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[Telekom Malaysia]

Site Visit Summary

On 25 March 2014, students from the Faculty of Engineering organized a site visit to
Teleom Malaysia ! T"elve students and lecturer Mr #asni $in %smail, our lecturer of &ata
'ommunication and (et"or from Faculty of Engineering made a visit to this site!
Company Profile:
Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM), Malaysia)s $road$and cham*ion and leading integrated
information and communications grou*, offers a com*rehensive range of communication
services and solutions in $road$and, data and fi+ed,line! -s a maret leader, TM is driven $y
staeholder value creation in a highly com*etitive environment! The .rou* *laces em*hasis on
delivering an enhanced customer e+*erience via continuous customer service /uality
im*rovements and innovations, "hilst focusing on increased o*erational efficiency and
0everaging on our e+tensive glo$al connectivity, net"or infrastructure and collective e+*ertise,
TM is "ell *ositioned to *ro*el Malaysia as a regional %nternet hu$ and digital gate"ay for
#outh,East -sia! TM remains steadfast in its transformation into a ne" generation
communications *rovider to deliver an enhanced and integrated digital lifestyle to all
Malaysians, and o*ening u* *ossi$ilities through connection, communication and colla$oration,
to"ards our shared vision of elevating the nation into a high,income economy!
-s a model cor*orate citizen committed to good governance and trans*arency, TM continues its
*ledge to ensure the integrity of our *rocesses, *eo*le and re*utation as "ell as the sustaina$ility
of our o*erations! Our 'or*orate 1es*onsi$ility 2'13 ethos reinforces res*onsi$le $ehaviour in
the four main domains of the maret*lace, "or*lace, the community and the environment! 4ith
a focus on %'T, the .rou* further *romotes 5 ma6or *latforms i!e! education, community7nation,
$uilding and environment, through our 1eaching Out *rogrammes!
!'! Ba(k)round of Study
'ommunication is the $asic *rocess of e+changing information from one location
2source3 to a second location "hich is 2destination3 and communication system is the "hole
mechanism of sending and receiving as "ell as *rocessing of information from source to
destination ! %n telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual
communications net"ors, transmission systems, relay stations, tri$utary stations, and data
terminal e/ui*ment 2&TE3 usually ca*a$le of interconnection and intero*eration to form an
integrated "hole! The com*onents of a communications system serve a common *ur*ose, are
technically com*ati$le, use common *rocedures, res*ond to controls, and o*erate in union!
Telecommunications is a method of communication 2e!g!, for s*orts $roadcasting, mass media,
6ournalism, etc!3! - communications su$system is a functional unit or o*erational assem$ly that
is smaller than the larger assem$ly under consideration'*!+

Flo" of information 2channel3
Figure 1 8 9asic $loc diagram of communication system
Source/sender Destination/recei
&ata communications are the e+change of data $et"een t"o devices via some form of
transmission medium such as a "ire ca$le! For data communications to occur, the
communicating devices must $e *art of a communication system made u* of a com$ination of
hard"are 2*hysical e/ui*ment3 and soft"are 2*rograms3! The effectiveness of a data
communications system de*ends on four fundamental characteristics8 delivery, accuracy,
timeliness, and 6itter! A com*uter net"or or data net"or is a telecommunications net"or that
allo"s com*uters to e+change data! %n com*uter net"ors, net"ored com*uting devices *ass
data to each other along data connections! The connections 2net"or lins3 $et"een nodes are
esta$lished using either ca$le media or "ireless media! The $est,no"n com*uter net"or is the
%nternet (et"or com*uter devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called net"or
nodes! (odes can include hosts such as *ersonal com*uters, *hones, servers as "ell as
net"oring hard"are! T"o such devices are said to $e net"ored together "hen one device is
a$le to e+change information "ith the other device, "hether or not they have a direct connection
to each other! 'om*uter net"ors su**ort a**lications such as access to the 4orld 4ide 4e$,
shared use of a**lication and storage servers, *rinters, and fa+ machines, and use of email and
instant messaging a**lications! :2;
Figure 28 Five com*onent of data communication
System oles of the Components E,ample
Transmitter The device that sends the Message 'om*uter, 1adio #tation
e(ei-er The device that receives the message Tele*hone handset, 4orstation
Medium The channel over "hich the message is
1adio "aves, coa+ial ca$le
Messa)e The information or data $eing
<ideo, Te+t
Proto(ol The set of rules that guides ho" data is
transmitted and encoded and decoded!
T'=7%=, -**leTal
!'. $/0e(ti-e
To understand the $asic conce*t of communication!
To understand the flo" of ho" data $eing distri$uted to customers
To identify the advantages and disadvantages of using co**er ca$le

!'1 Pro/lem statement

Teleom Malaysias broadband champion and leading integrated information and
communications group
Copper (a/le /ein) stolen
2osses in (opper
Chapter .
2iterature re-ie3
.'4 Main Distribution Frame (MDF)
- Main &istri$ution Frame 2M&F3 is a signal distri$ution frame or ca$le rac used in
tele*hony to interconnect and manage telecommunication "iring $et"een itself and any num$er
of intermediate distri$ution frames and ca$ling from the tele*hony net"or it su**orts! The
M&F connects e/ui*ment inside a telecommunications facility to ca$les and su$scri$er carrier
e/ui*ment! Every ca$le that su**lies services to user tele*hones lines ends u* at an M&F and is
distri$uted through M&F to e/ui*ment "ithin local e+changes! -n M&F can *rovide fle+i$ility
in assigning telecommunications facilities at a lo"er cost and higher ca*acity than a *atch *anel!
The most common ind of M&F is a long steel rac that is accessi$le from $oth sides!
Termination $locs are arranged horizontally on one side at the front of the rac shelves! The
6um*ers lie on the shelf and move through a steel hoo* in order to run through vertically
arranged termination $locs! - ty*ical M&F can hold hundreds of thousands of 6um*ers and
dozens of them can $e changed every day for decades "ithout tangling "hen administered $y
e+*erienced *rofessionals! >um*ers are t"isted *airs of ca$le, each one corres*onding to an
individual tele*hone line!:5;
The location for the M&F can vary in large $uildings, $ut the correct location is either on
the ground floor or $asement7car *ar! M&F for large $uildings are usually loced in a
communications room and re/uire access from a $uilding manager! #mall sho*s "ill usually
have a small M&F located inside $ut near the front of the *remises and there can only $e one

M&F in any one $uilding! %n Telco tal the M&F is also referred to as the (et"or 9oundary
=oint! The (et"or 9oundary =oint is "here the legal res*onsi$ility of the Telcos? finish! From
this *oint into the *remises, the lines are *rivately o"ned and therefore all maintenance is the
res*onsi$ility of the *ro*erty o"ner! -lthough the o"ner is not res*onsi$le for maintenance u*
to this *oint, they are o$ligated to loo after the tele*hone ca$ling and failure to do so "ill result
in costly re*airs $y the $ig telcos! :4;
Figure 5 8 M&F frame
Figure 4 8 1esidential house *hone connection
&istri$ution *oint
Figure 5 8 &istri$ution *oint in @uala #elangor
2.1Pu/li( s3it(hed telephone net3ork ( PST# )
ge A
ge !
ge "
The *u$lic s"itched tele*hone net"or 2=#T(3 is the aggregate of the "orld?s circuit,
s"itched tele*hone net"ors that are o*erated $y national, regional, or local tele*hony o*erators,
*roviding infrastructure and services for *u$lic telecommunication! The =#T( consists of
tele*hone lines, fi$er o*tic ca$les, micro"ave transmission lins, cellular net"ors,
communications satellites, and undersea tele*hone ca$les, all interconnected $y s"itching
centers, thus allo"ing any tele*hone in the "orld to communicate "ith any other! Originally a
net"or of fi+ed,line analog tele*hone systems, the =#T( is no" almost entirely digital in its
core and includes mo$ile as "ell as fi+ed tele*hones! The technical o*eration of the =#T(
adheres to the standards created $y the %TA,T! These standards allo" different net"ors in
different countries to interconnect seamlessly!
Figure # $ %S&' connection
.'. %i)ital su/s(ri/er line a((ess multiple,er (%S2AM)
&igital #u$scri$er 0ine -ccess Multi*le+er 2 &#0-M3 is a net"or device, often located
in tele*hone e+changes, "hich is used $y %nternet #ervice =roviders 2%#=s3 to route incoming
&#0 connections to the %nternet! #ince a Bmulti*le+erB com$ines multi*le signals into one, a
&#0-M com$ines a grou* of su$scri$ers? connections into one aggregate %nternet
connection!For e+am*le, a &#0 access multi*lier may receive signals from all the &#0 modems
in a certain neigh$orhood and *atch them through to the %nternet $ac$one! The &#0-M
*rocesses each incoming connection and may limit the $and"idth of certain &#0 lines! Most
&#0 service *roviders use multi*le &#0-Ms to hel* route incoming and outgoing traffic in the
most efficient "ay *ossi$le! This e/ui*ment $enefits *roviders $ecause it su**orts various inds
of &#0! %n addition to %nternet connections, &#0-M can *rovide routing and dynamic %=
address assignment for the service *rovider?s customers!:5;
Figure C 8 &#0-M connection
.'1 Multi7ser-i(e a((ess node (MSA#)
- multi,service access node 2M#-(3, also no"n as a multi,service access gate"ay
2M#-.3, is a device ty*ically installed in a tele*hone e+change 2although sometimes in a
roadside serving area interface ca$inet3 "hich connects customers? tele*hone lines to the core
net"or, to *rovide tele*hone, %#&(, and $road$and such as &#0 all from a single *latform!
=rior to the de*loyment of M#-(s, telecom *roviders ty*ically had a multitude of se*arate
e/ui*ment including &#0-Ms to *rovide the various ty*es of services to customers! %ntegrating
all services on a single node, "hich ty*ically $achauls all data streams over %= or -synchronous
Transfer Mode can $e more cost effective and may *rovide ne" services to customers /uicer
than *reviously *ossi$le! M#-( system can su**ort legacy and $road$and services access
technologies 2Figure C ! %n this solution, M#-( connects to =#T( net"or via <5 interface for
the delivery of T&M,$ased voice servicesD M#-( connects to -TM or %= core net"or for data
Figure ( $ MSA' connection
.'8 Copper 3ire
'o**er has $een used in electric "iring since the invention of the electromagnet and the
telegra*h in the 1F20s! The invention of the tele*hone in 1FCE created further demand for co**er
"ire as an electrical conductor! 'o**er is the electrical conductor in many categories of electrical
"iring! 'o**er "ire is used in *o"er generation, *o"er transmission, *o"er distri$ution,
telecommunications, electronics circuitry, and countless ty*es of electrical e/ui*ment! 'o**er
and its alloys are also used to mae electrical contacts !
.'8'! Twisted pair cable
T"isted *air ca$ling is the most *o*ular net"or ca$le and is often used in data net"ors for
short and medium length connections 2u* to 100 meters or 52F feet3!This is due to its relatively
lo"er costs com*ared to o*tical fi$er and coa+ial ca$le!Anshielded t"isted *air 2AT=3 ca$les are
the *rimary ca$le ty*e for tele*hone usage! %n the late 20th century, AT=s emerged as the most
common ca$le in com*uter net"oring ca$les, es*ecially as *atch ca$les or tem*orary net"or
connections! They are increasingly used in video a**lications, *rimarily in security cameras!
Figure )$ &*isted pair cable
2.4.2 Coaxial cable
'oa+ial ca$les "ere e+tensively used in mainframe com*uter systems and "ere the first
ty*e of ma6or ca$le used for 0ocal -rea (et"ors 20-(3! 'ommon a**lications for coa+ial
ca$le today include com*uter net"or 2%nternet3 and instrumentation data connections, video and
'-T< distri$ution, 1F and micro"ave transmission, and feedlines connecting radio transmitters
and receivers "ith their antennas!
'oa+ial ca$les can go longer distances and have $etter *rotection from EM% than t"isted
*airs, coa+ial ca$les are harder to "or "ith and more difficult to run from offices to the "iring
closet! For these reasons, it is no" generally $eing re*laced "ith less e+*ensive AT= ca$les or
$y fi$er o*tic ca$les for more ca*acity! Today, many '-T< com*anies still use coa+ial ca$les
into homes! These ca$les, ho"ever, are increasingly connected to a fi$er o*tic data
communications system outside of the home! Most $uilding management systems use *ro*rietary
co**er ca$ling, as do *aging7audio s*eaer systems! #ecurity monitoring and entry systems still
often de*end on co**er, although fi$er ca$les are also used!
Figure G8 'oa+ial ca$le
.'9 6i/er opti(
Fi$er o*tic communication is a method of transmitting information from one *lace to
another $y sending *ulses of light through an o*tical fi$er! The light forms an electromagnetic
carrier "ave that is modulated to carry information! %t is first develo*ed in the 1GC0s, fi$er,o*tic
communication systems have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and have *layed a
ma6or role in the advent of the %nformation -ge! 9ecause of its advantages over electrical
transmission, o*tical fi$ers have largely re*laced co**er "ire communications in core net"ors
in the develo*ed "orld! O*tical fi$er is used $y many telecommunications com*anies to transmit
tele*hone signals, %nternet communication, and ca$le television signals! :C;
-n o*tical fi$er 2or o*tical fi$re3 is a fle+i$le, trans*arent fi$er made of high /uality
e+truded glass 2silica3 or *lastic, slightly thicer than a human hair! %t can function as a
"aveguide, or Hlight *i*eI, to transmit light $et"een the t"o ends of the fi$er! =o"er over Fi$er
2=oF3 o*tic ca$les can also "or to deliver an electric current for lo",*o"er electric devices!
The field of a**lied science and engineering concerned "ith the design and a**lication of o*tical
fi$ers is no"n as fi$er o*tics'*:+
The *rocess of communicating using fi$er,o*tics involves the follo"ing $asic ste*s8
'reating the o*tical signal involving the use of a transmitter, relaying the signal along the fi$er,
ensuring that the signal does not $ecome too distorted or "ea, receiving the o*tical signal, and
converting it into an electrical signal!
Figure +, $ A bundle of optical -bers
Figure ++ $ &ransmission of light
Chapter 1
1'4 Basi( (ommuni(ation system
"nformation sour(e
-n information source is a source of information for some$ody, i!e! anything that
might inform a *erson a$out something or *rovide no"ledge to some$ody! %nformation
sources may $e o$servations, *eo*le, s*eeches, documents, *ictures, organizations etc!
They may $e *rimary sources, secondary sources, tertiary sources and so on!

.nput signal

&ransmitted signal
signal Feedbac0
.nformation source
is to convert the in*ut message or information into electrical signal such as voltage or
current or into electromagnetic "aves such as radio "aves, micro"aves and light "aves
Channel (transmission medium)
is the lin or *ath over "hich information flo"s from transmitter 2source 3 to receiver
receives the electrical signals or electromagnetic "aves that are sent $y the transmitter
through the channel
main *rocess is demodulation or detection of the received signal
is "here the user receives the information
Feed$ac is essential in communication so as to no" "hether the reci*ient has
understood the message in the same terms as intended $y the sender and "hether he
agrees to that message or not! 1eceivers are not 6ust *assive a$sor$ers of messages! They
receive the message and res*ond to a$out the su$6ect matter a$out "hat they have
understood! This res*onse of a receiver to sender)s message is called Feed$ac!
#ometimes a feed$ac could $e a non,ver$al, smiles, sighs and other times, it is oral! %t
can also $e "ritten lie re*lying to an e,mail, etc!
1'! in) topolo)y
TM in #elangor #tate is using ring to*ology to interconnect $et"een
different to"ns and regions for e+am*le it interconnects @uala #elangor, #asaran ,
#a$a 9ernam, @a*ar and @lang as sho"n in Figure 12 are connected in ring sha*e
! %n a ring to*ology, each device has a dedicated *oint,to,*oint connection "ith only
the t"o devices on either side of it! - signal is *assed along the ring in one
direction, from device to device, until it reaches its destination! Each device in the
ring incor*orates a re*eater! 4hen a device receives a signal intended for another
device, its re*eater regenerates the $its and *asses them along !:2;
Figure +2 $ /ing topology
1'!'! Ad-anta)es rin) topolo)y
This ty*e of net"or to*ology is very organized! Each node gets to send the data "hen it
receives an em*ty toen! This hel*s to reduces chances of collision! -lso in ring
to*ology all the traffic flo"s in only one direction at very high s*eed!
There is no need for net"or server to control the connectivity $et"een "orstations!
-dditional com*onents do not affect the *erformance of net"or!
Each com*uter has e/ual access to resources!
1'!'. %isad-anta)es of rin) topolo)y
Each *acet of data must *ass through all the com*uters $et"een source and destination!
This maes it slo"er than #tar to*ology!
%f one "orstation or *ort goes do"n, the entire net"or gets affected!
(et"or is highly de*endent on the "ire "hich connects different com*onents!
8'4 Ad-anta)es of usin) fi/er opti( instead of (opper (a/le
2ess e,pensi-e , #everal miles of o*tical ca$le is chea*er "hich has e/uivalent lengths
of co**er "ire! This saves your *rovider 2ca$le T<, %nternet3 and your money! Lower cost
in the long run as lesser maintenance job required compared to copper cable.
Thinner , O*tical fi$ers can $e dra"n to smaller diameters than co**er "ire!
Hi)her (arryin) (apa(ity , 9ecause o*tical fi$ers are thinner than co**er "ires, more
fi$ers can $e $undled into a given,diameter ca$le than co**er "ires! This allo"s more
*hone lines to go over the same ca$le or more channels to come through the ca$le into
your ca$le T< $o+!
2ess si)nal de)radation , The loss of signal in o*tical fi$er is less than in co**er "ire!
2i)ht si)nals , Anlie electrical signals in co**er "ires, light signals from one fi$er do
not interfere "ith those of other fi$ers in the same ca$le! This means clearer *hone
conversations or T< rece*tion!
2o3 po3er , 9ecause signals in o*tical fi$ers degrade less, lo"er,*o"er transmitters can
$e used instead of the high,voltage electrical transmitters needed for co**er "ires! -gain,
this saves your *rovider and your money!
%i)ital si)nals , O*tical fi$ers are ideally suited for carrying digital information, "hich
is es*ecially useful in com*uter net"ors!
#on7flamma/le , 9ecause no electricity is *assed through o*tical fi$ers, there is no fire
2i)ht3ei)ht , -n o*tical ca$le "eighs less than a com*ara$le co**er "ire ca$le! Fi$er,
o*tic ca$les tae u* less s*ace in the ground!
6le,i/le , 9ecause fi$er o*tics are so fle+i$le and can transmit and receive light, they are
used in many fle+i$le digital cameras for the follo"ing *ur*oses8
&ifficult to $e stolen as usually fi$er o*tic ca$le are installed $elo" the ground!
&ifficult to *lace a ta* or listening device on the line, *roviding $etter *hyisical net"or
8'! %isad-anta)es of fi/er opti(
Pri(e 7 Even though the ra" material for maing o*tical fi$res, sand, is a$undant and
chea*, o*tical fi$res are still more e+*ensive *er metre than co**er! -lthough, one fi$re
can carry many more signals than a single co**er ca$le and the large transmission
distances mean that fe"er e+*ensive re*eaters are re/uired!
6ra)ility 7 O*tical fi$res are more fragile than electrical "ires!
Affe(ted /y (hemi(als 7 The glass can $e affected $y various chemicals including
hydrogen gas 2a *ro$lem in under"ater ca$les!3
$pa<ueness 7 &es*ite e+tensive military use it is no"n that most fi$res $ecome o*a/ue
"hen e+*osed to radiation!
e<uires spe(ial skills 7 O*tical fi$res cannot $e 6oined together as a easily as co**er
ca$le and re/uires additional training of *ersonnel and e+*ensive *recision s*licing and
measurement e/ui*ment!

Chapter 9
From this visit students are a$le to understand $etter and a**ly the no"ledge of the
communication system "hich "as learned during &ata and 'ommunication (et"or classes!
#tudent can also o$serve ho" the distri$ution line is made u* for communication to region and
city! Other than that "e also could clearly see the advantages of using ring to*ology and "hat
ha**ens if there is failure in one the "orstation !
TM Malaysia has use different material to su**ly communication connection to
costumer! 'o**er "ire $eing used for many years as a main material, no" advance
technology introduced fi$er o*tic as ne" material ! From this site visit "e can conclude that the
fi$er o*tic has more advantage com*ared to co**er "ire "hich is $eing "idely used in #elangor
and many more ur$an areas ! -lthough there is some disadvantages of fi$er o*tic $ut its $etter
"hen "e consider in *erformance , efficiency , dura$ility of lasting and cost "ise com*ared to
co**er "ire !
+3 Sch*art45 M35 "ennett5 63 /35 7 Stein5 S3 (+88#)3 !ommunication systems and
techni9ues3 'e* :or0$ .EEE %ress3
23 "ehrou4 a farahan data and communication net*or0
;3 http$//***3techopedia3com/de-nition/22;;/main<distribution<frame<mdf
=3 http$//***3phone*or0s3net3au//esidential>Services/net*or0>boundary3php
?3 http$//***3techterms3com/de-nition/dslam
#3 http$//***3sabafam3com/@eible
(3 "ell Aabs brea0s optical transmission record5 +,, %etabit per second
0ilometer barrier5 %hys3org5 28 September 2,,8
)3 &hyagaraBan5 C3 and Dhata05 ABoy C3 (2,,()3 Fiber Optic Essentials3 6iley<
.nterscience3 pp3 ;=
!hec0 conclusion part and problem