be defined.
Defines a new FE thickness.
On the Homogenuous tab in the
Th= field type the value (35)
Defines slab thickness; in the Label field enter TH35.
In the Material: field select
( CONCR )
Selects CONCRETE.
Add, Close Adds the new thickness: TH35 and closes the New
thickness dialog box.
Close Closes the FE Thickness dialog box.
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3.1.4 Opening Properties
Opens the Panel idialog box to define the plate.
LMC Contour Type: Opening Defines the opening contour.
LMC in Creation with/Internal Point:
LMC at (-3, 1) in the View graphical
window
Creates a contour for the hole. Select a point inside the
opening by clicking inside the opening defined above, for
example at (-3,1) point. And the contour appears on the
opening.
LMC Contour Type: Panel Defines the panel around the opening.
LMC Properties/Thickness:
Select: TH35
LMC Properties / Reinforcement:
Select: Direction X
Selects thickness type TH35 and reinforcement type.
LMC in Creation with / Internal
Point:
LMC at (0, 0) in the View graphical
window
Creates a contour for the panel. Select a point inside the
panel by clicking outside of the opening defined above but
inside the panel rectangle, for example at (0,0) point. And
the contour appears around the panel.
Close Closes panel definition.
3.1.5 Support Definition
Analysis / Calculation Model /
Generation
Generates a finite element mesh according to the adopted
parameters of mesh generation
Selects Supports icon option to define the supports for the
slab.
Defines a new support type
Advanced on the Rigid tab Opens the Support Definition ÿ Advanced dialog box to
define a support determined by means of dimensions of the
column cross-section
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column Selects the support type - column
Rectangular
b = 45, h = 45
Defines the column type (rectangular) and dimensions of
the column cross-section.
OK Closes the Support Definition ÿ Advanced dialog box
In the Label field enter
Column45x45,
set all the directions (UZ, RX, RY)
as fixed
Specifies name of the defined support type
Add and Close Adds the new support type (column45x45) to the list of
available support types and closes the Support Definition
dialog box
LMC on column45x45 Selects type of the support.
LMC on Current Selection
LMC in the field
LMC on points P1, P2, P3, P4
Selects the points at which supports will be defined û see
the figure below. Numbering of nodes may differ after
completing generation of a finite element mesh. The user
should select the corner points P1, P2, P3, P4 as shown in
the drawing below.
Apply, Close Defines supports in the structure and closes the Supports
dialog box
3.1.6 Load Case Definition
Opens the Load Types dialog box.
LMC on the New button Defines a dead load (self-weight) with a standard name
DL1.
LMC on the Nature field
(Live)
Selects the load nature: live.
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LMC on the New button,
LMC on the New button,
LMC on the New button, Close
Defines three live load cases with standard names LL1, LL2
and LL3 and closes Load Types dialog box.
3.1.7 Definition of Loads for Generated Cases
LMC on LL1 Selects load case Live Load 1.
Selects Load Definition.
Select the Surface Tab Selects Uniform Planar Load on Contour.
Load Parameters, Z: (-0.5) Defines the load intensity.
LMC Contour Definition Defines a rectangle contour on which the load will be
applied.
Define the following points
(-7, 1.5)
(-4, 1.5)
(-4, 0)
(-7, 0)
LMC on Add button at the very
bottom of the Uniform Planar Load
dialog box
LMC on the Apply To field
(1)
Selects the panel.
LMC on Apply button
LMC on LL2 Selects load case Live Load 2.
Select the Surface Tab Selects Linear Load 2p.
Values: P1, P2
Z: (-0.8, -0.8)
Point Coordinates
A: (1, -5)
B: (1, 5)
Defines the load intensity (P1 and P2) on the two ends of
the load line segment and their coordinates (A and B).
LMC Add, Apply
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LMC on LL3 Selects load case Live Load 3.
Select the Surface Tab Selects Planar Load 3p
Values: P1, P2, P3
Z: {-5, -8, 2}
Point Coordinates
A: {0.0, 5.0}
B: {5.0, 5.0}
C: {3.0, -5.0}
Defines values of the load for a whole panel based on the
three selected points (P1, P2 and P3) and determines
coordinates of these points.
Add, Apply, Close Closes the Load Definition dialog box
Loads / Combinations Defines combinations.
LMC on the Combination type field Selects the SLS combinations.
LMC on the Nature field Selects the LL1 nature and accepts the combination type.
OK
In the Factor field enter auto Defines the factor that will be used for selected cases.
LMC on the Case list field - no. 2 Highlights the case number that will be used in the
combination.
Moves the selected case to the panel on the right-hand
side.
LMC on the Case list field - no. 3 Highlights the case number that will be used in the
combination.
Moves the selected case to the panel on the right-hand
side.
LMC on the Case list field - no. 4 Highlights the case number that will be used in the
combination.
Moves the selected case to the panel on the right-hand
side.
LMC on the buttons Apply, Close Defines load combinations and closes the Combinations
dialog box.
3.1.8 Display of Generated Load Cases
View / Projection / 3D xyz Selects isometric view.
View / Display / Loads tab
LMC Symbols option Selects Symbols checkbox
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View / Display / Finite Elements tab Moves on to the Finite Elements tab in the Display dialog
box
LMC on the options: Finite elements,
Numbers and panel description
Switches off the options of structure element display
Apply, OK
LMC on LL3 Selects load case Live Load 3
LMC on LL2 Selects load case Live Load 2
LMC on LL1 Selects load case Live Load 1
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3.2 Structure Analysis / Results (Maps on Panels Cuts)
Starts calculations of the defned structure
LMC in the ROBOT program layout
selection, Results / Results - maps
Opens the RESULTS / RESULTS - MAPS layout of the
ROBOT Millennium program.
LMC on LL1 Selects load case Live Load 1.
LMC on the Displacements - u, w
option in the Maps dialog box
Selection of the displacement to be presented
Go to the Parameters tab in the
Maps dialog box and select the
middle in the Layer selection field
Selection of the layer for which the determined
displacements will be presented
Apply
Go to the Detailed tab in the Maps
dialog box and switch off the
presentation of displacements for
the plate, Apply
Structure Model / Geometry Select the initial layout of the ROBOT Millennium program
ROBOT Millennium Version 20.0 - Training Manual page: 39
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Results / Panel Cuts Opens the Panel Cuts dialog box that allows creating
diagrams of internal forces and displacements in planar
finite elements
LMC the Displacements þ u, w
option on the Detailed tab
Selects the Mxx moment diagram for presentation
On the Definition tab in the Panel
Cuts dialog box select the Parallel to
axis -Y option, enter the coordinates:
(1.00, -5.00) into the field below
Selects the method of cut plane definition
Move to the Parameters tab and
afterwards, select the middle option
in the Layer selection field
Selects the layer for which the displacements in a given cut
will be presented
On the Diagrams tab select the
following options:
labels in the Diagram descriptions
field, fence in the Filling field and
normal in the Diagram position field
Selects the manner of diagram presentation on structure
cuts
Apply Switches on presentation of displacements on the panel
cuts (the drawing below). The drawing below presents the
structure as defined so far.
Using the option rotate the plate to view the diagram (which
is initially shown under the plate).
Move to the Cuts tab and turn off
display of the diagram in the defined
cut (þ symbol will disappear)
Turns off display of the diagram on the cut through the
slab.
Apply, Close Turns off display of displacements in the panel cut and
closes the Panel Cuts dialog box.
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3.3 Calculations of the Required (Theoretical) Reinforcement Area
Code: BS 8110
LMC the field allowing one to select
ROBOT program layouts and select:
RC Slabs / Slabs - required
reinforcement
The user goes to the layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program allowing one to determine the theoretical
(required) reinforcement area for the defined slab. The
screen will be divided into three parts: the graphical viewer
with the structure model and two dialog boxes: Plate and
shell reinforcement and Reinforcements.
LMC on the ULS field in the List of
cases panel and introduce 1to4 in
the Plate and Shell Reinforcement
dialog box
Calculation of the theoretical (required) reinforcement area
will be carried out for the Ultimate Limit State with all the
load cases applied to the slab considered.
LMC on the SLS field in the List of
cases panel and introduce 5 in the
Plate and Shell Reinforcement
dialog box
Calculation of the theoretical (required) reinforcement area
will be carried out for the Serviceability Limit State taking
account of the defined combination.
LMC the Method field and select the
analytical method
Selection of the analytical method of calculating the
reinforcement area
Turn on the option: Reduction of
forces (at supports or above
columns)
If this option is turned on, it means that for slab elements
supported at point (e.g. by means of the column support),
values of moments and stresses near the supported points
are substituted for the average value from the vicinity of
these supports/columns
LMC the Calculate button in the
Plate and shell reinforcement
dialog box
Calculations of the theoretical (required) reinforcement
area for the defined slab (panel no. 1) are started
Once the calculations are finished,
LMC the Area A Y[-] option in the
Reinforcements dialog box
Selection of the quantities to be presented
Go to the Scale tab and select
the 256 colors option in the Color
palette field
Selection of the color palette to be used during the
presentation of reinforcement maps
LMC the Apply button in the
Reinforcements dialog box
Presentation of the reinforcement area for the selected
area and the selected direction (the map of the
reinforcement area is shown in the figure below)
Make the Area A Y[-] option inactive
(the Reinforcements dialog box)
The reinforcement maps presentation is made inactive
ROBOT Millennium Version 20.0 - Training Manual page: 41
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Opens the table presenting the results obtained from the
calculations of the theoretical (required) reinforcement
areas for the slab
RMC while the cursor is positioned
within the Reinforcement Areas table
Displays the context menu on the screen
Table Columns Opens the Reinforcement Areas dialog box
Switch on two options in the
Required reinforcement field:
Spacing e X[-]
Spacing e X[+]
Selects the quantities to be presented in the table
OK Closes the Reinforcement Areas dialog box
Go to the Global extremes tab in the
Reinforcement Areas table
Presentation of the global extremes on the surface and
the reinforcement spacings obtained for the designed slab
Close the Reinforcement Areas
table
3.4. Calculations of the Provided (Real) Reinforcement Area
Code: BS 8110
LMC on the field for selection of
layouts in the ROBOT program:
Structure Model / Geometry
Selects the initial layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program
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Select û by window selection û the
whole plate (the plate becomes
highlighted)
Selects the plate for which provided (real) reinforcement
will be calculated.
NOTE: if a model includes more panels, then these panels
should be selected for which provided
reinforcement is to be calculated.
Analysis / Design of RC Structure
Elements / RC Plate and Shell
Design / Provided Reinforcement
Starts provided reinforcement calculations of the plate.
Accept messages if any are displayed.
Activates display of the bottom reinforcement for the
direction X.
Opens the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box
Select the Bars option On the General tab û selects the Bars option in the
Reinforcement type field; it means that the generated plate
reinforcement will be the reinforcement with the use of
reinforcing bars
OK Accepts the selection made and closes the Reinforcement
Pattern dialog box
Opens the Calculation Option Set dialog box
Select the option that allows
switching to the Reinforcement
layout after calculations.
Once calculations are completed, the program will open
automatically the ROBOT layout: RC Slabs / Slab -
Reinforcement
Calculations Starts calculations of the plate provided reinforcement.
LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT layouts: RC Slabs / Slab ÿ
provided reinforcement
Returns to the previous layout.
3.4.1 Verification
LMC on the Reinforcement maps tab
in the Plate and Shell
Reinforcement dialog box
Displays map icons.
Selects a deflection map and checks deflection values.
Opens the dialog box for verification.
Verification of deflections by means
of the elastic method
Selects the verification method.
Calculate Starts verification.
Close Closes the verification dialog box.
ROBOT Millennium Version 20.0 - Training Manual page: 43
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Compare results A deflection value has been changed for the adopted
reinforcement.
View results Views calculation results - the drawing below presents the
ROBOT layout: RC Slabs / Slab ÿ Reinforcement. By
selecting the ROBOT layout: RC Slabs / Slab ÿ
Punching, the user may view results of slab punching.
page: 44 ROBOT Millennium Version 20.0 - Training Manual
© Robobat www.robobat.com
4. Examples of Structure Definitions (Extrude and
Revolve Options)
This chapter contains a presentation of several short examples of modeling three-dimensional
structures by means of extrude and revolve options. All the presented structures are defined as
shells. The following rules will be applied during the presentation of these structures:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
In order to start defining a structure, one should run the ROBOT Millennium program (press the
relevant icon or select the relevant command from the toolbar). After a while, there appears
on screen the dialog box (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual), where one should select the
second icon in the second row (Shell design).
4.1 Silo
This example provides a definition of a silo, presented schematically on the drawing below.
Data units: (m).
ROBOT Millennium Version 20.0 - Training Manual page: 45
© Robobat www.robobat.com
STRUCTURE DEFINITION
Silo Geometry
OPERATION PERFORMED DESCRIPTION
View / Projection / XY Selection of work plane
View / Grid / Grid Step Definition Opens the Grid Step Definition dialog box.
Dx = Dy =1.0 Defines grid step on a screen (equal in both directions)
Apply, Close Accepts the defined parameters and closes the Grid Step
Definition dialog box.
Opening the Polyline - contour dialog box to define
successive components of a contour
Select Contour option in the
Definition method part of the dialog
box
Define the following square on the
graphical viewer: side length: 2m,
points: (-1,-1,0), (-1,1,0), (1,1,0), (1,-
1,0)
Definition of the square that will serve as the basis for
modeling the silo
Close the Polyline - contour dialog
box
View / Projection / 3d xyz
Select the Edit / Substructure
modification / Object modification
command from the menu
Opening the Objects: operations/modifications dialog
box
LMC in the Object field and indicate
with the cursor the square defined
on the graphical viewer
Selection of the square (the number of the object defined in
the Object field)
Press the Extrude button Beginning of the definition of object modification
Press the Object modification
parameters button
Definition of the parameters of extrusion
Define the following extrusion
parameters:
II to axis Z,
Length: (5) m
Division number = (5)
Inactive options: top, base
Extrusion parameters
Press the Apply button Extrusion performed for the square according to the
defined parameters
Press the Scaling button Beginning of the definition of the operation of modifying the
result of extruding the object
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Press the Operation parameters
button
Definition of the parameters of modification to be applied to
the extruded square
Define scaling parameters:
Scale x=y= (3)
Scale z= (1)
Scale center (0,0,0)
Parameters of scaling to be performed on the operation of
extrusion
Press the Apply button The operation of scaling is applied to the product of
extrusion of the square according to the defined
parameters
Press the Extrude button Beginning of object modification definition
Press the Object modification
parameters button (if necessary to
expand)
Definition of the parameters of extrusion
Define the following extrusion
parameters:
II to axis Z,
Length: (10) m
Number of divisions = (10)
Inactive options: top, base
Extrusion parameters
Press the Apply button Extrusion performed for the square according to the
defined parameters
Close the Objects: operations /
modifications dialog box
Initial view
Opening the dialog box used for defining thickness
Select the default panel thickness:
TH_30CONCR
Selection of the thickness that will be applied to particular
components of the silo
Write all in the Panels field Selection of all silo elements
Press the Apply button Application of the default thickness to all the elements of
the silo
Close the FE Thickness dialog box
Support Structure
Opening the Bars dialog box
LMC in the Bar type field and select
the type: RC Beam
LMC in the Section field and select
the type B50x70
Selection of bar properties
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Define the following four bars:
beam 1: begin. (-3,-3,5), end (3,-3,5)
beam 2: begin. (3,-3,5), end (3,3,5)
beam 3: begin. (3,3,5), end (-3,3,5)
beam 4: begin. (-3,3,5), end (-3,-3,5)
Definition of RC beams
LMC in the Bar type field and select
the type: Column
LMC in the Section field and select
the type W14x211 (if the section is
absent on the list of available
sections, open the New section
dialog box by pressing the
button and select the required
section)
Selection of bar properties. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
Define the following four steel
columns of the 10 m length:
col.1: begin. (-3,-3,5), end (-3,-3,-5)
col.2: begin. (3,-3,5), end (3,-3,-5)
col.3: begin. (3,3,5), end (3,3,-5)
col.4: begin. (-3,3,5), end (-3,3,-5)
Definition of steel columns
LMC in the Bar type field and select
the type: Simple bar
LMC in the Section field and select
the type W14x211 (if the section is
absent on the list of available
sections, open the New section
dialog box by pressing the
button and select the required
section)
Selection of bar properties. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
Define the following four beams:
beam1:begin. (-3,-3,-1), end (3,-3,-1)
beam2:begin. (3,-3,-1), end (3,3,-1)
beam3:begin. (3,3,-1), end (-3,3,-1)
beam4:begin. (-3,3,-1), end (-3,-3,-1)
Definition of steel spandrel beams
LMC in the Bar type field and select
the type: Simple Bar
LMC in the Section field and select
the type L 4x4x0.25 (if the section is
absent on the list of available
sections, open the New section
dialog box by pressing the
button and select the required
section)
Selection of bar properties. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
Define the following bracings:
1: begin. (-3,-3,5), end (3,-3,-1)
2: begin. (3,-3,5), end (-3,-3,-1)
Bracing definition
3: begin. (3,-3,5), end (3,3,-1)
4: begin. (3,3,5), end (3,-3,-1)
Close the Bars dialog box
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Select bracing 1 and 2
Edit / Edit / Translate Opening the dialog box used to define translation
Translation vector (0,6,0)
Edit mode = Copy
Drag = switched off, Execute
Select bracing 3 and 4
Translation vector (-6,0,0)
Edit mode = Copy
Drag = switched off, Execute
Close the Translation dialog box
Opening the Supports dialog box
LMC in the Current selection field on
the Nodal tab
Selection of structure nodes where structure supports will
be applied
Go to the graphical viewer; while
pressing the left mouse button,
select all bottom nodes of columns
You should see numbers of support nodes appearing in the
Current selection field
Select the fixed support icon in the
Supports dialog box (it will become
highlighted), Apply
Selection of support type, the selected support type will be
applied to the selected structure nodes
Close Closing the Supports dialog box
Analysis / Calculation model /
Generation
Creation of the structure calculation model (mesh of planar
finite elements)
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4.2 Cooler
This example provides a definition of a shell structure (chimney cooler), presented schematically
in the drawing below.
Data units: (m).
OPERATION PERFORMED DESCRIPTION
View / Projection / ZX Selection of a work plane
Geometry / Objects / Arc Opening the Arc dialog box to define successive
components of a contour
Select the following arc definition
method: beginning, end, middle
Define the following arc on the
graphical viewer:
Begin. (-10,0,10)
End (-10,0,-10)
Middle (-7,0,0)
Define an arc
Close Closing the Arc dialog box
CTRL + A Selection of the defined arc object
Geometry / Objects / Revolve Opening the Revolve dialog box
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Define the rotation parameters:
Axis: beginning (0,0,0)
end (0,0,10)
rotation angle (360)
number of divisions: (36)
Inactive options: top, base, new
object
Rotation parameters
Apply, Yes Rotation of the object is performed, accepting the message
about limitations of the Revolve function for revolutions by
360-degree angle
Close Closing the Revolve dialog box
View / Projection / 3d xyz
Opening the dialog box used for defining thickness
Select the default panel thickness:
TH_30CONCR
Selection of the thickness that will be applied to particular
components of the structure
Write all in the Panels field Selection of all structure elements
Apply Application of the default thickness to all the elements of
the structure
Close the FE Thickness dialog box
View / Display Opening the Display dialog box for visualizing selected
attributes
Select the Thickness option on the
Finite Element tab
Apply, OK Closing the Display dialog box for visualizing selected
attributes
Initial view
Opening the Supports dialog box
Select Line option in the Current
selection group
Select the fixed support icon in the
Supports dialog box (the icon will
be highlighted)
Selection of the support type
Indicate the bottom line (circle) of
the structure
NOTE: To select the circle you have to find a place along
its circumference in such a way it will get
highlighted. If you have trouble finding this place,
you should add labels by checking the ýnumbers and
labels of edgesü on the Finite Elements tab in the
Display dialog box.
Close Closing the Supports dialog box
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Analysis / Calculation model /
Generation
Creation of the structure calculation model (mesh of planar
finite elements)
4.3 Pipeline
This example provides a definition of shell structure (pipe), presented schematically in the drawing
below.
Data units: (m).
OPERATION PERFORMED DESCRIPTION
View / Projection / ZX Selection of the work plane
Geometry / Objects / Circle Opening the Circle dialog box to define contour
components
Select the Center - radius option in
the Definition Method group of the
dialog box
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In the graphical viewer, define a
circle with the radius of 1 m and the
center at the point (0,0,0)
Definition of a circle that will be the basis for creating the
pipeline
Close the Circle dialog box
View / Projection / 3d xyz
Select the Edit / Substructure
modification / Object modification
command from the menu
Opening the dialog box Objects - operations /
modifications
LMC in in the Object field and
indicate the defined circle in the
graphical viewer
Selection of the circle (the number of the object is
introduced into the Object field)
Press the Extrude button Beginning of the definition of object modification
Press the Object modification
parameters button
Definition of the parameters of extrusion
Define the following parameters of
extrusion:
II to axis Y,
length (20) m
number of divisions (20)
Inactive options: top, base
Extrusion parameters
Apply Extrusion performed for the circle according to the defined
parameters
Press the Revolve button Opening the Revolve dialog box
Define the following parameters for
revolving the object:
axis beginning (2,20,0)
end (2,20,1)
rotation angle (-90)
number of divisions (5)
Inactive options: top, base
Rotation parameters
Apply Rotation of the object is performed
Press the Extrude button Beginning to define the parameters of extrusion
Define the following parameters of
extrusion:
II to axis X,
length (2) m
number of divisions (2)
Inactive options: top, base
Extrusion parameters
Press the Apply button Extrusion performed for the circle according to the defined
parameters
Press the Revolve button Opening the Revolve dialog box
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Define the following parameters for
revolving the object:
axis beginning (4,24,0)
end (4,24,1)
rotation angle (90)
number of divisions (5)
Inactive options: top, base
Rotation parameters
Apply Rotation of the object is performed
Press the Extrude button Beginning of the definition of object modification
Define the following parameters of
extrusion:
II to axis Y,
length (10) m
number of divisions (10)
Inactive options: top, base
Extrusion parameters
Apply Extrusion performed for the circle according to the defined
parameters
Close
Initial view
Analysis / Calculation model /
Generation
Creation of the structure calculation model (mesh of planar
finite elements)
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4.4 Axisymmetric Structures
This example provides a definition of shell structure, presented schematically in the drawing below.
Data units: (m).
OPERATION PERFORMED DESCRIPTION
View / Projection / ZX Selection of a work plane
Geometry / Objects / Arc Opening the Arc dialog box to define successive
components of a contour
Select the following arc definition
method: beginning, end, middle
Define the following arc in the
graphical viewer:
Begin (0,0,10)
End (0,0,-10)
Middle (-5,0,0)
Close Closing the Arc dialog box
CTRL + A Selection of the defined arc object
Geometry / Objects / Revolve Opening the Revolve dialog box
Define the rotation parameters:
Axis: beginning (0,0,0)
end (-5,0,0)
rotation angle (180)
number of divisions (18)
Inactive options: top, base, new
object
Rotation parameters
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Apply Rotation of the object is performed
Close Closing the Revolve dialog box
View / Projection / 3D xyz
Opening the dialog box used for defining thickness
Select the default panel thickness:
TH_30CONCR
Selection of the thickness that will be applied to particular
components of the structure
Write all in the Panels field Selection of all structure elements
Apply Application of the default thickness to all the elements of
the structure
Close the FE Thickness dialog box
View / Display Opening the Display dialog box for visualizing selected
attributes
Select the Thickness option on the
Finite Elements tab
Apply, OK Closing the Display dialog box for visualizing selected
attributes
Analysis / Calculation model /
Generation
Creation of the structure calculation model (mesh of planar
finite elements)
This example provides a definition of shell structure, presented schematically in the drawing below.
Data units: (m).
OPERATION PERFORMED DESCRIPTION
View / Projection / ZX Selection of the work plane
Opening the Polyline - contour dialog box to define
successive components of a contour
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Select Line option in the Definition
method part of the dialog box
Define two lines in the graphical
viewer:
line 1: beginning (-10,0,0)
end (-10,0,10)
line 2: beginning (-15,0,0)
end (-15,0,5)
Definition of two lines
Close Closing the Polyline - contour dialog box
Geometry / Objects / Arc Opening the Arc dialog box to define successive
components of a contour
Select the following arc definition
method: center, begin, end
Define the following two arcs in the
graphical viewer:
Arc 1 with radius = 5
Center (-10,0,5)
Begin. (-15,0,5)
End (-10,0,10)
Arc 2 with radius = 10
Center (0,0,10)
Begin. (-10,0,10)
End (0,0,20)
Close Closing the Arc dialog box
CTRL + A Selection of the defined arc object
Geometry / Objects / Revolve Opening the Revolve dialog box
Define the rotation parameters:
Axis: beginning (0,0,10)
end (0,0,20)
rotation angle (360)
number of divisions (36)
Inactive options: top, base, new
object
Rotation parameters
Apply Rotation of the object is performed
Close Closing the Revolve dialog box
View / Projection / 3d xyz
Opening the dialog box used for defining thickness
Select the default panel thickness:
TH_30CONCR
Selection of the thickness that will be applied to particular
components of the structure
Write all in the Panels field Selection of all structure elements
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Apply Application of the default thickness to all the elements of
the structure
Close the FE Thickness dialog box
Initial view
View / Display Opening the Display dialog box for visualizing selected
attributes
Select the Thickness option on the
FE tab
Apply, OK Closing the Display dialog box for visualizing selected
attributes
Opening the Supports dialog box
Select Line option in the Current
selection group
Select the fixed support icon in the
Supports dialog box (the icon will
be highlighted)
Selection of the support type
Point to the bottom line (circle) of
the structure and select it
NOTE: To select the circle you have to find a place along
its circumference in such a way it will get
highlighted. If you have trouble finding this place,
you should add labels by checking the ýnumbers and
labels of edgesü on the Finite Elements tab in the
Display dialog box.
Close Closing the Supports dialog box
Analysis / Calculation model /
Generation
Creation of the structure calculation model (mesh of planar
finite elements)
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ROBOT Millennium Version 20.0 - Training Manual page: 59
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5. Design of a 2D Frame
The following is an example of a definition, analysis and design of a simple, 2D steel frame
presented in the drawing below.
Data units: (m) and (kN).
Three load cases will be applied to the structure (self-weight and two cases of live loads presented
in the drawing below). Moreover, (10) load cases generated automatically for snow/wind loads will be
applied to the structure.
CASE 2 CASE 3
The following rules will be applied during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
In order to start defining a structure, one should run the ROBOT Millennium program (press the
relevant icon or select the relevant command from the toolbar). After a while, there appears on
screen the dialog box (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual), where one should select the second
icon in the first row (2D frame).
NOTE: The European (French) section database (CATPRO) and the French snow/wind code
have been used in this example.
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5.1 Structure Model Definition
OPERATION PERFORMED DESCRIPTION
Structure model / Bars
The BARS layout should be selected from those available
in the ROBOT Millennium program
LMC in the Bar type field and select
the Column type
LMC in the Section field and select
the HEA 300 type (if the section is
absent from the list of available
sections, one should open the New
section dialog box by pressing the
button and select the required
section)
Definition of bar properties. The section from the French
section database (CATPRO) has been used in this
example.
LMC in the Beginning field (the
bacground will be highlighted in
green)
Beginning of the definition of structure bars (columns of the
structure)
column 1:
(0,0) (0,5)
(0,5) (0,10)
(0,10) (0,15)
column 2:
(8,0) (8,5)
column 3:
(16,0) (16,5)
(16,5) (16,10)
(16,10) (16,15)
column 4:
(24,0) (24,5)
(24,5) (24,8)
Definition of columns in the frame
LMC in the Bar type field and select
the Beam type.
LMC in the Section field and select
the type HEA 300
Beginning of the definition of structure beams and
definition of their properties. The section from the French
section database (CATPRO) has been used in this
example.
LMC in the Beginning field (the
background will be highlighted in
green)
Beginning of the definition of structure beams
beam 1:
(0,5) (8,5)
(8,5) (16,5)
(16,5) (24,5)
beam 2:
(0,10) (16,10)
beam 3:
(16,10) (24,8)
beam 4:
(0,15) (16,15)
Definition of beams in the frame
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© Robobat www.robobat.com
LMC in the field for selecting layouts
in the ROBOT Millennium program
and select Structure model / Start
Selection of the initial layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program
Initial view
Opening the Supports dialog box
LMC on the Current selection field
on the Nodal tab
Selection of structure nodes where supports will be applied
Go to the graphical viewer; while
pressing the left mouse button,
select all the bottom nodes of
columns
The selected nodes 1, 5, 7 and 11 will be introduced into
the Actual selection field
Select the icon denoting a fixed
support in the Supports dialog box
(it will get highlighted)
Selection of support type
Apply, Close The selected support type will be applied to the selected
nodes of the structure
5.2 Definition of Load Cases and Loads
Opening the Load Types dialog box
LMC on the New button Definition of a case with the dead nature (self-weight) and
the standard label DL1
LMC the Nature field
(Live)
Selection of the nature of load case: live
LMC the New button
LMC the New button
Definition of two load cases with the live nature and
standard labels LL1 and LL2
Close Closing the Load types dialog box
Loads / Load Table Opening the table for defining loads operating in the
defined load cases
Press , to place the table in the
bottom part of the screen, so that it
takes the entire width of the viewer
and allows the model of the defined
structure to be visible
Reducing the table size in order to make the graphical load
definition possible
LMC the second cell in the CASE
column, select the 2. load case: LL1
Definition of loads operating in the second load case
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Continuing in the same row LMC the
cell in the LOAD TYPE column,
selection of the uniform load
Selection of load type
LMC the cell in the LIST column,
graphical selection in the viewer of
the beam 1 (bars 10to12)
Selection of bars to which the uniform load will be applied
LMC the cell in the "pz=" column
and enter the (-20) value
Selection of the direction and value of the uniform load
LMC the third cell in the CASE
column, select Load case 3 - LL2
Definition of loads operating in the third load case
LMC the cell in the LOAD TYPE
column, select the uniform load
Selection of load type
LMC the cell in the LIST column,
select graphically the beam 2 (bar
13)
Selection of bars to which the uniform load will be applied
LMC the cell in the "pz=" column
and enter the (-14) value
Selection of the direction and value of the uniform load
Close the table of loads
5.3 Definition of Snow/Wind Loads
French code: NV65/N84 Mod.96
Loads / Special loads / Wind and
Snow 2D/3D
Opening of the Snow and Wind 2D/3D dialog box
Press the Auto button;
inactive options:
without parapets
with base not on ground
isolated roofs
Automatic generation of the structure envelope for
the generation of snow/wind loads (in the Envelope field the
program introduces the following node numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4,
10, 9, 13, 12, 11) and definition of basic parameters for the
structure envelope
Define the following parameters:
Total depth = (60)
Bay spacing = (10)
active options:
wind
snow
Definition of the basic parameters of snow/wind loads
Press the Parameters button Opening the additional dialog box (Snow/|wind Loads),
where one can define detailed parameters
Define the parameters of snow/wind
load:
Global parameters tab:
Departament: Alpes-Maritimes
altitude above the sea level: (200)
structure height: (15) m
reference level: (0.8) m
rise of roof: automatic
Definition of parameters for snow/wind loads
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Wind tab:
Site: Normal
Type: Normal
Wind pressure: automatic
Structure dimension effect:
automatic
inactive options in the Specific
actions group
Definition of parameters for snow/wind loads
Snow tab:
Type: Normal and accidental
Snow pressure: automatic for normal
and extreme
active option: Snow redistribution
inactive other options in the Snow
gathering field
Definition of parameters for snow/wind loads
Generate Pressing the button results in starting the generation of
snow and wind loads with the accepted parameters.
The calculation note will appear on screen. It will present
the parameters of snow/wind laod cases
Close editor with the calculation note
Close the Snow and Wind 2D/3D
dialog box
5.4 Structure Analysis
Calculations of the defined structure are started. Once they
are completed, the upper bar of the ROBOT program will
display the message: Results (FEM) - available.
5.5 Detailed Analysis
Select beam 1 in the graphical
viewer (bars 10,11,12)
LMC the ROBOT Millennium
program layout selection:
Results / Detailed analysis
Detailed analysis of structure bars is commenced.
The monitor screen is divided into two parts: the graphical
viewer presenting the structure model and the Detailed
analysis dialog box
Select the second load case
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In the Detailed analysis dialog box
leave the option Open a new
window switched off,
on the NTM tab select the MY
Moments option
Selection of the quantities to be presented for the selected
beam
Apply An additional graphical viewer appears on screen.
It consists of two parts: a graphical presentation of
information (diagrams, loads, bar sections) for selected
bars and a table presenting numerical results obtained for
selected bars
In the Detailed analysis dialog box
select the following options:
Select the maximum stress Smax on
the Stresses tab
Select Characteristic points on the
Division points tab,
LMC in Refresh
Selection of the quantities to be presented for the selected
beam
Apply Adds new quantities to be presented for the selected beam
Select the Global extremes tab in
the table
Activates presentation of global extremes obtained for the
selected beam (see figure below).
Exit Closing the viewer presenting the detailed analysis of the
selected beam
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5.6 Structure Design
Eurocode 3
LMC the ROBOT Millennium
program layout selection:
Structure design /
Steel/Aluminum design
Design of steel structure members is commenced.
The monitor screen is divided into three parts: the graphical
viewer, the Definitions dialog box and the Calculations
dialog box
LMC the New button on the Groups
tab in the Definitions dialog box
Definition of member groups is commenced
Define the first group with the
following parameters:
Number: 1
Name: columns
Member list: 1to9
Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi
Definition of the first group consisting of all the columns
in the structure
Save Saving the parameters of the first member group
LMC the New button on the Groups
tab in the Definitions dialog box
Definition of the second group
Define the second group with the
following parameters:
Number: 2
Name: beams
Member list: 10to15
Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi
Definition of the first group consisting of all the beams in
the structure
Save Saving the parameters of the first member group
LMC the List button in the Code
group design line in the
Calculations dialog box
Going to the Calculations dialog box and opening the
Code group selection dialog box
LMC the All button (in the field
above the Previous button, there
will appear the list: 1to2), Close
Selection of the member groups to be designed
LMC the Load case selection
button (Calculations dialog box)
Opening the Load case selection dialog box
LMC the field above the Previous
button; there will appear the list:
1to3, Close
Selection of the first three load cases
Activate the option: Optimization
and Limit state: Ultimate
Group design will use the optimization procedures
(appropriate sections with respect to their weight);
the ultimate limit state will be checked
LMC the Calculations button Design of the selected member groups is commenced;
there appears the Short results dialog box on screen
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LMC the Change all button in the
Code group design dialog box
shown above; accept the warning
about the possible change of the
result status to ÿnot availableþ
Change of the currenly used profiles in the members
belonging to both member groups to the calculated
sections (for columns: from HEA 300 to HEA 240, for
beams: from HEA 300 to HEA 500). Once the sections are
changed, the upper bar of ROBOT will display the following
message: Results (FEM) - out of date.
Close Closing the Code group design dialog box
Recalculation of the structure with the changed member
sections. Once the sections are changed, the upper bar of
ROBOT will display the following message: Results (FEM)
- available.
LMC the Calculations button in the
Calculations dialog box
Re-design of the selected member groups in the structure
(1,2) with the optimization options active; there will appear
the Short results viewer
LMC the Change all button in the
Code group design dialog box;
accept the warning about the
possible change of the result status
to ÿnot availableþ
Change of the currenly used profiles in the members
belonging to both member groups to the calculated
sections. Once the sections are changed, the upper bar of
ROBOT will display the following message: Results (FEM)
- out of date.
Close Closing the Code group design dialog box
Recalculation of the structure with the changed member
sections. Once the sections are changed, the upper bar of
ROBOT will display the following message: Results (FEM)
- available.
LMC the Calculations button in the
Calculations dialog box
Re-design of the selected member groups in the structure
(1,2) with the optimization options active; there will appear
the Short results viewer shown below. When the sections
do not change during group design one can say the
calculated sections are the optimal sections for designing
member groups.
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Close Closing the Code group design dialog box
LMC in the Member verification field
in the Calculations dialog box and
enter there: (1to15)
Selection of members to be verified
LMC the Load case list field in the
Calculations dialog box and enter
there: (1to3)
Selection of all load cases
LMC the Calculations button Verification of the selected structure members is started
(the verification is performed to obtain the results for
particular structure members; however, it is not necessary);
there will appear the Short results viewer
Close Closing the Member verification dialog box
5.7 Global Analysis
LMC the ROBOT Millennium
program layout selection: Structure
Model / Start
Selection of the initial ROBOT Millennium layout.
Results / Global analysis - bars Beginning of the global analysis of all the bars in the
structure. An additional graphical viewer appears. It
consists of two parts: the graphical presentation of
information and the table presenting the numerical results
RMC while the cursor is located in
the additional graphical viewer
A context menu appears on screen
Table Columns Selection of this option in the context menu opens
the Parameters of presentation windows dialog box
Stresses tab: activate the Normal
option
Design tab: activate the Ratio option
Selection of quantites for which global analysis will be
presented
LMC the OK button The selection is accepted
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LMC the Upper limit in the table and
enter the value 1.0
The upper value of the ratio is determined
RMC while the cursor is located in
the additional graphical viewer
A context menu appears on screen
Select the Constant display of limit
values option
The values of limits are presented with horizontal lines in
the graphical viewer of global analysis (see below).
Close the graphical viewer with global analysis presented
5.8 Design of Steel Connections
Code: Eurocode 3
LMC the field of the ROBOT
Millennium program layout
selection
Structure design / Connections
Design of steel connections in a structure starts. The
screen will be divided into two parts: the Object Inspector
dialog box (Steel Connections) and the graphical viewer; at
the bottom of the graphical viewer there are three tabs:
Scheme, 3D View and Structure.
Move on to the Structure tab;
select the middle bar in the outmost
left column and the middle beam û
RMC in the graphical viewer
presenting the structure, choose
Select in the context menu while
pressing the CTRL button, click the
left mouse button on the mentioned
bars
Selection of bars for which the connection will be verified.
The selected bars are pointed out with arrows in the figure
below.
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Connections / New Connection for
Selected Bars
A connection is defined between the selected bars;
the Connection definition dialog box starts to display
several tabs. They allow modifying individual parameters of
the connection.
Select the Welds option on the
Sections tab in the Connection
definition dialog box,
Apply
Selection of a type of a defined steel connection
Connections / Calculations Opening of the Connection calculations dialog box
LMC the List field in the Load cases
field
Definition of load cases considered during the connection
verification
Enter here (1to3) Selection of all the load cases
LMC the Calculations button Connection verification starts; short results are presented in
the Object Inspector dialog box and a detailed calculation
note is displayed on the Results tab (this tab is accessible
only after calculations of the connection are performed).
Selection of the extreme left support
node with the column
Selection of bars for which the connection will be verified
(concrete base of a column)
Connections / New Connection for
Selected Bars
A connection is defined between the selected bars.
The dialog box starts to display several tabs.
Connections / Calculations Opening of the Connection calculations dialog box
LMC the List field in the Load cases
field
Definition of load cases considered during the connection
verification
Enter here (1to3) Selection of all the load cases
LMC the Calculations button Connection verification starts; short results are presented in
the Object Inspector dialog box and a detailed calculation
note is displayed on the Results tab (this tab is accessible
only after calculations of the connection are performed).
5.9 Printout Composition
LMC the field of the ROBOT
Millennium program layout
selection
Structure Model / Start
Selection of the initial ROBOT Millennium program layout
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File / Printout composition Opening the Printout composition - Wizard dialog box,
where one can define the shape of the printout for the
currently designed structure
LMC the Simplified printout tab Go to the Simplified printout tab
Switch off the options (symbol
disappears):
Quantity survey, Combinations
Data concerning quantity survey and combinations will not
be included in the printout
Select the following data from the
available lists:
Reactions - global extremes
Displacements - envelope
Forces - values
Stresses - envelope
Selection of the data to be presented for the results of
structure calculations
LMC the Save template button Pressing this button results in going to the Templates tab in
the Printout composition - Wizard dialog box and
including the selected simplified printout elements in the
right panel.
LMC New button on the Templates
tab
Definition of a new userþs template
In the left panel, there will appear an
additional line where one should
write the name of the new template,
e.g. My template and press the
ENTER button.
Saving the userþs template
LMC the Standard tab Going to the Standard tab
Highlight the option in the left panel:
Member group design
Selection of elements for prinout composition
LMC the Add button Going to the selected option in the right panel
LMC the Preview button Presentation of the print preview of the defined printout for
the designed structure
Close Closing the print preview viewer
Close Closing the Printout composition - Wizard dialog box
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6. Definition of Moving Loads for a 2D Frame
This example presents the definition, analysis and design of a simple 2D frame (see the figure
below), for which a moving load case is defined.
Units: (m) and (kN).
Three load cases will be applied to the structure (self-weight and two load cases: wind and snow,
shown in the figure below). Moreover, a moving load case will be applied to the structure.
LOAD CASE 2 LOAD CASE 3
MOVING LOAD CASE
The following rules will apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
In order to start defining a structure, one should run the ROBOT Millennium program (press the
relevant icon or select the relevant command from the toolbar). After a while, there appears on
screen the dialog box (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual), where one should select the first icon
in the first row (2D frame ).
NOTE: The European (French) section database (CATPRO) is used in the example.
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6.1 Definition of the Structure Model
OPERATION PERFORMED DESCRIPTION
Starts the definition of structure axes. The Structural axis
dialog box appears on screen.
In the X tab:
Position: {0}
Number of repetitions: {4}
Distance: {3}
Numbering: A, B, C ...
Definition of the parameters of vertical structural axes.
LMC the Insert button Vertical axes have been defined and introduced into the
Set of defined axes field.
LMC in the Z tab Starts the definition of the parameters of horizontal
structural axes.
In the Z tab:
enter the following coordinates of the
successive axes:
{0}, Insert
{3}, Insert
{5}, Insert
{6.5}, Insert
Numbering: 1, 2, 3 ...
Defines the parameters of horizontal structural axes.
Apply, Close Creates the defined structural axes and closes the
Structural axis dialog box.
6.1.1 Definition of Structure Bars
Opens the Sections dialog box
Opens the New sections dialog box
Select the I-section group in the
Section field and select the following
sections: HEA 200, HEA 260 and
IPE 200
Add, Close
Defines a new section and closes the New sections dialog
box
Close Closes the Sections dialog box
Opens the Bars dialog box
LMC in the BAR TYPE field:
Column
LMC in the SECTION field and
select the section type: HEA 260
Selects bar properties
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LMC in the Beginning field (color of
a field background changes to
green)
Starts defining bars in the structure (columns of the
structure)
Column 1 - between the points A1-
A3, with the following coordinates:
(0,0) (0,5)
Column 2 - between the points E1-
E3, with the following coordinates:
(12,0) (12,5)
Column 3 û between the points C1-
C2, with the following coordinates:
(6,0) (6,3)
Defines structure columns. The figure below presents
the structure created up to this moment.
Close Closes the Bars dialog box
6.1.2 Definition of Library Structures (a Roof and an Overhead
Traveling Crane Beam)
Opens the Typical structures dialog box and starts
defining a library structure (roof).
LMC (twice) the icon
(1st icon in the last row)
Selects the triangular truss of type 1. On screen, there
appears the Merge structure dialog box where one may
define truss parameters
In the Dimensions tab
LMC the Length L field
{12}
Defines truss length (one may also define it graphically in
the graphical viewer)
LMC the Height H field
{1.5}
Defines truss height (one may also define it graphically in
the graphical viewer)
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LMC in the Number of fields field
{8}
Defines the number of fields into which the truss will be
divided
LMC in the Insert tab
LMC in the Insertion point field
select point A3 with the following
coordinates (0,0,5)
Defines the insertion node for the truss
Apply, OK Creates the defined structure in the indicated place within
the structure and closes the Merge structure dialog box
Geometry / Releases Opens the Releases dialog box
LMC on the release type: Pinned-
Fixed
Selects the release type to be assigned to the truss bar
LMC on the Current selection field,
switch to the graphic viewer and
indicate the highest truss post (in the
roof ridge)
Selects the truss bar; ATTENTION: take note of the arrows
that appear on the highlighted truss bar û while indicating
the bar the arrows should be pointed up (the direction of the
release is significant: at the first node the pinned
connection remains, whereas at the second one û the fixed
connection is defined)
Close Closes the Releases dialog box
Reopens the Typical structures dialog box and starts
defining a library structure (moving-crane beam).
LMC (twice) in the icon Selects the rectangular truss of type 3. On screen, there
appears the Merge structure dialog box where one may
define truss parameters
On the Dimensions tab
LMC the Length L field
{12}
Defines truss length (one may also define it graphically in
the graphical viewer)
LMC the Height H field
{1.0}
Defines truss height (one may also define it graphically in
the graphical viewer)
LMC in the Number of fields field
{8}
Defines the number of fields into which the truss will be
divided
LMC in the Insert tab
LMC in the Insertion point field
select the point with the following
coordinates (0,0,2)
Defines the insertion node for the truss
Apply, OK Creates the defined structure in the indicated place within
the structure and closes the Merge structure dialog box
Opens the Sections dialog box
LMC in the Lines/Bars field, select
all bars of both trusses
Selects truss bars
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LMC in the IPE 200 section Selects the section that will be applied to selected bars
Apply, accept the material change
to the default one
Applies section IPE 200 to all truss bars
LMC in the Lines/Bars field, select
the upper chord of the moving-crane
truss
Selects bars (bar No. 8)
LMC in the HEA 200 section Selects the section that will be applied to selected bars
Apply, Close Applies section HEA 200 to the truss bars and closes the
Sections dialog box
Select the side posts of the moving-
crane truss and the central post (see
the figure) - the bars become
highlighted (bars 108, 112 and 116)
Press the Delete button on the
keyboard
Deletes the selected structure bars
6.1.3 Support Definition
Opens the Supports dialog box
LMC in the Current selection field on
the Nodal tab
Selects structure nodes where supports will be applied
Go to the graphical viewer; while
holding the left mouse button
pressed, select with the window all
the lower nodes of the columns
(the points located at the level of
structural axis 1)
The selected nodes (1 3 5) will be inserted in the Current
selection field.
In the Supports dialog box, select
the icon referring to the fixed support
(it will be highlighted)
Selects the support type
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Apply The selected support type will be applied to the selected
structure nodes.
Close Closes the Supports dialog box
6.1.4 Definition of Structure Loads
LMC in the ROBOT Millennium
layout selection field
Structure model / Loads
Selects the ROBOT Millennium layout that allows one to
define structure loads
LMC in the New button in the Load
types dialog box
Defines the following load case:
nature: dead (self-weight)
standard name: DL1
LMC in the Nature field:
Wind
Selects load case nature: wind
LMC in the New button Defines the following load case:
nature: wind
standard name: WIND1
LMC in the Nature field
Snow
Selects load case nature: snow
LMC in the New button Defines the following load case:
nature: snow
standard name: SN1
The self-weight was applied automatically to all structure
bars in the first row (direction "-Zü)
LMC the second field in the CASE
column and select 2nd load case:
WIND1
Defines loads operating for the second load case
LMC the field in the LOAD TYPE
column and select the uniform load
Selects load type
LMC the field in the LIST column
and select graphically in the
graphical viewer the left structure
column
Selects the bar to which the program will apply the load
with nodal forces (bar 1)
LMC the field in the "px=" column
and type the value 5.0
Selects the direction and value of the load
LMC the third field in the CASE
column, select 3rd load case: SN1
Defines loads operating for the third load case
LMC the field in the LOAD TYPE
column and select the uniform load
Selects load type
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LMC the field in the LIST column
and select in the graphical viewer
the upper chords of the roof truss
Selects the bar to which the program will apply the uniform
load (bars 5 and 6)
LMC the field in the "pz=" column
and enter the value: -3.0
Selects the direction and value of the uniform load
LMC in the ROBOT Millennium
layout selection field
Structure Model / Start
Selects the initial ROBOT Millennium layout
6.1.5 Definition of a Moving Load Applied to the Structure
Tools / Job Preferences Opens the Job Preferences dialog box
LMC the Databases / Vehicle
database option
Selects the option from the tree in the left part of the dialog
box
Pressing the Create a new database icon results in opening
the New moving load dialog box
Type:
in the Database field: USER
in the Database name field:
User-defined database
Units: length - (m)
force - (kN)
Defines a user database
Create Closes the New moving load dialog box
OK Closes the Job Preferences dialog box
Loads / Special loads / Moving Opens the Moving loads dialog box
Opens the Moving loads dialog box and starts defining
a new vehicle
On the Symmetric vehicles tab LMC
on the New button
Defines a new vehicle
Type the vehicle name: Moving
crane, OK
Defines the name of the new vehicle and closes the New
vehicle dialog box
LMC the first line in the table located
in the lower part of the dialog box
Defines the operating forces
Select the load type: concentrated
force
Selects a load type
F = 30, X = -1.2, S = 0 Defines the value and location of the concentrated force
LMC the next line in the table
located in the lower part of the
dialog box
Defines the operating forces
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Select the load type: concentrated
force
Selects a load type
F = 30, X = 0.0, S = 0 Defines the value and location of the concentrated force
LMC the next line in the table
located in the lower part of the
dialog box
Defines the operating forces
Select the load type: concentrated
force
Selects a load type
F = 30, X = 1.4, S = 0 Defines the value and location of the concentrated force.
The Moving loads dialog box is presented below.
LMC the Save to database button Opens the Moving load databases dialog box
OK in the Moving load databases
dialog box
Saves the defined vehicle to the user-defined database
Add, Close Adds the defined vehicle to the list of active vehicles and
closes the Moving loads dialog box
In the Name field, type the name of
the moving load (case 4):
moving crane load
Defines the name of the moving load
LMC the Define button Starts the definition of the route of the Moving Crane
vehicle: the Polyline - contour dialog box is opened, with
the Polyline option active.
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Define two points determining the
route of the vehicle:
beginning (0,3)
end (12,3)
Defines the vehicle route
Apply, Close Closes the Polyline - contour dialog box
LMC the Step field {1}
Assume the default value of
direction (0,0,-1), which means that
the load will operate in the Z
direction and its sense will be
opposite with respect to the sense of
the Z axis
Defines the step of position change of the moving load and
the direction of load application.
LMC the Selection option located in
the Application plane field
Selects the plane of load application
{8} Selects the upper chord of the moving-crane truss (bar
no. 8)
LMC the Parameters button Opens the Route parameters dialog box
LMC the field for factors:
Coef. LR and coef. LL
and type the value 0.1
Defines the factors for the forces operating along the
vehicle movement route. It generates the forces originating
in vehicle braking, whose value equals 0.1*F
Switch on the following options:
Vehicle position limit þ route
beginning
Vehicle position limit þ route end
Switching these options on assures that the forces defining
the moving crane load will not be positioned off the defined
structure model.
OK Closes the Route parameters dialog box
Apply, Close Generates the moving load case according to the adopted
parameters and closes the Moving loads dialog box.
6.2 Structure Analysis
Tools / Job Preferences Opens the Job Preferences dialog box
Structure Analysis Selects the Structure Analysis option from the tree in the
dialog box
Method of Solving the System of
Equations: Iterative
Selects the method of solving the equation system for the
defined structure
OK Accepts assumed parameters and closes the Job
Preferences dialog box
Starts calculations of the defined structure. Once the
calculations are completed, the title bar of the viewer will
present the following information: Finite Element Results -
available.
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6.3 Presentation of the Vehicle and the Moving Load Case
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box
The Loads tab: switch on the Moving
loads - vehicle option, OK
Presents the defined vehicle on the structure
Select 4: moving-crane load
Select load case 4 (moving-crane load)
Loads / Select case component Opens the Load component dialog box
Select: Current component 4 Select component 4 of the moving load case
LMC the Animation button Opens the Animation dialog box
LMC the Start button Starts the animation of the moving load over the structure;
the vehicle will move along the defined route.
Stop (LMC the button) and
close the animation toolbar
Stops the vehicle animation
Close Closes the Load component dialog box
6.4 Result Analysis
LMC the field for selecting ROBOT
Millennium layout
Results / Results
The RESULTS ROBOT Millennium layout opens.
The monitor screen will be divided into tree parts:
the graphical viewer containing the structure model;
the Diagrams dialog box and the table presenting the
values of reactions.
NOTE: The table presents additional moving load cases
(marked with symbols ý+ü and ý-ý) determining the
value of the upper and lower envelope, respectively.
Select: 4 moving load
Selects load case 4 (moving crane load).
Switch on the My Moment option in
the Diagrams dialog box
Selects the presentation of the bending moment in the
structure for the selected moving load case.
Select the Deformation tab in the
Diagrams dialog box
switch on the Deformation option
Selects the presentation of the deformation in the structure
for the selected moving load case.
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Apply Presents the bending moment diagram and deformation
diagram for the structure. Similarly, one can present the
diagrams of other quantities available in the Diagrams
dialog box.
Loads / Select case component Opens the Case component dialog box
LMC the Animation button Opens the Animation dialog box
LMC the Start button Starts recording the animation of the bending moment and
deformation for the structure
Stop (LMC the button) and
close the animation toolbar
Stops recording the animation
Close Closes the Load component dialog box
Switch off the My Moment option in
the Diagrams dialog box
Select the Deformation tab in the
Diagrams dialog box
switch off the Deformation option,
Apply
6.5 Influence Lines
LMC in the ROBOT Millennium
layout selection field
Structure model / Start
Goes to the START layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program.
Results / Advanced / Influence line Opens the Influence lines dialog box
On the NTM tab of the Influence
lines dialog box, switch on the two
options: My and Fz
Selects for presentation: the bending moment and the
shear force for the moving load case
LMC in the Element field and type
{8}
Selects the bar for which the program will present influence
lines. The point position (equal 0.5) means that the
influence line will be created for the point located in the
middle of the bar length.
Apply Opens an additional window presenting the influence lines
of the selected quantities (see the figure below).
In the Nodes tab of the Influence
lines dialog box, switch on the two
options: Ux and Uz
Selects the presentation of nodal displacements for the
moving load case.
LMC in the Node field and type {2} Selects the node for which the program will present
influence lines.
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Switch on the Open in a new window
option
The diagrams of influence lines for the node no. 2 will be
presented in a new window.
Apply Opens an additional window where the influence lines of
the selected quantities will be presented.
RMC in the Influence lines dialog
box where the influence lines are
presented for node 2
Opens the context menu
Add coordinates If the option is selected, the table located under the
diagrams of influence lines will display additional columns
containing the coordinates of the successive structure
points.
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7. 3D Workshop with a Moving Crane
This example presents definition, analysis and design of a simple steel workshop illustrated
in the figure below.
Data units: (ft) and (kip).
Five load cases have been assigned to structure and three of them are shown in the drawings below.
LOAD CASE 2
LOAD CASE 4
LOAD CASE 5
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT Millennium program (press the appropriate icon or
select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window will be displayed on the screen and the
icon (Frame 3D Design), the last but one in the first row, should be selected.
NOTE: The American section database (AISC) has been used in this example.
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7.1 Definition of the Structure Model
Definition of Structure Bars
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Structure Model/Bars
Selects the BARS layout from the list of the available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
LMC on the Bar Type field and
select Column
LMC on the Section field and select
(W 21x101)
Selects bar properties. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
Note: If the W 21x101 section is not available on the list,
one should select the STRUCTURE MODEL /
SECTION and MATERIALS layout, press the New
icon in the Sections dialog box and add the section
to the list of active sections.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of bars in the structure (structure column).
Enter the following coordinates in
the Beginning and End field:
(-26,0,0) (-26,0,22.5), Add
(-26,0,22.5) (-26,0,45), Add
Defines a column of the structure.
LMC on the Bar Type field in the
Bars dialog box and select Beam
LMC on the Section field and select:
(W 16x40)
Starts definition of a beam and selects its properties.
The section from the American section database (AISC)
has been used.
Note: If the W16x40 section is not available on the list, one
should follow the above procedure.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of a beam in the structure.
Enter the following points in the
Beginning and End field:
(-26,0,32) (-20,0,32), Add
Defines a beam.
LMC on the Bar Type field in the
Bars dialog box and select Simple
bar
LMC on the Section field and select
C 15x50
Starts definition of a simple bar and selects its properties.
The section from the American section database (AISC)
has been used.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of a simple bar in the structure.
Enter the following points in the
Beginning and End field:
(-26,0,26) (-20,0,32), Add
Defines a simple bar.
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LMC the Bar type field in the Bars
dialog box, select Simple bar
LMC the Section field, select HP
10x57
Starts to define the bar and assign the properties to it.
NOTE: If the section HP 10x57 is not present on the list of
available sections, then press the button and
next follow the steps mentioned above.
LMC the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts to define the bar coordinates in a structure.
Enter the bar coordinates in the
Beginning and End fields:
(-26,0,45) (0,0,52), Add
Defines a bar.
Restores the initial structure view.
Bracket Definition
LMC the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model / Start
Selects the initial layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program.
Geometry / Additional Attributes /
Brackets
Opens the Brackets dialog box that is used to define nodal
brackets for structure bars.
Opens the New Bracket dialog box.
In the Length (L) field enter the
value 0.15; leave the remaining
parameters unchanged
Defines the bracket length
Add, Close Defines a new bracket, closes the New Bracket dialog box
LMC the Bars field, move to the
graphical viewer and select the
recently-defined bar (number 5
should be displayed in the Bars
field)
Selects a bar to which a bracket will be assigned.
Apply, Close Assigns the bracket to the selected bar, closes the
Brackets dialog box. The structure defined is displayed in
the drawing below.
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Definition of Structure Supports
LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model/Supports
Selects the ROBOT Millennium layout which allows
defining supports.
In the Supports dialog box, LMC on
the Current Selection field on the
Nodal tab (the cursor is blinking in
the field)
Selects structure nodes for which supports will be defined.
Switch to the graphic viewer;
pressing the left mouse button select
the lower column node by means of
the window
The selected node 1 will be entered to the Current
Selection field.
From the Supports dialog box
select the fixed support icon (the
icon will be highlighted)
Selects the support type.
Apply The selected support type will be assigned to the chosen
structure nodes.
LMC on the field for the selection of
the ROBOT Millennium program
layout
Structure Model/Start
Selects the initial ROBOT Millennium program layout.
CTRL+A Selects all nodes and bars.
Edit / Edit / Vertical Mirror Mirrors selected bars.
Locate graphically the vertical
symmetry axis (x = 0), LMC, Close
Performs the axial symmetry of selected bars and closes
the Vertical Mirror dialog box.
Once this option is selected the initial view of the structure
will be presented.
The defined structure is shown in the drawing below.
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Definition of Structure Loads
LMC on the ROBOT Millennium
layout selection field
Structure Model/Loads
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout that allows
defining structure loads.
LMC on the New button in the Load
Types dialog box.
Defines a dead load (self-weight) with a standard name
DL1.
LMC on the Nature field
(Wind)
Selects the load case type: wind.
NOTE: If the load case number is not changed
automatically, enter number (2) manually
LMC on the New button
LMC on the New button
Defines two cases of wind load with the standard names:
WIND1 and WIND2.
LMC on the Nature field
(Snow)
Selects the load case type: snow.
LMC on the New button Defines a snow load with a standard name SN1.
Note: The self-weight load was automatically applied to all
structure bars (in the ýZü direction).
LMC on the second field in the Case
column of the Loads table, select
the 2nd load case: WIND1 from the
list
Defines loads for the second load case.
LMC on the field in the Load Type
column, select the (uniform load)
load type
Selects the load type.
LMC on the field in the List column,
select the left column in a graphical
way
Selects the column to which the uniform load will be
applied.
LMC on the field in the "px=" column
and enter the value: (0.15)
Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.
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LMC on the third field in the Case
column, select the 2nd load case
WIND1 from the list
Defines another load for the second load case.
LMC on the field in the List column,
select the right column graphically
Selects bars to which the uniform load will be applied.
LMC on the field in the "px=" column
and enter the value: (0.10)
Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.
LMC on the fourth field in the Case
column, select the 4th load case:
SN1 from the list
Defines loads for the third load case.
LMC on the field in the Load Type
column, select the (uniform load)
load type
Selects the load type.
LMC on the field in the List column,
select the beams of the steel girder
graphically
Selects bars to which the uniform load will be applied.
LMC on the field in the " PZ ="
column and enter the value: (-0.75)
Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.
LMC in the View viewer
CTRL + A Selects all structure bars.
While the graphic viewer with the
structure model is active, select Edit
/ Edit / Translate
Opens the Translation dialog box.
LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ),
(0,40,0)
Defines the translation vector.
LMC on the Number of Repetitions
field
(3)
Defines a number of repetitions for the performed
translation operations.
Execute, Close Translates the structure and closes the Translation dialog
box (proceed to the next step to see changes).
View / Projection / 3d xyz Selects the isometric structure view (see the drawing
below).
Once this option is selected the initial view of the structure
will be presented.
The defined structure is presented in the drawing below.
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Definition of Additional Elements of the Structure (Longitudinal Beams, Bracings, Crane Girder)
Longitudinal Beams - Definition
LMC on the field for selection of
the ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model/Bars
Selects the ROBOT Millennium layout that allows
defining bars.
View /Display Opens the Display dialog box
On the Structure tab switch off the
options: Node numbers and Bar
numbers
On the Sections tab switch off the
Symbols option, Apply, OK
Switches off display of node numbers, bar numbers and
symbols of bar sections, closes the Display dialog box
LMC on the Bar Type field in the
Bars dialog box and select: Beam
LMC on the Section field and
select (HP 10x42)
Selects bar properties. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to
green)
Starts definition of bars in the structure.
Enter the following coordinates in
the Beginning and End field:
(26,0,45) (26,40,45), Add
(26,40,45) (26,80,45), Add
(26,80,45) (26,120,45), Add
Defines longitudinal beams as shown in the drawing
below.
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Switch to the graphic viewer; RMC
in any place in the viewer, which
opens the context menu. Chose the
Select option and sort out three
recently defined bars - while the
CTRL key is pressed LMC on three
beams
While the graphic viewer with the
structure model is active, select Edit
/ Edit / Translate
Opens the Translation dialog box.
LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ),
(0,0,-22.5)
Defines the translation vector.
Execute Translates the structure and highlights translated beams.
LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ),
(-52,0,0)
Defines a new translation vector.
Execute Translates beams and highlights translated beams.
LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ),
(0,0,22.5)
Defines a new translation vector.
Execute Translates the structure and highlights translated beams.
LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ),
(26,0,7)
Defines a new translation vector.
Execute, Close Translates the structure and closes the Translation dialog
box. The defined structure is presented in the drawing
below.
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Bracing - Definition
LMC in the Bar Type field and
select: Simple bar
LMC on the Section field and select
(W 12x305)
Selects bar properties.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
(26,40,0) (26,80,22.5), Add
(26,40,22.5) (26,80,0), Add
Defines bracing.
LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model / Start
Selects the initial layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program.
Select the two recently defined bars
- while the CTRL key is pressed
LMC on two bars
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ),
(0,0,22.5), Execute
Defines the translation vector.
LMC on the graphic viewer; open the
context menu clicking RMC on any
point in the viewer. Choose the
Select option (the context menu will
close then); select all the recently
defined bracings û with the CTRL
key pressed, LMC on the four bars
LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ) in the
Translation dialog box,
(-52,0,0)
Defines the translation vector.
Execute, Close Translates bars and closes the Translation dialog box.
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LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model/Bars
Selects the ROBOT Millennium layout that allows defining
bars.
LMC on the Bar Type field and
select: Simple bar
LMC on the Section field and select
(W 12x305)
Selects bar properties.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
(26,40,45) (0,80,52), Add
(0,40,52) (26,80,45), Add
(-26,40,45) (0,80,52), Add
(-26,80,45) (0,40,52), Add
Defines bracing.
Crane Girder - Definition
Opens the Sections dialog box.
Opens the New Section dialog box.
Select the icon on the
Parametric tab
Defines a user section: I-ASYM_1
On the Dimension tab enter:
b1 = 15.0, h = 22.0, b2 = 10.0,
tw = 0.5, tf1 = 0.5, tf2 = 0.5
Add, Close
Defines dimensions of the user section.
Close Closes the Sections dialog box
Opens the Bars dialog box
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LMC on the Bar Type field and
select: Beam
LMC on the Section field and select
(I-ASYM_1)
Selects bar properties.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
(20,0,32) (20,120,32), Add
Defines a crane girder.
LMC on the field for selection of the
Robot Millennium program layouts
Structure Model / Start
Selects the initial layout of the Robot Millennium program.
LMC on the View edit viewer;
Select the recently defined bar
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ),
(-40,0,0)
Defines the translation vector.
Execute, Close Translates bars and closes the Translation dialog box.
Definition of Additional Loads
LMC in the ROBOT Millennium
layout selection field
Structure Model/Loads
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout that allows
defining structure loads.
LMC on the fifth field in the Case
column, select the 3rd load case:
WIND2 from the list
Defines loads for the fourth load case.
LMC on the field in the Load Type
column, select the (uniform load)
load type
Selects the load type.
LMC on the field in the List column,
select the corner columns
Selects columns to which the uniform load will be applied.
LMC on the field in the "py=" column
and enter the value: (0.90)
Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.
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LMC in the View viewer The defined load is presented in the drawing below.
Definition of the Moving Load Applied to the Crane Girder
Tools / Job Preferences /
Databases/ Vehicle Database
Open the Job Preferences dialog box.
Pressing the Create new database icon results in opening
the New moving load dialog box.
Enter:
in the Database field: User
in the Database name field:
User-defined database
in the Database description field:
User-defined vehicles
in the Internal units of the database
select: (kip) as Force units and (ft)
as Length units
Create Creates a new database and closes the New moving load
dialog box.
OK Closes the Job Preferences dialog box.
Loads / Special loads / Moving Opens the Moving loads dialog box.
Opens the Moving loads dialog box and starts defining
a new vehicle.
On the Symmetric vehicles tab LMC
on the New button
Opens the New vehicle dialog box.
Enter the vehicle name: Moving
crane
OK
Defines the name of the new vehicle, closes the New
vehicle dialog box.
LMC the first line in the table located
in the lower part of the dialog box
Defines acting forces.
Select the load type: concentrated
force
Selects a load type.
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F = 5.0, X = 0.0, S = 40 Defines the value and location of the concentrated force.
LMC the second line in the table
located in the lower part of the
dialog box
Defines operating forces.
Select the load type: concentrated
force
Selects a load type.
F = 5.0, X = 4.0, S = 40 Defines the value and location of the concentrated force.
LMC the Save to database button Opens the Moving load databases dialog box.
OK in the Moving load databases
dialog box
Saves the defined vehicle to the user-defined database.
Add, Close Adds the defined vehicle to the list of active vehicles and
closes the Moving loads dialog box.
In the Name field, enter the name of
the moving load (case number 5)
Moving crane
Defines the name of the moving load.
LMC the Define button Starts defining the route of the Moving Crane vehicle: the
Polyline - Contour dialog box is opened. Activate the Line
option.
In the Geometry dialog box define
two points determining the route of
the moving load:
Point P1(0,0,32)
Point P2 (0,120,32)
Defines the vehicle route.
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Apply, Close Closes the Polyline - Contour dialog box.
LMC the Step field {8}
Assume the default value of load
direction (0,0,-1) which means that
the load will operate in the Z
direction and its sense will be
opposite to Z axis sense
Defines the step of a position change for the moving load
and the direction of load application.
LMC the Automatic option located in
the Application Plane field
Selects the plane of load application.
LMC the Parameters button Opens the Route Parameters dialog box.
LMC the fields for the LR and LL
factors and enter the value 0.1
Defines the factors for the forces operating along the
vehicle movement route. It generates the forces originating
in vehicle braking, whose value equals 0.1*F.
Activate the following options:
Vehicle position limit þ route
beginning Vehicle position limit þ
route end
Switching these options on assures that the forces defining
the load will not be positioned off the route limits defining
the movement of the moving load.
OK Closes the Route Parameters dialog box.
Apply, Close Generates the moving load case according to the adopted
parameters and closes the Moving loads dialog box.
7.2 Structure Analysis
Tools / Job Preferences Opens the Job Preferences dialog box
Structure Analysis Selects the Structure Analysis option from the tree in the
dialog box
Method of Solving the System of
Equations: Iterative
Selects the iterative method of solving the equation system
for the defined structure
Switch off the option Automatic
freezing of results of structure
calculations
Switches off freezing of structure calculation results.
OK Accepts assumed parameters and closes the Job
Preferences dialog box
Starts calculations of the defined structure. Once the
calculations are completed, the title bar of the viewer will
present the following information: Finite Elements Results -
available.
Presentation of the Vehicle and the Moving Load Case
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
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In the Loads tab: switch on the
Moving loads - vehicle option, Apply
Presents the defined vehicle on the structure.
Selects the load case: 5 (Moving crane).
Loads / Select Case Component Opens the Case Component dialog box.
Select: Current component 5 Selects the component 5 of the moving load case.
LMC the Animation button Opens the Animation dialog box.
LMC the Start button Starts the animation of the moving load applied to the
structure; the vehicle will move along the defined route.
Stop the animation pressing the
button; close the animation toolbar
Stops presenting the vehicle animation.
Close Closes the Case Component dialog box.
LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Results/Results
The RESULTS layout of the ROBOT Millennium program
will be opened. The screen will be divided into three parts:
a graphic viewer containing the structure model, the
Diagrams dialog box and a table with reaction values.
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Selects the load case: 5 (Moving crane).
Select the Deformation tab in the
Diagrams dialog box, turn on the
Deformation option
Selects presentation of deformation for the selected
moving load case.
Apply Presents the deformation diagram for the structure.
Similarly, the diagrams of other quantities available in the
Diagrams dialog box can be presented.
Loads / Select Case Component Opens the Case Component dialog box.
LMC the Animation button Opens the Animation dialog box.
LMC the Start button Starts animation of deformation for the structure.
Stop (LMC the button) and close
the animation toolbar
Stops the animation.
Close Closes the Animation dialog box.
Select the Deformation tab in the
Diagrams dialog box
Turn off the Deformation option,
Apply
7.3 Structure Design
Code: LRFD:2000
LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Design/Steel/Aluminum
Design
Starts steel member design. The screen will be divided into
three parts: a graphic viewer containing the structure
model, the Definitions dialog box and the Calculations
dialog box.
LMC on the List button located
beside the Member Verification field
in the Calculations dialog box
Opens the Member Selection dialog box.
Enter the member numbers: 1, 2, 6,
7 (columns) in the field located
above the Previous button, Close
(see the figure below)
Selects members for verification.
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LMC on the Load Case Selection
button in the Calculations dialog
box
Opens the Load Case Selection dialog box.
LMC on the All button, Close Selects all load cases.
LMC on the Calculations button Starts verification of the selected structure members;
the Member Verification dialog box shown below will be
displayed on the screen.
LMC on the line containing
simplified results for member no. 2
Opens the Results dialog box for the selected member.
LMC on the Simplified Results tab Displays design results for member no. 2 (see the dialog
box presented below).
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OK Closes the Results dialog box.
Close Closes the Member Verification dialog box.
LMC the New button on the Groups
tab in the Definitions ÿ LRFD:2000
dialog box
Allows definition of the first member group.
Define the first group with the
following parameters:
Number: 1
Name: Columns
Member list: LMC on the View edit
viewer; select all columns while the
CTRL key is pressed
Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi
Defines the first group consisting of all columns in the
structure
Save Saves the parameters of the first member group.
Switch to the graphic viewer, select -
from the upper menu:
View / Projection / Zx 3d
Once this option is selected, the structure is displayed in
3D view, but it is set in such a way so that the structure is
visible only on the ZX plane.
LMC the New button on the Groups
tab in the Definitions dialog box
Allows defining the second member group.
Define the second group with the
following parameters:
Number: 2
Name: Rafters
Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi
Defines the second group consisting of all bars belonging to
both trusses in the structure.
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LMC in the Member list in the
Definition dialog box, switch to the
graphic viewer and select all rafters
by means of a window
Selects all bars of the steel girder.
View / Projection / Zx 3d Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is
displayed.
Note: apart from the rafters, other bars have been selected
(bracings and longitudinal beams). To perform the
selection correctly, bars which are not rafter elements
should be separated, while the CTRL key is pressed.
Save Saves the parameters of the second member group.
LMC the List button in the Code
group design line in the
Calculations
dialog box
Opens the Code Group Selection dialog box.
LMC the All button (in the field
above the Previous button), the list:
1 2 will appear there, Close
Selects member groups to be designed.
LMC the Load Case Selection
button in the Calculations dialog
box
Opens the Load case selection dialog box.
LMC the All button (in the field
above the Previous button), Close
Selects all load cases, closes the Load case selection
dialog box.
Activate the options: Optimization
and Limit state: Ultimate
Press the Options button and
Activate the Weight option
Opens the Optimization Options dialog box; it will result
in finding the section with the smallest weight during the
optimization process.
OK Closes the Optimization Options dialog box.
LMC the Calculation button Starts design of the selected member groups; the Short
results dialog box appears on the screen (see the drawing
below).
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LMC the Change All button in the
LRFD:2000 - Code Group Design
dialog box shown above
Changes the currently used sections in the members
belonging to both member groups to the calculated
sections (for columns: from W 21x101 to W 12x58, for
rafters: from HP 10x42 to HP 12x53).
Close Closes the Code Group Design dialog box.
Recalculates the structure with the changed member
sections. Once calculations are finished, the following
information will be displayed in the ROBOT top bar:
Results (FEM): available
LMC the Calculations button in the
Calculations dialog box
Starts design of selected member groups; the Short
results dialog box appears on the screen (see the drawing
below). Keep on repeating the calculations until the optimal
sections are obtained.
Close Closes the Code Group Design dialog box.
Close the Member Verification and
the Results dialog boxes
7.4 Influence Lines
LMC in the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model / Start
Activates the START layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program.
Results / Advanced / Influence line Opens the Influence lines dialog box.
On the NTM tab of the Influence
Lines dialog box, switch on the My
option
Selects the My bending moment for a moving load case for
presentation.
LMC in the Element field and choose
the right crane girder (bar no. 68)
Selects the bar for which the program will present influence
lines.
In the Point field set the Point
position at 0.25
The point position (equal to 0.25) means that the influence
line will be created for the point at one fourth of the bar
length.
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Selects the 5th load case from the load case list.
Note: The influence lines can be created only for a moving
load case.
Apply Opens another window presenting the influence lines for
the selected quantities.
RMC in the Influence lines viewer
where the influence lines are
presented for the right crane girder
Opens the context menu.
Add coordinates If the option is selected, the table located under the
diagrams of influence lines will display additional columns
containing the coordinates of the successive structure
points (see the figure below).
On the NTM tab of the Influence
Line dialog box, switch off the My
option; activate the Fz option
Selects the shear force for a moving load case for
presentation.
LMC in the Open a new window
option, Apply
Opens a new window for presentation of influence lines.
RMC in the Influence lines viewer
where the influence lines are
presented for the right crane girder
Opens the context menu.
Add coordinates If the option is selected, the table located under the
diagrams of influence lines will display additional columns
containing the coordinates of the successive structure
points (see the figure below).
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8. 3D Bridge with a Moving Load
This example presents definition, analysis and design of a single-span bottom-road bridge shown in
the figure below.
Data units: (ft) and (kip).
Eight load cases have been assigned to the structure and six of them are displayed in the drawings
below.
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LOAD CASE 2 - LL1
LOAD CASE 3 - LL2
LOAD CASE 4 - LL3 vertical mirror of LOAD CASE 3
LOAD CASE 5 - WIND1
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LOAD CASE 6 - WIND2
LOAD CASE 7 - Moving vehicle
LOAD CASE 8 - Moving uniform load
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
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To run structure definition start the ROBOT Millennium program (press the appropriate icon or
select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window will be displayed on the screen and the
icon in the second row (Shell Design) should be selected.
NOTE: The American section database (AISC) has been used in this example.
8.1 Definition of the Structure Model
8.1.1 Definition of Structure Geometry
Bridge Floor - Definition
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
View / Projection / Xy Once this option is selected the structure is set on the
XY plane.
Geometry / Object / Polyline -
contour
Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box which allows
defining various line types.
LMC in the Geometry button Opens the dialog box which allows defining a contour.
Enter the following coordinates into
the field highlighted in green:
(0,0,0) Add,
(98,0,0) Add,
(98,13,0) Add,
(0,13,0) Add,
Apply, Close
Defines a contour.
Presentation of the structure initial view.
Geometry / Panels Opens the Panel dialog box that allows defining panels
within structures.
LMC in the button located on
the right side of the Thickness field
Opens the New Thickness dialog box.
Set the new thickness value: 9 in.
and enter the new name
TH9_CONCR,
Add, Close
Defines a new panel and closes the dialog box.
LMC the button located to the
right of the Reinforcement field
Opens the Reinforcement Parameters dialog box.
On the General tab in the Main
Reinforcement Direction field
select the Along Y axis option
Selects the direction of main reinforcement
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Into the Name field enter
Direction_Y,
Add, Close
Assigns the name to the new reinforcement type,
closes the Reinforcement Parameters dialog box
LMC in the Reinforcement field
and set Direction Y reinforcement
Defines reinforcement type that will be applied to the
defined panel.
LMC in the Internal Point field and
select a point inside the panel by
left-clicking on it
Applies current properties to the selected panel.
Close Closes the Panel dialog box.
View / Projection / 3D xyz Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is
displayed. The defined structure is displayed in the
drawing below.
Support Definition
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box which is used to select
structure attributes for presentation.
On the Finite elements tab switch off
the Numbers and panel description
option, OK
Stops presentation of panel numbers and descriptions.
LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model/Supports
Selects the ROBOT Millennium layout which allows
defining supports.
In the Supports dialog box select
the fixed support icon (the icon will
be highlighted)
Selects the support type.
In the Supports dialog box on the
Linear tab LMC on the Current
Selection field
Switch to the graphic viewer;
pressing the left mouse button select
two shorter edges of the structure,
Apply
Assigns fixed supports to two shorter edges of the
structure.
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LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model/Geometry
Selects the initial ROBOT Millennium layout.
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box, which allows selecting
structure attributes for presentation.
On the Structure tab in the Display
dialog box activate Supports -
symbols, Apply, OK
Displays symbols of structure supports on the screen,
closes the Display dialog box.
The defined structure is displayed in the drawing below.
Definition of Bridge Trusses (Application of Library Structures)
Opens the Typical Structures dialog box that allows
defining typical structures (structure elements).
On the Structure Database Selection
field select the Library of typical
structures - beams, frames, trusses
option.
LMC (twice) the icon
the last one in the third row
In the Typical Structures dialog box a new Structure
Selection field appears. Opening of the Trapezoid Truss
Type 3 dialog box.
In the Dimension tab LMC the
Length L1 field
{98)
Defines length of the lower truss chord (it may be defined
graphically in the graphical viewer).
On the Dimension tab LMC the
Length L2 field
{90)
Defines length of the upper truss chord (it may be defined
graphically in the graphical viewer).
LMC the Height H field
{15}
Defines truss height (it may be defined graphically in the
graphical viewer).
LMC the Number of Fields
{10}
Defines a number of fields into which the truss will be
divided.
On the Dimensions tab in the
Continuous chord field activate
option No
Applies divided chords to the structure.
On the Insert tab LMC the Insertion
Point, select coordinates: (0,0,0)
Defines the insertion point for the truss; the defined
structure is displayed in the drawing below.
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Apply, OK Creates the defined structure at the indicated point within
the construction and closes the Merge Structure dialog
box.
Opens the Sections dialog box.
LMC in the Line/Bars field, switch to
the graphic viewer and select all
bars belonging to trusses
Selects truss bars.
LMC in the S 15x50 section Selects the section which will be applied to the chosen
bars.
Note: If the S 15x50 section is not available on the list, one
should press the icon located in the upper part of the
Sections dialog box. It opens the New Section dialog box.
On the Standard tab in the Section Selection field chose the
following options:
- Database - AISC
- Family - S
- Section - S 15x50
Pressing the Add button will result in adding the S 15x50
section to the list of available sections. Pressing the Close
button will result in closing the New Section dialog box.
Apply, accept the material change
to the default one,
Close
Attributes S 15x50 section to the selected structure bars,
closes the Sections dialog box.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
select all truss bars
Selects all truss bars.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ),
(0,13,0)
Defines a new translation vector.
Execute, Close Translates beams, highlights translated beams and closes
the Translation dialog box. The defined structure is
displayed in the drawing below.
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Bracing Definition
LMC in the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model / Bars
Selects the BARS layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts, which allows defining bars.
LMC in the Bar Type field and
select: Simple bar,
LMC in the Section field and select
(DL 2x2x0.25)
Defines bar properties. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
LMC in the Beginning and End fields
(background color changes to green)
(4,0,15) (14,13,15), Add
(4,13,15) (14,0,15), Add
Defines bracing.
RMC in any point within the graphic
viewer which opens the context
menu. Choose the Select option and
indicate two recently defined bars,
while the CTRL key is pressed.
Selects two recently defined bars.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
LMC in the field (dX, dY, dZ)
(10,0,0),
in the Number of Repetitions field
{8}
Defines the translation vector and allows defining the
number of repetitions.
Execute, Close Translates the structure, highlights translated bars and
closes the Translation dialog box.
LMC in the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model/Geometry
Selects the initial ROBOT Millennium layout. The defined
structure is displayed in the drawing below.
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Cross Beams - Definition
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model / Bars
Selects the BARS layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts, which allows defining bars.
LMC in the Bar Type field and
select: Simple bar
LMC in the Section field and select
(MC 12x50).
Defines bar properties. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
Note: If the MC 12x50 section is not available on the list,
one should select Structure Model / Properties,
press the icon and add the section to the list of
active sections.
LMC in the Beginning and End fields
(background color changes to green)
(4,0,15) (4,13,15), Add
Defines cross beams.
RMC in any point within the graphic
viewer, which opens the context
menu. Chose the Select option and
indicate the recently defined bar.
Selects the recently defined bar.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
LMC in the field (dX, dY, dZ)
(10,0,0)
in the Number of Repetitions field
{9}
Defines a translation vector and allows defining a number
of repetitions.
Execute, Close Translates the structure and closes the Translation dialog
box.
LMC in the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model / Geometry
Selects the initial ROBOT Millennium layout. The defined
structure is displayed in the drawing below.
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8.1.2 Load Definition
LMC in the ROBOT Millennium
layout selection field
Structure Model / Loads
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout that allows
defining structure loads.
LMC in the New button in the Load
Types dialog box
Defines a dead load with the standard name DL1.
LMC in the Nature field: (Live) Selects the type of a load case: live.
LMC on the New button
LMC on the New button
LMC on the New button
Defines two cases of live load with the standard names:
LL1, LL2 and LL3.
LMC on the Nature field: (Wind) Selects the type of a load case: wind.
LMC on the New button
LMC on the New button
Defines two cases of wind load with standard names:
WIND1 and WIND2.
Note: The self-weight load has been automatically applied
to all structure bars (in the ýZü direction).
LMC on the icon on the Bar
Loads toolbar
Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
In the Load Definition dialog box
select Surface tab and press the
icon
Opens the Uniform Planar Load dialog box
Selects the load case: Live Load 1.
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In the Values Z: field enter -0.6 Defines a value of the uniform load acting on surface FEs
in the direction of the Z axis of the global coordinate
system.
Add Closes the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.
In the Apply To field enter 1 Displays the current selection of structure panel.
Apply Applies predefined load to a chosen panel.
In the Load Definition dialog box
select Surface tab and press
Opens the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.
Selects load case: Live Load 2.
In the Values Z: field enter -0.5 Defines a value of the uniform load acting on surface FEs
in the direction of the Z axis of the global coordinate
system.
LMC on the Contour Definition
button
Opens the dialog box that allows defining the contour to
which the load is applied. It may be performed either in the
dialog box or graphically on the screen.
In the green field enter coordinates
that define a contour:
(0,0,0), Add
(98,0,0), Add
(98,3,0), Add
(0,3,0), Add
Defines the contour to which the loads will be applied.
Add Closes the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.
In the Apply To field enter 1 Displays the current selection of structure panel.
Apply Applies predefined load to a chosen panel.
In the Load Definition dialog box
select the Surface tab and press the
icon
Opens the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.
Selects load case: Live Load 3.
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In the Values Z: field enter -0.5 Defines a value of the uniform load acting on surface FE in
the direction of the Z global coordinate system.
LMC on the Contour Definition
button
Opens dialog box that allows defining the contour, to which
the load will be applied. It may be performed either in the
dialog box or graphically on the screen.
In the green field enter coordinates
that define a contour:
(0,10,0), Add
(98,10,0), Add
(98,13,0), Add
(0,13,0), Add
Defines contour to which the loads will be applied.
Add Closes the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.
In the field Apply To type 1 Displays the current selection of structure panel.
Apply, Close Applies the predefined load to a chosen panel, closes the
Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.
View / Projection / Zx Once this option is selected, the Zx plane is chosen.
LMC on the fifth field in the Case
column, select 5th load case:
WIND1 from the list
Defines loads for the fifth load case.
LMC on the field in the Load Type
column, select (nodal force) from the
list as a load type
Selects the load type.
LMC on the field in the List column,
select all nodes of the front truss in a
graphic way
Selects nodes to which nodal force will be applied.
LMC on the field in the "FY="
column and enter the value: (0.90)
Selects the direction and value of the nodal force load.
LMC on the fifth field in the Case
column, select 6th load case:
WIND2 from the list
Defines loads for the sixth load case.
LMC on the field in the Load Type
column, select (nodal force) from the
list as a load type
Selects the load type.
LMC on the field in the List column,
select four left nodes belonging to
both trusses
Selects nodes to which nodal force will be applied.
LMC on the field in the "FX="
column and enter the value: (0.60)
Selects the direction and value of the nodal force load.
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8.1.3 Definition of the Moving Load Applied to the Bridge Floor
LMC in the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model / Geometry
Selects the initial ROBOT Millennium layout.
Tools / Job preferences / Databases/
Vehicle Database
Open the Job preferences dialog box.
Pressing the Create new database icon results in opening
the New Moving Load dialog box.
Enter:
in the Database field: User
in the Database name field:
User-defined database
in the Database description field:
User-defined vehicles
in the Internal units of the database
chose (ft) as Length units and (kip)
as Force unit
Create Closes the New Moving Load dialog box.
OK Closes the Job Preferences dialog box.
Loads / Special loads / Moving Opens the Moving Loads dialog box.
Opens the Moving Loads dialog box and starts defining
a new vehicle.
On the Symmetric Vehicles tab LMC
on the New button
Defines a new vehicle.
Enter the vehicle name: Vehicle 1,
OK
Defines the name of the new vehicle.
LMC the first line in the table located
in the lower part of the dialog box
Defines operating forces.
Select the load type: concentrated
force
Selects a load type.
F = 13.5, X = 0.0, S = 1.75 Defines the value and location of the concentrated force.
LMC the second line in the table
located in the lower part of the
dialog box
Defines operating forces.
Select the load type: concentrated
force
Selects a load type.
F = 6.75, X = 11.75, S = 1.75 Defines the value and location of the concentrated force.
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LMC the third line in the table
located in the lower part of the
dialog box
Defines operating forces.
Select the load type: concentrated
force
Selects a load type.
F = 13.5,X = 15.75, S = 1.75 Defines the value and location of the concentrated force.
LMC the Save to database button Opens the Moving Load Databases dialog box.
Select User database and press the
OK button in the Moving load
databases dialog box
Saves the defined vehicle to the user-defined database.
Add, Close Adds the defined vehicle to the list of active vehicles and
closes the Moving Loads dialog box.
In the Name field, enter the name of
the moving load (case number 7)
Moving vehicle
Defines a name of the moving load.
LMC the Define button Starts defining the route of the Moving Crane vehicle; the
Polyline - Contour dialog box is opened. Activate the Line
option.
In the Geometry dialog box define
two points determining the route of
the moving load:
Point P1 (0,6.5,0)
Point P2 (98, 6.5,0)
Defines the vehicle route.
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Apply, Close Closes the Polyline - Contour dialog box.
LMC the Step field: {8}
Assume the default value of load
direction: (0,0,-1) which means that
the load will be operating in the Z
direction and its sense will be
opposite to the Z axis sense
Defines the step of a position change for the moving load
and the load application direction.
LMC the Automatic option located in
the Application Plane field
Selects the plane of load application.
Apply Generates the moving load case according to the adopted
parameters.
Opens the Moving Loads dialog box and starts defining
a new vehicle.
On the Symmetric vehicles tab LMC
on the New button
Defines a new vehicle.
Type the vehicle name: Moving
surface load
OK
Defines the name of a new vehicle.
LMC the first line in the table located
in the lower part of the dialog box
Defines operating forces.
Select the load type: surface load Selects the load type.
P = 0.9, X = 0.0, S = 0.0, DX = 4.0,
DY = 3.0
Defines the value and location of the surface load.
LMC the Save to database button Opens the Moving Load Databases dialog box.
Select the User database, OK in the
Moving load databases
Saves the defined vehicle to the user-defined database.
Add, Close Adds the defined vehicle to the list of active vehicles and
closes the Moving Loads dialog box.
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In the Name field, type the name of
the moving load (case number: 8):
Moving surface load
Defines the name of a moving load.
LMC the Define button Starts defining the route of the Moving Crane vehicle: the
Polyline - Contour dialog box is opened. Activate the Line
option.
In the Geometry dialog box define
two points determining the route of
the moving load:
Point P1(0,1.5,0)
Point P2 (98,1.5,0)
Defines the vehicle route.
Apply, Close Closes the Polyline - Contour dialog box.
LMC the Step field
{8}
Assume the default value of load
direction: (0,0,-1) which means that
the load will be operating in the Z
direction and its sense will be
opposite to the Z axis sense
Defines the step of a position change for the moving load
and the load application direction.
LMC the Automatic option located in
the Application Plane field
Selects the plane of load application.
Apply, Close Generates a second moving load case according to the
adopted parameters and closes the Moving Loads dialog
box.
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8.2 Structure Analysis
Tools / Job Preferences / Structure
Analysis
Opens the Job Preferences dialog box
Switch off the option: Automatic
freezing of results of structure
calculations,
OK
Switches off freezing of structure calculations results,
closes the Job Preferences dialog box.
Starts calculations of the defined structure. Once the
calculations are completed, the title bar of the viewer will
present the following information: Finite Elements Results -
available.
8.2.1 Result Presentation in the Form of Maps
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Results/Results - maps
The RESULTS layout of the ROBOT Millennium program
will open. The screen will be divided into two parts: the
graphic viewer containing the structure model and the
Maps dialog box.
Selects the load case: 2 (LL1).
On the Detailed tab activate the z
option in the Displacement - u,w line
Activates visualization of the displacement for individual
surface FEs in the local coordinate system. These are the
displacements in the direction perpendicular to the element
surface.
Activate Maps option Allows presentation of results obtained for FE in the form
of maps.
Apply Presents the structure displacement.
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Selects the load case: 7 (Moving vehicle).
On the Deformation tab switch on the
Active option
Activates presenting deformation of the currently designed
structure.
Apply Presents the structure displacement.
Loads / Select Case Component Opens the Case Component dialog box.
LMC the Animation button Opens the Animation dialog box.
LMC the Start button Starts performing the displacement animation for the
structure.
Stop (LMC the button) and
close the animation toolbar
Stops the animation.
Close Closes the Case component dialog box.
Switch off the options Displacement -
u,w and active in the Maps dialog
box
8.3 Structure Member Design
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model / Bars
Selects the BARS layout from the list of the available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
select from the upper menu:
Geometry / Code parameters /
Steel/Aluminium Member Type
Opens the Member Type dialog box.
Opens the Member Definitions - Parameters dialog box.
In the Buckling length coefficient Y
press the button
Opens the Buckling Diagrams dialog box which allows
defining buckling length for members.
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Select the last button in the second
row , OK
Applies the selected buckling diagram and appropriate
buckling length coefficient, closes the Buckling Diagrams
dialog box.
In the Buckling length coefficient Z
press the button
Opens the Buckling Diagrams dialog box which allows
defining buckling length for members.
Select the last button in the second
row , OK
Applies selected buckling diagram and appropriate buckling
length coefficient, closes the Buckling Diagrams dialog
box.
In the Member Type field enter:
Chords
Applies the name to a new bar type.
Save, Close Saves current parameters for the Chord member type,
closes the Member Definitions - Parameters dialog box.
LMC on the Line/Bars option located
in the Member Type dialog box,
switch to the graphic viewer and
select all bars belonging to chords
Selects truss chords.
Apply Applies current member type (Chords) to the selected truss
bars.
Opens the Member Definitions - Parameters dialog box.
In the Buckling length coefficient Y
press the button
Opens the Buckling Diagrams dialog box which allows
defining buckling length for members.
Select the first button in the third row
, OK
Applies the selected buckling diagram and appropriate
buckling length coefficient, closes the Buckling Diagrams
dialog box.
In the Buckling length coefficient Z
press the button
Opens the Buckling Diagrams dialog box which allows
defining buckling length for members.
Select the first button in the third row
, OK
Applies the selected buckling diagram and appropriate
buckling length coefficient, closes the Buckling Diagrams
dialog box.
In the Member Type field enter:
Diagonals
Assigns the name to a new bar type.
Save, Close Saves current parameters for the Cross braces member
type, closes the Member Definitions - Parameters dialog
box.
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LMC on the Line/Bars option located
in the Member Type dialog box,
switch to the graphic viewer and
select all diagonals belonging to
trusses
Selects cross braces in the trusses.
Apply, Close Applies current member type (Diagonals) to the selected
truss bars, closes the Member Type dialog box.
8.3.1 Structure Design
Code LRFD:2000
Structure design /
Steel/Aluminum design
Selects the STEEL/ALUMINUM DESIGN layout from the
list of available ROBOT Millennium layouts.
In the Groups tab located in the
Definitions dialog box press the
New button
Starts defining a new group.
Define the first group with the
following parameters:
Number: 1
Name: Upper chords
Member list: LMC on the View edit
viewer; select all the bars of the
upper chords while the CTRL key is
pressed
Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi
Defines the first group consisting of all bars belonging to
the upper chords in the structure.
Save Saves the parameters of the first member group.
LMC the New button on the Groups
tab in the Definitions dialog box
Allows defining a second member group.
Define the second group with the
following parameters:
Number: 2
Name: Lower chords
Member list: LMC on the View edit
viewer; select all the bars of the
lower chords while the CTRL key is
pressed
Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi
Defines the second group consisting of all bars belonging to
the lower chords in the structure.
Save Saves the parameters of the second member group.
LMC the New button on the Groups
tab in the Definitions dialog box
Allows defining a third member group.
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Define the third group with the
following parameters:
Number: 3
Name: Diagonals
Member list: LMC on the View edit
viewer; select all the diagonals
belonging to the trusses while the
CTRL key is pressed
Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi
Defines the third group consisting of all diagonals belonging
to trusses in the structure.
Save Saves the parameters of the third member group.
LMC the New button on the Groups
tab in the Definitions dialog box
Allows defining a fourth member group.
Define the fourth group with the
following parameters:
Number: 4
Name: Bracing
Member list: LMC on the View edit
viewer; select all the bracings in the
structure while the CTRL key is
pressed
Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi
Defines the third group consisting of all bracings in the
structure.
Save Saves the parameters of the fourth member group.
LMC the New button on the Groups
tab in the Definitions dialog box
Allows defining a fifth member group.
Define the fifth group with the
following parameters:
Number: 5
Name: Beams
Member list: LMC on the View edit
viewer; select all cross beams while
the CTRL key is pressed
Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi
Defines the fifth group consisting of all cross beams in the
structure.
Save Saves the parameters of the third member group.
In the Calculations ÿ LRFD:2000
dialog box switch on the Code Group
Design option
Activates design in groups.
LMC on the List button in the Code
group design line in the
Calculations dialog box
Opens the Code Group Selection dialog box.
Press the All button located in the
upper part of the Code Group
Selection dialog box.
In the field below the All button the
list: 1to5 will appear
Close
Selects member groups to be designed, closes the Code
Group Selection dialog box.
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In the Calculations ÿ LRFD:2000
dialog box switch on the
Optimization option
The option allows determining parameters of calculations
performed for member groups taking the optimization
options into account.
LMC the Options button Opens the Optimizations Options dialog box.
In the Optimization Options dialog
box switch on the Weight option
Activation of this option will result in searching for the
lightest section in the group of sections that meet the code-
defined criteria.
OK Closes the Optimization Options dialog box.
LMC the Load Case Selection
button in the Calculations dialog
box
Opens the Load Case Selection dialog box.
LMC the All button (in the field
above the Previous button), the list:
1to8 13to16 will appear there, Close
Selects all load cases.
Activate the Ultimate option in the
Limit State field
LMC the Calculations button Starts design of the selected member groups; the Short
Results dialog box appears on the screen (see the drawing
below).
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LMC the Change All button in the
LRFD:2000 - Code Group Design
dialog box shown above
Changes the currently used sections of the members
belonging to all member groups to the calculated sections:
- for Upper Chords from S 15x50 to S 18x54.7,
- for Lower Chords from S 15x50 to S 6x12.5,
- for Diagonals from S 15x50 to S 18x54.7,
- for Bracings from DL 2x2x0.25 to DL 4x4x0.25
- for Beams from MC 12x50 to MC 8x21.4
Close Closes the Code Group Design dialog box.
Recalculates the structure with the changed member
sections
LMC the Calculations button in the
Calculations dialog box
Starts design of the selected member groups; the Short
Results dialog box appears on the screen (see the drawing
below).
LMC the Change All button in the
LRFD:2000 - Code Group Design
dialog box shown above
Changes the currently used sections of the members
belonging to all member groups to the calculated sections:
- for Upper Chords - without changes,
- for Lower Chords from S 6x12.5 to S 4x7.7,
- for Diagonals - without changes,
- for Bracings from DL 4x4x0.25 to DL 4x4x0.312,
- for Beams from MC 8x21.4 to MC 6x15.1
Close Closes the Code Group Design dialog box.
Recalculates the structure with the changed member
sections
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LMC the Calculations button in the
Calculations dialog box
Starts design of the selected member groups; the Short
Results dialog box appears on the screen (see the drawing
below).
Close Closes the Code Group Design dialog box.
Close the Member Verification and
the Results dialog boxes
Member Verification
In the Calculations - LRFD:2000
dialog box switch on the Code Group
Verification option
Activates the code group verification option.
LMC in the List button in the Code
Group Verification option
Opens the Code Group Selection dialog box.
Press the All button located in the
upper part of the Code Group
Selection dialog box.
In the field below the All button the
list: 1to5 will appear, Close
Selects member groups to be designed, closes the Code
Group Selection dialog box.
LMC the Load Case Selection
button in the Calculations dialog
box
Opens the Load Case Selection dialog box.
LMC the All button (in the field
above the Previous button), the list:
1to8 13to16 will appear, Close
Selects all load cases.
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LMC the Calculations button in the
Calculations dialog box
Starts code group verification of selected member groups;
the Short Results dialog box appears on the screen (see
the drawing below).
Close Closes the Code Group Verification dialog box.
8.4 Time History Analysis
LMC in the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model/Geometry
Selects the initial ROBOT Millennium layout.
Analysis / Analysis Types Opens the Analysis Type dialog box which allows defining
a new load case (modal analysis, spectral analysis, seismic
analysis, etc.), changing the load case type and introducing
changes to the parameters of the selected load case.
LMC in the New button Opens the New Case Definition dialog box which allows
defining new dynamic cases within the structure.
LMC in the OK button Opens the Modal Analysis Parameters dialog box which
allows defining modal analysis parameters for the new
dynamic cases in the structure
In the Method field select the
Lanczos option, in the Parameters
field switch on the Include Damping
in Calculations option (PS 92), in the
Number of Modes field
{3}
Chooses the method of structure analysis. Selects the
mode number (3), takes account of damping during
calculations.
OK Closes the Modal Analysis Parameters dialog box and
adds a new load case to the list of available load cases.
LMC in the New button Opens the New Case Definition dialog box which allows
defining new dynamic cases within the structure.
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Select the Time History Analysis
option, OK
Opens the Time History Analysis dialog box which is used
to define time history analysis parameters for a new
dynamic load case defined for the structure
LMC in the Function definition
button
Opens the Time Function Definition dialog box.
In the Defined function field enter the
function name: Wind impact, Add
Assigns the name to the time function. The new tabs:
Points and Add functions will appear in the dialog box.
On the Points tab define consecutive
points of the time function:
T = 0.00, F(T) = 0.00 Add
T = 0.01, F(T) = 5.00 Add
T = 0.02, F(T) = 0.00 Add
T = 1.00, F(T) = 0.00 Add
Close
Defines the time function, closes the Time Function
Definition dialog box.
In the Time History Analysis field
select 5th load case: WIND1 from
the available load case list
Selects the number of a selected case.
LMC in the buttons Add, OK Assigns a static load case which will be used during time
analysis, closes the Time History Analysis dialog box.
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Tools / Job Preferences / Structure
Analysis
Opens the Job Preferences dialog box
Select the DSC Algorithm option,
OK
Assumes the DSC algorithm for calculations, closes the
Job Preferences dialog box
LMC in the Calculations button Starts calculation of the structure for the defined load
cases. Once the calculations are completed, the viewer
title bar will show the following information: Finite
Elements Results - available.
Close Closes the Analysis Types dialog box.
Select from the upper menu:
Results / Advanced / Time History
Analysis - Diagrams
Opens the Time History Analysis dialog box
Add Opens the Diagram Definition dialog box which is used
to define a diagram of the quantities calculated during
the time history analysis.
Select the following option on the
Nodes tab:
Displacement, UX
Selects displacement in the UX direction
In the Point field enter the node
number:
{12}
Selects node no. 12 (see the figure below) for which the
diagram will be presented
Add, Close In the panel located on the left side of the screen (Available
diagrams), the defined displacement with the default name:
Displacement_UX_12 appears; closing of the Diagram
Definition dialog box.
LMC in the Displacement_UX_12 (it
will be highlighted) and press the
button
Moves the selected diagram to the panel on the right side
of the screen (Presented diagrams).
Switch on the Open a new window
option and press the Apply button
Displays the displacement (Displacement_UX_12) diagram
on the screen (see the figure below).
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Select Displacement_UX_12 from
the panel on the right-hand side of
the screen and then, press the
button
Deletes the selected quantity from the panel on the right
side of the screen
Add Opens the Diagram Definition dialog box which is used to
define diagrams of the quantities calculated during time
history analysis.
Select the following option on the
Node tab:
Acceleration,
UX
Selects acceleration in the UX direction.
In the Point field enter the node
number:
{12}
Selects the node no. 12 (see the picture below) for which
the diagram will be prepared
Add, Close In the panel on the left side of the screen (Available
diagrams) the defined displacement with default name:
Acceleration_AX_12 appears, closing of the Diagram
Definition dialog box.
LMC in the Acceleration_AX_12 (it
will be highlighted) and the press the
button
Moves the selected diagram to the panel on the right side
of the screen (Presented diagrams).
Switch on the Open a new window
option and press the Apply button
Displays the acceleration (Acceleration_AX_12) diagram on
the screen (see the figure below).
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9. Volumetric Structure
This example presents definition, analysis and design of a machine foundation shown in the figure
below.
Data units: (ft) and (kip).
Four load cases have been assigned to the structure and three of them are displayed in the drawings
below.
LOAD CASE 2 - LL1
LOAD CASE 3 - LL2
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LOAD CASE 4 - LL3
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT Millennium program (press the appropriate icon or
select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window will be displayed on the screen and the
icon (Volumetric Structure Design), the last but one in the first row, should be selected.
9.1 Definition of Structure Model
Definition of Structural Axes
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Geometry / Axis Definition Opens the Structural Axis dialog box which allows
defining structural axes.
On the X tab chose the Define option
located in the Numbering field and
then enter the x1 number in the edit
field.
Enter the following values in the
Position field:
(0) Insert,
(3) Insert,
(5) Insert,
(17) Insert,
(19) Insert,
(31) Insert,
(33) Insert,
(36) Insert
Defines the method of axis numbering. Creates the vertical
axes designated with consecutive numbers x1, x2, x3, etc.
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On the Y tab chose the Define option
located in the Numbering field and
then enter the y1 number in the edit
field.
Enter the following values in the
Position field:
(0) Insert,
(2) Insert,
(4) Insert,
(14) Insert,
(16) Insert,
(18) Insert
Defines the method of axis numbering. Creates the vertical
axes designated with consecutive numbers y1, y2, y3 etc.
On the Z tab chose the Define option
located in the Numbering field and
then enter the z1 number in the edit
field.
Enter the following values in the
Position field:
(0) Insert,
(2) Insert,
(12) Insert,
(14) Insert
Defines the method of axis numbering. Creates the vertical
axes designated with consecutive numbers z1, z2, z3 etc.
Apply, Close Displays the recently defined structural axis on the screen,
closes the Structural Axis dialog box.
View / Projection / 3D xyz Displays a 3D view of the structure.
Presents the initial view of the structure axes (see the
picture below).
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Definition of the Structure
A Base of the Foundation
View / Projection / Xy Once this option is selected, the structure is set on the XY
plane.
Select from the menu Geometry /
Objects / Polyline - contour
Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box that allows
defining various line types.
LMC in the Geometry button Opens the dialog box that allows defining a contour.
Set the cursor in the green field,
then switch to the graphic viewer
and select graphically the
consecutive points defining the
contour (i.e. the intersection points
of the appropriate structural axes):
x1 - y1,
x8 - y1,
x8 - y6,
x1 - y6
Apply, Close
Defines a contour, closes the Polyline - Contour dialog
box.
Presents the initial view of the structure.
Geometry / Panels Opens the Panel dialog box that allows defining structure
panels.
Activate the Face option in the
Contour Type field
Once this option is selected, the currently generated object
will be defined as a face (without assigning properties),
which enable using such an object during generation of
a volumetric structure.
LMC in the Internal Point field and
select the point inside the contour by
left-clicking on it
Applies current properties to the selected panel.
Close Closes the Panel dialog box.
View / Projection / 3D xyz Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is
displayed. The defined structure (without presentation of
the structural axes) is shown in the drawing below.
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In the selection field enter number 1,
Enter
Selects the recently defined panel, whose color changes to
red.
Geometry / Objects / Extrude Opens the Extrude dialog box which is used to create
simple solid-like elements by extruding predefined two-
dimensional objects.
Activate the ll to Axis option and
select the Z axis
Once this option is selected, the object will be extruded
along the axis that is parallel to the Z axis of the global
coordinate system.
In the edit field set the length of the
extrusion vector as 2
Defines the length of the extrusion vector.
Enter 1 in the Division Number field Defines the number of divisions to be performed while
extruding the selected object.
Apply, Close Extrudes the selected two-dimensional object along the
appropriate axis.
Columns
View / Work in 3D / Global Work
Plane
Opens the Work Plane dialog box that allows setting the
work plane for structure definition/modification.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
select graphically the intersection
point of the following axes:
x1 - y1 - z2 and then press the
Apply button
Sets a new global work plane for structure definition.
The coordinates in the Work Plane dialog box will change
automatically to the selected ones e.g. (0.0, 0.0, 2.0).
Close the Work Plane dialog box by
means of the button
Closes the Work Plane dialog box.
View / Projection / Xy Once this option is selected, the structure is set on the XY
plane for the Z coordinate value recently defined (i.e. Z =
2.0). Only the structure components located in this plane
will remain visible.
Geometry / Objects / Cube Opens the Cube dialog box that allows defining cubes.
Select the three points option in the
Definition Method field
Selects a rectangle as a base of the cube. The rectangle
will be defined by means of the two opposite apexes of the
rectangle.
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Switch to the graphic editor and
select two opposite apexes of the
rectangle defined by means of the
intersection points of the following
axes:
x2 - y2,
x3 - y2,
x3 - y3,
then in the Height field located in the
Geometry dialog box enter the
value 10 and press the Apply and
Close buttons
Defines the cube, closes the Cube dialog box.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
enter the number 2 in the selection
field next to the , Enter
Selects the recently defined cube.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
In the graphic viewer select the top-
right apex of the rectangle, which
defines base of the cube. In the
Translation Vector field located in
the Translation dialog box, enter
the following numbers:
(0.0, 12.0, 0.0), Execute
Translates the selected cube.
RMC in the graphic viewer and
choose the Select option
Opens the context menu
Select the recently defined cubes
(nos. 2 and 3 appear in the edit
field). Switch to the Translation
dialog box and in the Number of
Repetitions field enter 2, then define
the translation vector:
(14.0, 0.0, 0.0), Execute, Close
Translate the selected cubes.
View / Projection / 3D xyz Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is
displayed. The defined structure (without presentation of
the construction axis) is shown in the drawing below.
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Top of the Foundation
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box with the options enabling
display of selected structure attributes on the screen.
On the Finite elements tab switch off
the option Numbers and panel
description,
OK
Switches off display of the panel description and closes the
Display dialog box
View / Work in 3D / Global Work
Plane
Opens the Work Plane dialog box that allows setting the
work plane for structure definition/modyfication.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
select graphically the intersection
point of the following axes:
x2 - y2 - z4 and then press the
Apply button
Sets a new global work plane for structure definition.
The coordinates in the Work Plane dialog box will change
automatically to the selected ones e.g. (3.00, 2.00, 14.00).
Close the Work Plane dialog box by
means of the button
Closes the Work Plane dialog box.
View / Projection / Xy Once this option is selected, the structure is set on the XY
plane for the Z coordinate value recently defined
(i.e. z = 14.0). Only the structure components located in
this plane will remain visible.
Geometry / Objects / Polyline -
contour
Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box which allows
defining various line types.
Set the cursor in the green field,
then switch to the graphic viewer
and select graphically the
consecutive points defining the
contour (i.e. the intersection points
of the appropriate structural axes):
x2 - y2,
x7 - y2,
x7 - y5,
x2 - y5,
Apply, Close
Defines contour, closes the Polyline - Contour dialog box.
Geometry / Panels Opens the Panel dialog box that enables definition of
panels in a structure
Switch on the Face option located in
the Contour type field
If this option is selected, the created object will be defined
as a wall (without assigning such properties as
a reinforcement type or thickness) which makes it possible
to use this object while generating a volumetric structure
LMC on the Internal point option
located in the Creation with field,
select any point within the contour
Assigns the selected properties to the chosen panel
Close Closes the Panel dialog box
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In the selection field, next to the
icon, enter 8,
Enter
Selects the recently defined contour whose color changes
to red.
Geometry / Objects / Extrude Opens the Extrude dialog box which is used to create
simple solid-like elements by extruding predefined two-
dimensional objects.
Activate the ll to Axis option and
select the Z axis
Once this option is selected, the object will be extruded
along the axis that is parallel to the Z axis of the global
coordinate system.
In the edit field set the length of the
extrusion vector as ÿ 2
Defines the length of the extrusion vector.
Enter 1 in the Division Number field Defines the number of divisions to be performed during the
extrusion process.
Apply, Close Extrudes the selected two-dimensional object along the
appropriate axis.
If this option is selected, invisible lines in the structure will
not be displayed
View / Projection / 3D xyz Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is
displayed.
If this option is selected, invisible lines in the structure will
not be displayed
Presents the initial view of the structure (see the picture
below).
Support Definition
LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model/Supports
Selects the ROBOT Millennium layout that allows defining
supports.
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In the Supports dialog box press
the
icon
Opens the Support Definition dialog box that allows
defining a new support.
On the Elastic tab switch off the UZ
option and in the KZ field that
becames available enter 4800
(kip/ft)
Defines the support elasticity coefficient for the
displacement in the Z direction.
In the Label field enter the name for
a new support: Elastic Foundation
Add, Close
Assigns the name to the defined support
In the Supports dialog box, LMC on
the Current Selection field on the
Planar tab
Selects a structure surface for which supports will be
defined.
Switch to the graphic viewer;
pressing the left mouse button select
the surface being the base of the
foundation - in the Current Selection
field 1_REF(1) will appear
Selects the surface of the foundation base.
From the Supports dialog box
select the recently defined Elastic
foundation support (the icon will be
highlighted)
Selects the support type.
LMC on the Apply button The selected support type will be assigned to the chosen
structure surface.
LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model/Geometry
Selects the initial ROBOT Millennium layout.
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box that allows selecting
structure attributes for presentation.
On the Structure tab, in the Display
dialog box activate Supports -
symbols, Apply, OK
Displays symbols of structure supports on the screen,
closes the Display dialog box.
The defined structure is shown in the drawing below.
Using the dynamic zoom option enables structure rotation
and pan, so that the bottom structure part with supports can
be presented.
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Mesh Generation
In order to improve mesh generation define additional nodes.
View / Grid / Grid Step Definition Opens the Grid Step Definition dialog box, which is
used to change the grid step presented on the screen.
In the Grid Step field set the grid
step Dx and Dy as 1.00, Apply,
Close
Changes the grid step, closes the Grid Step Definition
dialog box
View / Work in 3D / Global Work
Plane
Opens the Work Plane dialog box that allows setting the
work plane for structure definition/modification.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
select graphically the intersection
point of the following axes:
x1 - y1 - z1 and then press the
Apply button
Sets a new global work plane for structure definition.
The coordinates in the Work Plane dialog box will
change automatically to the selected ones e.g. (0.0, 0.0,
0.0).
Close the Work Plane dialog box
by means of the button
Closes the Work Plane dialog box.
View / Projection / Xy Once this option is selected, the structure is set on the
XY plane for the Z coordinate value recently defined
(i.e. z = 0.0). Only the structure components located on
this plane will remain visible.
Geometry / Nodes Opens the Nodes dialog box that allows defining the
structure nodes.
Define the additional nodes whose
coordinates are the intersection
points of the following structure
axes:
x2 - y2, x3 - y2, x3 - y3, x2 - y3,
and the nodes of the following
coordinates:
(4.00, 2.00, 0.00),
(5.00, 3.00, 0.00),
(4.00, 4.00, 0.00),
(3.00, 3.00, 0.00),
Defines nodes, closes the Node dialog box.
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In the edit field located next to the
icon enter all, Enter
Selects all the nodes defined in the structure.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
In the Translation vector field
enter:
(14.00, 0.00, 0.00)
In the Number of repetitions field
enter: 2
Execute, Close
In the edit field located next to the
icon enter all, Enter
Selects all the nodes defined in the structure.
Edit / Edit / Horizontal mirror Opens the Horizontal Mirror dialog box
LMC on the Axis Position field
9.00
Defines the position of the horizontal symmetry axis.
Execute, Close Performs horizontal symmetry of the selected nodes,
closes the Horizontal Mirror dialog box.
View / Projection / 3D xyz Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is
displayed.
View / Work in 3D / Global Work
Plane
Opens the Work Plane dialog box that allows setting the
work plane for structure definition/modification.
In the graphic viewer select
graphically the intersection point of
the following axes:
x2 - y2 - z4 and then press the
Apply button
Sets a new global work plane for structure definition.
The coordinates in the Work Plane dialog box will
change automatically to the selected ones e.g. (3.0, 3.0,
14.0).
Close the Work Plane dialog box
by means of the button
Closes the Work Plane dialog box.
View / Projection / Xy Once this option is selected, the structure is set on the
XY plane for the Z coordinate value recently defined
(i.e. z = 14.0). Only the structure components located on
this plane will remain visible.
Geometry / Nodes Opens the Nodes dialog box which allows defining the
structure nodes.
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Define additional nodes whose
coordinates are the intersection
points of the following structure
axes:
x2 - y3, x3 - y2, x3 - y3, x2 - y2,
and the nodes of the following
coordinates:
(4.00, 2.00, 14.00),
(5.00, 3.00, 14.00),
(4.00, 4.00, 14.00),
(3.00, 3.00, 14.00),
Defines nodes, closes the Nodes dialog box.
In the edit field located next to the
icon enter: 49to56,
Enter
Selects nodes defined in the current work plane.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
In the Translation vector field
enter:
(14.00, 0.00, 0.00)
In the Number of repetitions field:
2
Execute, Close
In the edit field located next to the
icon enter numbers of the
recently defined nodes: 49to72,
Enter
Selects nodes defined in the current work plane.
Edit / Edit / Horizontal mirror Opens the Horizontal Mirror dialog box.
In the Axis Location edit field enter
9.00
Defines the coordinate of the horizontal mirror axis.
Execute, Close Mirrors horizontally the selected nodes, closes the
Horizontal Mirror dialog box.
Geometry / Nodes Opens the Nodes dialog box which allows defining
structure nodes.
In the Coordinates field enter the
coordinates of the additional node:
(25.0, 9.0, 14.0),
Add, Close
Defines the additional node no. 97 to which a nodal force
will be applied, closes the Nodes dialog box.
In the edit field next to the
icon enter: 1 and 8 (1 8), Enter
Selects the base and top of the foundation.
Analysis / Calculation Model /
Meshing Options
Opens the Meshing Options dialog box.
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In the Available Meshing Methods
field select the Delaunay option, in
the Mesh Generation field select
the Automatic option and enter 5 in
the Division 1 field, OK
Sets the meshing parameters for the selected structure
components.
In the edit field next to the
icon enter: 2to7, Enter
Selects all columns of the foundation.
Analysis / Calculation Model /
Meshing Options
Opens the Meshing Options dialog box.
In the Available Meshing Methods
field select the Delaunay option, in
the Mesh Generation field select
the Automatic option and enter 2 in
the Division 1 field, OK
Sets the meshing parameters for selected structure
components.
Analysis / Calculation Model /
Generation
If this option is selected, the program starts to generate
the calculation model of the structure (finite elements),
see the picture below.
View / Projection / 3D xyz Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is
displayed. The defined structure is shown in the drawing
below.
Geometry / Properties / Solid
Properties
Opens the Solid Properties dialog box.
LMC on the Selection field Enter all (all structure elements)
LMC on the material Concrete Selects material. If the material is not available on the
available material list, the user should press the icon
Definition of new solid properties and add concrete to the
list of materials
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Apply, Close Assigns the material to all the structure elements and
closes the dialog box
Load Definition
View / Projection / Xy Once this option is selected, the structure is set on the XY
plane for the Z coordinate recently defined (i.e. z = 14.0).
Only the structure components located on this plane will
remain visible.
LMC in the ROBOT Millennium
layout selection field
Structure Model/Loads
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout that allows
defining structure loads.
LMC in the New button in the Load
Types dialog box
Defines a dead load with a standard name DL1.
LMC in the Nature field,
(live)
Selects the type of a load case: live.
LMC on the New button
LMC on the New button
LMC on the New button
Defines two cases of live load with the standard names:
LL1, LL2 and LL3.
Note: The self-weight load was automatically applied to all
structure elements (in the ýZü direction).
LMC on the icon located in the
right toolbar
Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
In the Load Definition dialog box
select the Surface tab and press the
icon
Opens the Uniform Planar Load dialog box
Selects the load case: Live Load 1 (2:LL1).
In the Values Z: field enter - 0.5 Defines the value of the uniform load acting on surface FEs
in the direction of the Z axis of the global coordinate
system.
Add Closes the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.
Set the cursor in the Apply To field,
switch to the graphic viewer and
select the contour 8 defining the top
surface of the foundation - 8_REF(1)
will appear in the edit field
Displays the currently selected structure panel.
Apply Applies the predefined load to the chosen panel contour.
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In the Load Definition dialog box
select Surface tab and press the
icon
Opens the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.
Selects the load case: Live Load 2 (3:LL2).
In the Values Z: field enter -0.9 Defines the value of the uniform load acting on surface FEs
in the direction of the Z axis of the global coordinate
system.
LMC on the Contour Definition
button
Opens the dialog box that allows defining the contour to
which the load will be applied. It may be performed either in
the dialog box or graphically on the screen.
In the green field enter the points
defining the contour by clicking on
the appropriate points of structure
axes intersections:
x2 - y3,
x4 - y3,
x4 - y5,
x2 - y5
Defines the contour to which the loads will be applied.
LMC on the Add button located in
the lower part of the dialog box
Uniform Planar Load (contour)
Closes the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.
Set the cursor in the Apply To field,
switch to the graphic viewer and
select the contour 8 defining the top
surface of the foundation - 8_REF(1)
will appear in the edit field
Displays the currently selected structure panel.
Apply Applies the defined load to the chosen contour on the
panel.
In the Load Definition dialog box
select the Node tab and press the
(Nodal force) icon
Opens the Nodal Force dialog box.
Selects the load case: Live Load 3.
In the Values Z: field enter -0.5,
Add
Defines the concentrated force loads acting on a selected
structure node.
In the field Apply To enter 97 Displays the currently selected structure panel (see the
picture below).
.
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Apply, Close Applies the defined load to the chosen node, closes the
Nodal Force dialog box.
9.2 Structure Analysis
Starts the calculation of the defined structure. Once the
calculations are completed, the viewer title bar will show
the following information: Finite Elements Results -
available.
9.3 Presentation of Results in the Form of Maps
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Results/Results - maps
The RESULTS layout of the ROBOT Millennium program
will open. The screen will be divided into two parts: a
graphical viewer containing the structure model and the
Maps dialog box.
Select the load case: 4 (LL3).
On the Detailed tab, in the Values in
the local system field, activate the
third option in the Displacement line
Selects the visualization of the displacement for individual
FEs in the local coordinate system.
Activate Maps option Allows presentation of results obtained for FEs in the form
of maps.
LMC the Apply button Presents the structure displacement (see the picture
below).
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Switch off the Displacement - z
option. On the Deformation tab
select the active option located in
the Deformations field, Apply
If this option is selected, the program will present
deformation of the currently designed structure - see the
picture below.
Select the load case: 3 (LL2).
In the Deformations field switch on
the Active option
Activates presentation of deformation for the currently
designed structure.
Apply Presents the structure displacement.
10. Bar Structure Design (Elasto-Plastic Analysis)
This example presents definition, analysis and design of a simple 2D steel frame shown in the figure
below. The definition process involves application of the truss generated by means of the library of
typical structures available in the ROBOT Millennium program. The model considers the EC3 code
requirements with respect to geometrical imperfections and elasto-plastic material analysis.
Data units: (m) and (kN).
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The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ { x } stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT Millennium program (press the appropriate icon or
select the command from the taskbar). In the vignette that will be displayed on the screen (it is
described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) the first icon (Frame 2D Design) should be
selected.
10.1 Definition of the Structure Model
10.1.1 Code Selection
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Tools / Job Preferences Opens the Job Preferences dialog box
Materials Selects the Materials option from the tree in the dialog box
Selection from the Materials
unfolding list: Eurocode
Selects the Eurocode material database
Modification Opens the Material Definition dialog box
In the Name field - enter
STEEL
Definition of the material of this name will be required to
read in a library structure
Add, OK Adds material named STEEL to the database
Codes Selects the Codes option from the tree in the dialog box
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Steel / Aluminum structures:
EC3 (ENV 1993-1-1:1992)
Selects EuroCode 3 for steel structure design
Actions
Selects the Codes - Actions option from the tree in the
dialog box
Code Combinations:
EUROCODE
Accept warnings of the code
changes
Selects EuroCode for automatic code combinations
OK
Accept warnings of the code
changes
Accepts adopted parameters and closes the Job
preferences dialog box
Accept warnings of the code changes.
10.1.2 Definition of Structural Axis
Geometry / Axis definition Starts definition of structural axes. The Structural Axis
dialog box is displayed on the screen
On the X tab:
Position: {0}
Number of Repetitions: {2}
Distance: {6}
Numbering: 1, 2, 3 ...
Defines parameters of the vertical structural axes
LMC the Insert button Vertical axes have been defined and are entered to the
Defined axes field
LMC the Z tab Starts defining parameters of the horizontal structural axes
On the Z tab:
Position: {0.0}
Numbering: A, B, C ...
Defines parameters of the horizontal structural axes
LMC the Insert button First horizontal axis has been defined and entered to the
Defined axes field
Position: {3.6}, Insert
Position: {6.0}, Insert
Position: {7.2}, Insert The remaining axes have been defined and entered to the
Defined axes field
Apply, Close Generates defined structural axes and closes the
Structural Axis dialog box. The structural axes presented
in the figure below are displayed on the screen.
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10.1.3 Definition of Structure Bars
Geometry / Properties / Sections Opens the Sections dialog box
Opens the New Section dialog box
Select the I-section family,
in the Section field select section
IPE 240, Add
HEA 300, Add
HEA 240, Add
Defines the following sections: IPE 240, HEA 240 and HEA
300
Close (New Section dialog box)
Close (Sections dialog box)
Closes the Sections and New Section dialog boxes
Opens the Bars dialog box
LMC the Bar type field and select
type: Column
Selects properties of a bar to be designed. The Section
field should show the recently-defined section HEA 240
LMC the Beginning field (the field
background changes to green)
Starts defining bars in the structure (structure columns)
Indicate graphically or type the
points of the beginning and end of
bars
(0,0) (0,6) and (12,0) (12,6)
Defines columns positioned on the structural lines marked
with numbers 1 and 3 (in the A-C range)
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LMC the Section field and select
section HEA 300
Selects HEA 300 as the current section
LMC the Beginning field (the field
background changes to green)
Starts defining bars in the structure (middle column)
Indicate graphically or type the
points of bar beginning and end
(6,0) (6,3.6)
Defines a column positioned on the structural line marked
with number 2 (in the A-B range)
LMC the Bar type field and select
the type: Beam
Selects properties of a bar to be designed.
LMC the Section field and select
section IPE 240
Selects IPE 240 as the current section
LMC the Beginning field (the field
background changes to green)
Starts defining bars in the structure (a beam between the
columns)
Indicate graphically or type the
points of bar beginning and end
(6.0,3.6) (12.0,3.6)
Defines a beam positioned on the structural line marked
with letter B (in the 2-3 range)
Close Closes the Bars dialog box
10.1.4 Definition of a Library Structure
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box
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Structure tab, switch on the Node
numbers option
Others tab, switch off the Structural
axis option
Apply, OK
Opens the Typical Structures dialog box and starts
defining a library structure
LMC (twice) the icon
(first icon in the last row)
Selects the triangular truss of the 1 type. The Merge
Structure dialog box is displayed on the screen in which
truss parameters may be defined.
On the Dimensions tab
LMC the Length L field
{12}
Defines truss length (it may also be defined graphically in
the graphical viewer)
LMC the Height H field
{1.2}
Defines truss height (it may also be defined graphically in
the graphical viewer)
LMC the option:
Moments Released: No
LMC the Insert tab
LMC the Insertion point field
Indicate graphically node no. 2 of
the coordinates (0, 0, 6)
Defines the beginning node of the truss
Apply Considers the data entered, data modification is possible
OK Generates the defined truss and closes the Merge
Structure dialog box. The structure defined is shown in the
figure below.
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10.1.5 Addition of an Auxiliary Node
Edit / Divide Opens the Division dialog box
The Division field LMC
ÿ in distance
Selects the manner of defining the insertion of the division
node - through a coordinate on the bar length
In the Distance from the top field
enter the value 3.6 (m)
Determines the point where the auxiliary node is to be
inserted
Move to the graphical viewer and
indicate (LMC) the left column at its
base (bar no.1)
Indicates the bar to be divided. Note: if the division through
the coordinate on the bar length is defined, take note that
the coordinate is calculated from the indicated bar
beginning.
Close Closes the Division dialog box
10.1.6 Definition of Brackets on Bars
Geometry / Additional Attributes /
Brackets
Opens the Brackets dialog box
LMC the field with the list of defined
attributes, select the default one
Bracket_ 0.1x1
Selects the bracket type (it will be highlighted)
Move to the graphical viewer;
indicate beginning and end of the
beam (no. 4)
Defines brackets on the beam beginning and beam end
Close Closes the Brackets dialog box
10.1.7 Definition of Supports
Opens the Supports dialog box
In the Supports dialog box select
Fixed support
Select the fixed support type (it will be highlighted)
Move to the graphical viewer;
indicate node no.1 (the bottom node
of the extreme column)
Assigns the support at node no. 1.
In the Supports dialog box select
Pinned support
Select the pinned support type (it will be highlighted)
Move to the graphical viewer;
indicate nodes nos. 3 and 5 (bottom
nodes of the remaining columns)
Assigns the supports at nodes nos. 3 and 5.
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Close Closes the Supports dialog box
10.1.8 Definition of Geometrical Imperfections
Geometry / Additional Attributes /
Geometrical Imperfections
Opens the Geometrical Imperfections dialog box
Opens the Imperfection definition dialog box
In the Label field enter
During_Assembly
switch off the Automatic option
switch on the User-defined option
enter the value 5 (cm)
Defines parameters of a new imperfection type with the
deflection value equal to 5 cm.
Add, Close Defines the imperfection and closes the Imperfection
definition dialog box
LMC in the field with the list of
defined attributes, select the default
imperfection type (Automatic)
Selects the imperfection type (it will be highlighted)
Move to the graphical viewer;
indicate bar no. 1 (left column)
Defines the imperfection (automatic imperfection according
to EC3) for the column
LMC the field with the list of defined
attributes, select the defined
imperfection type During_Assembly
Selects the imperfection type (it will be highlighted)
Move to the graphical viewer; select
the bottom truss chord (bar no. 5)
Defines imperfection (defined by the user) for the bottom
truss chord
Close Closes the Geometrical Imperfections dialog box
10.1.9 Definition of Load Cases
in the bottom status bar
Restores a default set of attribute display
Loads / Load Types Opens the Load Types dialog box
LMC the New button Defines the load case with the nature: dead and standard
name DL1
LMC the Nature field: Live (Live 1) Selects the load case nature: live
LMC the New button Defines the load case with the nature: live and standard
name LL1
LMC the Close button Closes the Load Types dialog box
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10.1.10 Definition of Loads for the Generated Load Cases
select 1: DL1
Selects case no. 1 - self-weight load DL1.
Loads / Load Definition Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Select the Bar tab Selects Uniform load.
Values:
pZ: {-3} (kN/m),
Add
Defines the value of the uniform load on the bar
LMC the Apply to field - enter the
bars of the external envelope:
1 2 6 7
Defines the uniform load on the indicated bars - it models
the weight of wall and roof cladding.
Apply Defines a load applied to the list of bars
select 2: LL1
Selects the live load case LL1.
Select the Node tab Selects the Nodal Force load
Load parameters,
X: {10} (kN)
Z: {-100} (kN)
Defines values of the nodal load.
LMC the Add button provided in the
bottom part of the dialog box
Move to the graphical viewer
presenting the structure view and
indicate (LMC) nodes no. 6 and 18
Defines the nodal load which models the overhead
traveling crane load.
Close Closes the Load Definition dialog box.
10.1.11 Snow/Wind Load Generation
Loads / Special loads / Wind and
Snow 2D/3D
Opens the Snow and Wind 2D/3D dialog box
Press the Auto button
the Total depth field: 30,
the Bay spacing field: 6 (m)
Automatically generates the external structure envelope for
generation of snow/wind loads
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Press the Parameters button Opens the additional dialog box (Snow/Wind Loads
2D/3D) in which detailed parameters may be defined. The
default parameters will be adopted.
Generate, OK Pressing this button starts generation of snow/wind loads
for the adopted parameters. On the screen calculation
notes will be displayed presenting parameters of snow and
wind load cases.
Close the text editor with the
calculation notes
New load cases have been generated (wind and snow
loads).
Close Closes the Snow and Wind 2D/3D dialog box
10.1.12 Generation of Automatic Code Combinations
Loads / Code Combinations Opens the Load Case Code Combinations dialog box
according to EUROCODE.
LMC the Cases tab The dialog box contains the list of loads participating in the
automatic combinations and information to which natures
and groups they are assigned.
LMC the Relations tab
In the Nature field select the
following case types: dead, live,
wind, snow
The dialog box contains the relations between cases and
groups which determine the manner of combining the
cases.
In the bottom part of the dialog box
switch on the Simplified
combinations option
Reduces the number of generated combinations by
excluding those less dangerous.
Close Closes the code combination dialog box and saves the
defined relations.
10.2 Structure Analysis and Result Verification
Analysis / Calculations Runs calculations.
Results / Stresses Opens the bar stress table.
LMC the Global extremes tab Calculates maximal stresses in bars.
LMC in the top right table corner
Closes the table.
File / Save Opens the dialog box for saving.
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In the File name field enter the
selected name of the example, e.g.
Frame_EC3
The default saving format: RTD.
LMC the Save button Saves the example.
10.3 Elasto-Plastic Analysis
In addition, the analysis of accidental hitting the workshop column by the overhead traveling crane
will be performed. In this case, the analysis in the plastic range will be considered.
10.3.1 Change of Load Case Definitions
Loads / Load Types Opens the Load Types dialog box
LMC the Delete all button Deletes all load cases
LMC the New button Defines the load case with the default nature and the
standard name DL1
Close Closes the Load Types dialog box
Loads / Load Definition Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Selects the Nodal Force load.
Load parameters,
X: {120} (kN)
Z: {0}
Defines values of the nodal load.
LMC the Add button provided in the
bottom part of the dialog box
Move to the graphical viewer with
the structure view and indicate
(LMC) node no. 18
Defines the nodal load - it models the accidental load
resulting from the overhead traveling crane.
Close Closes the Load Definition dialog box.
10.3.2 Structure Analysis
Analysis / Calculations Runs calculations
Locate the mouse cursor on the
extreme column (bar 1) so that it
becomes highlighted,
RMC
Opens the context menu of the structure view.
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Object Properties Activates the Bar properties option containing information
about bar no.1.
The Code check tab Performs the simplified design of the steel bar.
As it can be seen, it does not satisfy the conditions of code
verification.
Apply, Close Closes the Bar properties dialog box.
10.3.3 Change of Bar Sections for Elasto-Plastic Analysis
Opens the Sections dialog box
LMC on HEA 240 on the section list Selects the current section
Opens the New Section dialog box with HEA 240 section
selected
LMC the field next to the Elasto-
plastic analysis button
Switches on the elasto-plastic analysis for the section
selected. A new section name is defined: HEA 240EP
Add, Close Defines the section HEA 240EP, closes the New Section
dialog box.
Move to the graphical viewer with
the structure view and select (LMC)
external columns (bars no. 1, 2)
Changes the section of the indicated bars to HEA 240EP
section.
Accept the warning of changing the result status to þnot
availableþ.
In the Sections dialog box LMC on
IPE 240 on the section list
Selects the current section
Opens the New Section dialog box with IPE 240 section
selected
LMC the field next to the Elasto-
plastic analysis button
Switches on the elasto-plastic analysis for the section
selected. A new section name is defined: IPE 240EP
Add, Close Defines the section IPE 240EP, closes the New Section
dialog box.
Move to the graphical viewer with
the structure view and indicate
(LMC) the beam (bar no. 4)
Changes the section of the indicated bar to IPE 240EP
section.
Close in the Sections dialog box Closes the Sections dialog box.
10.3.4 Structure Analysis and Result Verification
Analysis / Calculations Runs calculations.
Results / Displacements Opens the node displacement table.
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LMC the Global Extremes tab Calculates maximal displacements of nodes (see the figure
below). As it can be seen, in spite of the work in the plastic
range, the structure retains stability.
File / Save as Opens the saving dialog box.
In the File name field enter a
selected name of the example e.g.
Frame_EC3_EP
The default saving format - RTD.
LMC the Save button Saves the example.
11. Design of a Bar Structure with Added Masses
This example presents definition of a 3D steel frame shown in the figure below.
Data units: (m) and (kN).
Added masses will be defined for the structure as well. They will participate in static and dynamic
loads. The loads will include definition of body forces (inertia loads due to rectilinear acceleration
forces) and centrifugal and angular acceleration forces (inertia loads due to rotational motion forces).
The example comprises also modal and harmonic analyses.
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CASES 1 and 2 CASE 3 CASE 4
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ { x } stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To start structure definition, run the ROBOT Millennium system (press the appropriate icon or select
the command from the taskbar). In the vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) that
will be displayed on the screen, the last but one icon (Frame 3D Design) in the first row
should be selected.
11.1 Definition of the Structure Model
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Opens the Sections dialog box.
Opens the New Section dialog box.
The Parametric tab, section type: Defines a new round, tubular section with determined
dimensions.
Label: O 100x5
d = 10.0 (cm)
t = 0.5
Add
Defines the tubular section 100x5 (mm).
Label: O 75x3
d = 7.5 (cm)
t = 0.3
Add, Close
Defines the tubular section 75x3 (mm).
Close Closes the Sections dialog box.
Opens the Bars dialog box.
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LMC on the BAR TYPE field and
select type: Simple bar
LMC on the SECTION field and
select type: O 100x5
Selects bar properties.
Drag
Switches on the Drag option which enables definition of
successive bars in such a way that an end of the previous
bar is a beginning of the next bar.
LMC on the Beginning field (color of
the field background changes to
green)
Starts definition of structure bars (structure columns).
Indicate the point wih coordinates:
(0,0,0) in the graphical viewer
Defines a bar beginning.
Press any digit key on the keyboard Displays the Point dialog box for numeric definition of
nodes.
Key {Backspace}, {ÿ}, {3}
Key {þ}, {3}
Key {ý}, {3}
Key {ü}, {3}, {Enter}
Defines bars that form a square.
Close in the Point dialog box Closes the Point dialog box.
LMC on the SECTION field and
select type: O 75x3
Selects bar properties.
Drag
Switches off the Drag option.
LMC on the Beginning field (color of
the field background changes to
green)
Starts definition of structure bars (structure columns).
In the graphical viewer indicate the
points with coordinates:
(0, 0, 0) û (3, 0, 3)
(0, 0, 3) û (3, 0, 0)
Defines two bars being diagonals of the square.
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Close Closes the Bars dialog box.
View / Projection / 3D xyz Selects structure axonometric view.
Opens the Sections dialog box.
LMC on the name: O 100x5 on the
section list, Close
Selects the O 100x5 section as a default one and closes
the Sections dialog box.
CTRL + A Selects all structure bars
(they may also be selected with the window).
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
LMC on the (dX, dY, dZ) field and
enter the coordinates (0, 2.5, 0)
Defines the translation vector.
LMC on the Number of repetitions
field
{3}
Defines how many times the copying operation is to be
repeated.
Drag
Switches on the Drag option that enables automatic
definition of bars between copied nodes. The bars defined
automatically are assigned the properties that are currently
chosen as default ones.
Execute, Close Translates the structure and closes the Translation dialog
box.
Click on the graphical viewer on the
point out of the structure
Switches off the current selection of bars and nodes.
View / Projection / Xy Selects 2D view of the structure in XY plane for Z=0.0.
Opens the Supports dialog box.
In the Supports dialog box select
the icon which stands for pinned
support - Pinned (it will be
highlighted)
Selects support type.
LMC on the Current selection field Selects structure nodes at which structure supports will be
defined.
Switch to the graphical viewer;
keeping the left mouse button
pressed û select with the window
nodes of the top bar and (with Ctrl
key pressed) nodes of the bottom
bar
Enters the list of selected nodes: 1 4 13 16 to the Current
selection field.
Apply, Close Assigns the selected support type to the selected structure
nodes; closes the Supports dialog box.
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LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium system layouts
Structure Model / Loads
Selects the layout of the ROBOT Millennium system
which facilitates definition of structure loads (there are
dialog box and table for load definition).
LMC on the New button in the Load
Types dialog box
Defines the load case with the nature: self-weight and
standard name DL1.
In the first load case the self-weight of the whole structure
is added automatically, which can be seen in the load
table.
Displays the dialog box for view selection
Selects 2D view of the structure.
Selects XY projection plane (initially, for Z=0.0).
enter {3} {Enter}
Close
Selects XY projection plane with the coordinate Z=3.0.
Closes the View dialog box.
Loads / Load Definition
Opens the dialog box fo load definition.
Self-weight and mass tab Goes to the tab for definition of self-weight loads and
inertia loads.
Added masses - nodes
Opens the dialog box for definition of added masses.
Enter weight values (kG):
X = 100
Y = 100
Z = 100
Apply to all cases
Add
Defines nodal masses whose weight is 100 kG for
translational degrees of freedom.
The masses will participate in all the load cases (static and
dynamic ones).
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LMC on the Apply to field Selects structure nodes at which nodal masses will be
defined.
Switch to the graphical viewer;
keeping the left mouse button
pressed select with the window - all
the nodes in the presented work
plane
Enters the list of selected nodes: 2to14By4 3to15By4 to the
Apply to field.
Apply, Close Applies defined added masses to selected structure nodes;
closes the Load Definition dialog box.
View / Projection / 3D xyz Selects structure axonometric view.
LMC on the New button in the Load
Types dialog box
Defines a new load case with the nature: self-weight and
the standard name: DL2.
Loads / Load Definition
Opens the dialog box for load definition.
Self-weight and mass tab Goes to the tab for definition of self-weight loads and
inertia loads.
Body forces
Opens the dialog box for definition of inertia loads due to
rectilinear acceleration forces.
relative x g
Enter a:
Z = -1
Apply to added masses
Add
Defines body forces with acceleration of gravity g for nodal
masses, i.e. takes account of self-weight of added masses.
Apply, Close For the load applied to added masses object selection is
not required because action of this load concerns all the
masses assigned to a given load case.
Closes the Load Definition dialog box.
In the Load Types dialog box select
the load nature: live
enter the case name: TRANSPORT
LMC on the New button
Defines a new load case with the nature: live, named:
TRANSPORT.
This load case is aimed at modeling the action of inertia
forces on the frame and on additional masses due to
rotational motion forces caused by (ship) rolling during
transport.
Loads / Load Definition
Opens the dialog box for load definition.
Self-weight and mass tab Goes to the tab for definition of self-weight loads and
inertia loads.
Centrifugal and angular
acceleration forces
Opens the dialog box for definition of inertia loads due to
rotational motion forces, i.e. angular acceleration forces
(tangential forces) and velocity forces (centrifugal forces).
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Enter coordinates of the rotation
center C: (0.0, 0.0, -5.0)
Enter to Centrifugal velocity and
acceleration (Rad/..):
vX = 0,5 aX = 0,2
vY = 0,2 aY = 0,1
Add
Defines inertia forces due to rotational motion about point
C.
Rotation about X axis with velocity v= 0.5 (rad/s) and
acceleration a= 0.2 (rad/s2).
Rotation about Y axis with velocity v= 0.2 (rad/s) and
acceleration a= 0.1 (rad/s2).
LMC on the Apply to field Selects structure elements for which centrifugal and
angular acceleration forces will be defined.
Click on the graphical viewer;
{ Ctrl + A }
Selects the whole structure. Enters the list of all bars to the
Apply to field.
Apply Defines the load.
Centrifugal and angular
acceleration forces
Opens again the dialog box for definition of inertia loads
due to rotational motion forces.
Apply to added masses
Add
For the current load parameters - selects the option
enabling definition of load generated by added masses.
Apply, Close Defines the load; for the load applied to added masses
object selection is not required because action of this load
concerns all the masses assigned to a given load case.
Closes the Load Definition dialog box.
In the Load Types dialog box,
for the load nature: live
enter the case name: ROTOR
LMC on the New button
Defines the new load case with the nature: live, named:
ROTOR.
This load case is aimed at modeling operation of the
equipment mounted on the frame by considering its weight
and vibrating force in hamonic analysis.
Loads / Load Definition
Opens the dialog box for load definition.
Node tab
Nodal force
Opens the dialog box for definition of loads due to nodal
forces.
Enter:
FZ = -0,5 (kN)
Add
Defines the nodal force. Afterwards, this load will be used
in harmonic analysis as an excitation load.
LMC on the Apply to field Selects structure nodes at which nodal forces will be
applied.
Switch to the graphical viewer;
keeping the left mouse button
pressed select with the window - four
middle nodes on the top plane of the
frame
Enters the list of selected nodes: 6 7 10 11 to the Apply to
field.
Apply Assigns defined forces to selected structure nodes.
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Self-weight and mass tab Goes to the tab for definition of self-weight loads and
inertia loads.
Added masses þ nodes
Opens the dialog box for definition of added masses.
Enter Values of weight (kG):
X = 0
Y = 0
Z = 200
Apply to all cases
Add
Defines nodal masses with weight 200 kG for the direction
of freedom Z.
Masses are defined only for the current load case.
LMC on the Apply to field Selects structure nodes at which added masses will be
defined.
Switch to the graphical viewer;
keeping the left mouse button
pressed select with the window - four
middle nodes on the top plane of the
frame
Enters the list of selected nodes: 6 7 10 11 to the Apply to
field.
Apply, Close Applies defined added masses to the selected structure
nodes;
closes the Load Definition dialog box.
Analysis / Analysis Types Opens the Analysis Type dialog box.
In the dialog box on the load case
list select û with LMC û the following
case:
Selects the current case.
Change analysis type Opens the Change Analysis Type dialog box.
Harmonic analysis
OK
Changes the analysis type for case 4 to harmonic analysis.
Opens the Harmonic Analysis Parameters dialog box.
Frequency
enter: 20 (Hz)
OK
Defines parameters of harmonic analysis.
Accepts the parameters and closes the dialog box.
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New Opens the New Case Definition dialog box.
Modal
OK
Selects modal analysis.
OK Accepts default parameters of modal analysis and closes
the dialog box.
Close Closes the Analysis Type dialog box.
Loads / Mass Table Opens the table of added masses.
LMC on the first column for mass
definition FZ=200(kG)
Changes the case to which added masses are assigned.
Masses may be assigned to a single case or to all static or
dynamic cases.
Set the following on the list:
dynamic
{Enter}
Assigns the mass to all dynamic cases, i.e., in this
example, to cases of harmonic and modal analyses.
LMC on the Values tab in the table Goes to the Values tab, checks definitions of added
masses.
in the mass table
Closes the Added masses table.
Loads / Combinations Opens the Combination Definition / Modification dialog
box.
OK in the dialog box for definition of
combination parameters
Accepts combination parameters. Opens the
Combinations dialog box.
Select case 1 from Case list, enter
the factor to the Factor field
Defines combination cases and factors.
Note: if üautoü is selected in the Factor field, then
combination factors will be adopted automatically
according to the code assumed in Job Preferences.
LMC on for the selected case,
next, repeat the selection for cases
nos. 2 and 3,
Apply
Defines the combination of cases 1+2+3, as shown below:
New Defines a new combination.
OK in the dialog box for definition of
combination parameters
Accepts combination parameters; opens the
Combinations dialog box.
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Select cases and move them to the
field with combination definition
for cases 1, 2 and 4.
Apply, Close
Defines the combination of cases 1+2+4; closes the
Combinations dialog box.
11.2 Calculations and Result Analysis
Starts calculations of the defined structure.
LMC on the field for selection of
layouts of the ROBOT Millennium
system
Results / Results
Opens the RESULTS layout of the ROBOT Millennium
system. The monitor screen will then be split into three
parts: graphical viewer with a structure model, Diagrams
dialog box and table presenting reaction values.
RMC, Display Opens the dialog box for selection of structure attributes to
be displayed.
LMC on the Loads tab Goes to the tab for selection of structure attributes
concerned with loads to be displayed.
Symbols
Forces generated
automatcally
OK
Switches on display of forces that are generated
automatically for certain types of loads.
On the top selection bar
select 2: DL2
Selects the current load case, the program displays nodal
forces generated automatically for added masses in the
body force load.
On the top selection bar:
select 3: TRANSPORT
Selects the current load case, the program displays linear
and nodal foces generated automatically for added masses
and bars in the rotational motion load.
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LMC on in the bottom toolbar
Restores the default set of displayed attributes.
Select the Deformation tab in the
Diagrams dialog box
Switch on the Deformation option
Selects presentation of structure deformations for the
selected load case.
LMC on the Apply button Presents structure deformations (see the figure below);
similarly, diagrams of other quantities available in the
Diagrams dialog box may be presented.
Switch off the Deformation option in
the Diagrams dialog box,
Apply
Results / Stresses Opens the Stresses result table.
On the top selection bar
enter 6 and 7 {Enter}
Selects the combination 6 and 7 as the current case in the
table.
RMC in the table
Table Columns
Opens the Bar value selection dialog box from the context
menu in the table.
Switch off the stress options:
axial
bending
OK
Excludes the columns with results for stresses due to axial
forces and bending from the table.
Closes the dialog box with parameters.
LMC on the Global extremes tab in
the table
Goes to the tab where maximum and minimum values are
displayed for the quantities and selection set in the table.
in the stress table
Closes the Stresses table.
Results / Advanced / Modal Analysis Opens the Dynamic Analysis Results table.
On the top selection bar
select case 5: Modal
Select the modal analysis case.
As it can be seen, the frequency of harmonic excitation (20
Hz) does not cause resonance with values of eigenvibration
frequency.
in the table with the dynamic
analysis results
Closes the Dynamic Analysis Results table.
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12. Definition of a PushOver Analysis Case
The example presents a definition of a PushOver analysis. The approach allows the user to estimate
the state of a structure after an earthquake based on the capacity curve (which is the result of the
analysis) and on the assigned code coefficients defining the seismic zone. A simple 3D steel frame
presented below will be defined in the example.
Data units: (ft) and (kip).
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT program (press the appropriate icon or select the
command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be
displayed on the screen and the last but one icon in the first row (Frame 3D Design)
should be selected.
NOTE: The American section database (AISC) has been used in this example.
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12.1 Structure Model Definition
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Structure Model/Bars
Selects the BARS layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts.
While the graphical field is displaying
the structure view as active
(highlighted), select from the menu:
View / Projection / Yz
The structure will be presented as projected on the yz plane
(x coordinate is assumed to equal 0).
LMC on the Bar Type field and select
Column
LMC on the Section field and select
(W 12x96)
Selects bar properties. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
Note: If the W 12x96 section is not available on the list, the
user should press the (
ÿ
) button located beside the
Section field and add this section to the active section
list in the New section dialog box
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of bars in the structure (structure columns).
Enter the following points in the
Beginning and End fields.
(0,0,0) (0,0,11.5), Add
(0,0,11.5) (0,0,23), Add
(0,20,0) (0,20,11.5), Add
(0,20,11.5) (0,20,23), Add
Defines four columns of the frame.
LMC on the Bar Type field in the
Bars dialog box and select Beam
LMC on the Section field and select
(HP 10x42)
Starts definition of a beam and selects its properties. The
section from the American section database (AISC) has
been used.
Note: If the HP 10x42 section is not available on the list, the
user should press the (
ÿ
) button located beside the
Section field and add this section to the active section
list in the New section dialog box
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of beams in the structure.
Enter the following points in the
Beginning and End fields.
(0,0,11.5) (0,20,11.5), Add
(0,0,23) (0,20,23), Add
Defines two beams.
LMC on the Bar Type field in the
Bars dialog box and select Simple
bar
LMC on the Section field and select
(L 1.5x1.5x0.1875)
Starts definition of bracings and selects their properties.
The section from the American section database (AISC)
has been used.
Note: If the L 1.5x1.5x0.1875 section is not available on the
list, the user should press the (
ÿ
) button located
beside the Section field and add this section to the
active section list in the New section dialog box
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LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of bracings in the structure.
Enter the following points to the
Beginning and End fields.
(0,0,0) (0,20,11.5), Add
(0,20,0) (0,0,11.5), Add
(0,0,11.5) (0,20,23), Add
(0,20,11.5) (0,0,23), Add
Defines four bracings.
LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program layouts
Structure Model/Supports
Selects the ROBOT Millennium layout which allows
support definition.
In the Supports dialog box, LMC on
the Current Selection field (the cursor
is blinking in the field)
Selects the structure nodes for which supports will be
defined.
Switch to the graphic viewer; pressing
the left mouse button select with the
window all the lower column nodes
Selected nodes 1 and 4 will be entered to the Current.
Selection field.
From the Supports dialog box select
the fixed support icon (the icon will be
highlighted)
Selects the support type.
LMC on the Apply button Selected support type will be assigned to the chosen
structure nodes; the defined structure is displayed in the
drawing below.
LMC on the field for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program layout
Structure Model/Start
Selection of the initial ROBOT Millennium program layout.
View / Projection / YZ
View / Display
Move to the Structure tab
Switch on display of numbers of
nodes and bars as well as supports.
Geometry / Properties / Sections Selects the bar section.
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From the Sections dialog box select
the HP 12x63 section
The selected section will be assigned to the bars created by
the dragging option - e.g. Translate with the Drag option
turned on.
LMC on the Close button Closes the Sections dialog box.
View / Projection / 3d xyz Selects the isometric structure view.
LMC in the list of the bar selection
Enter the numbers of all columns
and beams
press Enter on the keyboard
Selects all columns and beams, i.e. bars 1 to 6.
LMC in the list of the node selection
Enter the numbers of the beam
nodes
press Enter on the keyboard
Selects beginning and end nodes of both beams, i.e. nodes
2 3 5 6.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
LMC on the Drag check box Turns on the dragging option so that the successive copies
of the selected nodes are joined together by bars.
LMC on the Number of repetitions
field and enter the value: (2)
Defines the number of repetitions for the performed
translation operations.
LMC on the Translation vector field
and enter the vector: (20,0,0)
Defines the translation vector.
LMC on the Execute button Copies the selected elements.
LMC on the View edit viewer Click on the screen ouside the structure to clear the bar and
node selection lists.
LMC in the list of the bar selection
Enter the numbers of all bracings
press Enter on the keyboard
Selects all bracings, i.e. bars 7 to 10.
LMC on the Number of repetitions
field and enter the value: (1)
Defines the number of repetitions for the performed
translation operations.
LMC on the Translation vector field
and enter the vector: (40,0,0)
Defines the translation vector.
Execute, Close Translates the bracings and closes the Translation dialog
box.
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12.2 Definition of the PushOver Analysis Case
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium layout
Structure Model/Loads
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout allowing
for the structure load definition.
LMC on the New button located in
the Load Types dialog box
Defines a dead load (self-weight) with a standard name
DL1.
Analysis / Analysis types Opens the Analysis Type dialog box.
LMC on the New button Opens the New Case Definition dialog box.
LMC on the OK button Opens the Modal Analysis Parameters dialog box.
LMC on the OK button Defines a new modal analysis case with the default
parameters assigned.
LMC on the New button Opens the New Case Definition dialog box.
LMC on the PushOver option
LMC on the OK button
Opens the dialog box for definition of the PushOver
analysis case.
LMC on the Case field: PushOver Defines the name of the PushOver case.
LMC on the Node number field: (3) Defines the controlling node, the displacement of this node
is checked at each load increment.
LMC on the Direction field, select:
(UX+)
Defines direction of an external factor affecting the
structure in the global coordinate system.
LMC on the Maximum displacement
field: 8 (in)
Defines the maximum displacement in the selected node.
LMC on the According to unit
acceleration in the given direction
option
Defines the method of the load definition.
LMC on the Parameters button Opens the dialog box for definition of the Arc-length
method parameters.
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LMC on the Load increment number
field: (20)
Defines the number of the load increments.
LMC on the OK button Applies the changes and closes the dialog box.
While in the Push over dialog box
LMC on the OK button
Closes the Push over dialog box and defines a new
PushOver case.
LMC on the Close button in the
Analysis Type dialog box
Closes the Analysis Type dialog box.
LMC in the list of the load case
selection
select the modal case: (2)
Selects the modal case.
Loads / Load Definition Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
While on the Self-weight and mass
tab
LMC on the Added masses - nodes
icon
Opens the Nodal mass dialog box.
LMC on the X field: 22 (kip)
LMC on the Y field: 22 (kip)
LMC on the Z field: 22 (kip)
Defines the values of the added masses.
LMC on the Add button Accepts the definition of added masses.
While in the Load Definition dialog
box LMC on the Apply to field: (all)
Apply, Close
Applies the added masses to all the nodes.
Closes the Load Definition dialog box.
12.3 Definition of a Non-linear Hinge
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model / Start
Selects the initial layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program.
Geometry / Additional attributes /
Non-linear Hinges
Opens the Non-linear Hinges dialog box.
LMC on the New hinge type icon Opens the Non-linear Hinge Definition dialog box.
LMC on the Label field: Hinge_1 Defines the name of the hinge label.
LMC on the Definition of hinge
model button
Opens the Definition of non-linear hinge model dialog
box.
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LMC on the Model name field:
Model_MY
Defines the name of the hinge model.
LMC on the Add button Creates the hinge model.
LMC on the Points tab Switches to the Points tab.
LMC on the following fields:
ÿ point B column X: (0.01)
ÿ point B column Y: (37)
ÿ point C column X: (0.05)
ÿ point C column Y: (45)
ÿ point D column X: (0.05)
ÿ point D column Y: (8)
ÿ point E column X: (0.09)
ÿ point E column Y: (8)
Creates a diagram of the hinge model (see the drawing
below).
LMC on the Parameters tab Switches to the Parameters tab.
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LMC on the Type field, select:
(moment-rotation)
Defines the type of the hinge, in that case it is moment
versus rotation, thus the previously defined column Y
stands for moment and X stands for rotation.
LMC on the Unloading method and
select: (elastic)
Defines the unloading method, in that case return is carried
out along the same path as while loading.
LMC on the OK button Accepts the definition of the hinge model, closes the dialog
box.
While in the Non-linear Hinge
Definition dialog box:
LMC on the MY option
(if necessary LMC on the other
check boxes to deactivate them)
It activates the MY option.
LMC on the MY field and select:
(Model_MY)
Selects previously defined hinge model.
Add, Close Accepts the definition of the hinge label and closes the
Non-linear Hinge Definition dialog box.
While in the Non-linear Hinges
dialog box:
select the Hinge_1 label
Selects the previously defined hinge label.
LMC on the relative option
LMC on the x= field: (0.1)
Sets the relative postion on the bar as x=0.1.
LMC on the Current Selection field:
1, 3, 15, 17, 25, 27, Apply
Applies the label Hinge_1 at the relative position x=0.1 to
the lower colums.
LMC on the Current Selection field:
11to14, 19to24, Apply
Applies the label Hinge_1 at the relative position x=0.1 to
the all beams except for the ones from the braced walls.
LMC on the relative option
LMC on the x= field: (0.9)
Sets the relative postion on the bar to x=0.9.
LMC on the Current Selection field:
11to14, 19to24, Apply
Applies the label Hinge_1 at the relative position x=0.9 to
all the beams except for the ones from the braced walls.
Close Closes the Non-linear Hinges dialog box.
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12.4 Structure Analysis
Starts calculations of the defined structure
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Results/Results
Opens the RESULTS layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program. The screen will be divided into three parts: a
graphic viewer containing the structure model, the
Diagrams dialog box and a table with reaction values.
12.5 Result Analysis
Select: (3: Push over)
Displays results for the push over case.
Select the NTM tab from the
Diagrams dialog box
Turn on the MY moment option
Displays the structure MY moment for the selected load
case.
Select the Deformation tab from the
Diagrams dialog box
Turn on the Deformation option
Displays the structure deformation for the selected load
case.
LMC on the Apply button Displays structure deformation and MY moment diagram.
Loads / Select Case Component Opens the Case component dialog box.
LMC on the Current component field Goes through the components up to the Number of
components.
Close Closes the Case component dialog box.
Turn off the MY moment and
Deformation option in the dialog box,
Apply
Turns off result display.
12.6 Results - Diagrams of PushOver Analysis
Results / Advanced / PushOver
Analysis - Diagrams
Opens the Pushover analysis dialog box.
LMC on the Add button Opens the Diagram Definition dialog box.
LMC on the UX option Displays the UX displacement diagram.
LMC on the Case field and select:
(3: Push over)
Selects the PushOver case.
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LMC on the Node field: (3) Selects node 3 for which the UX displacement diagram is
created.
Add, Close Confirms the definition of the diagram and closes the
Diagram definition dialog box.
Note that the default diagram name is:
3_Displacement_UX_3
While in the Pushover analysis
dialog box:
LMC on the button
Moves all the diagrams from the Available diagrams panel
to the Presented diagrams panel.
LMC on the Apply button Opens the Diagrams of push over analysis viewer with
Presented diagrams displayed.
While in the Diagrams of push
over analysis viewer LMC on the
cross in the upper right corner
While in the Pushover analysis
dialog box LMC on the Close button
Closes the Diagrams of push over analysis viewer and
the Pushover analysis dialog box.
12.7 Results ÿ Capacity Curve
Results / Advanced / Capacity curve Opens the PushOver curve dialog box.
LMC on the Apply button Opens the Pushover curve diagrams viewer with
Displacement - reaction sum diagram displayed.
LMC on the Diagram type field and
select:
(Capacity spectrum)
Selects the type of a diagram to be displayed in the viewer.
LMC on the Selected demand
spectrum option
Activates the display of selected demand spectrum.
LMC on the Lines of constant period
option
Activates the display of constant period lines.
LMC on the Reduced spectra
(damping) option
Activates the display of reduced spectra.
LMC on the Histeretic damping B
option
Selects the structure type B.
LMC on the Apply button Displays the capacity curve.
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13. RC Beam Design - ACI Code (ROBOT Stand-Alone
Mode)
This example presents the definition, analysis and design of an RC beam.
Data units: (ft), (kip), (kip*ft), (ksi).
Code: ACI 318-02
The following rules apply during beam definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click,
ÿ LMD and RMD - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Double click and the Right Mouse
button Double click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT program (press the appropriate icon or select the
command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be
displayed on the screen and the icon in the third row (RC Beam Design) should be
selected.
NOTE: The American material database has been used in this example.
13.1 Configuration (Program Preferences)
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Tools / Preferences Opens the Preferences dialog box.
LMC on the Languages option in the
Preferences tree
Selects the Languages option dialog box.
LMC on the Regional Settings field
and select United States
Defines the United States settings as default Regional
Settings.
OK Sets the new preferences and closes the dialog box.
Tools / Job Preferences Opens the Job Preferences dialog box.
LMC on the Units and Format option
in the Job Preferences tree
Selects the Units and Format option dialog box.
LMC on the Imperial button inside
the Default Units field
Defines Imperial units as Default Units.
OK Sets the new preferences and closes the dialog box.
NOTE: It is necessary to perform actions described above if the program has not been
installed in the English version or the Windows® operating system has not had the
US regional settings.
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13.2 Beam Design
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Twice LMC on the Add Span button
in the Dimension Definition dialog
box
LMC on the Cantilever Right field Defines a right side cantilever.
LMC on the Span Geometry tab Switches to the Span Geometry tab.
Select graphically the cantilever.
LMC in the Length field and enter
value 5.0,
Apply
LMC on the middle span on the
Elevation - Beam viewer
Selects graphically the middle span of the beam.
LMC in the Length field and enter
12+1/2*12=
Apply
Defines the middle span length using a simple
mathematical operation in ROBOT Millennium edit field.
LMC in the Width field (Left support)
and enter 1ft8in=
LMC on the Width field (Right
support) and enter 1ft8in=
Apply
Defines the support width using a unit conversion in
ROBOT Millennium edit field.
LMC in the middle span in the
Elevation - Beam viewer
Selects graphically the middle span of the beam.
LMC on the h field (Basic
Dimensions) in the Section
Definition dialog box and enter
value 30.0 (in),
Apply
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium layout
RC Beam / Beam - openings
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout allowing
for the beam opening definition. The screen will be divided
into three parts: a graphic viewer containing the beam
elevation at the upper side, a Beam - openings table in
bottom left side and the Openings dialog box at bottom
right side.
LMC on the middle span on the
Elevation - Beam viewer
Selects graphically the middle span of the beam.
LMC in the Name field of the
Openings dialog box and enter A as
the opening name
Defines the opening name.
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LMC on the Start field and select left
upper
Defines the coordinate system of the opening position.
LMC on the X Local field and enter
value 8.5, next LMC on the Z Local
field and enter value 2.0
Defines the opening position on the span.
LMC on the Adjoining beam option Defines the opening type.
LMC on the Lx field and enter value
1.0, next LMC on the Lz field and
enter value 2.0
Defines opening dimensions.
Add Adds the A opening to the span.
LMC on the cantilever on the
Elevation - Beam viewer
Selects graphically the beamþs cantilever.
LMC on the Name field of the
Openings dialog box and enter B as
the opening name
Defines the opening name.
LMC on the Round option Defines the opening type.
LMC on the X Local field and enter
value 2.0, next LMC on the Z Local
field and enter value 1.0
Defines the opening position on the span.
LMC on the D field and enter value
1.0
Defines opening dimensions.
Add Adds the B opening to the span.
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium layout
RC Beam / Beam - loads
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout allowing
for the beam loads definition. The screen will be divided
into three parts: a graphic viewer containing the beam
static model at the upper side, a Beam - loads table in
bottom left side and the Loads dialog box at bottom right
side.
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, Add
Defines a self-weight load.
Select live load
LMC on the Value p1 field and enter
value 2.0,
Add
Select concentrated
Select live load
LMC on the Suspended option
LMC on the Value F field and enter
value 12.0,
Add
Analysis / Calculation Options Opens the Calculation Options dialog box.
LMC on the Concrete tab. LMC in
the list of the typical concrete
resistance. Select fcþ=4.0 ksi
concrete
Defines concrete parameters.
LMC on the Longitudinal
reinforcement tab. LMC in the steel
list. Select Grade 60 steel.
Defines longitudinal reinforcement steel grade.
LMC on the None button (Bar list) to
remove the default bars list.
LMC in the #8, #9, #10, #11 options
to define acceptable bar list
Defines the longitudinal reinforcement acceptable bar list.
LMC on the Transversal
reinforcement tab. LMC on the steel
list. Select Grade 40 steel.
Defines the transversal reinforcement steel grade.
LMC on the #6 option to add bar #6
to acceptable bar list.
Defines transversal reinforcement acceptable bar list.
LMC on the Save As þ button Opens Enter the name dialog box.
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LMC on the edit control, highlight
Standard text and enter test_rnf as
a new name,
OK, OK
Saves user calculation options.
Analysis / Reinforcement Pattern Opens the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box.
LMC on the Transversal
reinforcement tab
LMC on the Suspended load button
LMC on the second Reinforcement
Method option,
OK
See the picture on the next page.
LMC on the Structural
Reinforcement tab
LMC on the Consider in load
capacity calculations option,
OK
Analysis / Calculation Opens the Calculation Option Set dialog box.
LMC on the When the calculations
are completed go to the: Results
layout option
LMC on the Calculations button Starts the calculations
LMC on the OK button in the
Reinforcement concrete and
Calculation Errors dialog boxes.
Accepts the calculation warning: Axial force will not be
taken into consideration in calculations.
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LMC on the Span option Defines range of the graphic viewer.
Select Reinforcement
Select Deflection
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium layout
RC Beam / Beam - reinforcement
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout allowing
for the beam reinforcement presentation. The screen will
be divided into four parts: two graphic viewers containing
the beam elevation at the upper right side and beam
section at the upper left side, a Beam - Reinforcement
Table at bottom right side and Reinforcing bars dialog
box at bottom left side.
Results / Calculation note Opens the Calculation note dialog box.
LMC on OK button Generates the calculation note.
LMC on the cross in the upper right
corner
Closes the Calculation note editor.
Opens the RC Component Inspektor dialog box.
LMC on the Standard Level field in
the tree
Unfolds the Standard Level sub-tree.
LMC on the Beam1 field Highlights ýBeam1ü û a standard sub-project name.
Enter ýMy beamü in the highlighted
field,
Renames the subproject name.
File / Save Saves the ROBOT Millennium project.
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Results / Drawings Generates Final Drawings. The ROBOT Millennium
program layout is changed automatically.
File / Print Opens the Print dialog box.
OK Prints final drawings of reinforcement.
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14. RC Column Design - ACI Code (ROBOT Stand-Alone
Mode)
This example presents the definition, analysis and design of an RC column.
Data units: (ft), (kip), (kip*ft), (ksi).
Code: ACI 318-02
The following rules apply during column definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
ÿ LMD and RMD - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Double click and the Right Mouse
button Double click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT program (press the appropriate icon or select the
command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be
displayed on the screen and the icon in the third row (RC Column Design) should be
selected.
NOTE: The American material database has been used in this example.
14.1 Configuration (Program Preferences)
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Tools / Preferences Opens the Preferences dialog box.
LMC on the field Languages in
Preferences tree
Selects the Languages option tab.
LMC on the Regional Settings field
and select the United States
Defines the United States settings as default Regional
Settings.
Tools / Job Preferences Opens the Job Preferences dialog box.
LMC on the field Units and Format in
Job Preferences tree
Selects the Units and Format option tab.
LMC on the Imperial button inside
the Default Units field
Defines the Imperial units as Default Units.
OK Applies new preference.
NOTE: It is necessary to perform actions described above if the program has not been
installed in the English version or the Windows® operating system has not had the
US regional settings.
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14.2 Column Design
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
LMC on the b field on the Section
dialog box and enter value 18.0 (in)
Defines a column section width.
LMC on the h field on the Section
dialog box and enter value 18.0 (in)
Defines a column section height.
LMC on the Label field and enter
18in-18in
Defines a column section name.
OK Applies the section definition.
Structure / Dimensions Opens the Elevation Dimensions dialog box.
LMC on the L field and enter value
16.0
Defines the column height.
LMC on the Hb field and enter value
2.0
Defines a beam thickness.
LMC on the Hp field and enter 10in
=
Defines a slab thickness using a unit conversion in the
ROBOT edit field.
OK Accepts definition of the Elevation Dimensions.
Structure / Buckling Length Opens the Buckling Length dialog box.
LMC on the Sway option inside the
Direction Y field
Defines the structure type in the Y direction.
inside the Direction Y
field
Opens the Sway structure dialog box.
, OK
Defines the buckling coefficient 1.60 for typical structure -
column in a weak beam.
inside the Direction Z
field
Opens the Non - Sway structure dialog box.
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LMD
Opens the Adjoining Beam Parameters - Z ÿ ACI 318-02
dialog box.
Unfold the Section list at the second
row. Select the B8x16 section
Selects the left side adjoining beam section.
LMC on the Length field at the
second row. Enter value 25.0
Defines the left side adjoining beam length.
Unfold the Section list at the third
row. Select the B8x16 section
Selects the right side adjoining beam section.
LMC on the Length field at the third
row. Enter value 25.0
Define the right side adjoining beam length.
Unfold the Section list at the fourth
row. Select the 18in-18in section
Selects the top column section.
LMC on the Length field at the fourth
row. Enter value 25.0
Define the top column length.
OK Define the buckling coefficient 0.68 by frame node stiffness
(adjoining element stiffness).
Apply, Close Applies definition of the Buckling Length.
Structure / Loads Opens the Loads dialog box.
LMC on the Nature at first record of
Loads table field. Unfold list and
select the dead load
Selects Nature of the new load case.
Enter the following forces in the
N, M
yt
, M
yb
, M
nsy
/M
y
, M
zt
, M
zb
, ý
fields
(300.0, 30.0, 30.0, 0.10, 25.0, 20.0,
1.0)
Defines a dead load with a standard name DL1
LMC on the Nature at second record
of Loads table field. Unfold list and
select the live load
Selects Nature of the new load case.
Enter the following forces in the
N, M
yt
, M
yb
, M
nsy
/M
y
, M
zt
, M
zb
, ý
fields
(250.0, 10.0, 20.0, 0.50, 10.0, 20.0,
0.50)
Defines a live load with a standard name LL1
LMC on the Nature at third record of
Loads table field. Unfold list and
select the wind
Selects Nature of the new load case.
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Enter the following forces in the
N, M
yt
, M
yb
, M
nsy
/M
y
, M
zt
, M
zb
, ý
fields
(20.0, 10.0, 5.0, 1.0, 30.0, 80.0, 0.0),
OK
Defines a wind load with a standard name WIND1
Analysis / Calculation Options Opens the Calculation Options dialog box.
LMC in the C field inside Cover
frame and enter value 2.0in
Defines a size of the cover.
LMC on the Fixed option Defines the cover size as a fixed value.
LMC on the tab Concrete. LMC in
the list of the typical concrete
resistance. Select fcþ=5.5ksi
concrete
Defines concrete parameters.
LMC on the Longitudinal
reinforcement tab
Changes to the Longitudinal reinforcement tab.
LMC on the None button in Bar list
frame to remove the default bar list.
LMC on the #9, #10, #11 option to
define acceptable bar list
Defines the longitudinal reinforcement acceptable bar list.
LMC on the Transversal
reinforcement tab
Changes to the Transversal reinforcement tab.
LMC on the #3 option to switch off
this bar and LMC on the #6 option to
add bar #6 to acceptable bar list
Defines the transversal reinforcement acceptable bar list.
LMC on the Save As þbutton Opens the Enter the name dialog box.
LMC on the edit field, highlight
Standard text and enter test_rnf as a
new name,
OK
OK
Saves user calculation options.
Analysis / Calculations Opens the Calculation Option Set dialog box.
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LMC on the When the calculations
are completed go to the: Results
layout option
LMC on the Calculations button
Defines change of the ROBOT Millennium layout after
calculation.
LMC on the first field in the
Intersection dialog box
Press Down Arrow on the keyboard Changes the current combination.
LMC on the Close button in the
Intersection dialog box
Closes the Intersection dialog box.
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium layout
RC Column / Column -
reinforcement
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout allowing
for the beam reinforcement presentation. The screen will
be divided into four parts: two graphic viewers containing
the beam elevation at the upper right side and beam
section at the upper left side, a Column - Reinforcement
Table at bottom right side and Reinforcing bars dialog
box at bottom left side.
Opens the RC Component Inspektor dialog box.
LMC on the cross next to the
Standard Level field in the tree
Expands the Standard Level tree.
LMC on the Column1 field Highlights ýColumn1ü - standard sub project name.
Enter text ýMy columnü in the
highlight field,
Renames the subproject name.
File / Save Saves the ROBOT Millennium project.
Results / Drawing Generates Final Drawings. The ROBOT Millennium
program layout is changed automatically.
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium layout
RC Column / Column -
reinforcement
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout allowing
for the column reinforcement presentation.
Analysis / Reinforcement Pattern Opens the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box.
LMC on the Shapes tab
LMC on the icon near the Stirrup
option
Opens the Stirrup dialog box.
, OK
Changes the Stirrups shape.
LMC on the icon near the Main
option
Opens the Main dialog box.
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,
OK, OK
Changes the main reinforcement shape.
Analysis / Calculation Opens the Calculation Option Set dialog box.
LMC on the When the calculations
are completed go to the: Current
layout option,
Calculations
Defines change of the ROBOT Millennium layout after
calculation.
LMC on the No. field in the first
record in Reinforcement Table -
General tab
Selects the main reinforcement.
LMC on the Shape Parameters tab
in the Bar properties dialog box
LMC on the C field and enter value
3in=,
Apply
Defines the hook length.
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Analysis / Drawing Parameters Opens the Drawing Parameters dialog box.
LMC on the Add drawing to the list
option,
OK
Results / Drawing Generates Final Drawings. ROBOT Millennium program
layout is changed automatically.
Insert / Reinforcement table Adds new drawings with global reinforcement table.
15. RC Foundation Design - ACI Code (ROBOT Stand-
Alone Mode)
This example presents the definition, analysis and design of an RC spread footing.
Data units: (ft), (kip), (kip*ft), (ksi).
Code: ACI 318-02
The following rules apply during foundation definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
ÿ LMD and RMD - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Double click and the Right Mouse
button Double click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT program (press the appropriate icon or select the
command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be
displayed on the screen and the icon in the third row (Foundation Design) should be
selected.
NOTE: The American material and soil databases have been used in this example.
15.1 Configuration (Program Preferences)
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Tools / Preferences Opens the Preferences dialog box.
LMC on the Languages option in the
Preferences tree
Selects the Languages option dialog box.
LMC on the Regional Settings field
and select United States
Defines the United States settings as default Regional
Settings.
OK Sets the new preferences and closes the dialog box.
Tools / Job Preferences Opens the Job Preferences dialog box.
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LMC on the Units and Format option
in the Job Preferences tree
Selects the dialog box for the Units and Format option.
LMC on the Imperial button inside
the Default Units field
Defines Imperial units as Default Units.
LMC on the cross-box next to the
Units and Format field in the Job
Preferences tree
Unfold the Units and Format sub tree.
LMC on the Forces in Units and
Format
Selects the dialog box for Forces option.
Click twice next to the Stress unit
define field
Changes the unit display precision.
OK Sets the new preferences and closes the dialog box.
Note: It is necessary to perform actions described above if the program has not been
installed in the English version or the Windows® operating system has not had the
US regional settings.
15.2 Simple Footing Design
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Enter the following geometry
parameters in the A and B field.
A=9.0, B=9.0, Apply
Defines the foundation geometry.
LMC on the Pier tab and change the
Column pier type to Plain,
Apply
Selects the pier type.
Analysis / Calculation Options Opens the Calculation Options dialog box.
LMC on the Concrete tab. LMC on
the list of the typical concrete
resistance. Select fcþ=4.0ksi
concrete
Defines concrete parameters.
LMC on the Longitudinal
reinforcement tab. LMC on the steel
list. Select Grade 40 steel
Defines the longitudinal reinforcement steel grade.
LMC on the None button (Bar list) to
remove the default bar list.
LMC on the #6, #7, #8, #9 options to
define acceptable bar list
Defines the longitudinal reinforcement acceptable bar list.
LMC on the Transversal
reinforcement tab. LMC on the steel
list. Select Grade 40 steel.
Defines the transversal reinforcement steel grade.
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LMC on the #3 option to switch off
this bar and LMC on the #6 option to
add bar #6 to acceptable bar list.
Defines the transversal reinforcement acceptable bar list.
LMC on the Save As þbutton Opens the Enter the name dialog box.
LMC on the edit control, highlight
Standard text and enter test_rnf as
a new name, OK
Saves user calculation options.
OK Closes the Calculation Options dialog box.
Foundations / Foundations - load
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout allowing
for the foundations load definition. The screen will be
divided into four parts: a graphic viewer containing the foot
model at the upper right side, the Foundations - load and
Foundations - site dialog boxes at upper central and
upper left side and a table with foundation load values at
center.
Selects the forces type.
Enter the following forces in the
N, Fx, Fy, Mx, My fields
(55.0, 10.0, -20.0, 15.0, -15.0),
Add
Defines a dead load with a standard name DL1
live load
Selects the type of a load case: live.
Enter the following forces in the
N, Fx, Fy, Mx, My fields
(30.0, 10.0, -20.0, 15.0, -15.0),
Add
Defines a live load with a standard name LL1
wind
Selects the type of a load case: wind.
Enter the following forces in the
N, Fx, Fy, Mx, My fields
(20.0, -25.0, 10.0, -10.0, -25.0),
Add
Defines a live load with a standard name WIND1
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LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium layout
Foundations / Foundations - soil
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout allowing
for the foundations soil definition. The screen will be
divided into two parts: Foundations - site dialog boxes at
upper left side and Foundations - soil dialog box at
central with graphic viewer containing the foot model and
soil layers, soil table and backfill parameters.
LMC in the Backfill heights N
1
field
and enter the value: (2.0)
Defines a Backfill height.
LMC on the Pier level N
a
field and
enter 8in=
Defines a column Pier level using a ROBOT Millennium
control unit conversion (in -> ft).
LMC on the Minimum reference level
N
f
field and enter the value (-1.5)
Defines a Minimum reference level.
LMC on the Name field in the first
record in soil table and unfold the list
of available soils. Select the Very
fine sands.
Selects the typical soil (Very fine sands) from ROBOT
Millennium soil database.
Switch on the Stress Allowable
option.
LMC on the edit field (Stress) and
enter the value (0.0138).
LMC on the Apply button Applies the soil definition.
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LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium layout
Foundations / Foundations -
result
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout allowing
for a presentation of foundations calculation result. The
screen will be divided into two parts: a graphic viewer
containing the foot model at the left side, Foundations -
result dialog boxes at right side.
LMC on the Capacity button in the
Foundations - Results dialog box
Selects the design combination for capacity.
Analysis / Calculation Opens the Calculation Option Set dialog box.
LMC on the Calculations button Starts the Calculations and optimization for the defined
foundation.
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium layout
Foundations / Foundations -
Reinforcement
Selects the ROBOT Millennium program layout allowing
for a presentation of foundation reinforcement. The screen
will be divided into five parts: three graphic viewers
containing footing model projections, Foundation -
Reinforcement Table and Reinforcing bars dialog box.
LMC on the No. field in the fourth
record on the Reinforcement Table -
General tab.
Selects the bottom reinforcement in Y direction.
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Opens the Main Bar shape dialog box.
,
OK
Selects the new shape.
Apply Applies the new shape to reinforcement in Y direction.
LMC on the No. field in the fifth
record on the Reinforcement Table -
General tab
Selects the bottom reinforcement in X direction.
Opens the Main Bar shape dialog box.
,
OK
Selects the new shape.
Apply Applies the new shape for reinforcement in X direction.
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File / Save Saves the ROBOT Millennium project.
Results / Drawings Generates Final Drawings. The ROBOT Millennium
program layout is changed automatically.
File / Print Opens the Print dialog box.
OK Prints the foundation reinforcement.
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16. Definition of a 2D Frame
The example presents the definition and analysis of a 2D steel frame as shown in the figure below.
Data units: (ft) and (kip).
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT program (press the appropriate icon or select the
command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be
displayed on the screen and the first icon in the first row (Frame 2D Design) should be
selected.
NOTE: The American section database (AISC) has been used in this example.
16.1 Structure Definition
16.1.1 Definition of a Working Language and Codes
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Tools / Preferences Opens the Preferences dialog box shown in the figure
below which allows to select/modify the ROBOT
Millennium program parameters.
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Place the cursor in the Languages
line and select the United States
option from a list of available
languages
Setting regional parameters results in adjusting national
codes, material and regulations.
Accept Closes the Preferences dialog box and saves the changes
made.
Tools / Job Preferences Opens the Job Preferences dialog box which allows to
select/modify the ROBOT Millennium program
parameters.
Compare the code and actions correctness to the settings
shown in the figures below.
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OK Closes the Job Preferences dialog box and saves the
changes made.
16.1.2 Structure Axis Definition
Geometry / Axis Definition Opens the Structural Axis dialog box which is used to
define the structure's axes.
While being on the X tab set the
Numbering option as A B Cÿ
switch to the Position field and enter:
{0} Insert,
{18} Insert,
{32} Insert
Defines parameters of the vertical structural axes.
Switch to the Z tab, enter the
following coordinates of the axes:
{0.0} Insert,
{10.5} Insert,
{14.0} Insert,
Numbering: 1, 2, 3ú
Defines parameters of the horizontal structural axes.
Apply, Close Creates the defined structural axes and closes
the Structural axis dialog box.
If the axes are not visible the user
should select the View / Zoom /
Zoom All command from main menu
The initial view of the structure should be displayed on the
screen.
16.1.3 Structure Axis Modification
RMC on the symbol (in the example
B) referring to the required axis,
select the Object Properties
command in the context menu
Opens the Structural Axis Modification dialog box, which
is used for structural axis modification as shown in the
figure below.
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Switch to the Distance field and
enter the {2.00} distance or set it
graphically
Sets a displacement value for the selected structure axis
Apply, Close Closes the Structural Axis Modification dialog box.
Defined structural axes are shown in the figure below.
16.1.4 Column and Beam Definition
Structure Model/Bars
Selects the BARS layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts.
LMC on the Bar Type field and
select Column
LMC on the Section field and select
(W 8x28)
Selects bar properties. The section from the American
section database (AISC) has been used.
Note: If the W 8x28 section is not available on the list, the
user should press the (
ÿ
) button located beside the
Section field and add this section to the active section
list in the New Section dialog box.
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LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of bars in the structure (structure columns).
Switch to the graphic viewer and
indicate by means of the mouse the
following intersection points of the
consecutive axes.
- A1-A3,
- B1-B3,
- C1-C2
Defines three columns of the frame.
LMC on the Bar Type field and
select Beam
LMC on the Section field and select
(W 10x45)
Selects bar properties.
Note: If the W 10x45 section is not available on the list, the
user should repeat the operations as in the case of
the W 8x28 section.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Starts definition of a bar in the structure (structure beam).
Switch to the graphic viewer and
indicate by means of the mouse the
following intersection points of the
consecutive axes.
- C2-B2
Defines the beam of the frame.
Note: If the section database AISC is not available in the
Database field the user should add it. To do so select the
Tools / Job Preferences / Section Database option. Click
the icon (it adds a new database to the list) and select
AISC database from list of the available section databases.
16.1.5 Truss Definition
Truss Section Definition
Opens the Sections dialog box.
Opens the New Section dialog box.
Set the following options:
Database: AISC,
Family: P,
Section: P 2.5,
Add, Close, Close
Closes the New Section dialog box. The P 2.5 section
appears in the List of Active Sections, closes the Sections
dialog box
Definition of the Upper Chord
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model / Start
Selects the initial layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program.
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Geometry / Objects / Arc Opens the Arc dialog box.
Select the arc definition method:
Begin - Middle - End;
Enter the following coordinates of
the arc points:
Begin. (0,14)
Middle (10,16)
End (20,14)
In the Sides field enter: 10,
Switch on the Fixed number and
Explode options
Apply, Close
Defines arc. Closes the Arc dialog box.
Note: During the arc definition the last defined section
(e.g. P 2.5) was applied.
The Lower Chord
RMC in the graphical viewer and
indicate the Select option; then
select the arc with nodes by means
of the window-shaped cursor.
Selects the recently defined arc.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
Set the following parameters in the
opened dialog box:
Translation Vector field: (0,10)
Edit Mode field: switch on the Copy
option, leave the default values of
the remaining parameters
Execute, Close
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Displays the initial view of the structure
Deselect the copied arc, then select
all nodes in the copied arc - indicate
them with the mouse cursor holding
the CTRL key pressed
View / Tables Opens the Tables: Data and Results dialog box.
Check out the Nodes option, OK Closes the Tables: Data and Results dialog box, displays
the Nodes table on the screen.
Windows / Tile Horizontally Displays simultaneously two windows on the screen: View
and Nodes
Switch to the Nodes table and select
entire Z table column (by clicking on
header) with CTRL key pressed
Selects the entire Z column.
Place the mouse cursor in the
selected column and RMC
Opens the context menu.
Select the Fill Special option in the
opened context menu
Opens the Insert to Column dialog box (see below).
Enter a new value of the coordinate
Z = 14, OK
Assigns new value of Z coordinates of the selected nodes,
closes the Insert to Column dialog box.
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Close the Nodes table and
Selection dialog box
Click the button located in the
View viewer
Maximizes the View graphical viewer
View / Zoom / Zoom All Displays the initial view of the structure
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
On the Structure tab indicate the
Node numbers option, then switch to
the Others tab and turn off the
Structural axis option, Apply, OK
Chooses the structure attributes for presentation, closes
the Display dialog box.
In order to delete the doubled nodes
in the truss corners, select them
using the mouse cursor with the
CTRL button pressed. Then select
the Edit / Correct command
There appears the Structure Correction dialog box on
the screen as shown in the figure below.
Deselect the Entire Structure option
(only the Geometrical Center should
be active). Set the value 0.03 in the
Precision field, Apply, Close
Posts
Opens the Bars dialog box.
LMC on the Bar Type field and
select Simple bar
LMC on the Section field and select
(P 2)
Selects bar properties.
Note: If the P 2 section is not available on the list, the user
should repeat the operations as in the case of the P
2.5 section.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Switch to the graphic viewer, open
the context menu and then select
Snap Settings / Snap Settings option
Opens the Snap Settings dialog box.
Select the Nodes option and
deselect the remaining options,
press the Close button.
Chooses the parameters of cursor movement, closes
the Snap Settings dialog box.
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Define posts by connecting the
nodes in the bottom and top chords
of the truss (9 posts) - see below
Cross-braces
LMC on the Bar Type field and
select Simple bar
LMC on the Section field and select
(P 1.5)
Selects bar properties.
Note: If the P 1.5 section is not available on the list, the user
should repeat the operations as in the case of the P
2 section.
LMC on the Beginning field
(background color changes to green)
Go to the graphical viewer and
define the diagonals as shown in the
figure below
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16.1.6 Definition of Releases on the Ends of Diagonals
Geometry / Releases Opens the Releases dialog box to apply releases to the
truss diagonals.
Highlight the Pinned-Pinned release
type, Close
Go to the graphical viewer. Here, indicate all the diagonals
with the mouse cursor (the arrow with the release symbol).
It generates releases on element ends, closes the
Releases dialog box.
16.1.7 Support Definition
Structure Model/Supports
Selects the Supports layout from the list of available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
Switch to the Supports dialog box,
highlight Fixed in the support list and
set the cursor in the selection field.
Go to the graphical viewer and
select two nodes: 1, 3 - located on
axis 1
Selects the support type and nodes to which the supports
will be applied.
Apply Assigns the fixed support to the chosen nodes.
Highlight Pinned in the support list,
switch to the graphic viewer and
select the remaining node 5
Assigns the pinned support to the chosen node.
16.1.8 Load Definition
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Structure Model/Loads
Selects the Loads layout from the list of the available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
Select Nature: dead in the Load
Types dialog box and type self -
weight in the Name field; then, click
the New button
Defines a dead load with a user-defined name self-weight.
Note: the program will define automatically the self-weight
on all structure bars.
LMC on the Nature field - enter the
name dead
LMC on the New button
Defines a dead load with the user-defined name dead.
Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Click the Uniform Load icon
located on the Bar tab
Opens the Uniform Load dialog box (see below).
Type pz = -0.70 (kip/ft) in the Z edit
field (the column of p loads (kip/ft)),
Add
Defines a value of the uniform load, closes the Uniform
Load dialog box.
Switch to the Apply To field in the
Load Definition dialog box and
indicate beam 4 in the graphical
viewer (right beam). The bar number
will appear in the Apply To field,
Apply
Applies the selected load to the chosen structure bar.
Click the Nodal Force icon
located on the Node tab
Opens the Nodal Force dialog box (see below).
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Type Fz = -1.40 (kip) in the Z edit
field (the column of p loads (kip)),
Add
Defines the force value, closes the Uniform Load dialog
box.
Place the cursor in the Apply to field
then switch to the graphic viewer
and select all the nodes of the upper
chord. The node numbers will
appear in the Apply To field, Apply
Defines loads for the second load case.
Introduce the Nature: dead and
Name: purlins in the Load Types
dialog box and click the New button
Defines a dead load with the user-defined name dead.
Click the Bar Force icon
located on the Bar tab
Opens the Bar Force dialog box.
Enter the load Fz = -0.50 (kip).
Switch on the Absolute option in the
Coordinate field in the bottom part of
the dialog box. Type 6.00 (ft) in the
"x =" edit field, Add
After leaving the dialog box area,
the cursor will automatically assume
the selection mode. In the graphical
viewer, indicate the right span,
ensuring that the arrows on the bar
are directed to the right, Apply
Closes the Bar Force dialog box, applies the selected bar
force to the required position.
Reopen the Bar Force dialog box
and repeat the above operation for
the coordinates x = 12,0; adopt the
same value of the Fz force
Closes the Bar Force dialog box, applies selected bar
force to the required position.
Click the Nodal Force icon
Opens the Nodal Force dialog box.
Type Fz = -0.50 (kip) in the Z edit
field, then click the Add button
Applies the load value, closes the Nodal Force dialog box.
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Place the cursor in the Apply to field
then switch to the graphic viewer
and select all the nodes of upper
chord. The node numbers will
appear in the Apply To field, Apply
Applies nodal forces to the selected nodes.
Enter the Nature: live and Name: live
in the Load Types dialog box and
click the New button
Defines a live load with the user-defined name live.
Click the Trapezoidal Load
icon located on the Bar tab
Opens the Trapezoidal Load dialog box.
Enter the following load values
pz1 = - 0.35 (kip/ft)
pz2 = - 0.70 (kip/ft)
and the relative coordinates
x1 = 0.0
x2 = 0.5
(switch on the Relative option in the
bottom part of the dialog box), Add
Enters the load values and closes the Trapezoidal Load
dialog box.
Switch to the Apply To: field and
select the right span. Make sure that
the arrows on the bar are directed to
the right.
Applies the selected trapezoidal load to the chosen bar.
By analogy, define the load applied
to the right part of the span. Load
values:
pz1 = - 0.70 (kip/ft)
pz2 = - 0.35 (kip/ft)
relative coordinates
x1 = 0.5
x2 = 1.0
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Enter the Nature: wind and
Name: wind from the right in the
Load Types dialog box then click
the New button
Defines a wind load with the user-defined name wind from
the right.
Select the Uniform Load icon on the
Bar tab of the Load Definition
dialog
Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.
Enter px = - 0.15 (kip/ft), press the
Add button. Apply the load to the
right column
Applies the selected load.
Select the Trapezoidal Load icon Opens the Trapezoidal Load dialog box.
Enter the load: px1 = px2 = - 0.15
(kip/ft) Set the relative coordinates:
x1 = 0.75 and x2 = 1, Add
Defines a trapezoidal load.
Applies the defined load to the central column. Make sure
that the arrows on the bar are pointed upwards, close the
Trapezoidal Load dialog box.
Set the Nature: snow and Name:
snow in the Load Types dialog box,
confirm it pressing the New button
Defines a snow load with the user-defined name snow.
Select the Uniform Load icon on
the Bar tab of the Load Definition
dialog box
Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.
Enter the values pz = - 0.35 (kip/ft)
and px = 0 (kip/ft). Switch on the
Projected Load option in the bottom
part of the dialog box, Add
Defines load properties, closes the Uniform Load dialog
box.
Select the right span of the structure Applies the defined load to the right bar in the structure.
Click the Nodal Force icon Opens the Nodal Force dialog box
Type Fz = -0.70 (kip) in the Z edit
field, then click the Add button,
switch to the Apply to field,
afterwards select all the nodes of the
upper chord in the graphic viewer.
The node numbers will appear in the
Apply To field, Apply
Applies selected load to the appropriate nodes.
16.1.9 Structure Modification
Structure Axis Modification
Selection of the ROBOT
Millennium layouts, Structure
Model / Start
Selects the initial layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program.
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
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On the Others tab - turn on the
Structural axis option, Apply, OK
Chooses the structure attributes for presentation, closes
the Display dialog box.
Geometry / Axis Definition Opens the Structural Axis dialog box.
Define the required axis. Set
Numbering to: A, B, Cúand then on
the X tab enter the -20.00 value in
the Position field and insert it into
the Set of Created Axes field by
means of the Insert button, Apply,
Close
Defines an additional structural axis.
View / Zoom / Zoom All Displays the initial view of the structure
Select the truss span and the first
column on the left (column no. 1)
and choose the Edit / Edit / Translate
command from the main menu
Selects the left column and truss span opens the
Translation dialog box.
Enter the following settings in the
Translation dialog box:
Translation Vector / dX, dZ: (-20, 0)
in the Edit Mode field, switch on the
Copy option; leave the default
values of the remaining settings
Defines the translation parameters.
Execute, Close Translates selected elements of the structure, closes the
Translation dialog box - see the figure below.
Note: As a result of copying, there appears a new span
with a column to the left of the structure. All
properties of the selected structure elements have
been copied including supports, loads etc.
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16.1.10 Additional Load Definition
Structure Model/Loads
Selects the Loads layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts.
LMC on the Nature field - set the
wind option and enter the name:
wind from the left, click New button
Defines a wind load with the user-defined name: wind from
the left.
Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Select the Uniform Load icon on the
Bar tab of the Load Definition
dialog box
Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.
Enter px = 0.15 (kip/ft) (make sure
that pz equals zero), press Add.
Apply loads to the left column,
Close
Applies the selected load and closes the Load Definition
dialog box
16.1.11 Load Combination Definition
Loads / Combinations Opens the Combination Definition/Modification dialog
box shown in the figure below.
Set all options as shown in the
dialog box above and press the OK
Creates a new combination, closes the Combination
Definition/Modification dialog box. There appears a new
Combinations dialog box that allows the user to define
and modify the factors of a given combination.
Factor Definition Opens the Combination Factors dialog box.
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Set the arrow in the live label, switch
to the Factor edit field and introduce
the new value 1.45, Change, Close
Changes the combination factor for the live load, closes the
Combination Factors dialog box.
Press the button located in the
Combinations dialog box
Transfers all combination cases from the left to the right
panel (see the dialog box below).
Note: if the Auto option is set, the factor will assume the
value defined in the Combination Factors dialog box
Apply, Close Saves the combinations with the current parameter values,
closes the Combinations dialog box.
16.2 Structure Analysis
Analysis / Calculations Starts the calculations for the defined structure. Once the
calculations are completed, the message Results (FEM):
available should be displayed at the top of the screen.
16.3 Analysis of Results in the Graphical Form
Results/Results
Selects the Results layout from the list of available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
Click the icon in the bottom left
corner of the screen
Restores the default attributes of the structure view.
Switch to the Diagrams dialog box
and turn on the Deformation option
on the Deformation tab, Apply
Displays deformation of the structure.
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Position the cursor in the Cases list
box (the upper toolbar) and change
the load cases by means of the
keyboard cursors (up and down
arrows) and watch the results in the
View window. If necessary, re-scale
the drawing by means of the
Normalize button.
Switch off the Deformation option on
the Deformation tab, Apply
Stops the display of structure displacements.
In the View viewer: select the right
span. Switch on the Labels option in
the Diagram description field of the
Parameters tab. Then, click the
Open a new window option at the
bottom of the dialog box. Switch on
display of MY moments on the NTM
tab, Apply
Displays the MY diagram in a new window.
Exit Closes the recently opened window with the MY moment
displayed.
16.4 Analysis of Results in the Table Form
Results / Displacements Opens the table of displacements
While in the Displacements table,
select the Filters option from the
context menu (RMC).
Opens the Filtering: Displacements dialog box.
Select the Case option located in the
list below the All button
Applies the filtering according to load cases.
Highlight 6: snow in the dialog box
with load cases, confirm the
selection by pressing the button with
two black arrows
Enters the case number into the edit field located above
the black arrows.
Highlight the 3:purlins case and add
it to the selection by clicking on the
button with a black arrow and a
green plus sign . Click the Close
button
Adds the case number into the edit field, closes
the Filtering: Displacements dialog box.
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Select the Table Columns option
from the context menu.
Opens the Nodal Value Selection dialog box.
Switch on the display of RY rotations
on the Displacements tab
Go to the General tab and click
Coordinates in the Element Data
Selection field, OK
Displays chosen values in the Displacements table, closes
the Nodal Value Selection dialog box.
16.5 Detailed Analysis of Bars
Results/Detailed Analysis
Selects the Detailed Analysis layout from the list of
available ROBOT Millennium layouts.
Indicate the right span in the View
window.
Activate the Open a new window
option at the bottom of the Detailed
Analysis dialog box,
Apply
Opens the Detailed Analysis viewer divided into two parts:
the top one contains results in the graphical form, while the
bottom one displays the results in the form of a table.
Click the maximum - S max option
on the Stresses tab. Activate the
display of horizontal descriptions in
the Parameters tab (click Labels in
the Diagram Description field),
Apply
Displays the selected quantities (normal stresses) with
horizontal descriptions.
Go to the Division Points tab. Click
the N points along bar length option
and type 10 in the field beside,
Apply
Displays results (S max stress values) in the table for 10
points evenly distributed over the bar length.
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Switch on the Characteristic points
option on the same tab,
Refresh, Apply
Enters into the dialog box the coordinates of the points for
which the maximum and minimum values of S max are
obtained (MIN S max x = ... (ft) and MAX S max x = ... (ft),
as well as the beginning and end points of the bar (origin
and end)
Once the Apply button is pressed, the results for the four
characteristic points will be introduced into the results
window
It is also possible to display the
results for the user-defined points.
To do so click the Relative option on
the Division points tab.
Enter x = 0.4 in the edit field, Add
Adds the user x = 0.4 row in the dialog box.
By analogy, enter the points with the
following coordinates: x = 0.5 and x
= 0.6.
Select case 3:purlins in the Case
Selection list, Refresh, Apply
Adds the user-defined rows into the dialog box (see below).
In the bottom part of the viewer there appear the user-
defined points with stress values displayed.
16.6 Dimension Lines
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Model / Start
Selects the initial layout of the ROBOT Millennium
program.
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
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Activate the following options:
On the Structure tab:
Structure,
Node numbers,
Support - symbols,
On the Sections tab:
Section shape
Apply, OK
Displays the required quantities, closes the Display dialog
box.
Tools / Dimension Lines Opens the Dimension Lines dialog box.
Selects the type of a dimension line, which will be defined
as perpendicular to a segment.
Go to the Beginning field, switch to
the graphic viewer and indicate the
bottom column nodes located on the
A and B structural axes determining
the origin and end of the dimension
line. Switch to the Distance field and
enter {-2}, Apply
Indicates beginning as well as end points and distance
between the construction and the first dimension line (see
below). Applies the first dimension line.
Enter the characteristic dimensions
of the structure as shown below,
close the Dimension Lines dialog
box
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16.7 Code Parameters for Steel Design
Geometry / Code Parameters /
Steel/Aluminum Member Type
Opens the Member Type dialog box
Opens the Member Definition - Parameters dialog box
(see below)
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Type Beam 1 in the Member Type
field, switch on the Coefficient option
in the Buckling (Y-axis) Member
Length l
y
field, then click the
icon
Opens the Buckling Diagrams dialog box.
Click the first icon from the left in the
first row, OK
Selects the coefficient (1.0) for the Y direction, closes the
Buckling Diagrams dialog box.
Perform the same operation for the
Z direction
Service Opens the Serviceability - Displacement Values dialog
box presented below.
Switch on the options referring to the
Member deflection options in the
Limit Displacements field,
OK
Determines the additional code-determined parameters
defining the values of limit displacements, closes the
Serviceability - Displacement Values dialog box.
Save, Close Saves the above settings, closes the dialog box.
In the Member Type dialog box, there will appear a new
type of element: "Beam1".
Switch to the graphic viewer, select
the right beam and press the Apply
and Close buttons
Applies the recently defined member type to the chosen
beam, closes the Member Type dialog box.
16.8 Steel Member Verification and Design
LMC on the box for selection of the
ROBOT Millennium program
layouts
Structure Design/Steel/Aluminum
Design
Selects the layout of the ROBOT Millennium program,
which is used for steel (aluminum) design.
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Switch on the Member Verification
option in the Calculations dialog
box and click the List relevant to a
given option
Opens the Member Selection dialog box.
Click the All and Close buttons Selects all the bars, closes the opened dialog box.
Perform the same operation for the
load case selection
Select the Ultimate option in the
Limit State field
Analysis will be carried out for ULS (internal forces).
Configuration Opens the Configuration dialog box (see the figure
below).
Define the following calculation
parameters:
Points Number set as 3,
Efficiency Ratio set as 1,
Maximum Slenderness set as 210.
Leave the default values of all the
parameters,
OK
Applies the chosen parameters, closes the Configuration
dialog box.
Click the Calculations button Starts calculations. The program will verify automatically
the selected sections and once the calculations are
finished, there appears the dialog box presenting the
verified members (see below).
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Click the Calc. Note button Opens the Calculation note dialog box.
Select the Simplified note option,
OK
Opens the editor with the detailed data displayed.
Press the Save button.. In the
opened Save As dialog box place
the cursor in the File name field and
enter the file name:
calculation_note_1.rtf,
Save, Close, Close
Saves the calculation note, closes the Save As dialog box,
closes the print preview and theMember Verification dialog
box.
16.9 Group Definition, Verification and Optimization
Go to the Groups tab in the
Definitions dialog box and click the
New button.
In the Name field enter Columns,
place the cursor in the Member list
field, switch to the graphic viewer
and select all the columns,
Save
Defines the first group (Columns) consisting of all columns
Note: in order to minimize the time consumption during
calculations the user should click the Sections button
which opens the Section Selection dialog box and select:
- the AISC database in the Databases field,
- one by one - the sections HP, M, S and W in the
Section Families field
Chosen sections are placed in the Selected Sections field;
thus, they will be recognized during the process of
verification.
Close the dialog box by clicking OK.
Click the New button and enter
Beam in the Name field.
In the Member List field enter the
beam number (i.e. 5),
Save
Defines the second group (Beam).
Note: if the family sections for beam are the same there
is no need to repeat the whole operation
presented above. Click the Sections button and
activate the AISC database. All sections
previously selected are present in the Selected
sections field.
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Click the New button and type Upper
chord in the Name field.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
select all the upper chord members,
Save
Defines the third group (Upper chord).
Note: in order to minimize the time consumption during
calculations the user should click the Sections button
which opens the Section Selection dialog box and select:
- the AISC database in the Databases field,
- section P in the Section Families field
- deselect the remaining section families HP, M, S and W
Close the dialog box by clicking OK.
Click the New button.
Type Lower chord in the Name field.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
select all the lower chord members,
Save
Defines the fourth group (Lower chord).
Note: if the family sections for the lower chord are the same
as for the upper chord proceed similarly as in the
case of Columns and Beam groups.
Click the New button.
Type Posts in the Name field.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
select all posts in the truss,
Save
Defines the fifth group (Posts).
Click the New button.
Type Bracings in the Name field.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
select all bracings,
Save
Defines the sixth group (Bracings).
Switch to the Calculations dialog
box and select the Code Group
Verification option. Define numbers
of groups that will be verified - in this
case 1to6 and all load cases,
Calculations
Carries out group verification.
Indicate the Code Group Design
option in the Calculations dialog
box and type group numbers (no.
1to6). Switch on the Optimization
option and then press the Options
button
Opens the Optimization Options dialog box.
From the available options select the
Weight option,
OK
If this option is switched on, it causes the section weight to
be considered in optimization, i.e. the program will look for
the lightest section in the group from among the sections
that meet the code-defined criteria. Closes the
Optimization Options dialog box.
Calculation Runs calculations. The program will carry out the design
calculations with section optimization. From a set of
sections, the program selects the most optimal one with
respect to weight. Clicking the Change All option results in
replacing the sections applied during the design process
with the optimized sections. The optimization should be
carried on until sections, which are to be changed, are the
same.
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16.10 Stress Analysis
Results/Stress Analysis - Bars
Selects the STRESS ANALYSIS - BARS layout from the
list of available ROBOT Millennium layouts.
In the Stress Analysis dialog box
enter the number of a beam to which
the stress analysis will apply (in the
exercise 4), next set the load case
as 6: snow and then press the Apply
button.
Presents stress values of the chosen section in the dialog
box, shows stress maps in two longitudinal and one
transversal sections in the three windows located in the left
part of the screen. In the Stress Analysis dialog box there
appear new tabs with extreme stresses presented for
selected cross sections.
Switch to the Stress Analysis viewer
and select the View / 3D View option
from the main menu.
There appears an additional structure bar view (see the
figure below) with the additional toolbar containing options
that allow the user to move, rotate or zoom the selected
structure bar.
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17. Definition of an RC Slab
The example presents definition of an RC slab. Calculation results are presented in the table and
map form. In the example American codes and databases are applied.
Data units: (ft) and (kip).
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT program (press the appropriate icon or select the
command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be
displayed on the screen and the icon in the second row (Plate Design) should be
selected.
17.1 Structure Definition
Tools / Preferences Opens the Preferences dialog box.
Select options as shown in the figure
below
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OK Closes the Preferences dialog box.
Tools / Job Preferences Opens the Job Preferences dialog box.
Go to the Codes portion of the
opened dialog box and select the
codes as shown in the figures below
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OK Closes the Job Preferences dialog box.
Definition of the Contour of the Lower Part of the Slab
Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box.
Define the settings as follows:
Definition Method: Contour,
In the Geometry field: enter the
following point coordinates:
(0.00,0.00), Add
(40.00,0.00), Add
(40.00,30,00), Add
(20.00,30.00), Add
(20.00,20.00), Add
(0.00,20.00), Add,
Apply, Close
Defines the contour, closes the dialog box.
Note: the points may also be introduced graphically by
placing the cursor in the Geometry edit field and
indicating the required points in the graphical
viewer. Clicking the first of the defined points for
the second time closes the contour.
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Definition of the Contour of the External, Arc-Shaped Part of the Slab
Opens the Arc dialog box presented below.
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Switch to the Definition Method field
and select the Begin-End-Middle
option
Selects the arc definition method.
In the Geometry field enter the
following point coordinates:
Point P1: (20.00,30.00)
Point P2: (40.00,30.00)
Point P3: (30.00,38.00)
Defines the consecutive arc points.
Note: the points from P1 to P3 may be introduced
graphically as well, by indicating the required points
in the graphical viewer.
In the Parameters field enter {10}
into the Sides field,
Switch off the Explode option,
Apply, Close
Defines the arc, closes the Arc dialog box.
Definition of the Slab Properties
Geometry / Panels Opens the Panel dialog box (see the picture below).
Enter the settings as defined below:
Contour Type: switch on the Panel
option, Creation With: switch on the
Internal Point option
Defines new panel options.
located to the right of the
Thickness field
Opens the New Thickness dialog box.
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In the Th = field enter the value 15;
in the Label field enter the name
TH15_CONCR;
in the Material field switch on the
CONCR option,
Add, Close
Defines the new thickness, closes the dialog box.
Move the cursor to the
Reinforcement field provided in the
Properties field and set the
reinforcement type as Direction X.
Defines the reinforcement type.
Set the cursor in the Internal Point
field. Move the mouse cursor to the
graphical viewer and click once on a
point located within the area of the
angular slab, next, click on a point
within the area of the second,
smaller slab,
Close
Assigns the recently defined panels to the selected
contours, closes the Panel dialog box.
Definition of Openings within the Contour
Geometry / Objects / Polyline -
contour
Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box.
Define the settings as follows:
Definition Method: Contour,
In the Geometry field enter the
following:
(4.00,4.00), Add
(10.00,4.00), Add
(10.00,8,00), Add
(4.00,8.00), Add
Apply, Close
Defines a rectangular opening, closes the dialog box.
Geometry / Objects / Circle Opens the Circle dialog box.
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Definition Method set as Center-
radius
Defines the circle definition method.
In the Geometry field enter:
Point P: (30.00,14.00),
Radius: (30.00,18.00)
Defines characteristic points applied during the definition
process.
In the Parameters field enter:
Sides: 10
Switch off the Explode option,
Apply, Close
Defines a circle, closes the dialog box.
Definition of Supports
Opens the Supports dialog box.
From the list of available supports
select the Pinned support type,
go to the Linear tab, place the cursor
in the Current Selection field.
Switch to the graphical viewer, point
at the slab edges (including the arc)
and click once on the edge.
Applies the pinned support to the structure.
Analysis / Calculation Model /
Generation
Starts generation of the calculation model.
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17.2 Definition of Slab Loads
Opens the Load Types dialog box.
Place the cursor on the Nature list
and select the dead load nature,New
Defines a new load case which is automatically defined
as the self-weight load and set on a first position in the
Loads table.
New Defines a new load case (dead) with the standard name
DL2.
Place the cursor on the Nature list
and select the live load nature, New
Defines a new load case (live) with the standard name LL1.
New Defines another live load case with the standard name LL2.
All the defined cases are registered in the List of Defined
Cases field.
Select the second load case (DL2) in
the List of Defined Cases field.
Selects the load case.
Loads / Load Definition Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Go to the Surface tab and click the
Uniform Planar Load icon
Open the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.
Enter the load value
pz = - 0.10 (kip/ft
2
) into the new
dialog box (see the picture below),
Add
Closes the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.
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Set the cursor in the Apply To field
(in the Load Definition dialog box).
Then indicate both panels (click
when they are highlighted) with the
mouse cursor (with the CTRL button
pressed). The panel numbers
become registered in the Apply To
field, Apply
Applies DL2 (dead load) to the entire slab surface.
Select the LL1 live load from the list
in the Load Types dialog box
Loads / Load Definition Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Click the Uniform Planar Load icon
located on the Surface tab
Open the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.
Enter the load value
pz = - 0.05 (kip/ft
2
) into the new
dialog box,
Add
Closes the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.
Switch to the Apply To field and
indicate the arc-shaped panel,
Apply
Applies LL1 (live load) to the arc-shape part of the slab.
Indicate the LL2 load case in the
Load Types dialog box
Loads / Load Definition Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Go to the Surface tab and click the
Linear Load 2p icon
Opens the Linear Load 2p dialog box shown in the picture
below.
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Introduce the following load
parameters:
Pz1 = Pz2 = - 0.70 (kip/ft),
Set the cursor at the Coordinates A
line and indicate two corners of the
rectangular opening (located on one
line), Add
Closes the Linear Load 2P dialog box.
Apply Applies LL2 (the linear live load on the edge of the
rectangular opening).
Reopen the Linear Load 2p dialog
box and repeat the operation for the
remaining edges of the opening
Loads / Load Definition Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Go to the Node tab and click the
Nodal Force icon
Opens the Nodal Force dialog box as shown below.
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Enter the following parameter:
Fz = - 0.65 (kip), Add
Defines the nodal force value, closes the Nodal Force
dialog box.
Place the cursor in the Apply To field
of the Load Definition dialog box,
go to the graphical viewer and select
with the window-shaped cursor the
circular opening in the slab
Selects nodes to which nodal forces will be applied.
Apply, Close Applies the live load concentrated in the nodes
of the circular opening, closes the Nodal Force dialog box.
Close Closes the Load Types dialog box.
17.3 Meshing Options
Opens the Selection dialog box (shown in the picture
below). It is also possible to change meshing parameters
separately for individual contours.
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Select the Panel option from the
drop-down list provided under the All
button and choose the Userûs
number option located on the Attrib.
tab.
In the selection field the defined panel numbers are
displayed.
Select panels nos. 1 2 and press the
button, Close
The selected panel numbers appear in the field below the
All button and the panel chosen becomes highlighted.
Closes the dialog box.
Analysis / Calculation Model /
Meshing Options
Press the Advanced options button
in the Meshing Options dialog box
Opens the Advanced Meshing Options dialog box.
Indicate the Delaunay option in the
Available Meshing Methods field and
Automatic option in the Mesh
Generation field. Type 15 in the
Division1 field, OK
Applies the defined meshing settings to the selected panel
(2), closes the dialog box.
Analysis / Calculation Model /
Generation
Generates the preview of the finite element mesh on the
screen as shown in the picture below.
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17.4 Definition of Beams Supporting the Slab
Opens the Bars dialog box.
Select the RC beam option in the
Bar Type field
Selects the bar type.
Select the button located to the
right of the Section field
Opens the New Section dialog box shown below.
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Select RC beam in the Section type
field
Changes the New Section dialog box shape.
Enter the following values in the
Basic Dimension field: b = 8 in.,
h = 16 in.,
In the Label field the program will
generate automatically the name for
a section defined as B R8x16, Add
Defines a concrete beam with section dimensions 8x16 and
B R8x16 name.
Close Closes the New Section dialog box, the recently defined
section is available in Section field of the Bars dialog box.
Set the cursor in the Node
Coordinates field and enter the
following coordinates in the
Beginning and End fields:
(20,20) - (40,20) Add,
(20,30) - (40,30) Add,
(20,0) - (20,20) Add
Defines two horizontal and one vertical beams
(see the picture below).
17.5 Definition of the Beam Supporting the Arc-Shaped Slab
First Method
Geometry / Bars Opens the Bars dialog box
Open the context menu (available
by clicking the right-hand mouse
button) and select: Snap Settings /
Snap Settings
Opens the Snap Settings dialog box presented
in the drawing below.
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Switch off the following options:
- Structural axes
- Grid
- Advanced
- Apply without confirmation
Apply, Close
Defines the snap setting options which allow the user
to define a beam on the slab arc by drawing it point by
point. Closes the dialog box.
Switch on the Drag option and
define beams supporting the arc-
shaped panel point by point, Close
Defines bars, closes the dialog box.
Second Method
Geometry / Objects / Arc Opens the Arc option.
In the Definition Method field select
the Begin - Middle - End option.
Enter 10 into the Sides field
provided in the Parameters portion
and switch off the Explode option.
Place the cursor in the Point P1 field
of the Geometry portion, go to the
graphical viewer and indicate the
beginning, intermediate and end
points of the defined arc.
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Apply, Close Confirms arc generation, closes the dialog box.
17.6 Definition of Concentrated Forces
Geometry / Nodes Opens the Nodes dialog box.
In the Coordinates field enter:
(24,18) Add
(36,18) Add, Close
Defines two additional nodes to which nodal forces will be
applied.
Opens the Load Types dialog box.
Set the live option in the Nature
field,
New
Defines a new load case of the Live (LL3) nature.
Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
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Select the Nodal Force load type in
the Node tab of the dialog box.
Define the force Fz = - 1,15kip,
Add
Defines the new nodal force, closes the Nodal Force
dialog box.
Set the cursor in the Apply To field
and enter the numbers of the two
nodes defined above, Apply, Close,
Close
Applies the recently defined loads to the selected nodes,
closes the Load Definition dialog box, closes the Load
Types dialog box.
17.7 Definition of Load Combinations
Loads / Combinations Opens the Combination Definition/Modification dialog
box (see below).
Switch on the ULS option in the
Combination Type field, OK
Opens the Combinations dialog box which allows defining
combination parameters.
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Transfers all the load cases to the right-hand panel.
Apply, Close Applies the defined load combinations, closes
the Combinations dialog box.
17.8 Structure Analysis
Starts the calculation process.
17.8.1 Results in the Map Form
Results / Maps Opens the Maps dialog box, which is used to display the
chosen maps of internal forces, stresses and displacements
in surface elements.
From the load case list select: 1:
DL1
Select the load case for which the results will be presented
in the graphic form.
In the Detailed tab select the
Displacement u,w option, switch to
the Scale tab and select the Basic
option located in the Color palette
field, Apply
Displays maps of the selected quantity.
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On the Detailed tab in the Maps
dialog box switch off the
Displacements u, w option, Apply,
Close
Ends map display
To make the drawing clearer select
the View / Display command from
the main menu
Opens the Display dialog box.
On the Finite elements tab switch off
the following options: Numbers and
panels description, Panel interior and
Finite elements, Apply, OK
Displays the selected elements, closes the dialog box.
Results / Panel Cuts Opens the Panel Cuts dialog box.
On the Detailed tab select the
Rotations -R yy option. Next, go to
the Definition tab and select the 2
points option, enter the coordinates
of the cut e.g.:
(0.00, 0.00),
(40.00, 20.00).
Set the layer selection as middle in
the Parameters tab and then set the
following options available on the
Diagrams tab:
filled in the Filling field
normal in the Diagram position field,
Apply, Close
The diagram of the chosen quantity on the selected panel
cut will be added to the list of available cuts and presented
on the screen (see the picture bellow).
Closes the dialog box.
View / Projection / 3d xyz Selects the isometric view.
17.8.2 Results in the Table Form
Results / Plate and Shell Results Opens the FE Results dialog box.
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Click the right mouse button and
select Table Columns option
Opens the Result for finite elements dialog box.
In the Detailed field activate ( ) the
following options:
Stresses - s in direction xx,
Shear Forces - Q in direction xx,
Displacement u,w in direction z.
Activates quantities to be applied from the Detailed tab.
In the Parameters field activate:
Results - in element centers option,
Layer for stresses - Lower option,
OK
The table with selected quantities will appear on the screen,
closes the dialog box.
From the load list select the load
case: Simple Cases, close the FE
Results table
Selects load cases, closes the table.
17.9 Reinforcement Definition
Geometry / Code Parameters / Plate
and Shell Reinforcement Type
Opens the Plate\Shell Reinforcement Type dialog box.
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Double-click on the Direction X icon Opens the ACI 318-02 Reinforcement Parameters dialog
box, which allows adding a new reinforcement type.
On the General tab activate the
Along Y-axis command, enter the
name Direction Y in the Name field.
Add, Close
Defines the name of the reinforcement whose main axis
will be parallel to the Y-axis of the global coordinate
system.
Enter the panel numbers 1 and 2
into the Panels field, Apply, Close
Assigns the recently defined reinforcement parameters to
the indicated panels, closes the Plate\Shell
Reinforcement Type dialog box.
17.9.1 Structure Analysis
Analysis / Calculations Starts the calculations.
17.9.2 Reinforcement Calculations
Analysis / Design of RC Structure
Elements / RC Plate and Shell
Design / Required Reinforcement
Opens the layout used for reinforcement calculations.
The screen will be divided into three parts: graphic viewer,
Plate and Shell Reinforcement and Reinforcements
dialog boxes.
In the Method field select the
equivalent mom. (Wood and Armer)
option.
Selects the method based on calculation of the equivalent
moment; this method is quicker that the analytical one.
Click the button located to the
right of the ULS field
Opens the ULS dialog box.
Select all the cases from the list and
press the button,
Close
Selection of this option causes the selected load cases to
appear on the list above the Previous button, closes
the dialog box.
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Opens the Selection dialog box.
In the drop-down list provided under
the All button select the Panel
command.
On the Attrib. tab select the Material
option, switch to the selection field
and highlight the CONCR option,
Filters all concrete panels. Removes the current selection
and enters numbers of the selected objects.
Close Closes the Selection dialog box.
Calculate Starts calculation.
Note: It may take a few minutes to complete
the calculations.
17.9.3 Analysis of Reinforcement Results
In the Reinforcement dialog box
switch on the option Y[+] located in
the Area A line of Required
reinforcement
If this option is selected, the indicated top reinforcement
area in the y direction (perpendicular to the main
reinforcement direction assumed) will be presented.
Activate the Maps option located in
the lower portion of the
Reinforcements dialog box
If this option is selected, the results obtained for
the surface FE element will be presented in the form of
maps.
Leave the With normalization option
switched on
The maps of the selected quantity will be presented
automatically in such a way so that the scale will be
adjusted to the maximum and minimum values of the
selected quantity
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Switch on the Open new window
with scale displayed option,
Apply
This results in display of a new window on the screen in
which maps of the values selected in the
Reinforcements dialog box are presented.
Note: No map is displayed when reinforcement does not
reach the level of the minimal reinforcement
View / Projection / Xy Selection of the work plane
17.9.4 Results in the Text Form
Results / Reinforcement / Plate and
Shell Reinforcement
Opens the Reinforcement Areas table
RMC while the table is active Opens the context menu.
Select the Table columns Opens the Reinforcement Areas dialog box.
On the Results tab activate:
in the Results field - in elements
centers option,
In the Minimum reinforcement field -
switch on the Y[+] option located in
the Spacing e line,
If these options are selected, then in the table
the reinforcement area will be set at the centers of gravity
of planar FE and the top reinforcement spacing in the
y direction will be displayed.
On the FE Data tab switch on the
Section option
Selecting this option results in adding - to the table - the
column in which the section (thickness type) of planar FE
will be selected.
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OK Closes the Reinforcement Areas, displays reinforcement
results in the table.
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18. 2D Structure (Mixed RC and Steel Structure)
The example presents a definition of a 2D frame which will be changed to the shell type structure.
Stress analysis as well as RC beam and column analysis were performed.
Data units: (ft) and (kip).
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT program. The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1
of the manual) will be displayed on the screen and the icon should be selected.
18.1 Structure Geometry
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Opens the Structural Axis dialog box.
On the X tab place the cursor in the
Position field:
{-4}, Insert
{0}, Insert
{20}, Insert
{40}, Insert
{44}, Insert,
Set Numbering as A, B, Cÿ
Introduces axis position into Set of Created Axes.
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Switch to the Z tab and introduce in
the Position field:
{0}, Insert
{12}, Insert
{21}, Insert
{25}, Insert
{28}, Insert
Set Numbering as 1, 2, 3ÿ
Apply, Close
Defines structural axis, closes the Structural Axis dialog
box.
18.1.1 Section Definition
Opens the Sections dialog box.
Check presence of the following
sections:
- C R12x12,
- B R12x24,
- W 8X28,
- W 10X45
If the above sections are not present
in the list of available sections press
the New section definition icon
Opens the New Section dialog box.
On the Standard tab set the section
type as RC column
Changes the appearance of the New Section dialog box.
Set 12 in the b and h field, switch to
the Label field and introduce column
name: C R12x12, Add
Defines the C R12x12 section, which appears in the List of
Active sections.
Go to the Section type field and
select the RC beam option
Changes the appearance of the New Section dialog box.
Introduce 12 in the b field and 24 in
the h field, switch to the Label field
and enter column name: B R12x24,
Add
Defines the B R12x24 section, which appears in the List of
Active sections.
Go to the Section type field and
select the Steel option
Changes the appearance of the New Section dialog box.
Set AISC in the Database field, W in
the Family field and W 8X28 in the
Section field,
Add
Defines the W 8x28 section, which appears in the List of
Active sections.
As before set AISC in the Database
field, W in the Family field and W
10X45 in the Section field,
Add, Close, Close
Defines the W 10x45 section, which appears in the List of
Active sections, closes the New Section and Sections
dialog boxes.
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18.1.2 Bar Definition
Structure Model/Bars
Selects the BARS layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts.
Go to the Bars dialog box and set:
RC column (Bar Type field), C
R12x12 (Section field). Place the
cursor in the Node Coordinates /
Beginning field switch to the graphic
viewer and select graphically the
beginning and end of the column by
means of the coordinates of the
intersection point of defined axes:
B1-B2, C1-C2, D1-D2
Defines reinforced columns.
Set following options for bars:
RC beam (Bar Type field), B R12x24
(Section field). Go to the Node
Coordinates / Beginning field and as
before indicate the beginning and
end of the beams: A2-B2, B2-C2,
C2-D2, D2-E2
Defines reinforced beams.
Note: if one wants to transfer a RC beam to the design
module, the beam should be defined as a
sequence of separate elements. If it is defined as
a super-element, it will not be transferred correctly
to the design module.
Set following options:
Column (Bar Type field), W 8x28
(Section field). Go to the Node
Coordinates / Beginning field and as
before indicate the beginning and
end of the beams: A2-A3, C2-C5,
E2-E3
Defines steel column.
Set following options: Beam (Bar
Type field), W 10x45 (Section field).
Go to the Node Coordinates /
Beginning field and as before
indicate the beginning and end of
the beams: A3-C5, E3-C4
Defines steel beams.
18.1.3 Support Definition
Structure Model/Supports
Selects the SUPPORTS layout from the list of available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
Switch to the Supports dialog box.
Highlight Fixed in the list of supports
Set the cursor in the Current
Selection field.
Select support type.
Go to the graphical viewer View,
select the following nodes: 1, 3, and
5 (bottom nodes of columns located
on the axis 1), Apply
Applies supports to the three selected nodes.
Note: One may also type the relevant supports numbers
into the Current Selection field.
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18.1.4 Load Definition
Structure Model/Loads
Selects the LOADS layout from the list of available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
Go to the Load Types dialog box,
set Dead in the Nature field,
New
Defines the first load case DL1, which appears in the List of
Defined Cases field.
Go to the Loads table ROBOT Millennium generates automatically the loads
originating from the self-weight of the structure and this is
the first load case defined as DL1 (as self-weight in the
table).
Set Dead in the Nature field,
New
Defines the second load case nature (DL2).
Set the cursor in the second row of
the Loads table in the Case column
and select DL2 in the unfolded list
box
Selects load case (DL2).
Choose the uniform load option in
the Load Type column.
Set the cursor in the List column and
then, in the View column indicate
bars No. 4to7 (with the CTRL button
pressed), and introduce the load
value: Pz = - 0.70 (kip/ft)
Applies uniform load to selected bars.
Note: if the bar numbers are not displayed on the structure
view one should chose the View / Display
command from the main menu and check out the
Bar Numbers option in the Structure tab, and then,
press the OK button. This will result in displaying
bar numbers on the structure view.
Set Live in the Nature field,
New
Defines the third load case nature (LL1).
Set the cursor in the next record of
the Loads table (Cases column),
select LL1 in the unfolded list box
Selects load case (LL1).
Choose the uniform load option in
the Load Type column, set the
cursor in the List column and then, in
the View column, indicate bars No. 4
and 5, and introduce the load value
Pz = -0.50 (kip/ft)
Applies load to selected bars.
Set Live in the Nature field,
New
Defines the forth load case nature (LL1).
Set the cursor in the next record of
the Loads table (Cases column),
select LL2 in the unfolded list box
Selects load case (LL2).
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Choose the uniform load option in
the Load Type column, set the
cursor in the List column and then, in
the View column, indicate bars No. 6
and 7 enter the load value
Pz = - 0.70 (kip/ft)
Applies load to selected bars.
Structure Model/Start
Selects the START layout from the list of available
ROBOT Millennium layouts
18.1.5 Definition of Snow/Wind Loads
American code: ANSI/ASCE 7-98
Loads / Special loads / Wind and
Snow 2D/3D
Opens the Snow and Wind 2D/3D dialog box
Press the Auto button Automatic generation of the structure envelope for
generation of snow/wind loads (in the Envelope field the
program enters the following node numbers: 1, 2, 7, 9, 10,
12, 11, 8, 6, 5)
Define the following parameters:
Total depth = (40)
Bay spacing = (20)
active options:
Wind
Snow
inactive options:
Without parapets
With base not on ground
Isolated roofs
Defines basic parameters of snow/wind loads
Press the Parameters button Opens the additional dialog box (Snow / Wind Loads),
where detailed parameters may be defined
Define parameters of the snow/wind
load:
the General parameters tab:
Exposure category: B
Building category: II
Defines parameters of snow/wind loads
the Wind tab:
Basic wind speed V: 100 (mph)
Gust effect factor G change to
manual and set the value: 0.83
Defines parameters of snow/wind loads
the Snow tab:
Ground snow load Pg: 10 (lb/ft2)
Change exposure category to:
Partially exposed
Defines parameters for snow/wind loads
Generate Pressing the button starts generation of snow and wind
loads with the accepted parameters.
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In the Structure frame selection
viewer containing projection of
structure frames - select the middle
frame by LMC in the view.
The frame will be highlighted in red.
Accept the selection by pressing the
OK button.
The Structure frame selection viewer allows selection of
frames for which wind and snow loads will be generated.
Considering that individual transverse frames are
positioned in different zones and the load applied to them
may vary, the general number of load cases may be great,
therefore, the user is able to choose frames.
Close editor showing the calculation
note
The calculation note appears on the screen. It presents the
parameters of snow/wind load cases
Close the Snow and Wind 2D/3D
dialog box
18.1.6 RC Beam Design
Indicate the beam - bars 4 to 7 with
the CTRL button pressed
Selects the beams, which will be design.
Analysis / Design of RC Structure
Elements / RC Beam Design
Opens the Load Selection dialog box.
Select the Simple cases option,
OK
Displays the BEAM - DEFINITION layout from the list of
available layouts.
Being in the Beam-Elevation viewer
choose Analysis / Story Parameters
Opens the Story Parameters dialog box see the picture
below.
Set the following parameters:
Reference level: 12 (ft),
Sustained load action for:
5 (months),
OK
Defines story parameters, closes the dialog box.
Analysis / Calculation Options Opens the Calculation Options dialog box.
Set the following parameters on
the General tab:
Deflection < {2},
Cover to: Transversal Reinforcem.,
Advanced
Defines general calculation options, opens the Advanced
Options dialog box.
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Set the following parameters:
Number of calculation points in the
span: {11},
OK
Leave the default settings of the
remaining parameters.
Defines the number of calculation, closes the Advanced
Options dialog box.
Save As Opens the Enter the name dialog box.
Type a name of the settings in the
appearing dialog box,
e.g. Standard_1,
OK, OK
Defines the name for the user-defined calculation option
set, closes the Enter the name and Calculations options
dialog boxes.
Analysis / Reinforcement Pattern Opens the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box.
Switch to the General tab and select:
Reinforcement Segment: Whole
Beam
Selects the reinforcement generation method.
Go to the Bottom Reinf. tab and
choose:
Layers/Number/Nmax set {4},
Anchorage Pts
Defines maximal number of reinforcement layers, opens
the Span Reinforcement Anchorages dialog box.
Set the parameter Crossed in the all
support type,
OK
Defines the way in which span reinforcement reaching
supports. Closes the dialog box.
Go to the Top Reinf. tab and choose:
Layers/Number/Nmax set {4}
Defines maximal number of reinforcement layers.
Switch to the Transversal Reinf. tab
and in the Section field highlight the
icons as shown below
On the Struct. Reinf. - leave
the default parameters
Defines the structural reinforcement shape.
Go to the Shapes tab and in the
Hooks field set:
l >= {0.05},
Save As
Defines hooks length. Opens the Enter the name dialog
box.
Enter the name Standard_2, OK Saves parameters under a proper name, closes the dialog
box.
OK Closes the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box.
Analysis / Calculations Opens the Calculation Option Set.
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Set the formerly saved settings
Standard_2 and Standard_1 in the
Set of Options field.
Set the Reinforcement Layout option
Leave the default values for
the remaining parameters,
Calculations
Starts the calculations.
Structure Model/RC Beams/Beam-
results
Selects the BEAM-RESULTS layout from the list of
available ROBOT Millennium layouts. Analyze the results
Results / Calculation Note Opens the Calculation Note dialog box.
Leave all parameters default, OK Displays on the screen calculation note.
Results / Drawings Open the Plotting viewer with drawings displayed on.
To change beam drawings one
should use the buttons
located in the top right corner of the
screen.
18.1.7 RC Column Design
Structure Model/Start
Selects the START layout from the list of available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
Select the central RC column and
choose the Analysis / Design of RC
Structure Elements / RC Column
Design command
Open the Load Selection dialog box.
Select Simple cases option and
switch on the Automatically run
calculations option,
OK
Opens the RC column design module.
Structure Model / RC Columns /
Column - definition
Selects the COLUMN - DEFINITION layout.
Analysis / Story Parameters Opens the Story Parameters dialog box.
Define following parameters:
Reference level: {12},
Sustained load action for: {5},
OK
Defines story parameters.
Analysis / Calculation Options.
On the General tab select options:
Slenderness considered
Concrete tab - leave the default
parameters
Opens the Calculation Options dialog box.
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Switch to the Longitudinal Reinf. tab
and from bar list select bars:
# = 3ü10
Selects preferred reinforcement bars.
Transversal Reinf. - leave it
unchanged,
Save As
Opens the Enter the name dialog box.
Type a name of the settings in the
appearing dialog box, e.g.
Standard_3,
OK, OK
Defines settings name, closes the dialog box.
Analysis / Reinforcement Pattern Open the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box.
Switch to the Longitudinal Bars. tab
and set preferred bars diameters as:
# 4
Chooses preferred bar diameter.
Note: to reduce the time of calculations, one should select
a preferred diameter, e.g. #4)
Transversal Bars tab - leave the
default parameters
Go to the Dowel Bars tab and
activate the Main Bars option in the
Connection to the upper column field
Defines connection type.
Go to the Shapes tab and select
hook length {0.05}, leave the default
values of the remaining parameters,
Save As
Chooses hooks length. Opens the Enter the name dialog
box.
Type a name of the settings in the
appearing dialog box, e.g.
Standard_4,
OK, OK
Defines settings name, closes the dialog box.
In the Buckling Model dialog box
click the icon in the Direction Y
field.
If the Non-sway option is active, there will appear the Non-
Sway Structure dialog box.
Select the icon with the 0.80
coefficient (first one in the second
row),
OK
Defines buckling length coefficient, closes the dialog box.
Click the icon in the Direction Z
field
Opens the Non-Sway Structure dialog box.
Select the icon with the 0.80
coefficient (first one in the second
row),
OK, Apply
Defines buckling length coefficient, closes the dialog box.
Analysis / Calculations Opens the Calculation Option Set dialog box.
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Set the previously defined settings
(i.e. Standard_4 and Standard_3) in
the Set of Options field. Leave the
default values for the remaining
parameters, Calculations
Starts calculations.
Results / Governing Case Opens the Intersections dialog box, which presents a list
of load combinations recognized during the process of
designing the column.
Analyze the parameters of section
efficiency ratio
Structure Model / RC Columns /
Column - results
Opens the COLUMN - RESULTS layout (see the picture
below). The window presents curves of N-M interaction for
the given load combination.
Results / Calculation Note Opens the Calculation Note dialog box.
OK Generates a document containing all the data concerning
column calculations, closes the Calculation Note dialog
box.
Analyze the generated document
Results / Drawings Open the Plotting viewer with drawings displayed on.
Use the buttons to see the
other drawings of the column
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18.1.8 Change of the Structure Geometry and Type
Structure Model/Start
Selects the START layout from the list of available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
Geometry / Structure Type Opens the window presented on the drawing below.
Select the Shell Design (the third
one from the left in the second row)
Changes structure type to shell.
Opens the Structural Axis dialog box.
On the Y tab place the cursor in the
Numbering selection list and select
the Define option, set the axis name
for Level 1.
Introduce the following values to the
Position field:
{0}, Insert
{20}, Insert
{40}, Insert, Apply, Close
Introduces axis position into Set of Created Axes, closes
the Structural Axis dialog box.
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Ctrl + A Selects all bars which will be highlighted into the red color.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box (see below).
In the dX, dY, dZ edit field type the
translation vector: (0, 20, 0)
Define the translation vector.
Note: One may define translation vector graphically by
clicking on the beginning and end of the translation
vector.
Enter the value 2 in the Number of
repetitions field. Leave the default
values for the remaining parameters,
Execute, Close
Copies selected elements.
View / Projection / 3d xyz Displays a 3d view of the structure (see the picture below).
Structure Model/Bars
Selects the BARS layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts.
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If the W 8x15 section is not present
in the available section list, one
should press the button located
to the right side of the Section field
Opens the New Section dialog box.
On the Standard tab set the section
type as Steel
Changes the appearance of the New Section dialog box.
Set AISC in the Database field, W in
the Family field and W 8x15 in the
Section field, Add, Close
Defines the W 8x15 section, which appears in the List of
Active sections.
To define bar element sets:
Beam in the Bar Type field,
W 8x15 in the Section field. Then
move the cursor to the graphic
viewer, click with the left mouse key
on the point depicting the beginning
and end point of the bar element.
These points may be define as the
coordinates of the intersection points
of following structure axis:
(E, Level 1, 3) and (E, Level 2, 3),
(E, Level 2, 3) and (E, Level 3, 3),
(C, Level 1, 5) and (C, Level 2, 5),
(C, Level 2, 5) and (C, Level 3, 5),
(A, Level 1, 3) and (A, Level 2, 3),
(A, Level 2, 3) and (A, Level 3, 3)
Defines beams connecting frame corners.
18.1.9 Slab Definition
View / Work in 3D / Global Work
Plane
Opens the Work Plane dialog box (see the picture below).
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Move the cursor to the graphic
viewer and select the left end point
of the concrete beam
The coordinates in the Work Plane dialog box will change
automatically to the selected one e.g. (-4.00,0.00,12.00).
In the Fixed field switch on the Z
option, Apply
Defines new work plane, closes the dialog box.
View / Projection / Xy Once the option is selected the structure is set on the XY
plane at the recently defined Z coordinate (e.g. Z = 12);
only structure components from this plane are displayed.
Geometry / Objects / Polyline-
contour
Opens the Polyline-Contour dialog box.
In the Definition Method edit field
select the Contour option. Place the
cursor in the Geometry field indicate
the required points of the contour in
the graphic viewer (the contour may
be also defined by typing
appropriate coordinates in the
Geometry field).
A, Level 1,
E, Level 1,
E, Level 3,
A, Level 3,
A, Level 1
Defines the contour, closes the dialog box.
Note: Closing the contour is effectuated by clicking the first
of the defined points for the second time.
Geometry / Panels Opens the Panel dialog box.
Define settings as defined below:
Contour Type: Panel option,
Creation With: Internal Point option,
Reinforcement type: Direction X
Thickness: TH12_CON.
Defines panel properties.
Place the cursor in the Internal Point
field. Switch to the graphical viewer
and indicate once a point within the
boundaries of the rectangular slab,
Close
Applies chosen panel properties to the selected contour in
the construction, closes the dialog box shown on the picture
below.
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18.1.10 Offset Definition
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
Switch on following options:
Finite Elements tab: Thickness
option,
Sections tab: Section - shape option
Apply, OK
On the structure drawing, which appears on the screen one
can see that axis of the RC beams and RC slab are on the
same level. ROBOT Millennium allows one for defining of
offsets within the structure.
Geometry / Additional Attributes /
Offsets
Opens the Offsets dialog box.
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Opens the dialog box for defining new offset will be open
(see the picture below).
In the Label field enter the name
Offset_1 for new offset. Then in the
UZ field introduce the offset value
(in the exercise the offset value is
equal -18 in as it is half of RC slab
height plus half of RC beams height)
at the beginning and at the end of
the bar in the Z-axis direction. In the
Coordinate System field activate the
Global option,
Add, Close
Applies recently defined offset in the active list of offsets,
closes the dialog box.
Place the cursor in the Current
Selection field and type the numbers
of bars (e.g. all concrete beams), to
which offsets will be attributed
Finish the operation by pressing
Apply, Close
Applies offset to the selected elements, closes the dialog
box. Result of this operation presents picture below.
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18.1.11 Front Wall Definition
View / Work in 3D / Global Work
Plane
Opens the Work Plane dialog box (see the picture below).
Move the cursor to the graphic
viewer and select the left end point
of the concrete beam
The coordinates in the Work Plane dialog box will change
automatically to the selected one e.g. (40.00,0.00,0.00).
In the Fixed field switch on the X
option, Apply
Defines new work plane, closes the dialog box.
View / Projection / Yz Once this option is selected the structure is set on the YZ
plane at the recently defined X - coordinate value (e.g.
Z = 40) and only structure components from this plane will
be displayed.
Geometry / Objects / Polyline-
contour
Opens the Polyline-Contour dialog box
In the Definition Method edit field
select the Contour option. Place the
cursor in the Geometry field and
introduce coordinates of the points
defining the appropriate contour:
1 (40.0, 0.0, 0.0)
2 (40.0, 6.0, 0.0)
3 (40.0, 6.0, 8.0)
4 (40.0, 12.0, 8.0)
5 (40.0, 12.0, 0.0)
6 (40.0, 28.0, 0.0)
7 (40.0, 28.0, 8.0)
8 (40.0, 34.0, 8.0)
9 (40.0, 34.0, 0.0)
10 (40.0, 40.0, 0.0)
11 (40.0, 40.0, 12.0)
12 (40.0, 0.0, 12.0),
Apply, Close
Defines the contour see the picture below, closes
the Polyline - Contour dialog box.
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Geometry / Panels Opens the Panel dialog box.
Click the button located to the
right of the Thickness field
Opens the New Thickness dialog box.
In the Th field type 25, which is
a new value for panel thickness.
Then in the Label field enter new
name TH25_CONCR, Add, Close
Confirm new thickness settings, closes the New Thickness
dialog box.
Set the folowing parameters:
Reinforcement type: Dir_Z
Thickness: TH25_CONCR in the
Panel dialog box and then, set the
cursor in the Internal Point field.
Move the cursor to the graphical
viewer and indicate once the point
within the boundaries of the recently
defined contour.
Applies chosen panel properties to the selected contour in
the structure.
If the Dir_Z reinforcement type is not available in the
reinforcement type list, press the button located to the
right of the Reinforcement list
On the General tab define settings
as presented on the picture below,
Add, Close
Defines new reinforcement parameters, closes the dialog
box shown on the picture below.
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18.1.12 Definition of Supports on Wall Edges
Geometry / Supports Opens the Supports dialog box.
From the list of active supports
check out the fixed support type
(recently selected support type will
be highlighted). Then in the Current
Selection field activate the Linear
option. Set the cursor in the graphic
viewer and click at the appropriate
edge when it is highlighted
Applies supports on the wall.
18.1.13 Definition of Additional Loads to Be Applied to the Slab
Loads / Load Types Opens the Load Types dialog box.
Select the live nature in the Nature
field, New
It results in appearance a new load case (LL3) in the list of
defined cases.
Select the recently define load case
from the available load list. Press
the icon
Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
On the Surface tab click the Uniform
Planar Load icon and set the
parameter as presented on the
picture below
Opens the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.
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Confirm the settings pressing the
Add button
Closes the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.
In the Apply To field enter
the number defining the slab to
which the load will be applied,
Apply, Close
Applies planar load to structure elements, closes the Load
Definition dialog box.
18.1.14 Definition of Combinations
Loads / Combinations Opens the Combination Definition / Modification dialog
box.
Leave all parameters default and
press the OK button
Opens the Combinations dialog box.
Select the DL1 load case from the
Case List, press the button
Repeat the above operations for live
load cases and one wind case.
Defines load cases for the combination.
Apply, Close Closes the dialog box.
18.1.15 Definition of Meshing Options
Tools / Job Preferences / Meshing
Options / Modification
Opens the Meshing Options dialog box.
In the Mesh Generation field - with
the Delaunay method switched on in
the Available Meshing Methods field
- activate Automatic option and enter
10 in the Division 1 field. Other
parameters leave as default, OK
Defines meshing options, closes the dialog box.
OK Closes the Job Preferences dialog box.
Analysis / Calculation Model /
Generation
If this option is selected, ROBOT Millennium generates
the calculation model of a structure (finite elements
Note: meshing parameters have been change in the same
way in both panels.
To change meshing parameters for
one panel (e.g. vertical) chose
vertical panel and then select from
the menu: Analysis / Calculation
Model / Meshing Options
Opens the Meshing Options dialog box.
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In the Available Meshing Methods
select the Delaunay method, switch
to the Mesh Generation field and
select the Automatic option. In the
Division 1 field enter 15, OK
Defines meshing parameters for vertical panel, closes
the Meshing Options dialog box.
Analysis / Calculation Model / Local
Mesh Generation
Generates the calculation model.
18.2 Structure Analysis
Starts the calculations.
18.3 Analysis of Results
Results / Maps Opens the Maps dialog box.
Activate the Open new window with
scale displayed option located in the
lower portion of the dialog box.
Select from the list of loads LL3 load
case and on the Detailed tab chose
the Displacement - u, w in the
direction z option, Apply
Displays the viewer presented on the picture below.
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Results / Diagrams for bars Opens the Diagrams dialog box.
In the NTM tab turn on the FZ Force
option,
Apply
The diagram of selected force appears in the graphic
viewer if not, press the Normalize button. Pressing this
button results in presenting diagrams of a selected quantity
in such a way that the scale will be adjusted to the
maximum and minimum value of the indicated quantity.
Switch off the FZ Force option and
go to the Deformation tab. Activate
the Deformation command then set
in motion the Open a new window
option located in the lower part of
the dialog box
If this options are selected the structure deformed under
loads will be displayed in a new window on the screen as
shown below.
Results / Plate and Shell Results Opens the FE Results table.
Select from the load cases list DL1
load case and then open the context
menu by clicking the right mouse
button. Select the Table columns
option
Opens the Results for Finite Elements dialog box.
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In the Detailed tab switch on options:
Membrane Forces - N in the
direction xx, Shear Forces - Q in the
direction yy, Displacements u,w in
direction z
On the Parameters tab select
following options:
panel/node in the Results field
upper in the Layer Selection field,
OK
Selecting these options results in adding to the table,
another columns representing membrane forces, shear
forces and displacements at the structure nodes for the
upper FE layer. Closes the Results for Finite Elements
dialog box.
18.4 Stress Analysis for All Structure Bars
Results / Stress Analysis / Stress
Analysis - Structure
The screen displays a window presenting the structure
view, result table in the lower part and the dialog box
Stress Analysis - Structure governing stress analysis.
Select the 1: DL1 load case from the
set of available load cases
Selects load case for stress analysis.
In the Diagrams tab chose the Mises
Max option, switch to the
Parameters tab and select the Filled
option located in the Filling field,
Apply
ROBOT Millennium performs calculations and presents
the stress values on the structure bars, whereas the tabular
result window (table) displays the values of the appropriate
stresses (see the picture below).
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Go to the Maps - Deformation tab in
the Stress Analysis - Structure
dialog box and switch on the
Deformation option
If this option is switched on, then after generating a 3D
view presenting stress maps for structure bars, stress maps
will be presented on a deformed structure.
Being in the Structure Analysis -
structure results table select from
the menu - which changes its shape
- View / Dynamic View 3D command
Selecting this command allows presenting a structure
together with section shapes and accurate detailed stress
maps on these sections (the example of the structure with
the presented stresses is shown in the figure below).
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19. 3D Steel Structure (Modal and Time History Analyses)
The example presents the definition of a 3D steel structure (simple workshop) as presented in the
figure below. Definitions and combinations of loads as well as modal and time history analyses are
included in the example.
Data units: (ft) and (kip). Combinations will be generated according to LRFD.
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT program (press the appropriate icon or select the
command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be
displayed on the screen and the icon in the first row (Frame 3D Design) should be
selected.
19.1 Structure Geometry
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Geometry / Axis Definition Opens the Structural Axis dialog box.
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On the X tab set numbering as
A, B, C, place the cursor in the
Position field and enter the following
numbers:
{-22} Insert,
{-18} Insert,
{0} Insert,
{18} Insert,
{22} Insert
Defines X coordinates of the vertical axes (in the YZ
plane).
On the Y tab set numbering as
A, B, C, place the cursor in the
Position field and enter the following
numbers:
{0} Insert,
{20} Insert,
{40} Insert,
{60} Insert,
{80} Insert
Defines Y coordinates of the horizontal axes (in the XZ
plane).
On the Z tab set numbering as
1, 2, 3, place the cursor in the
Position field and enter the following
numbers:
{0} Insert,
{12} Insert,
{18} Insert,
{22} Insert,
Apply, Close
Defines Z coordinates of the horizontal axes (in the XY
plane). Generates the structural axes, closes the
Structural Axis dialog box.
View / Projection / ZX Displays ZX plane of the structure.
Structure Model/Bars
Selects the BARS layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts.
Select the following options in the
Bars dialog box:
Bar Type: Column
Section: W 8x28
Selects bar properties.
Note: If the Section list box does not contain the W 8X28
section, the user should click the button to open
the New Section dialog box. In the Standard tab, the
user should select:
û Database: AISC
û Family: W
û Section: W 8X28, Add, Close
Go to the graphical viewer (View)
and define the following bars using
the structural axes
- A1 - A3
- E1 - E3
Defines the columns.
Switch to the Bars dialog box and
select:
Bar Type: Beam
Section: W 10x45
Selects bar properties.
Note: if the Section list box does not contain the W 10X45
section, the user should repeat the operation as in
the case of the W 8x28 section.
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Go to the graphical viewer and
define spandrel beams
- A3 - C4
- E3 - C4
Defines the spandrel beams.
Edit / Divide Opens the he Division dialog box.
In the Division field indicate the - into
n parts option, and type 3 in the
Number of Segments field.
Activate the Generate nodes without
bar/edge division option.
Go to the graphical viewer and
perform the operation of division by
clicking on the formerly created
spandrel beams,
Close
Divides the spandrel beam into 3 parts. Closes the
Division dialog box.
Switch to the Bars dialog box and
select:
Bar Type: Simple bar
Section: W 10x45
Selects bar properties.
Switch to the graphical viewer and
define bars using the structural axes
- A2 - B2
- E2 - D2
Defines cantilevers.
Geometry / Additional Attributes /
Brackets
Opens the Brackets dialog box.
Opens the New Bracket dialog box.
Type Bracket_1 in the Name field
and define the following settings:
Bracket Type - Plates,
Parameters:
Length = 0.20 x Bar Length.
Leave the default values of the
remaining parameters,
Add, Close
Defines a new bracket, closes the New Bracket dialog box.
Indicate the new bracket in the
Brackets dialog box, type the
spandrel beam numbers in the Bars
edit field or, after clicking in the field,
indicate the elements in the
graphical viewer (with the CTRL
button pressed),
Apply, Close
Assigns the new bracket to the chosen members, closes
the Bracket dialog box.
Structure Model/Supports
Selects the SUPORTS layout from the list of available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
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Highlight the Pinned option in
the Supports dialog box. Click the
mouse cursor in the Current
Selection field (the cursor will start to
blink). Then, type there the numbers
of the bottom column nodes (node
no. 1 and 3) or select them in the
graphical viewer
Defines a support.
Structure Model/Start
Selects the initial layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts.
Edit / Select All (CTRL+A) Selects the entire structure.
View / Work in 3D / 3Dxyz Displays the 3D view.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
In the Translation Vector field type:
0 20 0 (or 0, 20, 0);
In the Number of Repetitions field
type {4},
Execute, Close
Translates structure elements, closes the dialog box.
View / Work in 3D / Global Work
Plane
Opens the Work Plane dialog box.
Click the right corner of the first
frame (or type the coordinates:
22, 0, 18 in the edit field) which will
result in selection of the work plane,
Apply, Close
Defines the work plane for structure definition/modification.
Select the View icon from the
top toolbar, which opens a next
toolbar. Click the Projection YZ
icon
Displays YZ plane of the structure.
Opens the Bars dialog box
Set the following parameters:
Bar Type: Beam,
Section: W 8x15.
Connect the frame corners defining
the following bars:
- A3 - B3
- B3 - C3
- C3 - D3
- D3 - E3
Defines elements connecting the right frame corners.
View / Work in 3D / Global Work
Plane
Opens the Work Plane dialog box.
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Click the left corner of the first frame
(or type the coordinates û22, 0, 18 in
the edit field) which results in
selecting the work plane, Apply
Defines the work plane.
By analogy, draw bars connecting
left frame corners
Go to 3D view by pressing the 3D
Projection XYZ icon in the View
toolbar
Displays 3D view of the structure.
Go to the Work Plane dialog box
and select the work plane
corresponding to the frame top by
clicking the top of the first frame or
entering its coordinates (0, 0, 22),
Apply
Defines the work plane.
Click the button in the top part of
the Work Plane dialog box
Closes the Work Plane dialog box.
View / Projection / YZ Displays YZ plane of the structure.
Note: as a result of the work plane definition, the structure
view disappears.
Switch to the Bars dialog box and
set the following parameters:
Bar Type: Beam,
Section: W 8x15.
Connect the frame corners defining
the following bars:
- A4 - B4
- B4 - C4
- C4 - D4
- D4 - E4
Defines elements connecting tops of frame corners.
Structure Model/Bars
Selects the BARS layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts.
View / Work in 3D / Local System
Definition by 3 Points
Opens the Local System Definition dialog box.
In the Point Definition field define
the following point coordinates:
P1: (22, 0, 18),
P2: (22, 20, 18),
P3: (0, 0, 22),
Apply
Defines a new coordinate system.
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Switch to the Bars dialog box and
set the following parameters:
Bar Type: Beam,
Section: W 6x9.
Draw purlins connecting successive
spandrel beams, Exit
Defines purlins. Closes the additional view.
Tip: when drawing the purlins, the user may take advantage
of the formerly defined division of spandrel beams, i.e. from
the additional nodes on spandrel beams. If the nodes are
not visible, the user should switch on the Node numbers
option on the Structure tab in the Display dialog box (it may
be activated by the View / Display command) and close the
dialog box.
In the Point Definition field define the
following point coordinates:
P1: (-22, 0, 18),
P2: (-22, 20, 18),
P3: (0, 0, 22),
Apply, Close
Defines a new coordinate system, closes the dialog box.
Switch to the Bars dialog box
and set the following parameters:
Bar Type: Beam,
Section: W 6x9.
Draw purlins connecting successive
spandrel beams, Exit
Defines purlins. Closes the additional view.
Edit / Correct Opens the Structure Correction dialog box (see the
picture below).
In the opened dialog box switch on
the following options:
Entire Structure,
Bar Intersections,
Geometrical Center,
Apply, Close
Eliminates possible errors, closes the dialog box.
View / Work in 3D / Global Work
Plane
Opens the Work Plane dialog box.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
select a point belonging to the right
wall of the structure, e.g. the corner
(22, 0, 18),
Apply
Defines the work plane for bracing definition.
Click the button in the top part of
the Work Plane dialog box
Closes the Work Plane dialog box.
View / Projection / Yz Displays the structure view in the YZ plane.
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Switch to the Bars dialog box and
set the following parameters:
Bar Type: Simple Bar,
Section: C 4x5.4.
Define the following bars:
- A1 - B3
- B1 - A3
- D1 - E3
- E1 - D3
Defines bracings in the right part of the workshop.
Structure Model/Start
Selects the initial layout from the list of available ROBOT
Millennium layouts.
View / Projection / 3D xyz Displays a 3D structure view.
Select C 4x5.4 section and confirm
the operation by pressing
Selects all C 4x5.4 sections in the structure.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
Define the following Translation
Vector: (-44, 0, 0),
Execute, Close
Create bracings for the left wall, closes the Translation
dialog box.
Geometry / Releases Opens the Releases dialog box.
Highlight the Pinned - Pinned label
Switch to the graphic viewer and
click the icon
Opens the Selection dialog box.
Select C 4x5.4 section and confirm
the operation by pressing .
Selects all C 4x5.4 sections in the structure.
Switch to the Current Selection field
in the Releases dialog box,
Apply, Close
Assigns releases to the selected members, closes the
dialog box.
Geometry / Additional Attributes /
Advanced Bar Properties
Opens the Advanced Properties dialog box.
Click the Tension Bars option,
Switch off the Truss bars - only axial
forces act option. Enter the numbers
of all the bracings into the Bar Lists
edit field, Apply, Close
Assigns advanced properties to the members chosen,
closes the dialog box.
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19.2 Load Definition

Structure Model/Loads
Selects the LOADS layout from the list of available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
Switch to the Load Types dialog
box and select the nature: Dead,
New
Defines new load case (dead) with standard name DL1.
Select the nature: dead,
New
Defines new load case nature (dead) with standard name
DL2.
Select the Load Definition icon
from the side toolbar
Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Go to the Bar tab in the dialog box.
Select the Uniform Load
Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.
Define the load
pz = - 0.25 (kip/ft),
Add
Defines the load value and direction, closes the Uniform
Load dialog box.
Switch to the Apply To edit field and
indicate, in the graphical viewer, all
the spandrel beams,
Apply, Close
Applies the dead load originating from the roof cladding,
closes the Load Definition dialog box.
Select the nature: wind,
New
Defines a new load case (wind) with the standard name
WIND1.
Select the Load Definition icon
from the side toolbar
Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Go to the Bar tab in the dialog box.
Select the Uniform Load
Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.
Define the load
px = 0.25 (kip/ft),
The remaining loads, i.e. py and pz
should be zeroed out,
Add
Defines the load value and direction, closes the Uniform
Load dialog box.
Switch to the Apply To edit field and
indicate columns in the left part of
the structure,
Apply
Applies the wind load to the left column of the structure.
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Reenter the Uniform Load dialog
box, enter the load pz = - 0.10
(kip/ft), select Local Coordinate
System,
Add
Defines the load value and direction, closes the Uniform
Load dialog box.
Switch to the Apply To edit field and
indicate the spandrel beams
belonging to the left part of the roof,
Apply, Close
Applies the load to the spandrel beams in the left part of
the structure.
By analogy create a new load type.
Select nature: wind,
New
Defines a new load case nature (wind) with the standard
name WIND2.
Select Load Definition icon from
the right-hand toolbar
Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Go to the Bar tab in the dialog box.
Select the Uniform Load
Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.
Define the load
px = - 0.25 (kip/ft),
Global Coordinate System
The remaining loads, i.e. py and pz
should be assigned zero values,
Add
Defines the load value and direction, closes the Uniform
Load dialog box.
Switch to the Apply To edit field and
indicate columns in the right-hand
part of the workshop hall,
Apply
Applies the wind load to the column on the right.
Reenter the Uniform Load dialog
box, enter the load pz = - 0.10
(kip/ft), select Local Coordinate
System,
Add
Defines the load value and direction, closes the Uniform
Load dialog box.
Switch to the Apply To edit field and
indicate the spandrel beams of the
right-hand part of the roof,
Apply, Close
Applies the load to the spandrel beams of the right-hand
part of the roof.
Select the nature: snow,
New
Defines a new load case nature (snow) with the standard
name SN1.
Select the Load Definition icon
from the side toolbar
Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Go to the Bar tab in the dialog box.
Select the Uniform Load
Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.
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Define the load
pz = - 0.25 (kip/ft), set Coordinate
System as Global, switch on the
Projected load option,
Add
Defines the value and direction of the load which will refer
to the bar length projected on the plane that corresponds to
the direction of force operation. Closes the Uniform Load
dialog box.
Switch to the Apply To edit field and
indicate, in the graphical viewer, all
the spandrel beams,
Apply, Close
Applies the snow load, closes the Load Definition dialog
box.
Select the nature: live,
New
Defines a new load case (live) with the standard name LL1.
Select the Load Definition icon
from the side toolbar
Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Go to the Bar tab in the dialog box.
Select the Bar Force
Opens the Bar Force dialog box.
Enter the load:
FZ = - 2.50 (kip),
Add
Defines the live load, closes the Bar Force dialog box.
Place the cursor in the Apply To edit
field, switch to the graphic viewer
and indicate the left cantilever of the
first frame,
Apply
Selects element to which the live load will be applied,
closes the Load Definition dialog box.
Then reenter the Bar Force dialog
box and apply the load:
FZ = - 0.50 (kip),
Add
Defines the live load, closes the Bar Force dialog box.
Place the cursor in the Apply To edit
field, switch to the graphic viewer
and indicate the right cantilever the
same frame,
Apply
Applies the live load (LL1) to the cantilever of the first
frame.
Select the nature: live,
New
Defines a new load case nature (live) and the standard
name LL2.
Select the Load Definition icon
from the side toolbar
Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Go to the Bar tab in the dialog box.
Select the Bar Force
Opens the Bar Force dialog box.
Enter the load:
FZ = - 2.50 (kip),
Add
Defines the live load, closes the Bar Force dialog box.
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Place the cursor in the Apply To edit
field, switch to the graphic viewer
and indicate the left cantilever of the
second frame,
Apply
Selects the element to which the live load will be applied,
closes the Load Definition dialog box.
Then reenter the Bar Force dialog
box and apply the load:
FZ = - 0.50 (kip),
Add
Defines the live load, closes the Bar Force dialog box.
Place the cursor in the Apply To edit
field, switch to the graphic viewer
and indicate the right cantilever the
same frame,
Apply
Applies the live load (LL2) to the cantilever of the first
frame.
Repeat the same operation for the
remaining frames (LL3, LL4 and
LL5).
19.3 Load Combination Definition
Tools / Job Preference Opens the Job Preferences dialog box presented in
the picture below.
Select the Codes / Actions option
and set LRFD in the Code
Combinations list box, OK
Select code for combinations, closes the dialog box.
Loads / Code Combinations Opens the Load Case Code Combination dialog box.
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Activate the calculations - with the
options turned on as shown in the
drawing below.
Go to the third tab: Groups.
Select the Nature: live in the list box,
highlight the LL2 case and transfer it
to the right-hand panel by means of
the button.
Press Create a group from cases
Creates a second group of cases.
Return to the Group Cases: 1 and
create the third load group out of the
LL3 load. Repeat the operation until
there remains only the LL1 load in
the Group Cases: 1.
Creates the remaining groups of cases.
Go to the next tab: Relations.
Select the Nature: live from the list
box, chose the or(excl) operator.
Highlight a given load case and
move it to the right panel (see the
picture below)
Creates five independently operating cases for all the five
live loads.
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Go to the Simplified Combinations
tab and select the MY and MZ
moments and Reactions, switch on
the Simplified Combinations option
in the bottom part of the dialog box
Allows the user to generate extreme combinations with
particular values considered.
Switch to the Selection.
Select all bars and all nodes,
Close
Allows the user to generate simplified combinations for the
selected bars or nodes. Closes the Load Case Code
Combination dialog box.
19.4 Structure Analysis
Tools / Job preferences Opens the Job Preferences dialog box.
Highlight the Structure Analysis
option in the tree provided in
the dialog box and select the
DSC algorithm option,
OK
Select the DSC algorithm (discontinuity) which will be used
during structure calculations.
Starts the calculation.
19.5 Analysis of Results
Results/Results
Selects the RESULTS layout from the list of available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
Indicate the FX internal force in the
Diagrams dialog box,
Apply
Displays the diagram of the FX internal forces in the
graphic viewer.
View the results in the structure
view. By means of the Selection (top
of the screen - icon) list box,
view the results for the remaining
loads
Screen-capture the results for the
most interesting load case: when in
the structure view, select the Screen
Capture command from the context
menu (RMC)
Opens the Screen Capture dialog box.
Define a name of the screen
capture, OK
Defines the screen capture name, closes the dialog box.
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Results / Forces
As before, view the results for each
load case separately by means of
the Select Cases list box
Opens the table Forces - cases: with the results displayed.
Select the snow load case and then,
chose the Filters option from the
context menu.
Opens the Filtering: Forces dialog box.
Select the section: C 4x5.4,
Close
Filters the bracings, closes the dialog box.
CTRL+ALT+Q Opens the Screen Capture Label dialog box.
Define a screen capture titled
"Bracings", OK
Defines the screen capture named Bracings, closes the
dialog box.
Close the results table
19.6 Modal Analysis
Analysis / Analysis Types Opens the Analysis Type dialog box.
Press the New button located in the
lower part of the dialog box
Opens the New Case Definition dialog box
Set the name of a new case as
Modal_1, OK
The Modal Analysis Parameters dialog box, presented in
the drawing below appears on the screen.
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Activate the following options:
- Numbers of Modes: 10
- Tolerance: 0.0001
- Number of Iterations: 40
- Mass Matrix: Lumped with
rotations.
Advanced parameters>>:
- Analysis Mode: Modal option
- Method: Lanczos Algorithm
- Limits: Inactive
- Damping: 0.05
OK, Close
Confirms the settings, closes the dialog boxes.
Starts calculations.
19.6.1 Analysis of Vibration Eigenmodes
From the list of loads select the load
case: Modal_1. Then from the list of
modes select the mode: Mode 3
Selects the load case and mode.
Results / Diagrams for Bars Opens the Diagrams dialog box.
On the Deformation tab switch on
the Deformation option.
In the Diagrams Scale for 1(in) enter
the number of structure deformation
units for unit length e.g. 1,
Apply
Presents the diagrams of the selected vibration modes
calculated during structure analysis.
Note: if the diagram will not appear in the graphic viewer,
push the Normalize button. Pressing this button
results in presenting diagrams of a selected quantity
in such a way that the scale will be adjusted to the
maximum and minimum value of the indicated
quantity.
Switch to the Number of frames list
box and enter 15, then switch to the
Number of frames / second and
introduce 10,
Start
Prepares the animation of the selected value based on the
parameters assigned and begins the animation. During the
presentation, a toolbar presented on the picture below
appears on the screen with options used to stop, pause,
replay etc.
Results / Advanced / Modal Analysis Opens the Dynamic Analysis Results table.
While the cursor is located within the
table open the context menu by
means of RMC and select the Table
Columns option
Opens the Dynamic analysis value selection dialog box.
On the Eigenvectors tab activate the
following options in the Components
field: UX, RZ,
OK
Additional columns appear in the table, closes the dialog
box.
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Place the cursor within the table and
press the right mouse button to open
the context menu and select the
Screen Capture option.
Opens the Screen Capture Label dialog box presented
below.
OK Defines screen capture.
File / Printout Composition Opens the Printout Composition - Wizard dialog box.
Go to the Screen Capture tab,
highlight the screen capture and
click the All button
Adds defined screen captures to the right panel.
Displays the preview of the selected screen capture.
19.7 Time History Analysis
Opens the Analysis Type dialog box.
Press the New button located in the
lower portion of the dialog box
Opens the New Case Definition dialog box
Set the name of a new case as
Time_1, activate the Time history
analysis,
OK, accept with Yes the warning
about the result status change
The Time History Analysis dialog box.
Click the Function definition button Opens the Time Function Definition dialog box.
In the Function name field enter the
name: Wind blast,
Add
Defines the function name.
Switch to the Points tab, which
appears in the dialog box and define
the following points and
corresponding values of the function
using Add button:
T = 0.0 úF(T) = 0
T = 0.1 úF(T) = 1
T = 0.2 úF(T) = 0
T = 1.0 úF(T) = 0,
Close
The Time Function Definition will be shaped as indicated
in the picture below. Closes the dialog box.
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Select the WIND 1 load case,
Add, OK
Closes the Time History Analysis dialog box.
Start the calculations clicking
the Calculations button
Results / Advanced / Time History
Analysis - Diagrams
Opens the Time History Analysis dialog box.
Press the Add button and then set
all the options as shown in the
picture below, Add
Opens the Diagram Definition dialog box.
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Close the dialog box. The recently
defined value of displacement in the
z direction will appear in the left
Available diagrams panel, highlight
it.
Press the button, Apply
Transfers the chosen quantity to the right panel.
Opens the viewer as shown in the picture below.
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20. Definition of an RC Container
The example presents definition of a reinforced container. Load combinations containing pressure
and temperature load cases have been applied here. The American code ACI 318-02 has been used
for reinforcement calculations.
Data units: (ft) and (kip).
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT program (press the appropriate icon or select the
command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be
displayed on the screen and the icon in the second row (Shell Design) should be
selected.
20.1 Structure Definition
Structural Axis Definition
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
Opens the Structural Axis dialog box.
Set the following options:
in the Position field - leave
the default value (0.00),
in the No. of Repet. field - set {2},
in the Distance field - type 20.0 ft,
Insert
Inserts axes defined in the edit fields. The result of this
operation can be seen in the picture below.
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Switch to the Y tab and set:
in the Position field - (0.00),
in the No. of Repet. field û type {1},
in the Distance field - enter 20.0 ft,
in the Numbering field û select
A,B,C
Insert
Inserts axes defined in the edit fields.
Afterwards go to the Z tab set:
in the Position field - (0.00),
in the No. of Repet. field û type {1},
in the Distance field - enter 10.0 ft,
in the Numbering field select Define
option and in the field on the right
type Level 1, Insert, Apply, Close
Displays the defined structure axis on the screen, closes
the Structural Axis dialog box.
View / Projection / 3D xyz Displays a 3D view of the structure (see below).
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New Thickness Definition
Geometry / Properties / Thickness Opens the New Thickness dialog box.
Opens the New Thickness dialog box.
On the Homogeneous tab enter:
Thickness field: {10},
Material field: Concrete
Label field: TH10_CONCR for
the defined thickness type, Add
Defines new thickness for walls.
On the Homogeneous tab enter:
Thickness field: {12},
Elastic Foundation field: 320 (kip/ft
3
)
Material: Concrete
Label field: TH12_CONCR, Add,
Close
Defines new thickness for the bottom. The recently defined
thickness will appear in the Active Thickness Type list.
Close Closes the FE Thickness dialog box.
Reinforcement Definition
Opens the Plate\Shell Reinforcement Type dialog box.
Opens the Reinforcement Parameters dialog box.
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On the General tab activate Along
X-Axis option in the Main
reinforcement direction field and
define the name as Dir_X. In the
Reinforcement calculations for shells
field select the Type: bending +
compression/tension option. On the
SLS Parameters tab switch on
the Cracking option located in the
Calculation range field.
Other parameters leave as default.
Add, Close
Defines new reinforcement parameters, closes the dialog
box.
Once again press the icon, then
on the General tab activate Along Z-
Axis option and enter the name:
Dir_Z. In the Reinforcement
calculations for shells field select the
Type: bending + compression
/tension option. On the SLS
Parameters tab switch on the
Cracking option located in the
Calculation range field. Other
parameters leave as default. Add,
Close
Defines new reinforcement parameters, closes
Reinforcement Parameters dialog box.
Close Closes the Plate\Shell Reinforcement Type dialog box.
Definition of a Contour of the Longer Side Wall
View / Work in 3D / Global Work
Plane
Opens the Work Plane dialog box.
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Place the cursor at the point
determined by the intersection of the
following axes: 1, B, Level 1
Apply, Close
Enters the appropriate coordinates to the Work Plane
dialog box (see the picture below).
View / Projection / Zx Once this option is selected the structure is set on the ZX
plane at the recently defined Y-coordinate value (in the
example Y = 20).
Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box with the Contour
option switched on.
Press the Geometry button Opens the Geometry portion of the dialog box.
Switch to the graphic viewer,
indicate the following points of the
contour of the longer side wall as the
intersection points of the following
structure axes:
1, Level 2,
2, Level 2,
2, Level 1,
1, Level 1,
1, Level 2
Defines the first contour of the longer side wall.
Note: to finish contour definition the user should indicate
once again the first point of the contour or type its
coordinates.
Define manually the following points
in the green field in the geometry
portion of the dialog box:
(20.0, 20.0, 10.0), Add
(40.0, 20.0, 10.0), Add
(40.0, 20.0, 0.0), Add
(20.0, 20.0, 0.0), Add
(20.0, 20.0, 10.0), Add
Close
Defines the second contour of the longer side wall. Closes
the Polyline - Contour dialog box.
Definition of a Panel of the Longer Side Wall
View / Projection / 3D xyz Displays a 3D view of the defined structure.
Geometry / Panels Opens the Panel dialog box.
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In the Properties field select Dir_Z
reinforcement type from the
available reinforcement list. In the
Thickness field apply the
TH10_CONCR thickness. To assign
properties of the recently defined
panel activate the Internal Point
option and indicate a point within
each of the two panels of the longer
side wall or provide the numbers (1
and 2) of objects which the contour
consists of.
Close
Defines panels in the construction as shown in the picture
below.
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
Turn off the Numbers and panel
description option on the Finite
Elements tab,
Turn on the Translucent faces option
and Color faces on the Hidden lines
tab,
Apply, OK
Displays only the elements chosen, closes the dialog box.
Bottom Contour Definition
View / Work in 3D / Global Work
Plane
Opens the Work Plane dialog box.
Place the cursor at the point
determined by the intersection of the
following axes: 1, A, Level 1
Apply, Close
Results in entering the appropriate coordinates to the Work
Plane dialog box.
View / Projection / Xy Displays the XY projection. Once the option is selected the
structure is set on the XY plane at the recently defined Z
coordinate value (default value: Z = 0).
Geometry / Objects / Polyline -
contour
Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box with Contour
option switched on.
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Press the Geometry button Opens the Geometry portion of the dialog box.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
indicate the consecutive points of
the bottom contour as the
intersection points of following
structure axes:
1, B,
2, B,
2, A,
1, A,
1, B
Defines first contour of the bottom.
Define manually the following points
in the green field in the geometry
portion of the dialog box:
(20.0, 20.0, 0.0), Add
(40.0, 20.0, 0.0), Add
(40.0, 0.0, 0.0), Add
(20.0, 0.0, 0.0), Add
(20.0, 20.0, 0.0), Add
Close
Defines second contour of the bottom. Closes the Polyline
- Contour dialog box.
View / Projection / 3d xyz Displays the 3D structure projection - see the picture below.
Bottom Panel Definition
Opens the Panel dialog box.
In the Properties field select
the Dir_X reinforcement type from
the available reinforcement list. In
the Thickness field apply the
TH12_CONCR thickness. To assign
properties of the recently defined
panel activate the Internal Point
option and indicate a point within
each of the two bottom panels or
provide the numbers (3 and 4) of the
objects that the contour consists of,
Close
Defines panels in the construction - see the picture below.
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Definition of a Contour of the Shorter Side Wall
View / Projection / Yz Displays the YZ plane at the recently defined X coordinate
value (the default value: X = 0).
Geometry / Objects / Polyline -
contour
Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box with Contour
option switched on.
Press the Geometry button Opens the Geometry portion of the dialog box.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
indicate the consecutive points of
the contour of the shorter side wall
as the intersection points of the
following structure axes:
A, Level 2,
B, Level 2,
B, Level 1,
A, Level 1,
A, Level 2
Close
Defines the shorter wall contour, closes the Polyline -
Contour dialog box.
View / Projection / 3d xyz Displays the 3D structure projection, see the picture below
Definition of the Shorter Wall Panel
Opens the Panel dialog box.
In the Properties field select
the Dir_Z reinforcement type from
the available reinforcement list. In
the Thickness field apply the
TH10_CONCR thickness. To assign
properties of the recently defined
panel activate the Internal Point
option and indicate a point within
the shorter side wall panel or provide
the number (5) of the object that the
contour consists of,
Close
Defines panels in the construction - see the picture below.
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To check panel geometry
and reinforcement type select View /
Display from the menu
Opens the Display dialog box.
On the Finite Elements tab switch on
the Numbers and panel description
option and on the Others tab turn off
the Structural Axis option, OK
Displays the required elements on the screen.
Copying of the Walls
Opens the Display dialog box.
On the Finite Elements tab switch off
the Numbers and panel description
option and on the Others tab turn on
the Structural Axis option.
Apply, OK
Displays selected elements, closes the dialog box.
View / Projection / 3d xyz Displays the 3D structure projection.
Switch to the graphic viewer and
select the shorter wall panel (color of
the selected panel changes to red).
Selects the shorter wall members.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
Define the translation vector
manually by typing in the
coordinates (20,0,0) of the vector or
the appropriate node numbers in
the Translation Vector edit field; in
the Number of Repetitions field set
the number of repetitions as 2.
Execute, Close
Translates the selected elements, closes the dialog box.
The result of the operation is shown in the picture below.
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Select the longer wall panels with
the CTRL key pressed (the color of
the selected panels changes to red).
Selects the longer wall panels.
Edit / Edit / Translate Opens the Translation dialog box.
In the Number of Repetitions field
define the number of repetitions (1);
define the translation vector in
the graphical way,
Close
Translates the selected elements (see the picture below),
closes the dialog box.
Definition of the Container Wall Orientation
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
On the Structure tab select the Local
system option
Apply, OK
Displays the local system, closes the Display dialog box.
Note: All changes will be performed to obtain the local
coordinate system orientation as in the picture
below.
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Geometry / Properties / Local Panel
Direction
Opens the Local System Orientation dialog box.
To change the sense of the normal
for the bottom panels indicate the
two bottom panels for which the
local coordinate system is to be
changed, select the Change of local
Z-axis sense option, Apply
Changes the orientation of the bottom panels.
To change the sense of the normal
for the longer side wall panels locate
the cursor in the Panels field and
enter numbers of the appropriate
panels (in the example 8 and 9),
Apply
Changes the orientation for the selected panels.
Check the same parameters for
other walls and modify them if
necessary
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
On the Others tab turn off
the Structural Axis option, OK
Displays selected elements on the screen, closes
the Display dialog box.
Additional Node Definition
Opens the Nodes dialog box presented in the picture
below.
Enter in the Coordinates field:
(20.00,10.00,0.00), Add, Close
Defines a node at the geometrical center of the bottom,
closes the Nodes dialog box.
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Support Definition
Opens the Supports dialog box.
Opens the Support Definition dialog box, which allows
definition of the structure support.
On the Rigid tab set on UX, UY and
RZ option.
Once these options are selected the displacements in the X
and Y direction as well as the rotation about Z-axis will be
blocked.
In the Label field set the name for
new support (in the exercise
Support_1). Others parameters
leave as default, Add, Close
Adds a new support blocking the rotation around Z-axis and
the displacement along X and Y-axis, closes the dialog box.
From the list of active supports
select the support type Fixed on the
Linear tab, LMC in the Current
Selection field, and then select
graphically, with the CTRL key
pressed, all external lines
surrounding bottom panels, Apply
Applies the fixed support type to the chosen edges.
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From the list of active supports
select the type (Support_1) on the
Nodal tab and in the Current
Selection field select a node (no. 1
at the geometrical center of the
bottom), Apply, Close
Applies the support which appears on the graphic viewer.
Mesh Parameters Definition
Tools / Job Preferences / Meshing
Options,
press the Modification button,
press the Advanced options button
in the Meshing Options dialog box
Opens the Advanced Meshing Options dialog box.
In the Mesh generation field activate
the User optionand enter 6 in the
Division 1 and Division 2 fields.
Other parameters leave as default,
OK
Defines mesh generation options, closes the Advanced
Meshing Options dialog box.
OK Closes the Job preferences dialog box.
20.2 Load Definition
Loads / Loads Types Opens the Load Types dialog box.
In the Load Types set the load
nature as dead and press the New
button
Defines the load nature (dead) with the standard name
(DL1).
Set the load nature as live and press
the New button twice
Defines two live loads with the standard names (LL1, LL2).
To define the subsequent
temperature load type, set the load
nature as temperature and press the
New button, Close
Defines the load nature (temperature) with the standard
name (TEMP1). The recently defined loads (DL1, LL1, LL2
and TEMP1) appear on the list of available load cases
(see the picture below). Closes the Load Types dialog box.
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Loads / Load Definition Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Note: self-weight will be automatically applied to the whole
structure.
Select the LL1 case on the list of
load cases
Selects load case.
Switch to the Surface tab and select
the Hydrostatic Pressure option
Opens the Pressure dialog box.
In the opened dialog box enter the
following values:
{0.10} in the Pressure value P field
{0.15} in the Unit weight of liquid
field
{7} in the Liquid level h field, Add
Defines hydrostatic load parameters, closes the Pressure
dialog box.
Select the entire external wall
(except the bottom walls) with CTRL,
Apply
Applies a load resulting from backfill pressure (LL1) to the
chosen panels.
Select the LL2 case on the list of
load cases
Selects the load case.
Once again select the Hydrostatic
Pressure option
Opens the Pressure dialog box.
Define the following parameters:
{0} in the Pressure value P. field
{0.12} in the Unit weight of liquid
field
{10} in the Liquid level h field, Add
Defines hydrostatic load parameters, closes the Pressure
dialog box.
Select the walls of one of the
container chambers (in the example
the chamber on the right), Apply
Applies the load resulting from the pressure of water
contained in one chamber (LL2) to the selected panels as
shown below.
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Select the TEMP1 case on the list of
load cases
Selects a load case.
In the Surface tab select the
Thermal Load 3p option
Opens the Thermal Load 3p dialog box
On the Values tab with the Uniform
option activated, enter the value: 30
in the Gradient field, Add
Defines temperature parameters, closes the dialog box.
Note: switching on the Uniform option ensures that
the temperature load applied to the surface
structure element (panel) will be uniform.
Select all the side walls and bottom
walls, Apply
Applies temperature gradient to the external wall surfaces
and the bottom (TEMP1).
Close Closes the Load Definition dialog box.
20.3 Definition of Load Combinations
Loads / Combinations Opens the Combination Definition/Modification dialog
box.
Define all the settings as shown in
the picture below, OK
Opens the Combinations dialog box.
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Select a load case from the Case
List, enter a factor value for the
selected load case in the Factor field
Defines the factor value.
Note: If the auto option is selected, the factor defined for
the selected load nature will be applied automatically.
Press the button and repeat the
above operations three times for the
consecutive load cases,
Apply, Close
Defines load cases for the combination (as shown below),
closes the Combinations dialog box. If all the defined load
cases are to be considered in the combination, press the
button.
Note: For all the natures, the default factors have been
applied and button used.
20.4 Result Analysis
Runs structure analysis.
Results / Maps Opens the Maps dialog box which is used to display the
calculation results in the map form.
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
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Go to the Loads tab and switch off
the Symbols option,
Go to the Structure tab and switch
off Local system option, OK
Stops presentation of the load symbols and the local
system, closes the Display dialog box.
Selects a load case for presentation.
Detailed tab: select the z option in
the Displacements - u,w field, Scale
tab: select the Basic option in the
Color Palette field, Apply
Displays maps of the displacement perpendicular to
the elementþs surface on the screen (see the picture
below).
Note: only one value may be selected in the dialog box.
Results / Plate and Shell Results Opens the FE Results table.
Open the context menu (RMC),
select the Table columns option
Opens the Results for Finite Elements dialog box.
Choose the Displacements u,w in
direction z option, OK
Adds another column (with displacements included) to the
table. Closes the dialog box.
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20.5 Reinforcement Calculations
View / Projection / Xy Displays the XY plane for the recently defined Z-coordinate
(the default value: Z=0). Structure components from this
plane will be displayed.
Analysis / Design of RC Structure
Elements / RC Plate and Shell
Design / Required Reinforcement
Displays graphic viewer, Plate and Shell Reinforcement
and Reinforcements dialog boxes on the screen.
In the Reinforcements dialog box
switch on the Ay option in the [-]
Bottom line and then activate the
open new window with scale
displayed option.
Defines reinforcement parameters.
In the Plate and Shell
Reinforcement dialog box press the
button in the ULS line
Opens the ULS selection dialog box.
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In the List of panels enter 3 4
Choose the third load case LL2 and
press the button, Close
Selects the load case, closes the ULS dialog box.
Press the button next to the List
of panels edit field
In the Selection dialog box, on the
Attrib. tab select the Thickness
option, then in the selection field
select TH12_CONCR (the thickness
assigned to the bottom panels) and
press the button, Close
Once the option is selected, the objects will be added to the
current selection.
Note: if the selection has not been made, calculations will
be performed for the whole structure.
In the Method list select analytical
method, Calculate
Selects reinforcement calculation options, starts
calculations, displays results on the screen.
Note: White color in the reinforcement map means that in
this area the constructional reinforcement is needed.
20.6 Mesh Refinement
Analysis / Calculation Model /
Meshing Options
Press the Advanced options button
in the Meshing Options dialog box
Opens the Advanced Meshing Options dialog box.
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In the Mesh Generation field
activate the User option and enter
12 in the Division 1 and Division 2
fields. Other parameters leave as
default, OK, accept with Yes the
warning about the result status
change
Changes meshing options, closes the dialog box.
Analysis / Calculations Start calculations, displays the refined mesh on the screen
- see the picture at the example beginning.
Opens the Selection dialog box as shown below.
On the list under the All button
select the Panel option. In the field
above the Previous button enter the
numbers of panels to be chosen
(except for panel no. 9) 1to8, Close
Selects panels, closes the dialog box.
Analysis / Calculation Model / Mesh
Freeze
Selecting these option results in freezing the mesh hitherto
generated for the finite elements. When the calculation
model is created again, the mesh will remain unchanged
(generation will be performed for panels for which a mesh
of finite elements has not been created).
Structure Model/Geometry
Selects the Geometry layout from the list of available
ROBOT Millennium layouts.
View / Projection / Zx Sets the structure on the ZX plane.
View / Work in 3D / Global Work
Plane
Opens the Work Plane dialog box.
Note: as the construction is set on the ZX plane, the Work
Plane dialog box will display only the Y coordinate
field unblocked.
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In the Y coordinate field enter
the value 0,
Apply
Selecting this option causes the construction to be edited
while being projected on the ZX plane where the Y
coordinate value equals 0.
Closes the Work Plane dialog box.
Opens the Objects toolbar and the Circle dialog box
shown below.
In the Definition Method part of the
dialog box select the center - radius
option
Selecting this option causes the circle to be defined using
the center and a point on its circumference.
Open the Geometry part of the
dialog box and define the circle by
defining the coordinates of the circle
center (30.00,0.00,5,00) and
entering the radius value (2,50) in
the Radius field, Apply, Close
Defines circle, closes the dialog box.
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Analysis / Calculation Model /
Generation
The program begins to generate the calculation model of
the structure (finite elements).
View / Projection / 3d xyz Displays a 3D view of the structure.
Analysis / Calculations Starts calculations.
Structure Results/Results ÿ maps
Detailed tab: select the z option in
the Displacements - u,w field, Scale
tab: select the Automatic scale
option in the Color Palette field,
Apply
Displays maps of the displacement perpendicular to
the elementþs surface on the screen (see the picture
above).
Note: only one value may be selected in the dialog box.
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21. Definition of a Steel Container
The example presents definition of a steel container model. Hydrostatic pressure and temperature
loads as well as wind loads generated according to the ASCE 7-02 code are used here.
Data units: (ft) and (kip).
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT program (press the appropriate icon or select the
command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be
displayed on the screen and the icon in the second row (Shell Design) should be
selected.
21.1 Structure Definition
New Thickness Definition
Geometry / Properties / Thickness Opens the FE Thickness dialog box.
Opens the New Thickness dialog box.
On the Homogeneous tab enter:
Thickness field: 1 (in),
Material field: STEEL
Label field: TH_1þþ for the defined
thickness type, Add, Close
Defines new thickness for walls.
Close Closes the FE Thickness dialog box.
Definition of a Cylinder Object
View / Projection / 3d xyz Displays the 3D structure projection
Geometry / Objects / Cylinder Opens the Cylinder dialog box.
Center-radius Changes the method of cylinder base definition to center
and radius.
Press the Geometry button Opens the Geometry portion of the dialog box.
Point P: 0.0; 0.0; 0.0
Radius: 10
Height: 50
Defines center of the base at point (0; 0; 0), base radius 10
(ft) and cylinder height 50 (ft).
Press the Parameters button Opens the Parameters portion of the dialog box.
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Sides: 24
Number of divisions: 10
The base circle is approximated by a 2D figure having 24
sides, side surface of the cylinder is divided into 10 finite
elements over the height.
Apply Defines the cylinder, see the figure below
Close Closes the Cylinder dialog box.
Support Definition
Opens the Supports dialog box.
From the list of active supports
select the Pinned support type onthe
Planar tab, LMC in the Current
Selection field and then select
graphically the bottom panel of the
cylinder û object 1_REF(1), Apply
Defines a support on the cylinder base.
Close Closes the Supports dialog box.
21.2 Load Definition
Loads / Load Types Opens the Load Types dialog box.
In the Load Types dialog box set the
load nature as dead and press the
New button
Defines the load nature (dead) with the standard name
(DL1).
Set the load nature as live and press
the New button
Defines the live load with the standard name (LL1).
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To define the subsequent
temperature load type, set the load
nature as temperature and press the
New button
Defines the load nature (temperature) with the standard
name (TEMP1). The recently defined loads (DL1, LL1 and
TEMP1) appear on the list of available load cases.
Loads / Load Definition Opens the Load Definition dialog box.
Note: self-weight will be automatically applied to the whole
structure.
Select the LL1 case on the list of
load cases
Selects load case.
Switch to the Surface tab and select
the Hydrostatic Pressure icon
Opens the Pressure dialog box.
In the opened dialog box enter the
following values:
{0.15} in the Unit weight of liquid
field
{40} in the Liquid level h field,
Add
Defines hydrostatic load parameters, closes the Pressure
dialog box.
On the Apply to list enter the number
of the cylinder object: 1,
Apply
Defines hydrostatic load on the cylinder
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Positive hydrostatic pressure in the program acts in
conformity with the normal axis sense in the local system of
the plane; take note that in the cylinder base the system
should be reversed for the load to act in conformity with the
hydrostatic pressure
Definition of the Cylinder Wall Orientation
Geometry / Properties / Local Panel
Direction
Opens the Local System Orientation dialog box.
To change the sense of the normal
to the bottom panels indicate the
bottom panel of cylinder û object
1_REF(1),
select the Change of local Z-axis
sense option,
Apply, close the Local System
Orientation dialog box
Changes the orientation of the bottom panels.
Load applied to the cylinder base has been reversed
together with the normal axis sense in the local system of
the plane.
Temperature Load Definition
Select the TEMP1 case on the list of
load cases
Selects the load case.
On the Surface tab select the
Thermal Load 3p option
Opens the Thermal Load 3p dialog box
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In the Values field with the Uniform
option activated, enter the value:
100 in the Temperature dT1 field,
Add
Defines temperature parameters, closes the dialog box.
Select the side walls of the cylinder
(object 1_Side(1)),
Apply
Applies temperature to the external wall surfaces (TEMP1).
Close Closes the Load Definition dialog box.
Wind Load Definition
Loads / Special loads / Wind on
cylinders
Opening of the Snow/Wind Loads dialog box for wind load
generation according to ASCE 7-02
Define the following parameters:
active options:
Wind : X+
change the option:
Structure type Category: round
moderately smooth
Number of faces: 24
The program generates the wind load from the direction X+
for the object with vertical axis Z, at point (0; 0; 0)
Note: The number of faces should be congruous with the
number of faces in an axisymmetric object.
Press the Parameters button Opens the additional dialog box (Wind on structures with
polygon base), where detailed parameters may be defined
Define parameters of the snow/wind
load:
General tab:
Exposure category: A
Building category: II
Basic wind velocity: 90 (mph)
Defines parameters of wind loads
the Specific tab:
For Gust effect factor Gset the
value
Building natural frequency - n1 : 6.66
Defines parameters of wind loads
Note: the natural frequency can be calculated by means of
dynamic modal analysis.
the Segments tab:
Define Name: A, Height 30 (ft), New
Define Name: B, Height 50 (ft), New
Defines successive segments. For each of the segments,
i.e. parts over the object height, the wind load is generated
independently because of varying wind pressure or
structure width.
Generate Pressing the button starts the generation of snow and wind
loads with the accepted parameters.
Close the editor showing the
calculation notes
The calculation note appears on the screen. It presents the
parameters of snow/wind load cases
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
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Go to the Loads tab and switch on
the Symbols option,
OK
Presents the load symbols, closes the Display dialog box.
21.3 Definition of Load Combinations
Loads / Combinations Opens the Combination Definition / Modification dialog
box.
Define all the settings as shown in
the picture below,
OK
Opens the Combinations dialog box.
Select a load case from the Case
List, enter a factor value for the
selected load case in the Factor field
Defines the factor value.
Note: if the auto option is selected, the factor defined for
the selected load nature will be applied automatically
according to the code combination selected in Job
Preferences.
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Press the button and repeat the
above operations three times for the
consecutive load cases (1 to 3),
Apply,
Defines load cases for the combination (as shown below).
New Defines a new combination.
Default settings,
OK
Applies default settings and name to the new combination.
Opens the Combinations dialog box.
Choose a load case and press the
button for the load cases (1 2
and 4),
Apply,
Defines load cases for the combination: DL1 + LL1 +
WindX
New Defines a new combination.
Default settings,
OK
Applies default settings and name to the new combination.
Opens the Combinations dialog box.
Choose a load case and press the
button for the load cases (1 and
4),
Apply, Close
Defines load cases for the combination: DL1 + Wind X.
Closes the Combinations dialog box.
21.4 Result Analysis
Runs structure analysis.
View / Display Opens the Display dialog box.
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Go to the Loads tab and switch off
the Symbols option
Stops presentation of the load symbols.
Go to the Finite elements tab and
switch off the Numbers and panels
description option, OK
Stops presentation of the object descriptions; closes the
Display dialog box.
Results / Maps Opens the Maps dialog box, which is used to display the
calculation results in the map form.
Selects a load case for presentation.
The envelope of all combination cases will be displayed on
maps.
Detailed tab: select the z option in
the Displacements - z field,
Apply
Displays maps of the displacement normal to the elementþs
surface on the screen (see the figure below).
Open new window with scale
displayed,
Apply
Opens a new window with the view of a displacement map
and scale.
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Results / Plate and Shell Results Opens the FE Results table.
Open the context menu (RMC),
select the Table columns option
Opens the Results for Finite Elements dialog box.
Switch on the None option on the
Detailed tab
Excludes results given on the Detailed tab from the table.
The Complex tab; switch on
Stresses-s
Adds to the table û stresses reduced according to the von
Mises hypothesis.
The Parameter tab; change the
Layer for stresses to Upper, OK
Selects stresses for the upper layer,
Closes the Results for Finite Elements dialog box.
Selects the load case for presentation.
The combination cases will be displayed in the table.
Change to Global extremes tab in
the table.
Calculates maximum stresses for combination cases in the
table.
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22. Definition of a Solid / Thin-walled Section
The example presents the definition of solid/thin-walled sections. The results obtained for the
sections mentioned are also presented here. The sections are saved to the userþs database.
Data units: (ft) and (kip).
The following rules apply during structure definition:
ÿ any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,
ÿ ( x ) stands for selection of the ÿxþ option in the dialog box or entering the ÿxþ value,
ÿ LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.
To run structure definition start the ROBOT program (press the appropriate icon or select the
command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be
displayed on the screen and the icon in the last row (Section definition) should be
selected.
22.1 Solid Section
PERFORMED OPERATION DESCRIPTION
File / New Section / Solid Starts definition of a solid section.
View / Grid Step Opens the Grid step definition dialog box.
{Dx}, {Dy} = 0.2 Defines a grid step.
Apply, Close Closes the dialog box.
Opens the Circle dialog box.
Enter the following points in the
Center and Radius fields:
Center: (0,0), Radius: 4, Apply
Defines the external circle.
Enter the following points in the
Center and Radius fields:
Center: (0,0), Radius: 3.8, Apply
Defines the internal circle.
Closes the Circle dialog box.
LMC on the external contour Selects the external contour.
Contour / Properties Opens the Properties dialog box.
STEEL, Apply, Cancel Selects the material type and closes the dialog box.
Results / Geometric Properties /
Results
Starts calculations of section properties. The dialog box
presented below is opened on the screen.
page: 328 ROBOT Millennium Version 20.0 - Training Manual
© Robobat www.robobat.com
Switch on the Torsional constant
option, Calculate
Starts calculations of the torsional constant. The results are
presented on the Principal tab.
Calculation Note Opens the calculation note with the section data and
results.
Close the calculation note
LMC on the Close button Closes the Results dialog box.
File / Save to Databases Opens the Saving section to databases dialog box.
Enter:
Database: User
Name: Circ
Dimension 1: 4.0
Dimension 2: 0.2
Dimension 3: 0.2
Sets the section properties.
Section Type: select circle symbol Selects the section type.
Enter: h = 4.0, t = 0.2 Defines section dimensions.
OK Saves the section to the database.
ROBOT Millennium Version 20.0 - Training Manual page: 329
© Robobat www.robobat.com
22.2 Thin-Walled Section
Starts definition of the thin-walled section.
Opens the Section definition dialog box.
Selects the method of section definition.
Enter a thickness value: 0.08 Defines the thickness of the thin-walled section.
Enter the following points:
P1 (0.0, 0.0), Apply
P2 (3.0, 0.0), Apply
P2 (0.0, -3.0), Apply
P2 (3.0, -3.0), Apply
Defines the characteristic points of a Z-shaped section.
Closes the Section definition dialog box.
Results / Geometric Properties /
Results
Starts calculations of section properties. The dialog box
presented below is opened on the screen.
LMC on the Close button Closes the Results dialog box.
page: 330 ROBOT Millennium Version 20.0 - Training Manual
© Robobat www.robobat.com
Results / Geometric Properties /
Graphical Results
Opens the Diagrams dialog box.
Turn the Somega (s) option on,
Apply
Selection of section properties for presentation.
The diagram shown below will be presented on the Z-
shaped section.
Close Closes the Diagrams dialog box.

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