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Rate of Reaction II

Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction


Mind Map

Factors that influence a Rate of Reaction


1. Rate of reaction is influenced by the following factors:
a) Total surface area of the substance of reaction or the size of the solid substance of
reaction.
b) Concentration of the substance of reaction
c) Temperature of the reactant
d) Catalyst
e) Pressure

Total surface Temperature High Low


Big Small
area Rate of
Rate of Reaction
Reaction
Catalyst With catalyst Without catalyst
Concentration High Low Rate of
Rate of Reaction
Reaction
Pressure High Low
Rate of
Reaction

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Rate of Reaction II
Collision Theory
1. The particles of the reacting need to touch to enable formation or breaking of the bonds for a reaction to
happen.
2. Collisions of particles of a reacting substance need to achieve a certain minimum energy (Activation
Energy) in order to produce a reaction.
3. Particles that collide also need to have the correct orientation of collision.

Activation Energy
1. The activation energy is the minimum energy that the reactants particles must achieve at the time of
collision in order for a chemical reaction to take place.
2. The value of the activation energy is different for different reactions.
3. A reaction with a high activation energy occurs slowly whereas a reaction with a low activation energy
occurs fast.

Effective Collision
Effective collision is the collision that produces a reaction achieving minimum energy that is sufficient and with
a correct orientation of collision.

Important Tip
1. The definition of effective collision needs to have 3 main concepts:-
• Total energy of the particles that collide must be the same or exceeding the activation energy.
• The particles that collide must have the correct orientation of collision
• The collision gets to produce a chemical reaction.
2. The definition of activation energy must contain 2 main concepts:-
• Minimum energy that must be possessed by particles of the reacting substance that collide.
• Energy that must be overcome by the substances of the reaction that collide so that the reaction can
occur to give the products of the reaction.

A diagram of energy profile


1. The meaning of energy activation can be pictured by a diagram of energy profile.
2. In the diagram of energy profile, the activation energy is shown by the difference in energy between the peak
of the graph and the level of the energy of the reacting substance.

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Rate of Reaction II
The orientation of collision
1. Consider a simple reaction involving a collision
between two molecules - ethene, CH2=CH2, and
hydrogen chloride, HCl, for example. These react to
give chloroethane.

2. As a result of the collision between the two molecules,


the double bond between the two carbons is converted
into a single bond. A hydrogen atom gets attached to
one of the carbons and a chlorine atom to the other.
3. The reaction can only happen if the hydrogen end of
the H-Cl bond approaches the carbon-carbon double
bond. Any other collision between the two molecules
doesn't work. The two simply bounce off each other.

4. Of the collisions shown in the diagram, only collision 1 may


possibly lead on to a reaction.

Frequency of effective collision with rate of reaction and factors that affect the rate of reaction
1. According to the collision theory, the frequency of effective collision influences the rate of reaction.
2. The frequency of effective collision is the number of effective collisions which occur in 1 second.
3. The rate of reaction depends on the frequency of effective collisions that occur.
4. If the frequency of an effective collision for a reaction is high, then the rate of reaction is also high. On the
other hand, if the frequency of an effective collision is low, then the rate of reaction will become low

Wrong view
1. The rate of reaction increases when the total number of collisions between particles increases.
2. When the number of effective collisions increases, then the rate of reaction also increases.

Actual
1. The rate of reaction increases when the total number of collisions per unit of time between the particles
increases.
2. When the number of effective collisions increases, the rate of reaction does not necessarily have to increase.
The rate of reaction increases only if effective collisions that occur per second increase, that is when the
frequency of effective collisions increases. So, the correct statement is
"When the frequency of effective collisions increase, the rate of the reaction will also increase or
when the number of effective collisions per second increases, the rate of reaction increases.
3. The factors that influence the rate of reaction can be explained using the collision theory.

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Rate of Reaction II
The effect of a) When the size of the solid substance that reacts is small, the total surface area
surface area of a exposed to the reaction, increases.
solid on the rate of b) This means that as the chance for collision increases, that is the frequency of
reaction the collisions increase. So, the frequency of effective collisions also increase.
c) When the total surface area that is exposed to the reaction increases, the rate
of reaction increases.
The effect of a) The increase in concentration of the reacting substance means there are many
concentration on more particles per unit of volume.
the rate of reaction b) This causes the chance for collisions to increase, that is the collisions
increase. So, the frequency of effective collisions also increases.
c) When the concentration of a reacting substance increases, the rate of reaction
also increases.
The effect of a) When the temperature of a reaction increases, the particles of the reacting
temperature on the substance have more kinetic energy.
rate of reaction b) The particles of the reacting substance move faster.
c) This increases the chance for collision, i.e. the frequency of collisions
increase. So, the frequency of effective collisions also increases.
d) When the temperature of a reaction increases, the rate of reaction also
increases.
The effect of a) For a reaction that involves a gas, when pressure increases, the particles of
pressure on the gas are compressed to fill the spaces which are small. This makes the
rate of reaction number of particles of gas per unit of volume to increase.
b) Chances for collisions to increase, that is the frequency of collisions
increase. This causes the frequency of effective collisions to also increase.
c) When pressure of a reaction increases, the rate of reaction also increases.
The effect of using a) When a positive catalyst is used in a reaction, the catalyst prepares an
a positive catalyst alternative path for the reaction which needs an activation energy
on the rate of which is lower.
reaction b) So, the greater the particles which collide possess energy which
exceeds the new activation energy which is lower.
c) So, more effective collisions, means the frequency of effective
collisions increases.
d) The use of positive catalysts increases the rate of reaction.

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Rate of Reaction II
Example 1

Example 2

Example 4

Example 5

Example 3

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Rate of Reaction II
bonds.
B Powdered coal catalyses the
explosion.
C Powdering coal releases hydrogen
from compounds in coal.
D Powdering coal releases methane from
compounds in coal.
E Powdering coal produces a large
surface area.
Example 9
Two experiments were carried out under
the same conditions of temperature and
pressure, reacting marble with dilute
hydrochloric acid.
In Experiment 1, an excess of powdered
marble was added to 20cm 3 of dilute
Example 6 hydrochloric acid.
In Experiment 2, an excess of marble chips
was added to 20cm 3 of dilute hydrochloric
acid of the same concentration.
The total volumes of carbon dioxide given
off were measured at intervals and plotted
against time.

Example 7
Experiment Reactant Initial
rate of
reaction Which of the following pairs of curves
1 3.0g magnesium powder t would be obtained in the two experiments?
with 15cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3
Experiment 1 Experiment 2
sulphuric acid
2 3.0g magnesium tape with u powdered marble marble chips
15cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 A X Y
sulphuric acid B X Z
3 3.0g magnesium powder v C Y X
with 30cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 D Y Z
sulphuric acid
E Z X

Answer
1 D 3 C 5 C 7 D 9 A
2 D 4 B 6 D 8 E 10

Example 8
Which of the following statements best
explains why coal dust forms an explosive
mixture with air?
A Powdering coal breaks chemical

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Rate of Reaction III
Structure Question
1. Magnesium ribbon reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen. A student used an excess of
hydrochloric acid in the apparatus below to investigate this reaction.

His results are shown on the graph

a) What volume of gas was in the syringe at the end of the reaction?

[1 mark]
b) State how the rate of reaction changes during the first four minutes and explain the change.

[2 mark]
c) The experiment was repeated using the same quantities of reagents but with the acid at a higher
temperature. Draw on the graph the line that should be obtained at this temperature.
d) Some power stations burn coal in the production of electricity. The coal is ground to a fine powder
before being burned in the furnace. Use your knowledge of rates of reaction to suggest why the coal
is ground to a fine powder rather than used in large lumps.

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Rate of Reaction III
[2 mark]
2. Two experiments are conducted to compare the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide under the
same condition as follows:
Experiment I
5 cm3 3-volume hydrogen peroxide solution is poured into a conical cone containing 2.0 g
manganese(IV) oxide.

Experiment II
5 cm3 6-volume hydrogen peroxide solution is poured into a conical cone containing 2.0 g
manganese(IV) oxide.
a. Write down the equation to represent the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

[1 mark]
b. Give one method to collect the gas released so that the volume of gas can be read easily every 30
seconds.

[1 mark]
c. In the space given below, sketch a graph of the volume of gas collected against time forecast for
Experiment I and II, on the same axis.

d. i) Which experiment gives the highest rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide?

[1 mark]
ii) State the reason for your answer in (d)(i).

[1 mark]
e. i) State one other substance that can replace manganese(IV) oxide in the experiment.
[1 mark]
ii) What is the role of manganese(VI) oxide in the in-crease in rate of decomposition of hydrogen
peroxide? Explain this role in terms of the theory of collision of particles.

[2 marks]
f. In addition to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and catalyst, state one other factor that can
cause the change in the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

[1 mark]

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Rate of Reaction III

3. Diagram 1 shows a graph for the quantity of product of reaction against time in two experiments.
a. From the above graph (i), calculate the average rate of reaction for the whole reaction.

b. Calculate the average rate of reaction in graph (i) during the first 3 hours.

[3 marks]
c. The graphs in Diagram 1 are obtained from reactions that take place at 25°C. Redraw the above graphs
to show changes in the quantity of the product of reaction if the reactions take place at 35°C.

[2 marks]
d. How can changes in temperature influence the rates of reaction?

[2 marks]

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Rate of Reaction III
Application of Rate of Reaction
Mind Map

Storing Food

Keeping food in a refrigerator


1. Decay and decomposition of food by micro organisms is a chemical reaction which occurs in food
causing the food to get spoilt.
2. If food is kept in the fridge, the food will keep longer because the low temperature will slow down the
rate of the chemical reaction which destroys food.
3. Micro organisms like bacteria and fungus which are active at a temperature of between 10°C until 60°C.
The room temperature is the optimum temperature for bacterial action. So, food easily gets spoilt at
room temperature.

Cooking

Cooking food in a pressure cooker


1. In a pressure cooker, the high pressure causes the water in the cooker to boil at a temperature of more
than 100°C.
2. At a higher temperature, the time for the food to get cooked is decreased.
3. Cooking in a pressure cooker saves time and energy.

Cooking Food in Small Pieces


1. Food in the shape of big pieces has a surface area per volume which is small, so the heat takes a longer
time to reach the inside of the food. So, to cook faster, the food needs to be cut into smaller pieces.

Industry
The knowledge about factors which influence the rate of reaction are also used to find the optimum state for
the industrial process so that energy, time and cost can be saved.
The knowledge can be applied in the industrial process

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Rate of Reaction III
Haber Process
1. The Haber process is the process of preparing ammonia in industry.
2. In the Haber process, powdered iron is used as the catalyst to raise the rate of reaction.
3. A mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen in the ratio 1:3 is conducted through the powdered iron as catalyst at
a temperature of 450°C to 550°C and a pressure of 200 to 300 atmospheres with molybdenum as a
promoter.
200 − 300 atm
N2(g) + 3H2(g) →
450 − 550o C , Iron
2NH3(g)

4. However, the production of ammonia in the process is about 10% only.


5. Ammonia that is produced is cooled and is taken out in liquid form. Hydrogen and nitrogen that does not
react is recycled once again.

Contact Process
1. Sulphuric acid is prepared in industry using Contact process.
2. In the first stage, sulphur is burnt in air to produce sulphur dioxide.
S (s) + O2 (g)→ SO2 (g)
3. In the second stage, sulphur dioxide that is formed is mixed with excess oxygen and is conducted
through the catalyst vanadium (V) oxide to raise the rate of reaction. A temperature of 500°C and a
pressure of l to 2 atmospheres is used.
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 
V2O5
500o C
→ 2SO3(g)
4. In the third stage, sulphur trioxide that is formed is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form
oleum at stage two.
SO3 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) → H2S207 (l)
5. Sulphur trioxide does not dissolve directly in the water because this reaction releases too much heat and
could even produce an explosion. Then,,, water is mixed with the oleum to produce concentrated
sulphuric acid.
H2S207 (1) + H2O (1) →2 H2SO4(aq)

Ostwald Process
1. Nitric acid is prepared in industry through the Ostwald process.
2. At the first stage, ammonia is oxidized in excess in the presence of platinum as catalyst to produce
nitrogen monoxide. The high temperature of 850°C and pressure of 5 atmospheres is used
4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 
5 atm
850o
→ 4NO(g) + 6H2O(1)
3. Nitrogen monoxide that is formed reacts with oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide at stage two.
2NO (g) + O2 (g) →, 2NO2 (g)
4. At the final stage, nitrogen dioxide together with excess air is dissolved in hot water at a temperature of
80°C to produce concentrated nitric acid.
4NO2(g) + O2(g) + 2H2O(1) → 4HNO3(g)

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Rate of Reaction III
Making Margarine
1. Vegetable oil is an organic compound that is not saturated and exists in liquid state at room temperature.
2. Through investigation and continuous development, vegetable oil can be changed to margarine through
the process of hydrogenation using nickel as catalyst at a temperature of 180°C.

Breakdown of petroleum
3. Big molecules of hydrocarbon obtained during fractional distillation of petroleum have been found to be
less useful than small molecules of hydrocarbon. The breakdown process with the use of the catalyst
alumina produces smaller hydrocarbons.

Burning of coal
1. Coal contains the element carbon. Burning of coal in air that is in excess will produce carbon dioxide,
water, and heat energy.
2. A big piece of coal takes a long time to burn because the total surface area that is touched by the fire is
small.
3. The rate of burning pieces of coal which are small is higher because the total surface area is bigger. With
this, it provides a lot of heat energy in a short period of time.

Example 1 Example 3
Which of the following pairs of teb catalysts and Food can be kept longer in the refrigerator. This is
processes are true? because the
Catalyst Process A. lack of oxygen in the refrigerator slows down
A Aluminium oxide Production of sulphuric the decomposition of food by bacteria
acid in the Contact B. lower temperature in the refrigerator slows
process down the decay of food
B Iron Production of ammonia C. rate of bacterial reproduction is lowered in the
in the Haber process dark condition inside the refrigerator
C Nickel Production of nitric acid D. process of food decay releases heat, which is
in the Ostwald process subsequently absorbed by the refrigerator
D Vanadium(V) Production of margarine
oxide via hydrogenation
Example 4
Example 2 Which of the following statements about the
Which of the following pairs of catalyst and contact process are correct?
processes are correctly matched? I. The process is carried out at 450 °C and 250
Catalyst Process atmospheres
A Iron Manufacture of ammonia in II. The rate of production of sulphur trioxide
the Haber becomes faster at high pressures
process III. Vanadium(V) oxide is used to increase the
B Nickel Manufacture of nitric acid in yield of sulphur trioxide
the Ostwald process IV. The rate of reaction between sulphur dioxide
C Vanadium(V) Manufacture of sulphuric acid and oxygen is increased at a higher
oxide in the contact process temperature
D Lead(IV) Production of oxygen by the A. I and II only
oxide decomposition of hydrogen B. II and IV only
peroxide C. I, Il and III only
A. I and II only D. II I II and IV only
B. II and III only
C. I, II and IV only
D. I, III and IV only

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Rate of Reaction III
Example 14
Hydrogen peroxide solution is catalytically
decomposed by manganese (IV) oxide. Three
experiments were performed using a fixed
mass of catalyst. The results are shown
below.

The solutions used were :


50 cm3 of 2.0 mol/dm3 hydrogen peroxide;
100 cm3 of 1.0 mol/dm3 hydrogen peroxide;
100 cm3 of 2.0 mol/dm3 hydrogen peroxide;
Which curve did each solution pro-duce?
(i) (ii) (iii)
A Z Y X
B X Y Z
C X Z Y
D Y Z X
E Z X Y

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