Chapter 1

1.1 General nature of training
In New Generation Telecommunication Company / Xpress, the training included two parts theoretical and practical parts. Mainly the training was in three departments, field, implementation and operation.

The theoretical part is lectures about different topics of company telecommunication system like iDEN overview, Radio Frequency Planning and Optimization, Cellular Network Traffic Planning and Radio Frequency Design, Principles of GSM (Global System for Mobile

communication), Principles of GPS (Global Positioning System), Site Survey and layout of BTS (Base Transceiver Station).

The practical part is going out field with technicians from Field Implementation and Operation Department to solve problems of sites due to alarms received by the OMC (Operation and Monitoring Center).

1.2 Outline of the report
In this report, a brief description of the training will be presented including the company profile, training details, and finally conclusions and recommendations.


Chapter 2

New Generation Telecommunication Company / Xpress Profile

2.1 Introduction
XPress Telecommunications, a private shareholding company, launched its services in June 2004 in the Jordanian telecommunications market as the latest wireless and mobile operator, offering a new form of

telecommunications solutions based on the Integrated


Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN) technology. XPress is the first Arab company in the Middle East to introduce the technology, which combines the abilities of ordinary mobile phones with the instantaneous Direct Connect (walkietalkie) service. XPress was granted the exclusivity of deploying iDEN by telecom giant Motorola, who developed the technology back in 1994 to offer contemporary solutions for the growing business sector needs, as well as other sectors requiring instantaneous, real time communication, and the benefits of time and cost saving, efficiency and productivity. Furthermore, and in an act considered unprecedented by a US government bank, XPress received a $54 million loan guarantee from Export-Import Bank of the United States

(Ex-Im Bank), marking Ex-Im Bank's largest financing of a telecommunications project in the Middle East, and its first limited-recourse project financing in the country. The deal signified a real landmark for XPress that reinforced its viability and value for the local telecommunications market. XPress offers subscribers its primary Direct Connect service, which enables one-to-one and one-to-many

immediate, real time communication with a push of the Direct Connect button, similar to "Walkie-Talkie" systems. In addition, subscribers have complete access to regular mobile phone services including SMS and packet data applications such as wap and complete data transfer solutions.


XPress currently retains over 200 employees, 98% of which are Jordanian. The company's own nationwide network covers 95% of populated areas across the country, and is continuously undergoing optimization. Early indications have signaled an overwhelming demand and acceptance for the new technology despite the fact that it is not familiar. The company's steadfast work since its launch has enabled it to accomplish many milestones and positioned it as a solid player in the local

telecommunications industry. Since its launch, XPress has introduced a number of unique value added services, specifically pioneering the Per Second Billing System. Starting January 1st 2005, XPress introduced the PBS System in order to provide subscribers

with a fair method of calculating the cost of mobile calls made, depending on the precise calling time in seconds whereby users are charged for actual talking time without incurring extra costs for unused time. The rating of each second is charged at 1/60 of the whole minute. PSB is applicable to all mobile calls from XPress to XPress and from XPress to other mobile and landline networks at any time of the day. In 2005, XPress also launched the Push-To-View feature available through the new i860 XPress phone. With the i860 subscribers can send pictures to other XPress users at the push of a button. The i860 enables users to also edit and store images and features a camera with a 10 second Video Recorder.


The company is also regularly introducing the latest in iDEN handsets that cater to the various needs and tastes of the diverse customer base. In order to extend wider accessibility of its services to different parts of the country, XPress inaugurated

showrooms around Jordan in Zarqa, Irbid, and Aqaba, as well as in the Wehdat area.

2.2 Services


XPress is Jordan's latest telecommunications company offering fully integrated wireless communications services. XPress services are based on the Integrated Digital Enhanced Network Technology (iDEN), making Jordan the first Arab country with this technology in operation.

Through nationwide coverage and iDEN technology, XPress offers cellular-plus services for the first time in Jordan: -Push To- Services Cellular Phone GPS / XGPS (Global Positioning System) Data Services International Roaming


2.2.1 Push-To- Services

 Push to talk (PTT) Direct Connect: Only XPress delivers the walkie-talkie service that lets you get right through to any XPress user anywhere in Jordan. Group Connect: If you're part of a team that depends on timely, consistent communication, one-to-many has a lot to offer you.  International Push To Talk (IPTT) International Push-To-Talk or iPTT is the service which enables XPress subscribers to talk internationally by the push of a button.


 Push To View (PTV) The "Push-To-View" (PTV) feature allows a user to capture and share a photo during a dispatch private call

conversation with another user with a PTV-capable iDEN handset. After the picture exchange both users are able to view the image while they resume their dispatch call. You can send pictures of all the available sizes and resolutions by adjusting those fields on your handset prior capturing the picture.  Push To Order (PTO) PTO service is especially launched to cater your needs and facilitate your life with its variable services at your door step: Food delivery, grocery, water distribution, in addition


to flowers shop, event arrangements, car rental, taxi, gas station, fuel distribution, courier and hospitals and much more to come to be at your service!

2.2.2 Cellular Phone
With the ever-growing life requirements on the

personal and professional level, XPress is always striving to deliver unique services to cater to its customers' needs and expectations.

2.2.3 GPS / XGPS


Commerce relies on fleets of vehicles to deliver goods and services either across a crowded city of through nationwide corridors. So, effective fleet management has direct bottom-line implications, such as telling a customer when a package will arrive, spacing buses for the best scheduled service, directing the nearest ambulance to an accident, or helping tankers avoid hazards.

The Global Positioning System (GPS), a satellite-based navigation system is built in every XPress handset, which provides the backbone for systems tailored to applications in agriculture, mass transit, urban delivery, public safety, and vessel and vehicle tracking that industrialists, construction workers, dispatchers, farmers, soldiers, pilots,


surveyors, hikers, delivery drivers, fire-fighters, and people from many other walks of life can use in ways that make their work more productive, safer, and even easier.

2.2.4 Data Services
XPlore is a new data service that allows users to instantly access information via XPress wireless devices. It provides the users with instant, easy, and user-interactive access for all types of information that they need.

2.2.5 International Roaming Service


XPress has been able to successfully launch roaming with a number of operators in countries worldwide. XPress today supports roaming to our valued subscribers while traveling abroad and to visitors to Jordan traveling from foreign countries.

2.3 Advantages And Disadvantages of iDEN
The iDEN’s Advantage are as follows: • Flexible, multi-national, network scaling • Efficient RF Channel usage in several spectrum bandwidths • Circuit-switched (dial-up) and Packet-data (IP) digital data networking


• Dispatch capability for Private, Local and Wide Area Group calling • Clear GSM cellular subscriber services • Alphanumeric Messaging (Short Messaging Service) • Reliable digital communication technology • Fully Featured, compact portable devices (Mobile Stations)

The iDEN’s disadvantage are as follows: • Limited Geographical availability: iDEN is only

available in north and south America and some portions of Asia. This means that the service cannot offer the same coverage and roaming capabilities as GSM.


• Single Vendor Standard: As iDEN is only offered by Xpress ( and the only handset supplier is Motorola ), consumers do not have significant choices for service plans and handset. Furthermore, the smaller market size has limited competition and is not attractive to other suppliers.


Chapter 3
Training Description








Optimization department mainly consists of two parts, the planning part that describes the design of network and the principles of selecting sites, where the optimization part is responsible for keeping a healthy network with good performance taking into account these three basic concepts of network:

• Coverage: getting a usable radio signal to all areas in the network. • Capacity: handling the call traffic generated by the subscribers. • Quality: low interference and few calls dropped.

3.1 RF Planning
Radio Frequency Design is a major step in network deployment. It ensures that the network is effectively up and running, and that the basic services as well as call stability can be provided. Through wise coordination of planning and optimization activities, this service will help an operator achieve the best capacity and performance from its network.


Xpress network characteristics:
160 EBTS (Enhanced Base Transmitter Site).

- Frequency uplink (809-814) MHz. - Frequency downlink (854-859) MHz. - RF single carrier 25 MHz. - Channel bandwidth 5 KHz. - 200 channel. - Dispatch calls follow the half-duplex model of communication. So, dispatch calling splits a single 25 MHz carrier into 6 channels and during a dispatch talk, one channel on the carrier is used with 25 Kbps max. data rate.


- Interconnect calls follow the full-duplex model of communication. So, interconnect calling splits a single 25 MHz into 6 channels, where 2 channels are needed to improve interconnect call with 9.9 Kbps data rate.

iDEN Network Element:


MS: it is the user end interface, can be iDEN mobile phone, PDA or any compatible device.


EBTS: it is the sub-system responsible for connection between the MS and the land fixed network , it is also responsible for timing control of subsystem , recognition and separation of traffic [ interconnect dispatch , circuit data , packet data ] , interface


conversion radio -link to DS0 T1/E1, switching function between base Radio , and finally maintenance of radio link which include establish, handover, and trolling .


iSC: it is the ACG [access control gateway], which is responsible for timing, synchronization between the EBTS elements, and it can be considered the brain of the EBTS as it does most of the EBTS functions.


iMU: design to be the right hand of the iSC for monitoring the EBTS and environment of the shelter, the iMU generates alarms and send it to the iSC when detected.



BR: the base radio it the element responsible for interface conversion as it convert the traffic from the iSC to RF signal with it transceiver and vise versa.


RFDS: the RFDS is consisting of below element that works together to combining several BRs to a share the same antenna system. i. Coupler: it split the TX and RX signals so that each goes to it correct path. ii. Duplexer: it makes an image for the RX signal to all BR. iii. Combiner: it combine the TX signal for two or more BR, it’s a method used to have


more than one BR for each coupler/antenna.

DACCS: the Digital Access Cross Connect Switch is attachment point between the EBTS and iDEN land network. The connection is as below : a. Dispatch and Packet data to the MPS. b. Interconnect and control signaling to BSC. c. OMC information signal to the OMC. d. External facilities can be connecting to iDEN using DACCS.


MPS: the Metro Packet Switch it is the element that connect the EBTS with the dispatch subsystem, it’s the attachment point of frame relay line.



DAP: the Dispatch Application Processor can be consider as the brain of the dispatch subsystem as it control the dispatch and packet data , maintenance and tracking of MS mobility, first time registration, and alarm and performance static for OMC .


APD: the Advance Packet Duplicator duty is to duplicate the dispatch packet for multicast operation.


MDG: the Mobile Data Gateway is the terminal point to the internet for iDEN system, it route the IP packet from the EBTS through the DACCS and MPS to the internet.


BSC: the Base Site Controller responsible for the interconnect calls monitoring, handover with its EBTS,


and management of the EBTS with iDEN other component. It consist of : a. CP: the control processor contain the memory and process ability to monitor and route the interconnect traffic. b. XCDR: the transcoder convert between the PCM code of the PSTN and the VSELP [vector sum excited leaner prediction] used for voice codec in iDEN system. and also Mobis to SS7


MSC: the Mobile Switch Center it the center node for all interconnect calls it manage the traffic between the BSC, do the billing record, handover between other


MSC, control and interface with the PSTN, and signaling control for the over all network.
10. HLR:

the Home Location Register is the master

database that contains definition of services allowed for each subscriber it’s also the interface to Billing and Provisioning system.
11. VLR:

the Visited Location Register contains active

subscribers and most recent location information and Adds/deletes subscribers roaming into or out coverage areas.
12. OMC:

the Operation and Monitoring Center is it eye of

the system where you monitor the whole network, get static analysis, and remote configure of the EBTS. It a


key element for insuring the network is in it full optimizes performance.

Interconnect Path



Dispatch Path








IP Router





Figure 3.1: iDEN System Architecture


3.2 RF Optimization
No matter how thorough the design of a network is, it is the responsibility of the system performance engineer to ensure that equipment operates and performs at optimum engineering levels, which means that RF optimization keeps the network healthy.

Optimization is • A Continuous process. • Improving (fine tuning) the network Coverage and Quality to meet design criteria.


• Eliminating/ Reducing drop calls and improving audio quality. • Focus the coverage to the areas where needed. • Meet the demand of increasing traffic.

Optimization Purpose • Improve RF Coverage. • Improve RF Quality. • Improve Audio Quality. • Reduce Cost/ Spending. • Increase Network Utilization. • Maintain Proper Capacity.


Xpress Optimization Objective • T_DCR (Total – Drop Call Rate) • LOT (Loss Of Transmission) < 2% <1.5% <2%

• I_BCR (Interconnect - Blocked Call Rate) • Dispatch Queuing • DCCH blocking • PCCH Utilization <5% <0.2%

13% for inbound utilization and

70% for outbound utilization • Sector Utilization 60-80% >98% <0.5%

• Success Connection Rate

• Handover Dropped Call Rate

Optimization Procedure • Site Post Construction Verification


• • • • •

Site Noise and Interference Testing Site Drive Testing OMC Statistics Collection Data Analysis Site Configuration and System Parameter


Optimization process Now that the site is on the air, it needs to be integrated with the rest of the system and optimized. – Drive testing is performed to ensure that the site covers the area it was expected to cover. The


drive data is also used to update the propagation model used to predict coverage. – The RF Engineer ensures that the site is operating with the correct frequencies and power levels, is able to initiate and receive interconnect and dispatch calls, does not have or cause excessive interference, is handing over to

neighbor sites and is being handed over to from neighbor sites. – If necessary, the site and/or surrounding sites are adjusted to compensate for the new site. sites affect the D/R (Diameter / New


relationship and can allow us to improve our


reuse efficiency by shrinking the coverage areas (R) of the surrounding sites. – The Engineer can perform a much more detailed analysis of the operating characteristics of the site through the use of field test software. Each handover can be analyzed; if any dropped calls occurred during the drive test, they can also be analyzed, problems. along with any other potential

Solutions can be implemented by

changing software parameters in the site’s load.

• Statistics monitoring. – Operating statistics are pulled from the switch and analyzed daily. Commonly monitored stats:


• Dropped calls - during a call, the site is in constant contact with the mobile. If the

mobile and site lose contact for any reason other than the person hanging up the phone (normal termination), it is recorded as a dropped call. Dropped calls and red “No

Service” lights are generally caused by low SQE, either through poor coverage or excessive interference. • Handover failures - generally transparent to the user. When a handover is requested,

either by the mobile or by the site, the site it is trying to hand over to have to pass certain criteria. If it does not pass, the handover is


recorded as a failure. Usually the attempt is repeated at regular intervals until the

handover is successful or the condition which necessitated the handover in the first place is clear. Occasionally, repeated

handover failures may result in a dropped call if the serving signal strength continues to decline while the mobile is trying to hand over. Handover failures typically occur on

“fringe” sites, where there are few or no acceptable candidates to hand over to.

• More Statistics:


• I:3 (Interconnect) Blocked Calls - This is a “System Busy” when you try to initiate a phone call. The site you are serving on has no more resources left to handle your call. The blocked call percentage is based on the busiest hour of the day for each site. A 2% blocked call rate triggers the addition of a BR to the site. • Dispatch Blocked Calls - “System Busy” while trying to initiate a private or group dispatch call. Blocked call. • DCCH Blocking The DCCH is the Same cause as an I:3

Dedicated Control Channel, which is used to


set up calls, and perform registrations. 0.2% blocking or less is the target. • Percent Sectors above I:3 Blocking Target this stat measures the percentage of sites or sectors in the entire network are exceeding the 2% blocked call percentage. • Utilization - This is a measurement of how efficiently the systems BRs are being used. Low utilization is a sign that BRs are being used where they are not needed, wasting money. Utilization that is too high is a sign of excessive blocking. Utilization in the 6070% range is a good target.


• PCCH Utilization - The PCCH is fixed resource control channel used for facilitating all dispatch functions and location area registrations. There is a lot of debate over what is “over-utilized” but common values are 13% for inbound utilization and 70% for outbound utilization. An over-utilized PCCH can result in collisions, different users

colliding with requests.

The most common

indication of PCCH blocking is “Target Not Available”. Sectorization is a solution to

PCCH blocking because the number of PCCHs available for that site is tripled.


Benefits of Optimization • Co-channel solved • • Coverage problems are identified and solved Sites BR configuration is modified to accommodate real traffic distribution • Network problems are isolated and solved interference problems are effectively

• System is running near its design values – Ready for future upgrades and expansions

3.3 Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC)


The Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) is the network element management subsystems that establishes, maintain, collects information about the network, and presents it to the system operator. This data is used primarily to support the daily operation of the network radio system elements and to provide the system operator with valid information for future planning decisions. As the complexity and control requirements of the iDEN system and its relationship to other systems increases, the need for control and monitoring equipment also increases. The OMC exists in at least one form in every system.

OMC – Radio (OMC-R) — required for radio system management


 OMC – System (OMC-S) — for possible switching system management  OMC – Network (OMC-N) — a possible Network Operation Center (NOC)

The OMC-R controls and monitors the radio network elements, including the: • Dispatch Application Processors (DAPs) • Base Site Controllers (BSCs) • Enhanced Base Transceiver Systems (EBTS) • Mobile Date Gateways (MDGs) • Advanced Packet Duplicators (APDs)


The scope of responsibility for the OMC-R is the fixed Network Radio Equipment (FNE). The OMC-R does not control: • Mobility Management of the subscriber within the network • Mobile Switching Center • Telo Transmission management • Inter-region administration and control Each of the radio network elements can be managed remotely by the OMC. The OMC supports connection to other network entities through: • X.25 packet network (BSCs and EBTSs) • Frame Relay Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) (MDG)


• Ethernet networks (DAP and APD)

Functional characteristics Functions the OMC provides include: • Event/ Alarm Management • Fault Management • Performance Management • Configuration Management • Security Management • Performance Statistics • Event Data Repository (event archive) • View Operations, Administrative & Maintenance

(OA&M) of the MSC/HLR


• Limited interaction with the EBTS through SNMP (power level, frequency and software level) In OMC I have learned to make hourly and daily reports to show the status of sites by using CROME program.

3.4 Site Equipments

Figure 3.2: Site room


Figure 3.3: Site tour

Figure 3.4: GPS Antenna


Every Site have two GPS antenna, they can be either on the site room or one on the site room and the other on the tour.

Figure 3.5: Microwave Microwave consists of three main parts: Dish, Radio, and Passive Repeater, microwaves are constructed to be a line of site.


Figure 3.6: Microwave Rack Microwave rack consists of Fuse Panel, MMU (Microwave Modem Unit), and DDF (Digital Distribution Frame).

Figure 3.7: Rectifier

Rectifier converts AC power to DC in batteries, it has two contactors, the Primary contactor disconnect the site at 44 V, and Secondary contactor disconnect the microwave at 24 V.

Figure 3.8: Batteries Batteries are used to store DC power for the case when electricity is disconnected


Figure 3.9: Air Conditioner Every room site has two ACs turned on and off in shifts by timer


Figure 3.10: Fire System

Figure 3.11: Surge Unit


Surge units are designed to protect the site from excessive voltage occurs due to power spikes.

Figure 3.11: GPS ICs Every site has two GPS ICs one is active and the other is standby.


Figure 3.12: Sectors Every sector consist basically of BRs (Base Radio either Quad or Legacy), Duplexers, and MultiCoupler.


Figure 3.13: Generator Generators are used in sites that are not connected to Electrical transmission lines.


3.5 Fields
Through my training I went several times to different locations to

• Xpress stores in Yadodeh Where I get a general idea about site equipments, there types, models Etc.

AMM-054 in Amman- Jawa The site was on air with alarm BR11 OOS (out of


AMM-040 in Amman- Adasseyeh

The site was on air with alarms AC Power Failure, Surge, and minor rectifier. Where we found that the generator is out of work and needed to be changed.

MAD-001 in Madaba- Almukhayam The site was on air with alarm High Temperature Alarm

AMM-001 in Amman- Beirut Hotel The site was on air with alarms BR is bouncing and high temperature. So, we went in a drive test in Alabdaly town. Also we have changed the 3 Damaged BR’s (Base Radio – Part of EBTS) by new ones.

ZAR-005 in Zarqa – Al Hawouz


The site was on air with alarm High Temperature Alarm.

AMM-059 in Amman – Al Hommar beside the Royal Palaces. The site was on air with alarm High Temperature Alarm.


Chapter 5


4.1 Conclusions

In the practical training for a period of 70 days, I have learned a lot about the present scenario in the field of communication. I have gained knowledge about the two technologies used by the company -- Integrated Digital Enhanced Network Technology (iDEN), and Global Positioning System (GPS).

At our college we learn most of the things theoretically, which does not provides sufficient information about the subject, and students remain unaware of the problems and errors when they go to the field. This practical

training has provided us the knowledge about various technologies in the communication field.

I am highly grateful to the XPress family for the support and guidance given to us for the successful completion of our practical training.

Table Of Contents:
Chapter 1: Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………... ….1 • • 1.1 General nature of training 1.2 Outline of the report


Chapter 2: New Generation Telecommunication - Company / Xpress Profile……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…..2 • 2.1 Introduction
• 2.2 Services 

2.2.1 Push-To- Services

 2.2.2 Cellular Phone  2.2.3 GPS / XGPS  2.2.4 Data Services  2.2.5 International Roaming Service

2.3 Advantages & disadvantages of iDEN

Chapter 3: Training Description…………………………………………………………………... ………………..7 • 3.1 RF Planning • 3.2 RF Optimization • 3.3 Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) • 3.4 Site Equipments

3.5 Fields

Chapter5: Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………………..............……. ……….24

‫بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم‬

Mutah University (2009-2010) Practical Training at:

XPress Telecommunications, a private shareholding company, Amman

Done By : Bader M.S Al Nammur 120030415055 Electrical Engineering / Communications


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