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Rate of Reaction I

Mind Map

Definition
What is rate of reaction?
1. Rate of reaction is defined as the change in the amount of reactants or products per unit time.
2. It means ‘how fast is the reaction’ or 'the speed of the reaction'.
• Fast Reaction  High rate
• Slow Reaction  Low rate
3. Therefore,
Quantity change of reactants/products
Rates of reaction =
Total time for the reaction

Example 1
In a chemical reaction, 2.5g of calcium carbonate
react completely with excess hydrochloric acid to
produce 600cm3 of carbon dioxide gas in 1.5
minutes. Find the rate of reaction in term of
a. decreasing mass of calcium carbonate
b. increasing volume of carbon dioxide gas
produced

[a. -0.0278g/s; b. 6.67cm3/s]

1

Concentration (Conductivity) 1. two things happen 2. Therefore. measuring the decrease of the amount of the reactants over time. 2 . The easily measured quantity changes include The quantities of reactants reduce. the rate of the reaction can be c. Mass The quantities of products increase. b.Example of fast reaction Type of Reaction Example Combustion Combustion of magnesium in oxygen Combustion of ethane (C2H6) Reaction between Reaction between potassium and water reactive metal and water Reaction between metal Reaction between limestone/ marble and sulphuric acid carbonate and acid Ionic precipitation Precipitation of silver(I) chloride (Double decomposition) AgNO3 + HCl → AgCl + HNO3 Example of slow reaction Type of Reaction Example Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Rusting 4Fe + 3O2 + 2H2O → 2Fe2O3•H2O Fermentation C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 Measurement and Calculation Quantity Measure and Average Rate Measurable quantity During a chemical reaction. Volume of gas determined by a. measuring the increase of the amount of the products over time. a. b.

What is the rate of the I.0002mol/s] Immeasurable quantity and average rate 1. form can be used to measure the rate of Answer reaction. Measuring the reduces of the mass of the (b) mol s-1 calcium carbonate (reactants) over time [ Relative atomic mass: C 12. For example When the aqueous of ethanadioic is mixed with a.025s-1] Example 5 Example 3 Cr2O72-(aq) + 14H+ + C2O42. sulphur precipitate was to determine the rate of reaction? produced after 2 minute . Time for the colour of the solution to change from orange to green. 40] Mass of CaCO3 reacted Rate of Reaction = Time taken b. Rate of reaction = IV. Time for the pH change. 0. Vlolume of CO 2 produced Rate of Reaction = Time taken [a. Calculate the average rate for CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O this reaction in units The rate of the reaction can be determined by (a) g s-1 and a. II. Rate of reaction = If the quantity change is immeasurable 1 Rates of reaction = Total time for the reaction [0. Precipitation happen slowly at room temperature. Volume of carbon dioxide collected over time. change or certain amount of precipitate to Calculate the average rate of reaction. 0. seconds to completely react with solution of hydrochloric acid. The time taken for the colour of a reactant to colour of the solution is bleached after 40 seconds.00833s-1] D. Which of the following can be used sodium thiosulphate. Answer III. III and IV 3 . the reaction b. Time for chromium ion to form. b. In some reaction. reaction? II.Example Example 2 Reaction between calcium carbonate and In a reaction. Measuring the increases of the volume of the carbon dioxide gas produced over time. I and III C. 0. some changes are observable Example 4 but difficult to be measured.→ 6CO2(g) + 7H2O(l) + 2Cr3+ (aq) 2HCl(ak) + Na2S2O3(ak) 2NaCl(ak) + S(p) + SO2(g) + H2O(ce) The chemical equation above represents a reaction between acidic potassium dichromate(VI) and In a reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and ethanedioic. 16. A. 5 g of calcium carbonate takes 250 hydrochloric acid. Ca. Change in colour acided potassium manganate(VII) . I and II B. I II and III [0.02g/s. The purple 2.

and gas of carbon dioxide.0417cm3/s] 4 . Answer a) b) c) d) Calculate the Average Rate from the graph The rate of reaction is equal to the slope of the graph of quantity against time. [0.The graph of quantity of chemical over time Example 6 The reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid c) the concentration of hydrochloric acid against and excess marble will produce calcium chloride time. time. Find the average rate of reaction in the first 60s. carbon dioxide gas that is released is collected in a burette. Example 7 In a reaction between calcium carbonate and liquid hydrochloric acid. Sketch the graph of d) the concentration of calcium chloride against a) the mass of the marble against time. b) the volume of carbon dioxide against time. The graph below shows the volume of carbon dioxide collected over time.

[1.4cm3/s] 5 . 3. 2. ∆(product) Rate of reaction = ∆(Time) δ (product) ∆(product) Rate of reaction = Rate of reaction = δ (Time) ∆(Time) δ(Product) = Small change of the amount of product ∆ (Product) = Change of the amount of product δ(Time) = Small change of the time ∆ (Time) = Change of the time This method is not practical because δ(Product) and δ(Time) is too small to be measured. The rate of reaction changes from time to time as the reaction happens.Instantaneous Rate 1. Simple Exercise 1 Find the reaction rate at t = 40s. The instantaneous rate of a reaction is equal to the gradient of tangent at a particular time. The rate of reaction at a particular time is called the instantaneous rate.

Find the rate of reaction at 200 second. 6 . b.Example 8 a. Find the rate of reaction at 50 second.

20 Find the rate of reaction at 1 minute.60 7 .60 minute.10 lost of sodium is recorded every 30s.50 [0.60 270 2.019 g s-1] 150 2.75 the table below. By using a graph.0016g s-1] 240 2. 210 2.60 [0.58 Find the average rate of reaction at the third 180 2. 90 2. as shown in 60 1.Example 9 Time/s Mass lost/g In a reaction between sodium and water. the mass 30 1. 120 2.

Graph analysis Example 10 Example 11 8 .

a quantity of excess zinc hydrogen that is produced when the powder is added to 25 cm3 of liquid reaction is completed. Calculate the concentration of hydrochloric acid that is used in the experiment. The rate of reaction between calcium carbonate with liquid hydrochloric acid is determined by the following method: 6 g chips of calcium carbonate are mixed with 100 cm3 of solution of hydrochloric acid 1. b. curve obtained when hydrogen that is released is plotted against time. [Molar volume of hydrochloric acid.4dm3 at stp / 24dm3 at rtp) 1000 For solid. The flask is place on to a balance and the decrease in mass of its contents is recorded at certain time intervals. Structure Question 1. A graph of the decrease in mass against time is drawn and the results are as shown below: 9 . Calculate the number of moles of In an experiment. liquid or gas ( When mass is given ) mass n= Molar mass (RAM/RMM) Example 12 a. we need to determine • the total quantity of the product that formed • relative reaction rate ( higher or lower ). To sketch a graph. Figure below shows the gas: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room temperature]. Problems Solving Sketching a Graf 1. Revision Notes Mole of reactant/product For solution For gas (When volume is given) MV Volume of gas n= n= Molar volume of gas (22.0 mol dm-3 in a conical flask.

0 mol dm-3 [Molar volume of gas:24 dm3mol-1 at room temperature. State the change in rate of reaction in the first 240 seconds.a. O. The relative atomic mass: C. b. Why is it that the decrease in mass of the contents of the conical flask does not change after 120 seconds? d. 12. Sketch the change of the shape of the curve that will be obtained on the graph above. Why? c. 16] 10 .0 mol dm-3. e. instead of 100 cm3 hydrochloric acid 1. The experiment is repeated using 25 cm3 of hydrochloric acid 2. Write an equation for the reaction between calcium carbonate and liquid hydrochloric acid. Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide that is released in the experiment that uses 100 cm3 hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm-3 and other factors are maintained.

The contents of the conical flask. Sketch the shape of the graph that will be obtained if the readings of the balance against time are plotted. What causes the mark "X" to become not visible? d. This experiment is repeated four times. The reaction is left to occur until the mark "X" is not visible and then the stopwatch is stopped. The stopwatch is started as soon as 5 cm3 of hydrochloric acid 2 mol dm-3 is mixed into the conical flask. f. each time using a different concentration of sodium thiosulphate while all other conditions are kept constant. Sketch one graph for the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution against time. 11 . A conical flask that contains 50 cm3 of solution of sodium thiosulphate is left on top of a sheet of white paper which has been marked with an "X". State the variable that is Manipulated dependent b. is stirred. sketch on the same axes. the expected graph to be obtained using a dashed line. Write one equation for the reaction that occurs in the experiment c. a. 2. e. If a bigger conical flask is used in this experiment.

What is the unit for the rate of reaction calculated from this graph? 12 . h. Sketch one graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution against 1 /time.f. What conclusion can be drawn about the graph of the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution against time? g.